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Sample records for stable chronic bronchitic

  1. Airway mucosal permeability in chronic bronchitics and bronchial asthmatics with hypersecretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, I.; Shimura, S.; Sasaki, T.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T.; Nakamura, M.

    1988-01-01

    To determine airway mucosal permeability, radiolabeled albumin in sputum was examined on the basis of a 2-h period of sputum collection for as long as 8h after intravenous administration of 131 I-labeled human serum albumin. This technique was applied to 12 patients with bronchial asthma associated with hypersecretion or chronic bronchitis. Group A consisted of 6 asthmatics (2 females and 4 males, 56.0 +/- 6.4 yr of age, mean +/- SEM); Group B consisted of 6 bronchitics (3 females and 3 males, 53.8 +/- 6.5 yr of age). Between Groups A and B, there was no significant difference in sputum volume per day or in obstructive impairment. Radiolabeled albumin concentration (cpm/ml) was obtained from radiocount of each sputum sample and then divided by serum concentration at the time of each sampling (2, 4, 6, and 8 h after administration). Group B showed large values compared with those in Group A. In Group A, the ratios were 2.0 +/- 0.8, 2.5 +/- 0.5, 2.2 +/- 0.2, and 1.5 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SEM) at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the administration, respectively, whereas in Group B, the ratios were 3.0 +/- 0.6, 7.0 +/- 1.8, 7.2 +/- 1.8, and 7.4 +/- 2.4%, respectively. The differences between Groups A and B were statistically significant (two-way analysis of variance). These findings suggest that an increase in airway mucosal permeability is due to mucosal epithelial damage by chronic inflammation in bronchitics and not to the underlying abnormality of asthma

  2. Association of Air Pollution Exposure and Interleukin-13 Haplotype with the Risk of Aggregate Bronchitic Symptoms in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungling Leo Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-13(IL-13 might play an important role in driving aggregate bronchitic symptoms pathogenesis. However, none of the studies assessed the interaction between air pollutants exposure and IL-13 gene on the risk of aggregate bronchitic symptoms in non-asthma children. To assess the independent and joint effects of the exposure to air pollution and IL-13 haplotypes on the risk of aggregate bronchitic symptoms, we conducted a cross-sectional study and focused on non-asthma children. The study population consisted of 2944 children. The effect of each air pollutant on the risk of aggregate bronchitic symptoms was estimated as odds ratios per interquartile range (IQR change. In the multiple logistic regressions, adjusted for confounding factors, the risk of chronic phlegm was associated with PM2.5 exposure (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.07–2.37 per 12.51 μg/m3 change, O3 exposure (aOR, 1.54 95% CI, 1.05–2.27 per 8.28 ppb change and SO2 exposure (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02–1.39 per 0.98 ppb change. Our study further provides the evidence that gene-environment interactions between IL-13 haplotype and O3 exposure on chronic phlegm (95% CI for interaction, 1.01–1.38. Identifying children who are more sensitive to air pollution helps us to provide them an efficient prevention to avoid aggregate bronchitic symptoms. Keywords: Air pollutants, Interleukin-13, Bronchitic symptoms

  3. Risk following hospitalization in stable chronic systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Putte; Swedberg, Karl; Borer, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF).......We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF)....

  4. T-regulatory cells in chronic rejection versus stable grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wedaie, Fatima; Farid, Eman; Tabbara, Khaled; El-Agroudy, Amgad E; Al-Ghareeb, Sumaya M

    2015-04-01

    Studying regulatory T cells in kidney allograft acceptance versus chronic rejection may help in the understanding of more mechanisms of immune tolerance and, in the future, may enable clinicians to induce immune tolerance and decrease the use of immunosuppressive drugs. The aim of the current study was to evaluate regulatory T cells in kidney transplant patients with stable graft versus transplant with biopsy-proven chronic rejection. The 3 groups that were studied included: kidney transplanted patients with no rejection episodes (n = 43); transplanted patients with biopsy-proven renal rejection (n = 27); and healthy age-matched nontransplanted individuals as controls (n = 42).The percentage of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) in blood was determined by flow cytometry. The regulatory T cell percentage was significantly lower in chronic rejection patients than control or stable graft groups. No significant difference was observed in regulatory T cell percentage between the stable graft and control groups. In the stable graft group, patients on rapamycin had a significantly higher regulatory T cell percentage than patients on cyclosporine. No effect of donor type, infection, or duration after transplant was observed on regulatory T cell percentage. The results of the current study are consistent with previous studies addressing the function of regulatory T cells in inducing immunotolerance after kidney transplant. Considering the established role of regulatory T cells in graft maintenance and our observation of high regulatory T cell percentage in patients receiving rapamycin than cyclosporine, we recommend including rapamycin when possible in immunosuppressive protocols. The findings from the current study on the chronic rejection group support ongoing research of having treatment with regulatory T cells, which may constitute a novel, efficient antirejection therapy in the future.

  5. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg Mohammed F S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A; Habib, Syed S; Abba, Abdullah A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naive asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 22.00 + -6.69; P =0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 84.78+ - 39.32 P 0.0285). The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. (author)

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes and balance impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voica AS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alina Sorina Voica,1 Cristian Oancea,1 Emanuela Tudorache,1 Alexandru F Crisan,2 Ovidiu Fira-Mladinescu,1 Voicu Tudorache,1 Bogdan Timar3 1Department of Pulmonology, Victor Babeş University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Hospital of Pneumoftiziology and Infectious Diseases “Dr Victor Babeş”, 3Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Victor Babeş University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, Romania Background/objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease that results in airflow limitation and respiratory distress, also having many nonrespiratory manifestations that affect both function and mobility. Preliminary evidence suggests that balance deficits constitute an important secondary impairment in individuals with COPD. Our objective was to investigate balance performance in two groups of COPD patients with different body compositions and to observe which of these groups are more likely to experience falls in the future.Methods: We included 27 stable COPD patients and 17 healthy individuals who performed a series of balance tests. The COPD patients were divided in two groups: emphysematous and bronchitic. Patients completed the activities balance confidence scale and the COPD assessment test questionnaire and afterward performed the Berg Balance Scale, timed up and go, single leg stance and 6-minute walking distance test. We analyzed the differences in the balance tests between the studied groups.Results: Bronchitic COPD was associated with a decreased value when compared to emphysematous COPD for the following variables: single leg stance (8.7 vs 15.6; P<0.001 and activities balance confidence (53.2 vs 74.2; P=0.001. Bronchitic COPD patients had a significantly higher value of timed up and go test compared to patients with emphysematous COPD (14.7 vs 12.8; P=0.001.Conclusion: Patients with COPD have a higher balance impairment than their healthy peers

  7. Randomized double-blind comparison of metoprolol, nifedipine, and their combination in chronic stable angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1988-01-01

    In a randomized double-blind study, treatment with either metoprolol, nifedipine, or their combination was compared for effects on ischemic variables and heart rate obtained during ambulatory monitoring in 42 patients with chronic stable angina. All patients had severe chronic stable angina...... could be detected during nifedipine monotherapy. It is concluded that metoprolol monotherapy, as well as its combination with nifedipine, effectively reduces total ischemic activity compared with placebo and nifedipine monotherapy. Control of ischemic activity in chronic stable angina may have...

  8. Acid-base balance and cardiac index in SO2-bronchitic, papaine-emphysematous and paraquat-fibrotic rats after isoproterenol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, K; Debreczeni, L A

    1990-01-01

    SO2-bronchitis, papaine-emphysema and paraquat fibrosis were induced in Wistar rats. Blood pressure, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, arterial blood gas values, parameters of acid-base balance were determined. Effects of 0.1 and 0.3 microgram.-1.min-1 isoproterenol iv. infusion were examined. Morphologic alterations of the lungs were verified by histopathological examinations. All the parameters investigated were found to be normal in the control rats. The treated groups differed from the normal ones: an increased blood pressure was observed in emphysema and fibrosis. A decreased cardiac index was characteristic of chronic bronchitis, high cardiac index of emphysema, high TPR of bronchitis and arterial hypoxaemy of fibrosis. The groups reacted differently to beta adrenergic stimulation: in bronchitic and fibrotic rats the cardiac index was augmented, whereas in emphysematous ones the increase proved to be smaller. The effects of isoproterenol infusion can be related to the altered beta-receptor function in the various experimental pulmonary diseases.

  9. Angular Stable Miniplate Fixation of Chronic Unstable Scaphoid Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormans, Philip M J; Brink, Peter R G; Poeze, Martijn; Hannemann, Pascal F W

    2018-02-01

    Background  Around 5 to 15% of all scaphoid fractures result in nonunion. Treatment of long-lasting scaphoid nonunion remains a challenge for the treating surgeon. Healing of scaphoid nonunion is essential for prevention of scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse and the subsequent predictable pattern of radiocarpal osteoarthritis. Purpose  The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of fixation of the scaphoid nonunion with a volar angular stable miniplate and cancellous bone grafting. We hypothesized that this technique could be successful, even in patients with previous surgery for nonunion and in patients with a long duration of nonunion. Patients and Methods  A total of 21 patients enrolled in a single-center prospective cohort study. Healing of nonunion was assessed on multiplanar computed tomography scan of the wrist at a 3-month interval. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring grip strength, range of motion, and by means of the patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation (PRWHE) questionnaire. Results  During follow-up, 19 out of 21 patients (90%) showed radiological healing of the nonunion. The range of motion did not improve significantly. Postoperative PRWHE scores decreased by 34 points. Healing occurred regardless of the length of time of the nonunion (range: 6-183 months) and regardless of previous surgery (38% of patients). Conclusion  Volar angular stable miniplate fixation with autologous cancellous bone grafting is a successful technique for the treatment of chronic unstable scaphoid nonunion, even in patients with long-lasting nonunion and in patients who underwent previous surgery for a scaphoid fracture. Rotational interfragmentary stability might be an important determining factor for the successful treatment of unstable scaphoid nonunion. Level of Evidence  Level IV.

  10. Assessment and management of chronic pain in patients with stable total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Classen, Tim; Zaps, Daniela; Landgraeber, Stefan; Li, Xinning; Jäger, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most successful operations that can restore function and relieve pain. Although a majority of the patients achieve significant pain relief after THA, there are a number of patients that develop chronic pain for unknown reasons. A literature search was performed looking for chronic pain after total hip arthroplasty and stable THA. Major causes of chronic pain include aseptic loosening or infection. However, there is a subset of patients with a stable ...

  11. Spironolactone Therapy in Chronic Stable Right HF Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Chronic Right-Sided Heart Failure; Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension; Pulmonary Hypertension, Primary, 2; Pulmonary Hypertension, Primary, 3; Pulmonary Hypertension, Primary, 4; Cardiomyopathy Right Ventricular

  12. Modified yupingfeng formula for the treatment of stable chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following outcomes were evaluated: (1) lung function; (2) 6-minute walk distance (6MWD); (3) effective rate; (4) serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgE; and (5) adverse ... when combined with Western medications can provide more benefits for patients with stable COPD, without any serious adverse reactions being identified.

  13. Regional CBF in chronic stable TBI treated with hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K F; Masel, B; Patterson, J; Scheibel, R S; Corson, K P; Mader, J T

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBO2) could improve neurologic deficits and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in chronic traumatic brain injuries (TBI), the authors employed a nonrandomized control pilot trial. Five subjects, at least three years post head injury, received HBO2. Five head injured controls (HIC) were matched for age, sex, and type of injury. Five healthy subjects served as normal controls. Sixty-eight normal volunteers comprised a reference data bank against which to compare SPECT brain scans. HBO2 subjects received 120 HBO2 in blocks of 80 and 40 treatments with an interval five-month break. Normal controls underwent a single SPECT brain scan, HBO2, and repeat SPECT battery. TBI subjects were evaluated by neurologic, neuropsychometric, exercise testing, and pre and post study MRIs, or CT scans if MRI was contraindicated. Statistical Parametric Mapping was applied to SPECT scans for rCBF analysis. There were no significant objective changes in neurologic, neuropsychometric, exercise testing, MRIs, or rCBF. In this small pilot study, HBO2 did not effect clinical or regional cerebral blood flow improvement in TBI subjects.

  14. Stable long-term chronic brain mapping at the single-neuron level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian-Ming; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Viveros, Robert D; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Stable in vivo mapping and modulation of the same neurons and brain circuits over extended periods is critical to both neuroscience and medicine. Current electrical implants offer single-neuron spatiotemporal resolution but are limited by such factors as relative shear motion and chronic immune responses during long-term recording. To overcome these limitations, we developed a chronic in vivo recording and stimulation platform based on flexible mesh electronics, and we demonstrated stable multiplexed local field potentials and single-unit recordings in mouse brains for at least 8 months without probe repositioning. Properties of acquired signals suggest robust tracking of the same neurons over this period. This recording and stimulation platform allowed us to evoke stable single-neuron responses to chronic electrical stimulation and to carry out longitudinal studies of brain aging in freely behaving mice. Such advantages could open up future studies in mapping and modulating changes associated with learning, aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Transient myocardial ischemia after abrupt withdrawal of antianginal therapy in chronic stable angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1988-01-01

    In 47 patients with chronic stable angina and proven coronary artery disease, abrupt withdrawal of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents either as monotherapy or in combination with calcium antagonists (group 1, n = 25) was compared with abrupt withdrawal of calcium antagonist monotherapy (group 2, n...... less than 0.05). These results indicate that a rebound increase in ischemic activity (mainly silent) occurs after abrupt withdrawal of beta-receptor blockade in patients with chronic stable angina. This increase in ischemic activity may be caused by increased myocardial oxygen demand....

  16. Heart rate awareness in patients with chronic stable heart failure. A multi-center observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, D

    2014-08-23

    We assessed adherence to European Society of Cardiology heart rate guidelines (i.e. heart rates less than 70bpm) in patients with chronic stable heart failure. We also investigated the percent of patients on target doses of rate controlling drugs.

  17. The Effect of Weight Loss in Obese Patients with Chronic Stable Plaque-Type Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjarus Roongpisuthipong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic plaque psoriasis is frequently associated with obesity. The effect of a low-calorie diet on psoriasis has not been investigated. Objective. The objective was to investigate whether moderate weight loss increases the therapeutic response to topical treatment in obese patients with chronic stable plaque-type psoriasis. Material and Method. A 24-week clinical trial was conducted in 10 patients. The efficacy of a low-calorie diet with topical treatment was compared with baseline in obese patients with chronic stable plaque-type psoriasis. The primary measure of clinical response was the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index at weeks 12 and 24. Results. At week 12, the mean reduction in body weight was 9.6 percent. There was an improvement from baseline of 50 percent or more in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index in 50 percent of the patients. The responses as measured by improvements in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index were paralleled by improvements in global assessments by the physician and the patients and in the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Conclusion. Obese patients with chronic stable plaque-type psoriasis increase their response to a low-calorie diet. Lifestyle modifications, including a low-calorie diet, may supplement the pharmacologic treatment of obese psoriasis patients.

  18. Approaches to daily body condition management in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Terue

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of sub-groups of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having similar approaches to daily body condition management. Prior literature has shed light on the experience of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and revealed that these patients engage in many activities and try different things in their daily lives to regulate and manage their body condition. The research so far has all been qualitative, comprising mostly interviews, and no quantitative studies have been performed. In this study, cluster analysis was used to show that subgroups of patients with similar characteristics undertake similar approaches to body condition management. Descriptive, correlational study. Invitations to participate in the survey were extended to patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of questionnaire scores relating to nine different categories of daily body condition management actions. The characteristics of the body condition management approaches, in each subgroup, were investigated using analysis of variance and multiple comparisons. The cluster analysis produced six subgroups, each defined by the effort expended as part of their body condition management. The subgroups also differed depending on patient age and disease severity. Body condition management approaches taken by patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are overall, comprehensive approaches. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were subgrouped based on their engagement in body conditioning. Relationships between the subgroups and the engagement in body conditioning, age and shortness of breath severity were observed. The care of patient support should be comprehensive and depend on their age and the duration of the disease. In addition, it should be long term and recognise that the patients are living their own respective lives. Such considerations and

  19. Economic evaluation of trimetazidine in the management of chronic stable angina in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Gourzoulidis, George; Andrikopoulos, George; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Beletsi, Alexandra; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of trimetazidine (TMZ) as add-on therapy to standard-of-care (SoC) compared to SoC alone in patients with chronic stable angina who did not respond adequately to first line therapy with b-blockers, nitrates or calcium channel antagonists in Greece. Methods A Markov model with 3-month cycles and 1-year time horizon was developed to assess the comparators. The analysis was conducted from a third-party payer perspective. The clinical inputs and utili...

  20. Transient myocardial ischaemia during ambulatory monitoring out of hospital in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1988-01-01

    monitoring was significantly lower than heart rate at the onset of ST-segment change during exercise testing (100.2 +/- 14.6 vs. 115.8 +/- 19.6 beats/min, p less than 0.01), which may indicate different pathophysiological mechanisms. Transient impairment in coronary oxygen supply seems to be of importance......Transient myocardial ischaemia during daily life, detected by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, was investigated in 42 patients with chronic stable angina and documented coronary artery disease. Ambulatory monitoring was initiated for 36 hours after all prophylactic antianginal medication...

  1. A wide-field suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis is stable and well tolerated following chronic implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Joel; Nayagam, David A X; Allen, Penelope J; McKelvie, Penelope; Luu, Chi D; Ayton, Lauren N; Freemantle, Alexia L; McPhedran, Michelle; Basa, Meri; McGowan, Ceara C; Shepherd, Robert K; Williams, Chris E

    2013-05-01

    The safety of chronic implantation of a retinal prosthesis in the suprachoroidal space has not been established. This study aimed to determine the safety of a wide-field suprachoroidal electrode array following chronic implantation using histopathologic techniques and electroretinography. A platinum electrode array in a wide silicone substrate was implanted unilaterally in the suprachoroidal space in adult cats (n = 7). The lead and connector were tunneled out of the orbit and positioned subcutaneously. Postsurgical recovery was assessed using fundus photography and electroretinography (ERG). Following 3 months of passive implantation, the animals were terminated and the eyes assessed for the pathologic response to implantation. The implant was mechanically stable in the suprachoroidal space during the course of the study. The implanted eye showed a transient increase in ERG response amplitude at 2 weeks, which returned to normal by 3 months. Pigmentary changes were observed at the distal end of the implant, near the optic disc. Histopathologic assessment revealed a largely intact retina and a thin fibrous capsule around the suprachoroidal implant cavity. The foreign body response was minimal, with sporadic presence of macrophages and no active inflammation. All implanted eyes were negative for bacterial or fungal infections. A midgrade granuloma and thick fibrous buildup surrounded the extraocular cable. Scleral closure was maintained in six of seven eyes. There were no staphylomas or choroidal incarceration. A wide-field retinal prosthesis was stable and well tolerated during long-term suprachoroidal implantation in a cat model. The surgical approach was reproducible and overall safe.

  2. Economic evaluation of trimetazidine in the management of chronic stable angina in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Gourzoulidis, George; Andrikopoulos, George; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Beletsi, Alexandra; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-09-27

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of trimetazidine (TMZ) as add-on therapy to standard-of-care (SoC) compared to SoC alone in patients with chronic stable angina who did not respond adequately to first line therapy with b-blockers, nitrates or calcium channel antagonists in Greece. A Markov model with 3-month cycles and 1-year time horizon was developed to assess the comparators. The analysis was conducted from a third-party payer perspective. The clinical inputs and utility values were extracted from the published literature. Resource consumption data were obtained from local experts, using a questionnaire developed for the purpose of the study and were combined with unit cost data (in €2016) obtained from official sources. Cost effectiveness was assessed by calculating the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed to account for uncertainty and variation in the input parameters of the model. The analysis showed that the cost of TMZ plus SoC was €1755.57 versus €1751.76 of SoC alone. In terms of health outcomes, TMZ plus SoC was associated with 0.6650 QALYs versus 0.6562 QALYs for SoC alone. The incremental analysis resulted in an ICER of €430.67 per QALY gained. PSA revealed that the probability of TMZ plus SoC being cost-effective over SoC was 89 %, at a threshold of €34,000 per QALY gained. The results indicate that TMZ as add -on treatment may be a highly cost-effective option for the symptomatic treatment of patients with chronic stable angina in Greece relative to SoC alone.

  3. Predictive Model for Anxiety and Depression in Spanish Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, María Victoria; Guerrero Velázquez, José; Morales García, Concepción; Casas Maldonado, Francisco; Gómez Jiménez, Francisco Javier; González Vargas, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and anxiety and depression is not yet completely characterized, and differences between countries may exist. We used a predictive model to assess this association in a Spanish population. Prospective transversal descriptive study of 204 patients with stable COPD. Concomitant anxiety or depression were diagnosed by psychiatric assessment, using the diagnostic criteria of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Sociodemographic, clinical and lung function parameters were analyzed. In total, 36% of stable COPD patients had psychiatric comorbidities, but 76% were unaware of their diagnosis. Nineteen percent had a pure anxiety disorder, 9.8% had isolated depression, and 7.3% had a mixed anxiety-depression disorder. Predictive variables in the multivariate analysis were younger age, higher educational level, lack of home support, higher BODE index, and greater number of exacerbations. The ROC curve of the model had an AUC of 0.765 (P<0.001). In COPD, concomitant psychiatric disorders are significantly associated with sociodemographic factors. Anxiety disorders are more common than depression. Patients with more severe COPD, according to BODE, younger patients and those with a higher educational level have a greater risk of being diagnosed with anxiety or depression in a structured psychiatric interview. In our population, most patients with psychiatric comorbidities remain unidentified. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of doxycycline in patients of moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with stable symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant S Dalvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protease-antiprotease hypothesis proposes that inflammatory cells and oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD produce increased levels of proteolytic enzymes (neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinases [MMP] which contribute to destruction of parenchyma resulting in progressive decline in forced expiratory volume in one second. Doxycycline, a tetracycline analogue, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits MMP enzymes. Objectives: To assess the effect of 4 weeks doxycycline in a dose of 100 mg once a day in patients of moderate to severe COPD with stable symptoms. Methods : In an interventional, randomized, observer-masked, parallel study design, the effect of doxycycline (100 mg once a day for 4 weeks was assessed in patients of COPD having stable symptoms after a run-in period of 4 weeks. The study participants in reference group did not receive doxycycline. The parameters were pulmonary functions, systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP, and medical research council (MRC dyspnea scale. Use of systemic corticosteroids or antimicrobial agents was not allowed during the study period. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the study (31 patients in doxycycline group and 30 patients in reference group. At 4 weeks, the pulmonary functions significantly improved in doxycycline group and the mean reduction in baseline serum CRP was significantly greater in doxycycline group as compared with reference group. There was no significant improvement in MRC dyspnea scale in both groups at 4 weeks. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory and MMP-inhibiting property of doxycycline might have contributed to the improvement of parameters in this study.

  5. Cost of illness for chronic stable angina patients enrolled in a self-management education trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillion, Michael; Croxford, Ruth; Watt-Watson, Judy; LeFort, Sandra; Stevens, Bonnie; Coyte, Peter

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic stable angina (CSA) is a major debilitating health problem in Canada. A paucity of relevant cardiovascular data sets has precluded a detailed examination of the impact of interventions on CSA-related costs and its broader economic burden. OBJECTIVES: As part of a larger clinical trial, the authors sought to determine the short-term impact of a standardized self-management training program on CSA-related costs. A secondary objective was to estimate the total annualized cost of CSA per patient from a societal perspective. METHODS: Pre- and three-month post-test cost data were collected on 117 participants using the Ambulatory Home Care Record. Mean annualized direct, indirect and system-related CSA costs (2003 to 2005) were estimated; total per-patient CSA costs from a societal perspective were calculated as the sum of these costs. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) age of participants was 68±11 years; 80% were male. The program did not impact costs in the short-term. Direct annual out-of-pocket costs, including money paid for health care, travel to appointments, medication, equipment and home support totaled $3,267. Indirect costs, reflecting the value of all unpaid time spent by those engaged in angina-related care, were $12,963. System costs, including costs paid by public and private insurers, were $2,979. Total estimated annual CSA costs from a societal perspective were $19,209 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that CSA imposes a major economic burden, comparable with other prevalent conditions such as chronic noncancer pain. Advancements in self-management training research are needed to help reduce the economic burden of CSA in Canada. PMID:18841254

  6. Serial Echocardiographic Characteristics, Novel Biomarkers and Cachexia Development in Patients with Stable Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggin, Hanna K; Belcher, Arianna M; Gandhi, Parul U; Ibrahim, Nasrien E; Januzzi, James L

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding objective predictors of cachexia affecting patients with heart failure (HF). We studied 108 stable chronic systolic HF patients with serial echocardiography and biomarker measurements over 10 months. Cachexia was defined as weight loss ≥5 % from baseline or final BMI cachexia. While there were no significant differences in baseline or serial echocardiographic measures in those developing cachexia, we found significant differences in baseline amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), highly sensitive troponin I, sST2, and endothelin-1. Baseline log NT-proBNP (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.57, p = 0.004) and edema (HR = 3.36, p = 0.04) were predictive of cachexia in an adjusted analysis. When serial measurement of biomarkers was considered, only percent time with NT-proBNP ≥1000 pg/mL was predictive of cachexia. Thus, a close association exists between baseline and serial measurement of NT-proBNP and HF cachexia.

  7. [Efficacy on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at stable stage treated with cutting method and western medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-hua; Xu, Bin; Deng, Yan-qing

    2014-10-01

    To compare the difference in clinical efficacy on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at stable stage in the patients among the combined therapy of cutting method and western medication (combined therapy), simple cutting method and simple western medication. One hundred and twenty cases of COPD were randomized into three groups, 40 cases in each one. In the cutting method group, for excessive phlegm pattern/syndrome, Feishu (BL 13), Danzhong (CV 17), Dingchuan (EX-B 1) and Yuji (LU 10) were selected as the main acupoints, and Lieque (LU 7) and Pianli (LI 6) were as the supplementary acupoints. For the pattern/syndrome of failure to consolidate kidney primary, Shenshu (BL 23), Pishu (BL 20), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Yuji (LU 10) were selected as main acupoints, and Jueyinshu (BL 14) and Zusanli (ST 36) were as the supplementary acupoint. Three acupoints were selected alternatively in each treatment and the cutting method was applied once every 10 days. Three treatments made one session. Two sessions of treatment were required. In the western medication group, salbutamol sulfate aerosol, one press (200 μg/press) was used each night, as well as salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate powder for inhalation, one inhalation each night. The treatment of 1 month made one session. Two sessions were required. In the combined therapy group, the cutting method and western medication were applied in combination. The results of clinical symptom score, lung function test, arterial blood gas analysis, degree of inflation as well as clinical efficacy were observed before and after treatment in each group. Except the degree of lung inflation, the clinical symptom score, indices of lung function test, partial pressure of arterial blood gas (PaO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were all obviously improved after treatment as compared with those before treatment in each group (all Psyndrome differentiation and the combined therapy with western medication

  8. Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplement Therapy in Chronic Stable Schizophrenic Male Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Mamashli, Shima; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid; Hamzehpour, Romina; Fattahi, Samineh; Azadbakht, Rahil; Kashi, Zahra; Ala, Shahram; Moshayedi, Mona; Alinia, Habibollah; Hendouei, Narjes

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine whether adding vitamin D to the standard therapeutic regimen of schizophrenic male patients with inadequate vitamin D status could improve some aspects of the symptom burden or not. This study was an open parallel label randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients with chronic stable schizophrenia with residual symptoms and Vitamin D deficiency were recruited randomly and then received either 600000 IU Vitamin D injection once along with their antipsychotic regimen or with their antipsychotic regimen only. Serum vitamin D was measured twice: first at the baseline and again on the fourth month. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was assessed at the baseline and on the fourth month. During the study, the vitamin D serum changes in vitamin group and control group were 22.1 ± 19.9(95%CI = 15.9-28.8) and 0.2 ± 1.7(95%CI = 0.2-0.8) (ng/mL) (pvitamin D and control group respectively (p=0.5). The changes of PANSS negative subscale score (N) were -0.1 ± 0.7 (95%CI = -0.3-0.05) and -0.1 ± 0.5 (95%CI = -0.2-0.04) in vitamin D and control group respectively (p = 0.7) and there was a negative but not significant correlation between serum vitamin D level changes and PANSS negative subscale score (r = -0.04, p = 0.7). We did not find a relationship between serum vitamin D level changes and the improvement of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and more randomized clinical trials are required to confirm our findings.

  9. Transcoronary sinus administration of autologous bone marrow in patients with chronic refractory stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicario, J.; Campos, C.; Piva, J.; Faccio, F.; Gerardo, L.; Becker, C.; Ortega, H.H.; Pierini, A.; Lofeudo, C.; Novero, R.; Licheri, A.; Milesi, R.; Perez Balino, N.; Monti, A.; Amin, A.; Pfeiffer, H.; De Giovanni, E.; Fendrich, I.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Based on our preclinic studies with autologous unfractionated bone marrow (AUBM) via coronary sinus with transitory occlusion, a clinic study in patients with chronic stable angina was designed. The objectives were to evaluate safety, tolerance and feasibility. Methods and materials: A multicenter prospective study with inclusion and exclusion criteria defined by an Independent Clinical Committee was carried out. Fourteen patients underwent transcoronary sinus administration of freshly aspirated and filtered AUBM (60-120 ml). Safety and tolerance were evaluated. Feasibility was evaluated with Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) angina classification (baseline-Day 180), myocardial perfusion (baseline-Day 90) with independent core laboratory and coronary angiography (baseline and Day 30). Results: There were no changes in the safety and tolerance parameters. Preliminary clinical efficacy at Day 180 disclosed a significant improvement of 38%, evaluated by the SAQ. The CCS angina classification shows that the mean angina class was 3.0±0.55 at baseline and improved to 2.0±0.00 at Day 180 (P<.001). Semiquantitative radionuclide perfusion imaging (core lab) showed a significant improvement at Day 90 in 13/14 patients, with a mean improvement of 24% at rest (P<.01) and 33% at stress (P<.05). Coronary angiography showed more collateral vessels in 9/14 patients. Conclusions: We can conclude that AUBM via coronary sinus with transitory occlusion is tolerable and safe. Significant improvement in the myocardial perfusion at Day 90 and in the quality of life at Day 180 was observed

  10. Characteristics of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the pulmonology clinics of seven Asian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh YM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeon-Mok Oh,1 Arvind B Bhome,2 Watchara Boonsawat,3 Kirthi Dias Gunasekera,4 Dushantha Madegedara,5 Luisito Idolor,6 Camilo Roa,6 Woo Jin Kim,7 Han-Pin Kuo,8 Chun-Hua Wang,8 Le Thi Tuyet Lan,9 Li-Cher Loh,10 Choo-Khoon Ong,10 Alan Ng,11 Masaharu Nishimura,12 Hironi Makita,12 Edwin K Silverman,13 Jae Seung Lee,1 Ting Yang,14 Yingxiang Lin,14 Chen Wang,14 Sang-Do Lee1  1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care, "Friends of the Breathless" Foundation, Pune, India; 3Department of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Central Chest Clinic, Colombo and National Hospital of Sri Lanka; 5Respiratory Disease Treatment Unit and Teaching Hospital Kandy, Sri Lanka; 6Section of Respiratory Services and Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Lung Center of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 7Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University, Kang Won, Korea; 8Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Respiratory Care Center, University Medical Center Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 10Department of Medicine, Penang Medical College, Penang, Malaysia; 11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 12Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 13Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 14Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, ChinaAll authors made an equal contribution to this studyBackground and objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the characteristics of stable COPD patients in

  11. Myeloperoxidase levels predicts angiographic severity of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic stable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Baseri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the plasma MPO levels increase in patients with stable CAD and hence that, it can be used as adiagnostic factor to predict the coronary artery atherosclerosis severity in stable CAD patients; However, it needs further widespread investigations to achieve an accurate cut point.

  12. The significance of major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Zalcberg Renault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have changed the management and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to monitor molecular responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Molecular monitoring represents the most sensitive tool to judge chronic myeloid leukemia disease course and allows early detection of relapse. Evidence of achieving molecular response is important for several reasons: 1. early molecular response is associated with major molecular response rates at 18-24 months; 2. patients achieving major molecular response are less likely to lose their complete cytogenetic response; 3. a durable, stable major molecular response is associated with increased progression-free survival. However, standardization of molecular techniques is still challenging.

  13. The significance of major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Ilana Zalcberg; Scholl, Vanesa; Hassan, Rocio; Capelleti, Paola; de Lima, Marcos; Cortes, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have changed the management and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to monitor molecular responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Molecular monitoring represents the most sensitive tool to judge chronic myeloid leukemia disease course and allows early detection of relapse. Evidence of achieving molecular response is important for several reasons: 1. early molecular response is associated with major molecular response rates at 18-24 months; 2. patients achieving major molecular response are less likely to lose their complete cytogenetic response; 3. a durable, stable major molecular response is associated with increased progression-free survival. However, standardization of molecular techniques is still challenging. PMID:23049363

  14. Effect of liraglutide on myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in stable chronic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Roni; Jorsal, Anders; Iversen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide increases heart rate and may be associated with more cardiac events in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We studied whether this could be ascribed to effects on myocardial glucose uptake (MGU), myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF rese...

  15. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  16. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.A.; Newman, S.P.; Bloom, R.; Talaee, N.; Clarke, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using 99m Tc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients

  17. The level of T lymphocyte subpopulation and cytokines in senile patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Xiaofen; Chen Sujuan; Cai Lili; Dong Ke

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the level of T-lymphocyte subsets(CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + )and serum IL-4, IL-8 and TNF-α in senile patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and provide basis in observing the inflammatory process of COPD, 50 senile patients with stable COPD and 40 senile healthy persons as control group were selected, and levels of IL-4, IL-8 and TNF-α in serum were detected by RIA method, the T-lymphocyte subset (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + )of peripheral blood was measured by flow cytometry. The levels of CD3 + , CD4 + in COPD group were lower than in control group (P + IL-8 were also slightly higher in COPD group compared with that in control group, but the difference between them is not significant. CD3 + , CD4 + were lower and IL-4, TNF-α were higher in COPD group than those in control group, which means that abnormal cellular immunity function and inflammatory process still existed in the stable period of COPD. (authors)

  18. Reduced {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased myocardial flow reserve in patients with chronic stable angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mabuchi, Megumi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Naya, Masanao [Hokkaido University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kawai, Yuko [Hokko Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) is the main energy source for normal myocardium at rest, but in ischemic myocardium, the main energy substrate shifts from LCFA to glucose. {sup 123}I-BMIPP is a radiolabeled LCFA analog. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, we suppose that reduced {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake is related to the substrate shift in myocardium with decreased myocardial flow reserve (MFR). The purpose of this study was to relate {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF), hyperemic MBF, and MFR assessed with {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). We enrolled 21 patients with chronic stable angina without previous infarction, all of whom underwent {sup 123}I-BMIPP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 15}O-water PET. The left ventricle was divided into 13 segments. In each segment, rest MBF and hyperemic MBF were measured by PET. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was evaluated as follows: score 0=normal, 1=slightly decreased uptake, 2=moderately decreased uptake, 3=severely decreased uptake, and 4=complete defect. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was compared with rest MBF, hyperemic MBF, and MFR. The numbers of segments with {sup 123}I-BMIPP scores 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 178, 40, 25, 24, and 0, respectively. The rest MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93{+-}0.25, 0.86{+-}0.21, 0.97{+-}0.30, and 0.99{+-}0.37 ml/min/g, respectively. The hyperemic MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 2.76{+-}1.29, 1.84{+-}0.74, 1.37{+-}0.39, and 1.08{+-}0.40 ml/min/g, respectively. The MFRs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 3.01{+-}1.38, 2.20{+-}0.95, 1.44{+-}0.22, and 1.10{+-}0.26, respectively. As {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake declined, hyperemic MBF and MFR decreased. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, reduced {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased MFR. (orig.)

  19. Reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased myocardial flow reserve in patients with chronic stable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Mabuchi, Megumi; Naya, Masanao; Kawai, Yuko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) is the main energy source for normal myocardium at rest, but in ischemic myocardium, the main energy substrate shifts from LCFA to glucose. 123I-BMIPP is a radiolabeled LCFA analog. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, we suppose that reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake is related to the substrate shift in myocardium with decreased myocardial flow reserve (MFR). The purpose of this study was to relate 123I-BMIPP uptake to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF), hyperemic MBF, and MFR assessed with 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET). We enrolled 21 patients with chronic stable angina without previous infarction, all of whom underwent 123I-BMIPP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 15O-water PET. The left ventricle was divided into 13 segments. In each segment, rest MBF and hyperemic MBF were measured by PET. 123I-BMIPP uptake was evaluated as follows: score 0=normal, 1=slightly decreased uptake, 2=moderately decreased uptake, 3=severely decreased uptake, and 4=complete defect. 123I-BMIPP uptake was compared with rest MBF, hyperemic MBF, and MFR. The numbers of segments with 123I-BMIPP scores 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 178, 40, 25, 24, and 0, respectively. The rest MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93+/-0.25, 0.86+/-0.21, 0.97+/-0.30, and 0.99+/-0.37 ml/min/g, respectively. The hyperemic MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 2.76+/-1.29, 1.84+/-0.74, 1.37+/-0.39, and 1.08+/-0.40 ml/min/g, respectively. The MFRs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 3.01+/-1.38, 2.20+/-0.95, 1.44+/-0.22, and 1.10+/-0.26, respectively. As 123I-BMIPP uptake declined, hyperemic MBF and MFR decreased. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased MFR.

  20. Reduced 123I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased myocardial flow reserve in patients with chronic stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mabuchi, Megumi; Tamaki, Nagara; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Naya, Masanao; Kawai, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) is the main energy source for normal myocardium at rest, but in ischemic myocardium, the main energy substrate shifts from LCFA to glucose. 123 I-BMIPP is a radiolabeled LCFA analog. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, we suppose that reduced 123 I-BMIPP uptake is related to the substrate shift in myocardium with decreased myocardial flow reserve (MFR). The purpose of this study was to relate 123 I-BMIPP uptake to rest myocardial blood flow (MBF), hyperemic MBF, and MFR assessed with 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). We enrolled 21 patients with chronic stable angina without previous infarction, all of whom underwent 123 I-BMIPP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 15 O-water PET. The left ventricle was divided into 13 segments. In each segment, rest MBF and hyperemic MBF were measured by PET. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was evaluated as follows: score 0=normal, 1=slightly decreased uptake, 2=moderately decreased uptake, 3=severely decreased uptake, and 4=complete defect. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was compared with rest MBF, hyperemic MBF, and MFR. The numbers of segments with 123 I-BMIPP scores 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 178, 40, 25, 24, and 0, respectively. The rest MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 0.93±0.25, 0.86±0.21, 0.97±0.30, and 0.99±0.37 ml/min/g, respectively. The hyperemic MBFs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 2.76±1.29, 1.84±0.74, 1.37±0.39, and 1.08±0.40 ml/min/g, respectively. The MFRs for scores 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 3.01±1.38, 2.20±0.95, 1.44±0.22, and 1.10±0.26, respectively. As 123 I-BMIPP uptake declined, hyperemic MBF and MFR decreased. In chronic stable angina without previous infarction, reduced 123 I-BMIPP uptake implies decreased MFR. (orig.)

  1. Prognostic impact of peakVO2-changes in stable CHF on chronic beta-blocker treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, L; Nelles, M; Hallerbach, M; Dukic, D; Fluegel, A; Schellberg, D; Katus, H A; Remppis, A; Zugck, C

    2007-11-15

    Peak oxygen uptake (pVO2) is used for risk stratification in chronic heart failure (CHF), but little is known about the prognostic impact of pVO2-changes in patients on chronic beta-blocker (BBL) therapy. We therefore prospectively evaluated individual pVO2-changes at a 6-month interval in patients all receiving BBL. 194 patients with stable CHF on stable medication were included (V1) and underwent clinical evaluation and exercise testing. Testing was repeated (V2) at 5.7+/-1.5 months after V1 and patients were followed >12 months after V2. Death or hospitalisation due to cardiac reasons was the predefined EP (EPP, end-point positive; n=62; EPN, end-point negative; n=113). Initial characteristics did not differ between EPP and EPN. Multivariate cox regression analysis revealed that change of pVO2 (EPP: -0.6+/-2.6 ml/kg min; EPN: +2.5+/-3.3 ml/kg min; p<0.001) was independent to pVO2, LVEF, NTproBNP and NYHA at V2 for prediction of the combined end-point during follow-up. An increase of pVO2 by 10% was identified as an adequate cut-off value for risk stratification and ROC-analysis showed the significant incremental prognostic value of the determination of pVO2 changes in combination with pVO2. Serial measurements of pVO2 yield additional information for risk stratification in clinically homogenous CHF patients receiving BBL. This is the first study demonstrating this fact within a narrow predefined interval with all patients on BBL.

  2. Effects of the repeated administration of adenosine and heparin on myocardial perfusion in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, H V; Sciammarella, M G; Lenihan, K; Michaels, A D; Botvinick, E H

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism by which ischemia stimulates angiogenesis is unknown. Adenosine is released during myocardial ischemia and may be a mediator of this process. Experimental data suggest that heparin may enhance this effect. The purpose of this open-labeled, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether repeated intravenous administration of adenosine and heparin could mimic physiologic angiogenesis and reduce the amount of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Subjects with chronic stable angina refractory to conventional medical therapy and not suitable for revascularization received either adenosine (140 microg/kg/min for 6 minutes) and heparin (10,000 U bolus), (n = 14), or placebo, (n = 7) daily for 10 days. All patients underwent baseline and follow-up exercise testing with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. A semiquantitative assessment of the extent and severity of the perfusion abnormalities was calculated by 2 blinded investigators. There was no significant change in exercise duration or in the peak heart rate systolic blood pressure product associated with adenosine and heparin compared with placebo treatment. There was, however, a 9% reduction in the extent (60.6 +/- 4.0 vs 54.9 +/- 4.1, p = 0.03) and a 14% improvement in severity (41.5 +/- 3.2 vs 35.7 +/- 2.9, p = 0.01) of the myocardial perfusion abnormalities seen in patients who received adenosine and heparin compared with placebo. Thus, in this pilot study, repeated administration of adenosine and heparin reduced the amount of exercise-induced ischemia in patients with chronic stable angina refractory to conventional treatment.

  3. Patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can safely undergo intravenous dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J; Simbartl, L; Render, M L; Snow, E; Chaney, C; Nishiyama, H; Rauf, G C; Wexler, L F

    1998-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are usually excluded from intravenous dipyridamole thallium-201 testing. We developed a nurse-administered protocol to screen and pretreat patients so they could be safely tested. We prospectively screened patients referred for intravenous dipyridamole thallium testing and retrospectively reviewed a comparison group of patients who had undergone intravenous dipyridamole testing before our bronchospasm protocol. We studied 492 consecutive patients referred for intravenous dipyridamole thallium testing, separating those with complete data (n = 451) into two groups: group A (n = 72), patients assessed to be at risk for intravenous dipyridamole-induced bronchospasm who received our bronchospasm treatment protocol; and group B (n = 379), patients assessed to be free of risk, who did not receive our bronchospasm protocol. Group C (n = 89) was a retrospective comparison group of patients who had undergone intravenous dipyridamole testing before initiation of the protocol. Patients were considered at risk for an adverse event if any of the following were present: peak flow 400 ml after bronchodilator treatment, wheezing audible with stethoscope, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma or dyspnea on exertion at less than four blocks, or resting respiratory rate >18 breaths/min. The test was considered contraindicated if resting oxygen saturation was respiratory rate stethoscope but without marked respiratory distress), (2) marked events (severe bronchospasm or severe ischemia defined as wheezing audible with or without stethoscope, respiratory rate >20 breaths/min or increased by 10 from pretest evaluation, oxygen desaturation to respiratory rate with decreased mental status], respiratory arrest, chest pain, horizontal ST-segment depression > or =1 mm on the electrocardiogram in any lead, symptomatic hypotension), or (3) other intravenous dipyridamole-induced side effects (persistent headache, dizziness

  4. Liver stiffness becomes stable in patients with chronic hepatitis C three months after ALT normalization due to antiviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Feikai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the time for liver stiffness measurement (LSM to become stable in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels after ALT normalization due to antiviral therapy. MethodsCHC patients who sought initial treatment at Peking University People′s Hospital were screened for elevated ALT levels from May 2011. Liver stiffness was determined by FibroScan. A total of 29 patients had been included in the study by September 2012, who were followed up regularly after antiviral treatment. ALT tests were repeated every four weeks and LSM every eight weeks until their medians did not change significantly. Comparisons of matched data at two adjacent time points were made with the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, while multiple comparisons of repeated measurements were performed using Bonferroni correction. Correlation between two variables was analyzed with the Spearman rank test. ResultsPatients were followed up until 24 weeks after antiviral treatment, and 24 patients were included in analysis. The median ALT levels were 64, 26, 21, 20, and 22 U/L at baseline and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively (P= 0.000, 0.006, 0.337, and 0.109 for comparisons between two adjacent values. ALT decreased significantly below 1 ULN at 4 weeks after antiviral therapy and stabilized at 8 weeks. The median LSM values were 8.7, 7.8, 6.8, and 6.7 kPa at baseline and 8, 16, and 24 weeks, respectively (P= 0.009, 0.001, and 0188 for comparisons between two adjacent values. LSM decreased significantly within 16 weeks after antiviral therapy and stabilized afterwards. LSM stabilized 12 weeks after ALT normalization. ConclusionLSM becomes stable in CHC patients with elevated ALT levels three months after ALT normalization due to antiviral therapy.

  5. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  6. X-ray diagnosis of bronchial obstruction in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Combined radiobronchological examination of patients with chronic pneumonia in the phase of reverse development of the disease has been performed. Severity, localization and extent of bronchial obstruction have been studied, depending on the phase of chronic pneumonia and aspects of lung tissue alterations. Bronchial lesions characteristic of chronic pneumonia were defined, as well as importance of x-ray examination methods for bronchial obstruction diagnosis. Three types of bronchial obstruction were distinguished: bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation and their combination. With regard to the character and severity of bronchial and pulmonary tissue lesions 3 variants of chronic pneumonia are offered to be differentiated: bronchitic, bronchoectatic, and abscess-forming. The main significance in diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is attributed to combined x-ray examination, which also includes radiobronchological investigation in the first two variants of the disease [ru

  7. The sensitivity of the symptom angina pectoris as a marker of transient myocardial ischaemia in chronic stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1987-01-01

    Therapeutic decisions in patients with angina pectoris are traditionally based on the history reported by the patient, since objective evidence of myocardial ischaemia during daily life is often not available. In this study, ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed in 60 patients with a his......Therapeutic decisions in patients with angina pectoris are traditionally based on the history reported by the patient, since objective evidence of myocardial ischaemia during daily life is often not available. In this study, ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed in 60 patients...... with a history of chronic stable angina pectoris, positive exercise test and/or positive coronary angiography, and a correlation was made between the episodes of chest pain and ST segment change. The patients were grouped according to the results of exercise testing and coronary arteriography, and one group...... was studied with and without antianginal medication. Overall, 195 episodes of angina were noted, only 94 of which (48%) were accompanied by ST segment depression. Pain and ST segment changes were best correlated in patients with a positive exercise test, positive angiography and who were not receiving...

  8. Ranolazine for the treatment of chronic stable angina: a cost-effectiveness analysis from the UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Craig I; Freemantle, Nick; Kohn, Christine G

    2015-11-06

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of ranolazine when added to standard-of-care (SoC) antianginals compared with SoC alone in patients with stable coronary disease experiencing ≥3 attacks/week. An economic model utilising a UK health system perspective, a 1-month cycle-length and a 1-year time horizon. Patients with stable coronary disease experiencing ≥3 attacks/week starting in 1 of 4 angina frequency health states based on Seattle Angina Questionnaire Angina Frequency (SAQAF) scores (100=no; 61-99=monthly; 31-60=weekly; 0-30=daily angina). Ranolazine added to SoC or SoC alone. Patients were allowed to transition between SAQAF states (first cycle only) or death (any cycle) based on probabilities derived from the randomised, controlled Efficacy of Ranolazine in Chronic Angina trial and other studies. Patients not responding to ranolazine in month 1 (not improving ≥1 SAQAF health state) discontinued ranolazine and were assumed to behave like SoC patients. Costs (£2014) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for patients receiving and not receiving ranolazine. Ranolazine patients lived a mean of 0.701 QALYs at a cost of £5208. Those not receiving ranolazine lived 0.662 QALYs at a cost of £5318. The addition of ranolazine to SoC was therefore a dominant economic strategy. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to ranolazine cost; exceeding £20,000/QALY when ranolazine's cost was >£203/month. Ranolazine remained a dominant strategy when indirect costs were included and mortality rates were assumed to increase with worsening severity of SAQAF health states. Monte Carlo simulation found ranolazine to be a dominant strategy in ∼71% of 10,000 iterations. Although UK-specific data on ranolazine's efficacy and safety are lacking, our analysis suggest ranolazine added to SoC in patients with weekly or daily angina is likely cost-effective from a UK health system perspective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  9. Time-Resolved Three-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Patients with Chronic Expanding and Stable Aortic Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To prospectively evaluate our hypothesis that three-dimensional time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (TR-MRA is able to detect hemodynamic alterations in patients with chronic expanding aortic dissection compared to stable aortic dissections. Materials and Methods. 20 patients with chronic or residual aortic dissection in the descending aorta and patent false lumen underwent TR-MRA of the aorta at 1.5 T and repeated follow-up imaging (mean follow-up 5.4 years. 7 patients showed chronic aortic expansion and 13 patients had stable aortic diameters. Regions of interest were placed in the nondissected ascending aorta and the false lumen of the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm (FL-diaphragm level resulting in respective time-intensity curves. Results. For the FL-diaphragm level, time-to-peak intensity and full width at half maximum were significantly shorter in the expansion group compared to the stable group (p=0.027 and p=0.003, and upward and downward slopes of time-intensity curves were significantly steeper (p=0.015 and p=0.005. The delay of peak intensity in the FL-diaphragm level compared to the nondissected ascending aorta was significantly shorter in the expansion group compared to the stable group (p=0.01. Conclusions. 3D TR-MRA detects significant alterations of hemodynamics within the patent false lumen of chronic expanding aortic dissections compared to stable aortic dissections.

  10. Dose matters! Optimisation of guideline adherence is associated with lower mortality in stable patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelzl, G; Altenberger, J; Pacher, R; Ebner, C H; Wieser, M; Winter, A; Fruhwald, F; Dornaus, C; Ehmsen, U; Reiter, S; Steinacher, R; Huelsmann, M; Eder, V; Boehmer, A; Pilgersdorfer, L; Ablasser, K; Keroe, D; Groebner, H; Auer, J; Jakl, G; Hallas, A; Ess, M; Ulmer, H

    2014-07-15

    Guidelines have been published for improving management of chronic heart failure (CHF). We examined the association between improved guideline adherence and risk for all-cause death in patients with stable systolic HF. Data on ambulatory patients (2006-2010) with CHF and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) from the Austrian Heart Failure Registry (HIR Austria) were analysed. One-year clinical data and long-term follow-up data until all-cause death or data censoring were available for 1014 patients (age 65 [55-73], male 75%, NYHA class I 14%, NYHA II 56%, NYHA III/IV 30%). A guideline adherence indicator (GAI [0-100%]) was calculated for each patient at baseline and after 12 ± 3 months that considered indications and contraindications for ACE-I/ARB, beta blockers, and MRA. Patients were considered ΔGAI-positive if GAI improved to or remained at high levels (≥ 80%). ΔGAI50+ positivity was ascribed to patients achieving a dose of ≥ 50% of suggested target dose. Improvements in GAI and GAI50+ were associated with significant improvements in NYHA class and NT-proBNP (1728 [740-3636] to 970 [405-2348]) (p<0.001). Improvements in GAI50+, but not GAI, were independently predictive of lower mortality risk (HR 0.55 [95% CI 0.34-0.87; p=0.01]) after adjustment for a large variety of baseline parameters and hospitalisation for heart failure during follow-up. Improvement in guideline adherence with particular emphasis on dose escalation is associated with a decrease in long-term mortality in ambulatory HF-REF subjects surviving one year after registration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Difference in serum magnesium level among patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbated COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanowara, R.; Keliat, E. N.; Abidin, A.

    2018-03-01

    Stable COPD is marked with various degrees of inflammation throughout large and small airways also in the alveoli which cause mucus hypersecretion, narrowing of the airway, and alveoli damage. Exacerbation is an episode of elevated inflammation. The relation between inflammation response and magnesium has been observed with the increase of proinflammation cytokines in magnesium deficiency. A cross-sectional study of 34 patients who came to RSUP H. Adam Malik (17 stable COPD patients and 17 acute exacerbated COPD patients) was conducted to examine serum magnesium level and spirometry in stable condition. Mean serum magnesium level for stable COPD patients group was 2.09 ± 0.11 mEq/L. It was higher than in the exacerbated COPD patients group 1.69 ± 0.27 mEq/L. Mann–Whitney statistical analysis showed a significant difference in magnesium level between stable COPD and exacerbated COPD groups (p<0.05).

  12. Prevalence of renal dysfunction and its influence on functional capacity in elderly patients with stable chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Chronic heart failure (CHF is highly prevalent and constitutes an important public health problem around the world. In spite of a large number of pharmacological agents that successfully decrease mortality in CHF, the effects on exercise tolerance and quality of life are modest. Renal dysfunction is extremely common in patients with CHF and it is strongly related not only to increased mortality and morbidity but to a significant decrease in exercise tolerance, as well. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence and influence of the renal dysfunction on functional capacity in the elderly CHF patients. Methods. We included 127 patients aged over 65 years in a stable phase of CHF. The diagnosis of heart failure was based on the latest diagnostic principles of the European Society of Cardiology. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF was determined by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD2 formula, and patients were categorized using the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI classification system. Functional capacity was determined by the 6 minute walking test (6MWT. Results. Among 127 patients, 90 were men. The average age was 72.5 ± 4.99 years and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 40.22 ± 9.89%. The average duration of CHF was 3.79 ± 4.84 years. Ninty three (73.2% patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA class II and 34 (26.8% in NYHA class III. Normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 90 mL/min had 8.9% of participants, 57.8% had eGFR between 60-89 mL/min (stage 2 or mild reduction in GFR according to K/DOQI classification, 32.2% had eGFR between 30-59 mL/min (stage 3 or moderate reduction in GFR and 1.1% had eGFR between 15-29 mL/min (stage 4 or severe reduction in GFR. We found statistically significant correlation between eGFR and 6 minute walking distance (6MWD (r = 0.390, p < 0.001, LVEF (r = 0.268, p < 0.05, NYHA class (ς = -0.269, p < 0.05 and age (r = - 0

  13. Chronic stable angina is associated with lower health-related quality of life: evidence from Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL between patients with stable angina and the general population in China and to examine factors associated with HRQoL among patients with stable angina. METHODS: A cross-sectional HRQoL survey of stable angina patients recruited from 4 hospitals (n = 411 and the general population recruited from 3 Physical Examination Centers (n = 549 was conducted from July to December, 2011 in two large cities, Tianjin and Chengdu. HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, and SF-6D instruments. The health status specific to patients with stable angina was assessed using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ. Information on socio-demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors were also collected. Nested regressions were performed to explore how these factors were associated with HRQoL in patients with stable angina. RESULTS: Compared with the general population (44.2 ± 10 years, 49.9% females, stable angina patients (68.1 ± 12 years, 50.4% females had significantly lower HRQoL scores in EQ-5D utility index (0.75 ± 0.19 vs. 0.90 ± 0.20, p<0.05, SF-6D utility index (0.68 ± 0.12 vs. 0.85 ± 0.11, p<0.05, and EQ-VAS (71.2 ± 12.3 vs. 83.9 ± 10.9, p<0.05. The differences remained (-0.05 for EQ-5D, -9.27 for EQ-VAS and -0.13 for SF-6D after controlling for socio-economic characteristics. SAQ scores showed that stable angina patients experienced impaired disease-specific health status, especially in angina stability (40.5 ± 34.6. Nested regressions indicated stable angina-specific health status explained most of the variation in HRQoL, among which disease perception, physical limitation, and angina stability were the strongest predictors. More physical exercise and better sleep were positively related with HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, stable angina patients were associated with lower HRQoL and lower health utility scores, which were largely impacted by clinical symptoms

  14. Expert Statement on the Single-Agent Use of Inhaled Bronchodilator in the Treatment of Stable Mild-Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Alcázar, Bernardino; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Casanova, Ciro; Celli, Bartolomé; de-Torres, Juan P; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    To describe the evidence- and experience-based expert consensus on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with stable mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using Delphi methodology, a panel of 7 respiratory medicine experts was established, who, in the first nominal group meeting defined the scope, users, and document sections. The panel drew up 14 questions on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with mild-moderate stable COPD to be answered with a systematic review of the literature. The results of the review were discussed in a second nominal group meeting and 17 statements were generated. Agreement/disagreement with the statements was tested among16 different experts including respiratory medicine experts and primary care physicians. Statements were scored from1 (total disagreement) to10 (total agreement). Agreement was considered if at least 70% voted ≥7. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation of the systematic literature review was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels. A total of 12 of the 17 statements were selected. Specific statements were generated on different profiles of patients with stable mild-moderate COPD in whom single-agent bronchodilators could be prescribed. These statements on the use of single-agent bronchodilators might improve the outcomes and prognosis of patients with stable mild-moderate COPD. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on left ventricular function in stable chronic heart failure patients with and without diabetes (LIVE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline Micheala Nervil; Holmager, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    trial. Patients (n = 241) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤45%) were recruited (February 2012 to August 2015). Patients were clinically stable and on optimal heart failure treatment. Intervention was liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. The LVEF...... with and without diabetes. Treatment with liraglutide was associated with an increase in heart rate and more serious cardiac adverse events, and this raises some concern with respect to the use of liraglutide in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left ventricular function. More data on the safety......AIMS: To determine the effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on left ventricular function in chronic heart failure patients with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: LIVE was an investigator-initiated, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicentre...

  16. Ranolazine for the treatment of chronic stable angina: a cost-effectiveness analysis from the UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Craig I; Freemantle, Nick; Kohn, Christine G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of ranolazine when added to standard-of-care (SoC) antianginals compared with SoC alone in patients with stable coronary disease experiencing ?3 attacks/week. Setting An economic model utilising a UK health system perspective, a 1-month cycle-length and a 1-year time horizon. Participants Patients with stable coronary disease experiencing ?3 attacks/week starting in 1 of 4 angina frequency health states based on Seattle Angina Questionnaire Angina...

  17. Central hemodynamics and left-ventricural contractility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and stable pulmonary hypertension: a radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleev, N.R.; Malov, G.A.; Cherejskaya, N.K.; Oblovatskaya, O.G.; Tsar'kova, L.N.; Zil'berman, E.Eh.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Serdechno-Sosudistoj Khirurgii)

    1987-01-01

    Systemic, central and intracardiac hemodynamics and left-ventricular contractility were studied radiocardiographically and radioventriculographically in 22 patients with stable pulmanory hypertension, developing in the presence of chronic obstructive pulmanory diseases. A tendency to increased circulating blood volume, significantly elevated end diastolic and end systolic indices, reduced total ejection fraction, and a tendency to decreased segmental ejection fractions were demonstrated. A significant reduction of the speed and percetage of left-ventricular myocardial circular fibre contraction is another evedence of incompetent left-ventricular contractility, in addition to the reduced ejection fraction

  18. Biological variation, reference change value (RCV) and minimal important difference (MID) of inspiratory muscle strength (PImax) in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täger, Tobias; Schell, Miriam; Cebola, Rita; Fröhlich, Hanna; Dösch, Andreas; Franke, Jennifer; Katus, Hugo A; Wians, Frank H; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Despite the widespread application of measurements of respiratory muscle force (PImax) in clinical trials there is no data on biological variation, reference change value (RCV), or the minimal important difference (MID) for PImax irrespective of the target cohort. We addressed this issue for patients with chronic stable heart failure. From the outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg we retrospectively selected three groups of patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure (CHF). Each group had two measurements of PImax: 90 days apart in Group A (n = 25), 180 days apart in Group B (n = 93), and 365 days apart in Group C (n = 184). Stability was defined as (a) no change in NYHA class between visits and (b) absence of cardiac decompensation 3 months prior, during, and 3 months after measurements. For each group, we determined within-subject (CVI), between-subject (CVG), and total (CVT) coefficient of variation (CV), the index of individuality (II), RCV, reliability coefficient, and MID of PImax. CVT was 8.7, 7.5, and 6.9 % for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The II and RCV were 0.21, 0.20, 0.16 and 13.6, 11.6, 10.8 %, respectively. The reliability coefficient and MID were 0.83, 0.87, 0.88 and 1.44, 1.06, 1.12 kPa, respectively. Results were similar between age, gender, and aetiology subgroups. In patients with stable CHF, measurements of PImax are highly stable for intervals up to 1 year. The low values for II suggest that evaluation of change in PImax should be performed on an individual (per patient) basis. Individually significant change can be assumed beyond 14 % (RCV) or 1.12 kPa (MID).

  19. Characterization of serological neo-epitope biomarkers reflecting collagen remodeling in clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Martinez, Gerd; Midjord, Anne-Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation that leads to excessive remodeling of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM), resulting in release of protein fragments (neo-epitopes) to the blood. Serological markers assessing this have previously been...... of COPD, blood oxygen saturation, shuttle walk test distance, GOLD grades, or CAT scores. CONCLUSIONS: Serological biomarkers of collagen remodeling were elevated in subjects with COPD as compared with healthy individuals. Biomarker levels were significantly correlated with measures of dyspnea, indicating...... a relationship with degree of symptoms, while only C6M showed a weak but significant association with lung function. Biomarker levels were not related to GOLD grades, which was in line with previous studies indicating that ECM remodeling may be related to disease activity rather than severity....

  20. A new multidisciplinary home care telemedicine system to monitor stable chronic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Agathe; Cáceres, César; Fernández, Emma; Chausa, Paloma; Martin, Maite; Codina, Carles; Rousaud, Araceli; Blanch, Jordi; Mallolas, Josep; Martinez, Esteban; Blanco, Jose L; Laguno, Montserrat; Larrousse, Maria; Milinkovic, Ana; Zamora, Laura; Canal, Neus; Miró, Josep M; Gatell, Josep M; Gómez, Enrique J; García, Felipe

    2011-01-21

    Antiretroviral therapy has changed the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developed countries, where it has become a chronic disease. This clinical scenario requires a new approach to simplify follow-up appointments and facilitate access to healthcare professionals. We developed a new internet-based home care model covering the entire management of chronic HIV-infected patients. This was called Virtual Hospital. We report the results of a prospective randomised study performed over two years, comparing standard care received by HIV-infected patients with Virtual Hospital care. HIV-infected patients with access to a computer and broadband were randomised to be monitored either through Virtual Hospital (Arm I) or through standard care at the day hospital (Arm II). After one year of follow up, patients switched their care to the other arm. Virtual Hospital offered four main services: Virtual Consultations, Telepharmacy, Virtual Library and Virtual Community. A technical and clinical evaluation of Virtual Hospital was carried out. Of the 83 randomised patients, 42 were monitored during the first year through Virtual Hospital (Arm I) and 41 through standard care (Arm II). Baseline characteristics of patients were similar in the two arms. The level of technical satisfaction with the virtual system was high: 85% of patients considered that Virtual Hospital improved their access to clinical data and they felt comfortable with the videoconference system. Neither clinical parameters [level of CD4+ T lymphocytes, proportion of patients with an undetectable level of viral load (p = 0.21) and compliance levels >90% (p = 0.58)] nor the evaluation of quality of life or psychological questionnaires changed significantly between the two types of care. Virtual Hospital is a feasible and safe tool for the multidisciplinary home care of chronic HIV patients. Telemedicine should be considered as an appropriate support service for the management of

  1. Carvedilol Compared With Metoprolol Succinate in the Treatment and Prognosis of Patients With Stable Chronic Heart Failure: Carvedilol or Metoprolol Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Zhao, Jingting; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Atar, Dan; Agewall, Stefan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2015-09-01

    β-Blockers exert a prognostic benefit in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Their pharmacological properties vary. The only substantial comparative trial to date-the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial-has compared carvedilol with short-acting metoprolol tartrate at different dose equivalents. We therefore addressed the relative efficacy of equal doses of carvedilol and metoprolol succinate on survival in multicenter hospital outpatients with chronic heart failure. Four thousand sixteen patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure who were using either carvedilol or metoprolol succinate were identified in the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and The Heart Failure Registry of the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Patients were individually matched on both the dose equivalents and the respective propensity scores for β-blocker treatment. During a follow-up for 17 672 patient-years, it was found that 304 (27.2%) patients died in the carvedilol group and 1066 (36.8%) in the metoprolol group. In a univariable analysis of the general sample, metoprolol therapy was associated with higher mortality compared with carvedilol therapy (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.69; P<0.001). This difference was not seen after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.50; P=0.75) and adjustment for propensity score and dose equivalents (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.20; P=0.36) or in the propensity and dose equivalent-matched sample (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.23; P=0.99). These results were essentially unchanged for all prespecified subgroups. In outpatients with chronic heart failure, no conclusive association between all-cause mortality and treatment with carvedilol or metoprolol succinate was observed after either multivariable adjustment or multilevel propensity score matching. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Diagnostic Value of Electrocardiographic T Wave Inversion in Lead aVL in Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem L. Farhan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical value of T wave inversion in lead aVL in diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the correlation between aVL T wave inversion and CAD in patients with chronic stable angina.Methods: Electrocardiograms (ECGs of 257 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were analyzed. All patients had chronic stable angina. All patients with secondary T wave inversion had been excluded (66 patients. The remaining 191 patients constituted the study population. Detailed ECG interpretation and coronary angiographic findings were conducted by experienced cardiologists.Results: T wave inversion in aVL was identified in 89 ECGs (46.8% with definite ischemic Q-ST-T changes in different leads in 97 ECGs (50.8%. Stand alone aVL T wave inversion was found in 27 ECGs (14.1% while ischemic changes in other leads with normal aVL were identified in 36 ECGs (18.8%. The incidence of CAD was 86.3%. Single, two- and multi-vessel CAD were found in 38.8%, 28.5% and 32.7% of cases respectively. The prevalence of left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex and right coronary arteries were 4.7%, 61.2%, 29.3% and 44.5%, respectively. T wave inversion in aVL was found to be the only ECG variable significantly predicting mid segment left anterior descending artery (LAD lesions (Odds Ratio 2.93, 95% Confidence Interval 1.59-5.37, p=0.001.Conclusion: This study provides new information relating to T wave inversion in lead aVL to mid segment LAD lesions. Implication of this simple finding may help in bedside diagnosis of CAD typically mid LAD lesions. However, further studies are needed to corroborate this finding.

  3. Evidence of chronic anthropogenic nutrient within coastal lagoon reefs adjacent to urban and tourism centers, Kenya: A stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaura, Jelvas; Umezawa, Yu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kamau, Joseph

    2017-06-30

    The source of anthropogenic nutrient and its spatial extent in three fringing reefs with differing human population gradients in Kenya were investigated using stable isotope approaches. Nutrient concentrations and nitrate-δ 15 N in seepage water indicated that population density and tourism contributed greatly to the extent of nutrient loading to adjacent reefs. Although water-column nutrient analyses did not show any significant difference among the reefs, higher δ 15 N and N contents in macrophytes showed terrestrial nutrients affected primary producers in onshore areas in Nyali and Bamburi reefs, but were mitigated by offshore water intrusion especially at Nyali. On the offshore reef flat, where the same species of macroalgae were not available, complementary use of δ 15 N in sedimentary organic matter suggested inputs of nutrients originated from the urban city of Mombasa. If population increases in the future, nutrient conditions in the shallower reef, Vipingo, may be dramatically degraded due to lower water exchange ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spanish Guidelines for Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GesEPOC) 2017. Pharmacological Treatment of Stable Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Calle, Myriam; Molina, Jesús; Almagro, Pere; Quintano, José Antonio; Trigueros, Juan Antonio; Cosío, Borja G; Casanova, Ciro; Antonio Riesco, Juan; Simonet, Pere; Rigau, David; Soriano, Joan B; Ancochea, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The clinical presentation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies widely, so treatment must be tailored according to the level of risk and phenotype. In 2012, the Spanish COPD Guidelines (GesEPOC) first established pharmacological treatment regimens based on clinical phenotypes. These regimens were subsequently adopted by other national guidelines, and since then, have been backed up by new evidence. In this 2017 update, the original severity classification has been replaced by a much simpler risk classification (low or high risk), on the basis of lung function, dyspnea grade, and history of exacerbations, while determination of clinical phenotype is recommended only in high-risk patients. The same clinical phenotypes have been maintained: non-exacerbator, asthma-COPD overlap (ACO), exacerbator with emphysema, and exacerbator with bronchitis. Pharmacological treatment of COPD is based on bronchodilators, the only treatment recommended in low-risk patients. High-risk patients will receive different drugs in addition to bronchodilators, depending on their clinical phenotype. GesEPOC reflects a more individualized approach to COPD treatment, according to patient clinical characteristics and level of risk or complexity. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The obesity paradox in stable chronic heart failure does not persist after matching for indicators of disease severity and confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Nelles, Manfred; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A; Remppis, B Andrew

    2009-12-01

    To verify whether controlling for indicators of disease severity and confounders represents a solution to the obesity paradox in chronic heart failure (CHF). From a cohort of 1790 patients, we formed 230 nested matched triplets by individually matching patients with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) (Group 3), BMI 20-24.9 k/m(2) (Group 1) and BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (Group 2), according to NT-proBNP, age, sex, and NYHA class (triplet = one matched patient from each group). Although in the pre-matching cohort, BMI group was a significant univariable prognostic indicator, it did not retain significance [heart rate (HR): 0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-1.05, chi(2): 1.67] when controlled for group propensities as covariates. Furthermore, in the matched cohort, 1-year mortality and 3-year mortality did not differ significantly. Here, BMI again failed to reach statistical significance for prognosis, either as a continuous or categorical variable, whether crude or adjusted. This result was confirmed in the patients not selected for matching. NT-proBNP, however, remained statistically significant (log(NT-proBNP): HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13-1.97, chi(2): 7.82) after multivariable adjustment. The obesity paradox does not appear to persist in a matched setting with respect to indicators of disease severity and other confounders. NT-proBNP remains an independent prognostic indicator of adverse outcome irrespective of obesity status.

  6. The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on mortality, balance, and risk of fall in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamy, Ali; Bolton, Charlotte E; McKeever, Tricia M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of published studies that evaluate the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on survival and fall (including balance) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at stability. OVID, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane collaboration library were searched for literature dating from January 1980 up to November 2014 as well as an update in October 2015. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full text records, extracted data, and assessed studies for risk of bias; any disagreements were resolved by a third member of the team, and consensus was always sought. Initial searches yielded 3216 records but after review only seven studies were included and there were no studies focused solely on falls. Two cohort studies found some positive benefits of PR on balance, but the results were inconsistent across the studies. Regarding survival, two randomized controlled trials were conducted; one study showed significant survival benefit at 1 year, while the other one showed nonsignificant survival benefit at 3 years. Neither were adequately powered and in both, survival was a secondary outcome. There was only limited inconclusive evidence to show that PR has a significant beneficial effect on balance or survival.

  7. Evaluation of efficacy of atorvastatin in prevention of cardiovascular risks in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvi, F.; Alam, R.; Khan, M. [Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi (Pakistan); Rizvi, N. [Karachi Univ. (Pakistan)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: To demonstrate the dual cardiopulmonary protective effects of Atorvastatin in COPD patients, which may become the mainstay of therapy in prevention of exacerbation of COPD and cardiovascular events in COPD patients. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of 6 months (December 2010 to May 2011) with an individual study period of 3 months (90 days), conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Chest medicine JPMC Karachi. Subjects and Methods: Thirty five moderate stable COPD with post bronchodilator FEV <80% and post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <70%, with hsCRP level >3mg/l, were evaluated in a quasi experimental trial. The patients were assigned to give tablet Atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 consecutive weeks. The primary study outcome was to evaluate the reduction in cardiovascular risk by evaluating the improvement in FEV1 and reduction in hsCRP levels. Efficacy was evaluated at days 30, 60 and day 90. Results: Out of 35 patients only 33 (94%) patients completed the study. At baseline hsCRP level was 6.45+-0.30 which decreased to 4.6+-0.19 (p<0.05) at day 90. FEV1 at baseline was 2.16+-0.07 and at day 90 FEV1 increased upto 2.48+-0.06 (p<0.01). This shows that, the Atorvastatin can lead to statistically significant decrease in the hsCRP levels and increase the forced expiratory volume in one second. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Atorvastatin effectively decreases the cardiovascular risk by decreasing the systemic inflammation which was indicated by decreasing the hsCRP levels and it can also improve the pulmonary functional capacity in COPD patients. (author)

  8. Evaluation of efficacy of atorvastatin in prevention of cardiovascular risks in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, F.; Alam, R.; Khan, M.; Rizvi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the dual cardiopulmonary protective effects of Atorvastatin in COPD patients, which may become the mainstay of therapy in prevention of exacerbation of COPD and cardiovascular events in COPD patients. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of 6 months (December 2010 to May 2011) with an individual study period of 3 months (90 days), conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Chest medicine JPMC Karachi. Subjects and Methods: Thirty five moderate stable COPD with post bronchodilator FEV 3mg/l, were evaluated in a quasi experimental trial. The patients were assigned to give tablet Atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 consecutive weeks. The primary study outcome was to evaluate the reduction in cardiovascular risk by evaluating the improvement in FEV1 and reduction in hsCRP levels. Efficacy was evaluated at days 30, 60 and day 90. Results: Out of 35 patients only 33 (94%) patients completed the study. At baseline hsCRP level was 6.45+-0.30 which decreased to 4.6+-0.19 (p<0.05) at day 90. FEV1 at baseline was 2.16+-0.07 and at day 90 FEV1 increased upto 2.48+-0.06 (p<0.01). This shows that, the Atorvastatin can lead to statistically significant decrease in the hsCRP levels and increase the forced expiratory volume in one second. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Atorvastatin effectively decreases the cardiovascular risk by decreasing the systemic inflammation which was indicated by decreasing the hsCRP levels and it can also improve the pulmonary functional capacity in COPD patients. (author)

  9. Revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention does not affect androgen status in males with chronic stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, J N; Charalampidis, P; Nikolaidou, T; Parviz, Y; Morris, P D; Channer, K S; Jones, T H; Grech, E D

    2016-05-01

    There is a clear association between low serum testosterone and coronary artery disease (CAD) in men. Hypotestosteronaemia is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and a quarter of men with CAD are biochemically hypogonadal. Amongst those with CAD, hypotestosteronaemia is associated with increased mortality. Testosterone vasodilates coronary arteries, and exogenous testosterone reduces ischaemia. Whether hypotestosteronaemia is a cause or a consequence of CAD remains unanswered. The aim of this prospective observational study was to investigate whether coronary revascularization affected androgen status in men with stable angina pectoris. Twenty five men (mean age 62.7, SD 9.18) with angiographically significant CAD and symptomatic angina underwent full coronary revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention. Androgen status and symptoms of angina, stress, depression and sexual function were assessed before, and at one and 6 months after the coronary revascularization. All patients underwent complete revascularization which was associated with a significant reduction in angina symptoms and ischaemia. No significant difference was seen in total testosterone (11.33 nmol/L baseline; 12.56, 1 month post; 13.04 at 6 months; p = 0.08). A significant and sustained rise in sex hormone-binding globulin was seen (33.99 nm/L baseline; 36.11 nm/L 1 month post PCI; 37.94 nm/L at 6 months; p = 0.03) Overall, there was no significant alteration in any other marker of androgen status including free testosterone or bioavailable testosterone. There was no change in symptoms of anxiety, depression or sexual function. Coronary revascularization has no sustained effect on androgen status. This supports the hypothesis that hypotestosteronaemia is not a consequence of angina pectoris or myocardial ischaemia. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Relation of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and their prognostic power in chronic stable heart failure to obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Remppis, Andrew; Nelles, Manfred; Schaelling, Bernd; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo; Zugck, Christian

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) level and resultant prognostic capacity in chronic heart failure (CHF) controlled for known confounders. We formed 206 triplets of patients (n = 618) with stable systolic CHF matched with respect to age, sex, renal function (MDRD, modification of diet in renal disease formula), and NYHA class, each with a BMI >30 kg/m(2) (group 3), 20-24.9 kg/m(2) (group 1), and 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (group 2). BMI conveys a 4% drop in NTproBNP per unit increase. This influence remained significant after correction for age, sex, MDRD, NYHA, heart rate, rhythm, and ejection fraction. NTproBNP remained an independent predictor of adverse outcome after correction for age, sex, BMI, NYHA, MDRD, and ejection fraction. Despite numerical differences, prognostic power was comparable between BMI groups (log-transformed NTproBNP; group 1: hazard ratio (HR) 1.435, 95% CI 1.046-1.967, chi(2) 5.02, P = 0.03; group 2: HR 1.604, 95% CI 1.203-2.138, chi(2) 10.36, P = 0.001; group 3: HR 1.735, 95% CI 1.302-2.313, chi(2) 14.12, P = 0.0002) (P = NS, all). An NTproBNP correction factor was calculated. Even matched for NYHA, age, sex, and renal function, BMI exerts a significant and independent inverse influence on NTproBNP in patients with stable CHF. NTproBNP retained equal statistical power in all three BMI groups.

  11. Is there an additional benefit of serial NT-proBNP measurements in patients with stable chronic heart failure receiving individually optimized therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jennifer; Frankenstein, Lutz; Schellberg, Dieter; Bajrovic, Amer; Wolter, Jan Sebastian; Ehlermann, Philipp; Doesch, Andreas O; Nelles, Manfred; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The role of serial NT-proBNP measurements in patients suffering from chronic systolic heart failure (CHF) who already receive individually optimized pharmacotherapy is still unresolved. NT-proBNP was assessed at baseline and at 6 months follow-up in 504 stable CHF patients treated with individually optimized pharmacotherapy. After assessment of clinical stability at 6 months, patients were followed up for at least 1 year. The combined primary endpoint was defined as death, hospitalization due to cardiac reasons or heart transplantation in 1-year follow-up. We stratified our patients according to two principles: first, a percent change of value (CV) between the first and second measurement of NT-proBNP and secondly, the transformed logarithm of NT-proBNP measured at 6 months. During the follow-up period of 1 year, 50 patients (9.9%) reached the combined primary endpoint. Stratification according to percentage CV was less accurate in predicting endpoint-free survival compared to a classification in categories of lnNT-proBNP measured at 6 months (ROC AUC = 0.615; 95% CI 0.525-0.70 vs. ROC AUC = 0.790; 95% CI 0.721-0.856, respectively). When entered into proportional hazard regression analysis, lnNT-proBNP measured at 6 months remained an independent predictor of the combined primary endpoint with an associated HR of 2.53 (95% CI 1.385-4.280). To date, this is the largest analysis of serial NT-proBNP measurements in patients with CHF receiving individually optimized medical therapy. These data suggest that a single NT-proBNP measurement after 6 months in stable clinical conditions may have higher predictive value than stratification of change in serial measurements.

  12. Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) plus long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) versus LABA plus inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Nobuyuki; Goto, Atsushi; Shibata, Yuji; Ota, Erika; Nakashima, Kentaro; Nagai, Kenjiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2017-02-10

    Three classes of inhaler medications are used to manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): long-acting beta-agonists (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). When two classes of medications are required, LAMA plus LABA (LAMA+LABA) and LABA plus ICS (LABA+ICS) are often selected because these combinations can be administered via a single medication device. The previous Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidance recommended LABA+ICS as the first-line treatment for managing stable COPD in high-risk people of categories C and D. However, the updated GOLD 2017 guidance recommends LAMA+LABA over LABA+ICS. To compare the benefits and harms of LAMA+LABA versus LABA+ICS for treatment of people with stable COPD. We performed an electronic search of the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (2 February 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (4 June 2016), and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Search Portal (4 June 2016), followed by a handsearch (5 June 2016). Two review authors screened and scrutinised the selected articles. We included individual randomised controlled trials, parallel-group trials, and cross-over trials comparing LAMA+LABA and LABA+ICS for stable COPD. The minimum accepted trial duration was one month and trials should have been conducted in an outpatient setting. Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated risk of bias. We resolved any discrepancies through discussion. We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios (OR), and continuous data as mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence interval (CI) using Review Manager 5. Exacerbations were measured by counting the number of people experiencing one or more exacerbation. We included 11 studies comprising 9839 participants in our quantitative analysis. Most studies included people with moderate to severe COPD, without recent exacerbations. One pharmaceutical sponsored trial that included only people with

  13. Long acting β2 agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with poor reversibility: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensinkai Shaila

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long acting β2-agonists, salmeterol and formoterol, have been recommended, by some, as first line treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We reviewed evidence of efficacy and safety when compared with placebo or anticholinergic agents in patients with poorly reversible COPD. Methods After searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, BIOSIS Previews, PASCAL, ToxFile, SciSearch, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed, as well as Web sites, selected journals, reference lists, and contacting drug manufacturers, two reviewers independently screened reports of randomised controlled trials of parallel or crossover design lasting four weeks or longer and including patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ≤ 75% of predicted, a ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC ≤ 88% of predicted, and Results Twelve trials satisfied our inclusion criteria; eight were high quality (Jadad score >2 and four were low quality (≤ 2. The adequacy of allocation concealment was unclear in all of them. We did not perform a meta-analysis due to differences in trial design and how outcomes were reported. Two trials comparing salmeterol with ipratropium did not detect differences; one trial comparing formoterol and ipratropium described greater improvement with formoterol in morning PEFR (15.3 versus 7.1 l/min, p = 0.040. Of twelve trials comparing long acting β2 agonists with placebo, six reported no improvement in exercise capacity, eleven reported improvements in FEV1 lung function (one reported no improvement, six reported less rescue inhaler usage (one reported no difference and five reported improved dyspnea scores (two reported no improvement. Differences in quality of life were detected in one salmeterol trial ; however, two salmeterol, and one formoterol trial reported no differences. Adverse effects of interest were not reported. Conclusion In terms of clinical outcomes and safety, we could not find

  14. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina II. Anti-ischemic therapy, options for refractory angina, risk factor reduction, and revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kones

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard KonesThe Cardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, Texas, USAAbstract: The objectives in treating angina are relief of pain and prevention of disease ­progression through risk reduction. Mechanisms, indications, clinical forms, doses, and side effects of the traditional antianginal agents – nitrates, ß-blockers, and calcium channel ­blockers – are reviewed. A number of patients have contraindications or remain unrelieved from anginal discomfort with these drugs. Among newer alternatives, ranolazine, recently approved in the United States, indirectly prevents the intracellular calcium overload involved in cardiac ischemia and is a welcome addition to available treatments. None, however, are disease-modifying agents. Two options for refractory angina, enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation (SCS, are presented in detail. They are both well-studied and are effective means of treating at least some patients with this perplexing form of angina. Traditional modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD – smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, ­diabetes, and obesity – account for most of the population-attributable risk. Individual therapy of high-risk patients differs from population-wide efforts to prevent risk factors from appearing or reducing their severity, in order to lower the national burden of disease. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to lower risk in patients with chronic angina are reviewed. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE trial showed that in patients with stable angina, optimal medical therapy alone and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with medical therapy were equal in preventing myocardial infarction and death. The integration of COURAGE results into current practice is discussed. For patients who are unstable, with very high risk, with left main coronary artery lesions, in

  15. Serum cytokine profiling and enrichment analysis reveal the involvement of immunological and inflammatory pathways in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bade G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Geetanjali Bade,1 Meraj Alam Khan,2 Akhilesh Kumar Srivastava,1 Parul Khare,1 Krishna Kumar Solaiappan,1 Randeep Guleria,3 Nades Palaniyar,2 Anjana Talwar1 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 2Program in Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, and Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Sleep Disorders, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem. It results from chronic inflammation and causes irreversible airway damage. Levels of different serum cytokines could be surrogate biomarkers for inflammation and lung function in COPD. We aimed to determine the serum levels of different biomarkers in COPD patients, the association between cytokine levels and various prognostic parameters, and the key pathways/networks involved in stable COPD. In this study, serum levels of 48 cytokines were examined by multiplex assays in 30 subjects (control, n=9; COPD, n=21. Relationships between serum biomarkers and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak oxygen uptake, body mass index, dyspnea score, and smoking were assessed. Enrichment pathways and networks analyses were implemented, using a list of cytokines showing differential expression between healthy controls and patients with COPD by Cytoscape and GeneGo Metacore™ softwares (Thomson-Reuters Corporation, New York, NY, USA. Concentrations of cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine, eotaxin, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-16, and stem cell factor are significantly higher in COPD patients compared with in control patients. Notably, this study identifies stem cell factor as a biomarker for COPD. Multiple regression analysis predicts that cutaneous T

  16. Cognitive Performance Is Highly Stable over a 2-Year-Follow-Up in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in a Dedicated Medical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Janine; Todica, Olga; Seidel, Ulla K; Volsek, Michaela; Kribben, Andreas; Bruck, Heike; Hermann, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    As kidney and brain functions decline with aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia are becoming increasing health burdens worldwide. Among the risk factors for cognitive impairment, CKD is increasingly recognized. The precise impact of CKD on the development of cognitive impairment is poorly understood. In the New Tools for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (NTCVD) cohort, which was recruited in a dedicated nephrology department, we examined the 2-year course of cognitive performance in 120 patients (73 patients with CKD stages 3-5D, 47 control patients without CKD with similar vascular risk profile) using a comprehensive battery of 10 neuropsychological tests. Kidney function, vascular risk factors and cognitive performance were highly stable both in CKD and control patients. The summary score of cognitive performance in CKD patients was very similar at baseline (z = -0.63±0.76) and follow-up (z = -0.54±0.79, p = 0.113), as was cognitive performance in control patients (z = -0.01±0.59 and 0.01±0.70, p = 0.862, at baseline and follow-up, respectively). Total serum cholesterol (199.6±36.0 and 186.0±32.9, p = 0.005 in controls; 194.4±46.1 and 181.2±41.2, p = 0.008 in CKD) and common carotid intima-media thickness (0.87±0.18 and 0.84±0.17, p = 0.351 in controls; 0.88±0.21 and 0.82±0.16, p = 0.002 in CKD) moderately but significantly decreased during the follow-up. In multivariable regression analyses, high age (β = -0.28, 95%CI = -0.48 to 0.08, p = 0.007) predicted decrease in cognitive performance. In this well-defined cohort receiving state-of-the-art therapy, cognitive performance did not decrease over 2 years. Our data emphasize the aspect of risk factor control, suggesting that dedicated medical care might prevent cognitive decline in CKD patients.

  17. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  18. The effect of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA on excretion of {sup 210}PB, {sup 210}Po and stable lead in cases of chronic lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, I.; Milacic, S.; Novak, Lj.; Uzelac, V.; Nesic, V

    1998-07-01

    The study describes the effect of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA on the excretion of the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and stable lead in workers' urine. The CaNa{sub 2}EDTA was administered intravenously to workers in the morning for five days. The results show that CaNa{sub 2}EDTA mobilises biologically active {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and stable lead, appreciably increasing their concentration in urine. (author)

  19. Effect of prescribing a high protein diet and increasing the dose of dialysis on nutrition in stable chronic haemodialysis patients : a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Stegeman, CA; Kremer Hovinga, T; Vastenburg, G; Vos, P; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM

    Background. Protein requirements in stable, adequately dialysed haemodialysis patients are not known and recommendations vary. It is not known whether increasing the dialysis dose above the accepted adequate level has a favourable effect on nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine whether

  20. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, L.H.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Coal mining remains a major industry that has workers at risk for developing chronic lung disease. Aside from simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis, the development of emphysema and obstructive lung disease independent of smoking may be underappreciated. This article reviews more recent studies that may help rectify this faulty view. Cumulative exposure to coal dust is a significant risk factor for the development of emphysema and has an additive effect to smoking. Increased coal dust exposure is associated with increased risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In newly employed coal miners, bronchitic symptoms are associated with a rapid decline in lung function within 2 years after starting work. In evaluating impairment, the chest radiograph may be helpful as a marker of exposure but the diffusing capacity is most correlated with dyspnea, whereas the emphysema computed tomography score has good association with expiratory flow limitation. Latest studies further support the association of emphysema and COPD with coal dust exposure. Increased cumulative exposure may also increase risk of death from these diseases.

  1. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  2. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  3. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  4. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  5. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  6. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: Approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the

  7. Comparison of antianginal efficacy of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate in chronic stable angina: a long-term, randomized, double-blind, crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, C.S.; Coplin, B.; Wellington, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using a double-blind, crossover design, the comparative efficacy and safety of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of stable angina were studied in 34 patients. The study included a 2-week placebo washout period and two 6-week periods during which patients were randomized to either nifedipine or isosorbide dinitrate. The doses were titrated for each patient, and mean doses of the 2 drugs were comparable. A time-limited thallium treadmill test was performed at the end of each phase. Ischemic zone count rates were normalized to those of the nonischemic zone, and the change in this ratio with redistribution was calculated as reversible thallium defect. Two patients were discontinued from the study within 1 week after initiation of isosorbide dinitrate because of severe, intolerable headache. Two patients were withdrawn while receiving nifedipine: one had new congestive heart failure and the other had increasing angina. Of the remaining 30 patients who tolerated both drugs for at least 1 week, 4 patients from the isosorbide dinitrate group were either prematurely crossed over or discontinued from the study because of headache. One patient suffered headache from both drugs and was discontinued from the study. In the 30 patients, only nifedipine significantly reduced resting arterial pressure compared with baseline. Further, only nifedipine therapy resulted in significant decreases in the rate-pressure product and systolic pressure at a given workload. However, significant decreases in angina frequency, nitroglycerin consumption and exercise-induced maximum ST-segment depression and reversible thallium perfusion defect were produced by both nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate

  8. A Coincidental Discovery of a New Stable Variant (Hb Hachioji or HBB: c.187C>T) in a Patient with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia of Unexplained Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Ferania; Yamashiro, Yasuhiro; Adhiyanto, Chris; Tanaka, Tatehiko; Nitta, Takenori; Amao, Yuki; Kimoto, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    We report a new hemoglobin (Hb) variant, Hb Hachioji (HBB: c.187C>T), which was detected in a 32-year-old male with hemolytic anemia. The proband had undergone splenectomy in his childhood after being diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) with no clinical improvement. A recent study showed that Heinz bodies were frequently observed in his red cells, however, no abnormal band was separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF), and the isopropanol (instability) test was negative. Direct sequencing revealed that the proband was a heterozygous carrier of a novel mutation (GCT>GTT) at codon 62 of the β-globin gene, leading to an alanine to valine substitution. This variant was named Hb Hachioji. Characterization at the mRNA level by cDNA sequencing detected β Hachioji mRNA, as well as β A mRNA. Subsequently, study of the proband's family indicated that his father was a carrier of this Hb variant, although unexpectedly, the father was asymptomatic and clinically healthy. Oxygen affinity measurement of total Hb showed no alteration in the P 50 and oxygen equilibrium curve. The presence of Hb Hachioji was confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS). Hb Hachioji comprised approximately 50.0% of the total Hb and was a stable variant. The phenotypic discrepancy between these two carriers suggests that Hb Hachioji may not be associated with the hemolytic involvement in the proband. P4.2Nippon, which is the primary cause of most cases of Japanese HS, was absent in the proband's parents. The coexistence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was ruled out. Thus, the cause of hemolytic involvement in this patient remains unclear.

  9. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2010-08-09

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the

  10. De-escalation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia with stable major molecular response (DESTINY): an interim analysis of a non-randomised, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard E; Polydoros, Fotios; Apperley, Jane F; Milojkovic, Dragana; Pocock, Christopher; Smith, Graeme; Byrne, Jenny L; de Lavallade, Hugues; O'Brien, Stephen G; Coffey, Tony; Foroni, Letizia; Copland, Mhairi

    2017-07-01

    Discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is feasible for some patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia with deep molecular responses; however, patients with stable major molecular response (MMR), but not MR4, have not been studied, nor has the effect of treatment de-escalation rather than outright cessation. We aimed to examine the effects of treatment de-escalation as a prelude to complete cessation, not only in patients with MR4 or greater, but also in those with MMR but not MR4. We did this interim analysis of a non-randomised, phase 2 trial at 20 hospitals in the UK. We recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase who had received TKI for 3 years or more and were either in stable MR4 (BCR-ABL1:ABL1 ratio 0·1%) on two consecutive samples. The primary endpoint of this interim analysis was the proportion of patients who lost MMR on de-escalation and regained MMR on TKI resumption. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804985. Between Dec 16, 2013 and April 10, 2015, we enrolled 174 patients into the MMR cohort (n=49) or the MR4 cohort (n=125). During the 12 months of half-dose therapy, 12 patients (7%) had molecular recurrence, all of whom regained MMR within 4 months of full-dose TKI resumption (median time to recovery 77 days). Recurrence was significantly lower in the MR4 cohort (three [2%; 90% CI 0·2-4·8] of 121 evaluable patients) than in the MMR cohort (nine [19%; 90% CI 9·5-28·0] of 48 evaluable patients; hazard ratio 0·12, 90% CI 0·04-0·37; p=0·0007), but was unrelated to previous TKI or TKI therapy duration. Adverse events (eg, lethargy, diarrhoea, rash, and nausea) improved during the first 3 months of de-escalation, though not thereafter. 16 serious adverse events were reported, including one fatality due to worsening pre-existing peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a patient who had received only imatinib. TKI de

  11. The associations between severity of early postoperative pain, chronic postsurgical pain and plasma concentration of stable nitric oxide products after breast surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, Gabriella

    2012-02-03

    In this study, we compared the effects of two analgesic regimens on perioperative nitric oxide index (NOx) and the likelihood of subsequent development of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after breast surgery and sought to determine the association among early postoperative pain, NOx, and the likelihood of subsequent development of CPSP. Twenty-nine consecutive ASA I or II patients undergoing breast surgery with axillary clearance were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Patients in group S (n = 15) received a standard intraoperative and postoperative analgesic regimen (morphine sulfate, diclofenac, dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride + acetaminophen prn). Patients in group N (n = 14) received a continuous paravertebral block (for 48 h) and acetaminophen and parecoxib (followed by celecoxib up to 5 days). Visual analog scale pain scores at rest and on arm movement were recorded regularly until the fifth postoperative day. A telephone interview was conducted 10 wk postoperatively. The McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to characterize pain. NOx was estimated preoperatively, at the end of surgery, 30 min and 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 h postoperatively. Twelve (80%) patients in group S and no patient in group N developed CPSP (P = 0.009). Compared with patients with a pain rating index > or =1 (n = 18) 10 wk postoperatively, patients with a pain rating index = 0 (n = 11) had lesser visual analog scale pain scores on movement at each postoperative time point from 30 min until 96 h postoperatively (P < 0.005) and at rest 30 min (0.6 +\\/- 1.5 versus 30.2 +\\/- 26.8; P = 0.004), 4 h (2.3 +\\/- 7.5 versus 19.0 +\\/- 25.8; P = 0.013), 8 h (4.4 +\\/- 10.2 versus 21.4 +\\/- 27.0; P = 0.03) and 12 h (0.7 +\\/- 1.2 versus 15.4 +\\/- 27.0; P = 0.035) postoperatively. NOx values were greater in group N compared with group S 48 h postoperatively (40.6 +\\/- 20.1 versus 26.4 +\\/- 13.5; P = 0.04).

  12. The importance of dyspnoea in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a descriptive analysis of a stable cohort in Portugal (SAFE Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bárbara

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine patient-perceived characteristics of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in patients participating in a large trial evaluating tiotropium bromide. Patients and methods: Baseline symptoms were assessed by means of a standardized questionnaire. Patients reported symptoms that led to diagnosis as well as their current most troublesome symptom. Results: Data were obtained from 298 patients, mostly male (95 %, with mean (standard deviation baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 1.1 (0.4 L (40.6 [13.3] % of predicted, mean disease duration of 14.4 (10.1 years and smoking history of 55.1 (25.3 pack-years. Dyspnoea was the most frequently reported symptom leading to COPD diagnosis (55.0 % of patients, followed by cough (33.2 %. Dyspnoea was also the current most troublesome symptom (82.6 %, followed by cough (8.4 %. The presence of dyspnoea or cough was independent of COPD severity. The most commonly reported co-morbidities were cardiovascular disorders (49 % of patients, gastrointestinal disorders (20 % and metabolic disorders (16 %, mainly diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: This analysis confirms the importance of dyspnoea as the most common symptom leading to initial COPD diagnosis and the symptom most troublesome to patients. Co-morbidities are common among COPD patients, and hence spirometric testing is appropriate in a patient who presents with dyspnoea associated with such a condition. Resumo: Introdução: Este estudo teve como objectivo determinar os principais sintomas percepcionados pelos doentes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC numa coorte de doentes que participaram num grande ensaio clínico, que avaliou o tiotrópio e que decorreu em Portugal. População e métodos: A caracterização dos sintomas, no momento de avaliação basal dos doentes foi efectuada através do recurso a um questionário padronizado. Os doentes foram

  13. Climate, air pollution, and chronic bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawther, P J

    1958-01-01

    Air pollution (SO/sub 2/ and smoke) was correlated with simple, 4-degree diary records of a group of 180 bronchitic patients for the winter of 1955 to 1956. Obvious connection during the winter months disappears in the spring with the decrease in pollution levels.

  14. Clinically stable angina pectoris is not necessarily associated with histologically stable atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Becker, A. E.; Koch, K. T.; Piek, J. J.; Teeling, P.; van der Loos, C. M.; David, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of plaque inflammation in culprit lesions of patients with chronic stable angina. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Amsterdam reference centre. SUBJECTS: 89 consecutive patients who underwent directional coronary atherectomy, 58 of whom met the following

  15. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  16. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  17. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  18. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  19. Airway inflammation in nonobstructive and obstructive chronic bronchitis with chronic haemophilus influenzae airway infection. Comparison with noninfected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, P.; Out, T. A.; van Alphen, L.; Jansen, H. M.; Lutter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae often causes chronic infections of the lower respiratory tract in both nonobstructive and obstructive chronic bronchitis. We assessed airway inflammation in clinically stable, chronically H. influenzae-infected patients with nonobstructive (CB-HI, n = 10) and

  20. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  1. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  2. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  3. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  4. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  5. Formulation of stable protein powders by supercritical fluid drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanović, N.

    2007-01-01

    Protein pharmaceuticals are potent drugs for the treatment of several chronic and life-threatening diseases. However, the complex and sensitive nature of protein molecules requires special attention in the development of stable dosage forms. Developing stable aqueous protein formulations is often a

  6. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Uric Acid/Creatinine Ratios in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: Are These Parameters Efficient Predictors of Patients at Risk for Exacerbation and/or Severity of Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus Kocak, Nagihan; Sasak, Gulsah; Aka Akturk, Ulku; Akgun, Metin; Boga, Sibel; Sengul, Aysun; Gungor, Sinem; Arinc, Sibel

    2016-11-03

    BACKGROUND Serum uric acid (sUA) levels were previously found to be correlated with hypoxic states. We aimed to determine the levels of sUA and sUA/creatinine ratios in stable COPD patients and to evaluate whether sUA level and sUA/creatinine ratio can be used as predictors of exacerbation risk and disease severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS This cross-sectional study included stable COPD patients and healthy controls. The sUA levels and sUA/creatinine ratios in each group were evaluated and their correlations with the study parameters were investigated. ROC analyses for exacerbation risk and disease severity were reported. RESULTS The study included 110 stable COPD patients and 52 healthy controls. The mean sUA levels and sUA/creatinine ratios were significantly higher in patients with COPD compared to healthy controls. The most common comorbidities in COPD patients were hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. While sUA levels were significantly higher in patients with hypertension (p=0.002) and malignancy (p=0.033), sUA/creatinine ratios was higher in patients with malignancy (p=0.004). The ROC analyses indicated that sUA/creatinine ratios can be more useful than sUA levels in predicting exacerbation risk (AUC, 0.586 vs. 0.426) and disease severity (AUC, 0.560 vs. 0.475) especially at higher cut-off values, but with low specificity. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggested that sUA levels and sUA/creatinine ratios increased in patients with stable COPD, especially among patients with certain comorbidities compared to healthy controls. At higher cut-off values, sUA levels and especially sUA/creatinine ratios, might be useful in predicting COPD exacerbation risk and disease severity. Also, their association with comorbidities, especially with malignancy and hypertension, may benefit from further investigation.

  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: official diagnosis and treatment guidelines of the Czech Pneumological and Phthisiological Society; a novel phenotypic approach to COPD with patient-oriented care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblizek, Vladimir; Chlumsky, Jan; Zindr, Vladimir; Neumannova, Katerina; Zatloukal, Jakub; Zak, Jaroslav; Sedlak, Vratislav; Kocianova, Jana; Zatloukal, Jaromir; Hejduk, Karel; Pracharova, Sarka

    2013-06-01

    COPD is a global concern. Currently, several sets of guidelines, statements and strategies to managing COPD exist around the world. The Czech Pneumological and Phthisiological Society (CPPS) has commissioned an Expert group to draft recommended guidelines for the management of stable COPD. Subsequent revisions were further discussed at the National Consensus Conference (NCC). Reviewers' comments contributed to the establishment of the document's final version. The hallmark of the novel approach to COPD is the integrated evaluation of the patient's lung functions, symptoms, exacerbations and identifications of clinical phenotype(s). The CPPS defines 6 clinically relevant phenotypes: frequent exacerbator, COPD-asthma overlap, COPD-bronchiectasis overlap, emphysematic phenotype, bronchitic phenotype and pulmonary cachexia phenotype. Treatment recommendations can be divided into four steps. 1(st) step = Risk exposure elimination: reduction of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), decrease of home and occupational exposure risks. 2(nd) step = Standard treatment: inhaled bronchodilators, regular physical activity, pulmonary rehabilitation, education, inhalation training, comorbidity treatment, vaccination. 3(rd) step = Phenotype-specific therapy: PDE4i, ICS+LABA, LVRS, BVR, AAT augmentation, physiotherapy, mucolytic, ABT. 4(th) step = Care for respiratory insufficiency and terminal COPD: LTOT, lung transplantation, high intensity-NIV and palliative care. Optimal treatment of COPD patients requires an individualised, multidisciplinary approach to the patient's symptoms, clinical phenotypes, needs and wishes. The new Czech COPD guideline reflects and covers these requirements.

  8. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  9. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  10. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  11. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  12. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  13. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  14. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  15. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  16. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  17. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  18. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  19. Chronic bronchitis and current smoking are associated with more goblet cells in moderate to severe COPD and smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kim

    Full Text Available Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB, independent of airflow obstruction.We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane.Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19 were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19, current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12 were compared to those without CB (n = 26, the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD.Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD.

  20. Chronic Bronchitis and Current Smoking Are Associated with More Goblet Cells in Moderate to Severe COPD and Smokers without Airflow Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Oros, Michelle; Durra, Heba; Kelsen, Steven; Aksoy, Mark; Cornwell, William D.; Rogers, Thomas J.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB), independent of airflow obstruction. Methods We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD) was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD) was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane. Results Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19) were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19), current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12) were compared to those without CB (n = 26), the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD. Conclusions Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD. PMID:25646735

  1. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  2. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  3. Selection of medical treatment in stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardissino, D; Savonitto, S; Egstrup, K

    1995-01-01

    pectoris. BACKGROUND: The characteristics of anginal symptoms and the results of exercise testing are considered of great importance for selecting medical treatment in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. However, little information is available on how this first evaluation may be used to select....... CONCLUSIONS: The results of a baseline exercise test, but not the characteristics of anginal symptoms, may offer useful information for selecting medical treatment in stable angina pectoris....

  4. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  5. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  6. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperhomocyst(einemia in chronic stable renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David José de Barros Machado

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hyperhomocyst(einaemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, which is currently a major cause of death in renal transplant patients. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of immunosuppressive therapy on homocyst(einemia in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Total serum homocysteine (by high performance liquid chromatography, creatinine, lipid profile, folic acid (by radioimmunoassay-RIA and vitamin B12 (by RIA concentrations were measured in 3 groups. Group I patients (n=20 were under treatment with cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone; group II (n=9 were under treatment with azathioprine and prednisone; and group III (n=7 were composed of renal graft donors for groups I and II. Creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, cyclosporine trough level, lipid profile, folic acid, and vitamin B12 concentrations and clinical characteristics of patients were assessed with the aim of ascertaining determinants of hyperhomocyst(einemia. RESULTS: Patient ages were 48.8 ± 15.1 yr (group I, 43.3 ± 11.3 yr (group II; and 46.5 ± 14.8 yr (group III. Mean serum homocyst(eine (tHcy concentrations were 18.07 ± 8.29 mmol/l in renal transplant recipients; 16.55 ± 5.6 mmol/l and 21.44 ± 12.1 mmol/l respectively for group I (with cyclosporine and group II (without cyclosporine (NS. In renal donors, tHcy was significantly lower (9.07 ± 3.06 mmol/l; group I + group II vs. group III, pOBJETIVOS: A hiper-homocisteinemia é um fator de risco importante para aterosclerose e, esta é uma das principais causas de óbito em transplantados renais. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a influência da terapêutica imunossupressora na homocisteinemia de receptores de transplante renal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Vinte e nove pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I (n=20 - pacientes transplantados renais em uso de ciclosporina, azatioprina e prednisona; grupo II (n=9 - pacientes transplantados renais em uso de azatioprina e prednisona; grupo III (n=7 doadores de rim para pacientes dos grupos I e II, constituíram o grupo controle. O nível sérico de creatinina e o clearance estimado de creatinina, o nível sérico de ciclosporina, o perfil de lipídeos, a concentração de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 e as características clínicas dos indivíduos foram avaliados na procura de determinantes da homocisteinemia. A concentração sérica de homocisteína foi medida através da cromatografia de alta resolução e a concentração de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 por radio-imunoensaio. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes tinham 48.8 ± 15.1 aa e 43.3 ± 11.3 aa respectivamente, nos grupos I e II e os doadores 46.5 ± 14.8 aa. A homocisteinemia sérica média dos pacientes transplantados renais foi de 18.07 ± 8.29 mmol/l. No grupo de pacientes em uso de ciclosporina foi de 16.55 ± 5.6 mmol/l e no grupo sem ciclosporina foi de 21.44 ± 12.1 mmol/l (NS. No grupo de doadores foi significativamente menor (9.07 ± 3.06 mmol/l; grupo I + grupo II vs. grupo III, p<0.008, não tendo sido encontrado nenhum caso de hiper-homocisteinemia. Houve correlação entre idade (r=0.427; p<0.005, peso corpóreo (r=0.412; p<0.05, creatinina sérica (r=0.427; p<0.05, clearance estimado de creatinina (r=0.316; p<0.10 e tHcy nos pacientes transplantados renais. Porém no modelo de regressão múltipla, só foram significativos idade (coeficiente = 0.253; p=0.009 e creatinina sérica (coeficiente =8.07; p=0.045. No grupo de transplantados renais encontramos 38% de casos com hiper-homocist(einemia sendo sete casos (35% do grupo I e quatro casos (45% do grupo II, baseado nos níveis séricos normais. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes transplantados renais apresentam hiper-homocisteinemia independente do esquema de imunossupressão que estejam utilizando. A hiper-homocisteinemia após o transplante renal tem como determinantes a idade do receptor e o seu nível de creatinina sérica.

  8. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is unknown. However, it may be caused by cancer, tuberculosis , or an underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ), and it occasionally occurs in people with chronic ...

  9. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  10. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  11. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  12. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  13. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  14. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  15. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  17. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  18. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  19. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  20. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  1. Chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  2. [Chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Teresa; Heuss, Ludwig Theodor

    2014-09-01

    Defined by lasting more than four weeks - is a common but often challenging clinical scenario. It is important to be aware that diarrhoea means different things to different patients. The evaluation of chronic diarrhoea depends on taking an excellent history and careful physical examination as well as planning investigations thoughtfully. Functional diarrhea ist the most common cause of chronic diarrhea in the developed countries and motility disorders are more common than inflammatory, osmotic or secretory causes. In some cases categorizing patients by their stool characteristics can be helpful in directing further evaluation.

  3. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  4. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  5. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  6. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  7. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  8. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  9. Chronic Meningococcaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical features, complications, laboratory findings and treatment of this condition are discussed. The resemblance, both clinically and histologically, to allergic vasculitis is stressed. S. Air. Med. J., 48, 2154 (1974). Chronic meningococcaemia is an uncommon condition today, but was well recognised in the early decades of.

  10. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  11. Chronic Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    It is presented a case of a man with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, whose marked dilatation of the ducts reasoned the issue. The severe untreatable pain was the surgery indication, which was practiced without complications either during or after the surgery. By the way, a shallow revision of the literature is made, by mentioning classification, physiopatholoy, clinical square, medical, surgical and endoscopic treatment

  12. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia Overview Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is an uncommon type of cancer of the blood cells. The term "chronic" in chronic myelogenous leukemia indicates that this cancer ...

  13. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  14. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  15. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  16. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  17. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  18. Stable isotope tracers and exercise physiology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Daniel J; Brook, Matthew S; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotope tracers have been invaluable assets in physiological research for over 80 years. The application of substrate-specific stable isotope tracers has permitted exquisite insight into amino acid, fatty-acid and carbohydrate metabolic regulation (i.e. incorporation, flux, and oxidation, in a tissue-specific and whole-body fashion) in health, disease and response to acute and chronic exercise. Yet, despite many breakthroughs, there are limitations to 'substrate-specific' stable isotope tracers, which limit physiological insight, e.g. the need for intravenous infusions and restriction to short-term studies (hours) in controlled laboratory settings. In recent years significant interest has developed in alternative stable isotope tracer techniques that overcome these limitations, in particular deuterium oxide (D 2 O or heavy water). The unique properties of this tracer mean that through oral administration, the turnover and flux through a number of different substrates (muscle proteins, lipids, glucose, DNA (satellite cells)) can be monitored simultaneously and flexibly (hours/weeks/months) without the need for restrictive experimental control. This makes it uniquely suited for the study of 'real world' human exercise physiology (amongst many other applications). Moreover, using D 2 O permits evaluation of turnover of plasma and muscle proteins (e.g. dynamic proteomics) in addition to metabolomics (e.g. fluxomics) to seek molecular underpinnings, e.g. of exercise adaptation. Here, we provide insight into the role of stable isotope tracers, from substrate-specific to novel D 2 O approaches, in facilitating our understanding of metabolism. Further novel potential applications of stable isotope tracers are also discussed in the context of integration with the snowballing field of 'omic' technologies. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  19. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.

  20. Epidemiology of chronic pain in Denmark: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola; Peuckmann, Vera

    2008-01-01

    -administrated questionnaire. The same questions were included in the survey in 2000 and, hence, it was possible to evaluate the trends in the past five years. In all, 20.2% of the adult Danish population has chronic pain. From year 2000-2005 the prevalence of chronic pain has remained stable. Generally, chronic pain......The most recent Danish health survey of 2005 is based on a region-stratified random sample of 10.916 individuals. Data were collected via personal interviews and self-administrated questionnaires. Respondents suffering from chronic pain were identified through the question 'Do you have chronic...... was associated with female gender and increasing age. Higher prevalence of chronic pain were associated with being divorced, separated or widowed, having less than 10 years of education and high BMI. Musculoskeletal diseases (66.8%) were the most common cause for chronic pain and most persons with chronic pain...

  1. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  2. Stable Heavy Hadrons in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mackeprang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Several extensions to the SM feature heavy long-lived particles with masses of O(10^2-10^3 GeV) and mean lifetimes fulfilling $CT \\geq 10m$. Among such theories are supersymmetric scenarios as well as extra-dimensional models in which the heavy new particles are seen as Kaluza-Klein excitations of the well-known SM particles. Such particles will, from the point of view of a collider experiment be seen as stable. This thesis is concerned with the case where the exotic heavy particles emph{can} be considered stable while traversing the detector. Specifically the case is considered where the particles in question carry the charge of the strong nuclear force, commonly referred to as emph{colour charge}. A simulation kit has been developed using GEANT4. This framework is the current standard in experimental particle physics for the simulation of interactions of particles with matter, and it is used extensively for detector simulation. The simulation describes the interactions of these particles with matter which i...

  3. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  4. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  5. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  6. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  7. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  8. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  9. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  10. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  11. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  12. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  13. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  14. Chronic Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrecka, A.; Bilicky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an ongoing inflammatory process that may over time lead to mal digestion, malabsorption and diabetic syndrome. Identification of risk (etiological) factors based on classifications TIGAR-O or later M-ANNHEIM. These factors (environmental and / or genetic) leads to failure of the stability of the digestive and lysosomal enzymes in the acinar cells, resulting in premature activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas, and repeated nekroinflamation and fibrosis. The incidence has of the upward trend. Clinically the disease manifests itself in most cases with pain and possibly with nonspecific dyspeptic troubles. Decisive role in the diagnosis playing imaging methods, trans abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic cholangiopancretography and foremost endoscopic ultrasonography, which has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is currently regarded as a method for therapy, not for diagnosis. Less importance is now attached to a functional test. Symptomatic treatment is usually conservative. Abstinence is necessary, easily digestible, but calorie-rich diet with reduced fat. Most patients needed treatment with analgesics. In case of insufficient effect of analgesics is necessary to consider endoscopic therapy or surgery. If the external secretory insufficiency is present are served pancreatic extracts. Diabetic syndrome requires insulin delivery. Generally, chronic pancreatitis is a disease treatable but incurable. Proportion of patients are also dying of pancreatic cancer. (author)

  15. Efeito da teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista inalatório de curta ou longa duração, em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica estável: revisão sistemática Effect of theophylline associated with short-acting or long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Zacarias

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar se o tratamento com teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista inalatório de curta ou longa duração é mais eficaz que o placebo e que o uso isolado de cada um dos fármacos, para os pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica estável. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática com metanálise, sendo selecionados todos os ensaios clínicos aleatórios e duplo-cegos encontrados na literatura. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos oito estudos. Teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista vs. placebo: houve melhora estatisticamente significante para o VEF1 (L, com média 0,27 (IC95% 0,11 a 0,43; e para a dispnéia, com média -0,78 (IC95% -1,26 a -0,29. Teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista vs. beta2-agonista isolado: nenhuma das metanálises realizadas detectou diferença entre os grupos. Teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista vs. teofilina isolada: houve melhora estatisticamente significante para a dispnéia, com média -0,19 (IC95% -0,34 a -0,04. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica estável: 1 teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista é mais eficaz que o placebo, em relação ao VEF1 e dispnéia; 2a teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista é mais eficaz que a teofilina isolada, em relação à dispnéia; e 2b teofilina associada ao beta2-agonista não é mais eficaz que o beta2-agonista isolado, para quaisquer das variáveis estudadas.OBJECTIVES: To determine whether, in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, administration of theophylline in combination with short-acting or long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists is more efficacious than is a placebo or each of these drugs used in isolation. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. All randomized and double-blind clinical trials found in the literature were selected. RESULTS: A total of eight studies were included. In comparing the effect of theophylline combined with beta2-agonists to that of a placebo, we found a

  16. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  17. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  18. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  19. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen DUMITRASCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we define the estimated measure indicators for a level. The influence of the factors of stability and the ways for increasing it are thus identified, and at the same time the costs of development stages, the costs of usage and the costs of maintenance to be keep on between limits that assure the global efficiency of application. It is presented the base aspects for distributed applications: definition, peculiarities and importance. The aspects for the development cycle of distributed application are detailed. In this article, we alongside give the mechanisms for building the defined structures and analyze the complexity of the defined structures for a distributed application of a virtual store.

  20. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  2. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-News Sign-Up Home Patient Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common symptom of pancreatitis. The ...

  3. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  4. Chronic subdural hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma ... A subdural hematoma develops when bridging veins tear and leak blood. These are the tiny veins that run between the ...

  5. Chronic Diseases Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Templates All Chronic Surveillance Systems Communications Center Social Media Press Room Press Release Archives Multimedia Communication Campaigns Publications Chronic Disease Overview 2016–2017 At A ...

  6. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  7. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  8. Role of ivabradine in management of stable angina in patients with different clinical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, Juan Carlos; Gloekler, Steffen; Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim; Lévy, Bernard I; Komajda, Michel; Vardas, Panos; Camici, Paolo G

    2018-01-01

    In chronic stable angina, elevated heart rate contributes to the development of symptoms and signs of myocardial ischaemia by increasing myocardial oxygen demand and reducing diastolic perfusion time. Accordingly, heart rate reduction is a well-known strategy for improving both symptoms of myocardial ischaemia and quality of life (QOL). The heart rate-reducing agent ivabradine, a direct and selective inhibitor of the I f current, decreases myocardial oxygen consumption while increasing diastolic time, without affecting myocardial contractility or coronary vasomotor tone. Ivabradine is indicated for treatment of stable angina and chronic heart failure (HF). This review examines available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of ivabradine in stable angina, when used as monotherapy or in combination with beta-blockers, in particular angina subgroups and in patients with stable angina with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or HF. Trials involving more than 45 000 patients receiving treatment with ivabradine have shown that this agent has antianginal and anti-ischaemic effects, regardless of age, sex, severity of angina, revascularisation status or comorbidities. This heart rate-lowering agent might also improve prognosis, reduce hospitalisation rates and improve QOL in angina patients with chronic HF and LVSD. PMID:29632676

  9. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  10. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  11. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  12. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  13. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  14. Supporting Self-management of Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-04

    Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread

  15. YKL-40 a new biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.Z.; Ripa, R.S.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. YKL-40 is involved in remodelling and angiogenesis in non-cardiac inflammatory diseases. Aim was to quantitate plasma YKL-40 in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or stable chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), and YKL-40 gene activation in human myocardium....... Methods and results. We included 73 patients: I) 20 patients with STEMI; II) 28 patients with stable CAD; III) 15 CAD patients referred for coronary by-pass surgery. YKL-40 mRNA expression was measured in myocardium subtended by stenotic or occluded arteries and areas with no apparent disease; and IV) 10...

  16. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  18. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  19. Bronchodilator responsiveness as a phenotypic characteristic of established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Paul; Agusti, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness is a potential phenotypic characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We studied whether change in lung function after a bronchodilator is abnormal in COPD, whether stable responder subgroups can be identified, and whether these subgroups experience...

  20. Topical tazarotene vs. coal tar in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, U.; Kaur, I.; Dogra, S.; De, D.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of topical tazarotene has not previously been compared with the conventional topical treatment of crude coal tar (CCT) in stable plaque psoriasis. In this nonblinded side-to-side comparison study, patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis, who had bilaterally symmetrical plaques on the limbs, applied 0.1% tazarotene gel on the right side and 5% CCT ointment on the left side once daily for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week treatment-free follow up period. Severity of psoriatic lesions and response to treatment was evaluated by scoring erythema, scaling and induration (ESI). Of 30 patients recruited, 27 could be assessed. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean percentage reduction in ESI score at the end of the treatment period was 74.15% {+-} 9.43 and 77.37% {+-} 10.93 with tazarotene and CCT, respectively (P {gt} 0.05). A reduction in ESI score of {gt} 75% was seen in 11 (40.74%) and 16 (59.26%) patients with tazarotene and CCT, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. Side-effects were seen in 48.14% of patients treated with tazarotene, but in no patient treated with CCT. Tazarotene 0.1% gel has comparable clinical efficacy to CCT 5% ointment. CCT ointment remains a cost-effective therapy for plaque psoriasis.

  1. Diseases of the bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbraten, L.D.; Vinner, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of acute and chronic bronchites has been presented. It is shown, that in the combined daignosis of bronchi diseases roentgenograp hy and roentgenoscopy of lungs, roentgenofunctional tests and bronchography shou ld be used. For the diagnosis of broncholithiases, retention cysts and foreign bodies in bronchi the tomography, bronchography and bronchoscopy are used

  2. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  3. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  4. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  5. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  7. Chronic tophaceous gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of chronic tophaceous gout, in a 27-year-old female on diuretics for chronic congestive cardiac failure with characteristic histopathological and radiological changes is reported.

  8. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  9. Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case and review the literature on chronic ... Successful treatment is difficult to achieve, though some ... named the syndrome “subacute and chronic ... An assessment of acute ... scans can cause a significant radiation.

  10. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  11. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Almdal, T; Mikkelsen, K L

    2002-01-01

    An association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been found in a number of studies. The prevalence and prognostic importance of weight change in unselected subjects with COPD was examined. Subjects with COPD...... change: in the normal-to-underweight (BMI or = 25), best survival was seen in stable weight. A high proportion of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experienced a significant weight loss......, which was associated with increased mortality. The results support further intervention studies that aim at avoiding weight loss in normal-to-underweight chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients....

  12. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic br...

  13. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain DK1-NH57388A, a Stable Mucoid Cystic Fibrosis Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Ciofu, Oana; Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic pulmonary infections and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of stable mucoid P. aeruginosa strain DK1-NH57388A, a CF isolate which has previously been used...

  14. Implementation of recommended measures in patients with stable coronary artery disease: the data from 2014 Russian registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotin A.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A report presents the data on assessment of recommended treatment implementation in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. The source of the data of the year 2014 was multicenter Russian registry of hypertension, CAD and chronic heart failure.

  15. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  16. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  17. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  18. Stable Chimeras and Independently Synchronizable Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Sul; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-08-01

    Cluster synchronization is a phenomenon in which a network self-organizes into a pattern of synchronized sets. It has been shown that diverse patterns of stable cluster synchronization can be captured by symmetries of the network. Here, we establish a theoretical basis to divide an arbitrary pattern of symmetry clusters into independently synchronizable cluster sets, in which the synchronization stability of the individual clusters in each set is decoupled from that in all the other sets. Using this framework, we suggest a new approach to find permanently stable chimera states by capturing two or more symmetry clusters—at least one stable and one unstable—that compose the entire fully symmetric network.

  19. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  20. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  1. Moving stable solitons in Galileon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, Ali; Xiao Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Despite the no-go theorem Endlich et al. (2011) which rules out static stable solitons in Galileon theory, we propose a family of solitons that evade the theorem by traveling at the speed of light. These domain-wall-like solitons are stable under small fluctuations-analysis of perturbation shows neither ghost-like nor tachyon-like instabilities, and perturbative collision of these solitons suggests that they pass through each other asymptotically, which maybe an indication of the integrability of the theory itself.

  2. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  3. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  4. Unconditionally stable microwave Si-IMPATT amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been the development of an improved understanding of the design and analysis of microwave reflection amplifiers employing the negative resistance property of the IMPATT devices. Unconditionally stable amplifier circuit using a Silicon IMPATT diode is designed. The problems associated with the design procedures and the stability criterion are discussed. A computer program is developed to perform the computations. The stable characteristics of a reflection-type Si-IMPATT amplifier, such as gain, frequency and bandwidth are examined. It was found that at large signal drive levels, 7 dB gain with bandwidth of 800 MHz at 22,5 mA was obtained. (author)

  5. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  6. Working conditions remain stable in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Hooftman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant changes in the national questionnaires on work and health, the quality of work as well as health complaints in the Netherlands appear to be relatively stable. Pace of work seems to be on the increase again and more people are working in excess of their contractual hours.

  7. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  8. TOF for heavy stable particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Searching for heavy stable particle production in a new energy region of hadron-hadron collisions is of fundamental theoretical interest. Observation of such particles produced in high energy collisions would indicate the existence of stable heavy leptons or any massive hadronic system carrying new quantum numbers. Experimentally, evidence of its production has not been found for PP collisions either at FNAL or at the CERN ISR for √S = 23 and 62 GeV respectively. However, many theories beyond the standard model do predict its existence on a mass scale ranging from 50 to a few hundred GeV. If so, it would make a high luminosity TeV collider an extremely ideal hunting ground for searching the production of such a speculated object. To measure the mass of a heavy stable charged particle, one usually uses its time of flight (TOF) and/or dE/dX information. For heavy neutral particle, one hopes it may decay at some later time after its production. Hence a pair of jets or a jet associated with a high P/sub t/ muon originated from some places other than the interacting point (IP) of the colliding beams may be a good signal. In this note, we examine the feasibility of TOF measurement on a heavy stable particle produced in PP collisions at √S = 1 TeV and a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 with a single arm spectrometer pointing to the IP

  9. Axisymmetric MHD stable sloshing ion distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Dominguez, N.; Roslyakov, G.V.

    1986-07-01

    The MHD stability of a sloshing ion distribution is investigated in a symmetric mirror cell. Fokker-Planck calculations show that stable configurations are possible for ion injection energies that are at least 150 times greater than the electron temperture. Special axial magnetic field profiles are suggested to optimize the favorable MHD properties

  10. Exact simulation of max-stable processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombry, Clément; Engelke, Sebastian; Oesting, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Max-stable processes play an important role as models for spatial extreme events. Their complex structure as the pointwise maximum over an infinite number of random functions makes their simulation difficult. Algorithms based on finite approximations are often inexact and computationally inefficient. We present a new algorithm for exact simulation of a max-stable process at a finite number of locations. It relies on the idea of simulating only the extremal functions, that is, those functions in the construction of a max-stable process that effectively contribute to the pointwise maximum. We further generalize the algorithm by Dieker & Mikosch (2015) for Brown-Resnick processes and use it for exact simulation via the spectral measure. We study the complexity of both algorithms, prove that our new approach via extremal functions is always more efficient, and provide closed-form expressions for their implementation that cover most popular models for max-stable processes and multivariate extreme value distributions. For simulation on dense grids, an adaptive design of the extremal function algorithm is proposed.

  11. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    Numerical integration of Maxwell's equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit finite difference

  12. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell''s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction

  13. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell’s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit –

  14. Method of producing thermally stable uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, M.; Takahashi, I.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally stable uranium carbonitride can be produced by adding tungsten and/or molybdenum in the amount of 0.2 wt percent or more, preferably 0.5 wt percent or more, to a pure uranium carbonitride. (U.S.)

  15. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  16. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...

  17. Formal derivation of a stable marriage algorithm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the well-known Stable Marriage Problem is considered once again. The name of this programming problem comes from the terms in which it was first described [2]: A certain community consists of n men and n women. Each person ranks those of the opposite sex in accordance with his or

  18. The Nature of Stable Insomnia Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Urban, community-based. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the “neither criterion” phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. Conclusions: By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With

  19. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  20. Antianginal Therapy for Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: A Contemporary Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padala, Santosh K; Lavelle, Michael P; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Cabral, Katherine P; Morrone, Doralisa; Boden, William E; Toth, Peter P

    2017-11-01

    Chronic angina pectoris is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially if treated suboptimally. For many patients, aggressive pharmacologic intervention is necessary in order to alleviate anginal symptoms. The optimal treatment of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) should be the prevention of angina and ischemia, with the goal of maximizing both quality and quantity of life. In addition to effective risk factor modification with lifestyle changes, intensive pharmacologic secondary prevention is the therapeutic cornerstone in managing patients with SIHD. Current guidelines recommend a multifaceted therapeutic approach with β-blockers as first-line treatment. Another important pharmacologic intervention for managing SIHD is nitrates. Nitrates can provide both relief of acute angina and can be used prophylactically before exposure to known triggers of myocardial ischemia to prevent angina. Additional therapeutic options include calcium channel blockers and ranolazine, an inhibitor of the late inward sodium current, that can be used alone or in addition to nitrates or β-blockers when these agents fail to alleviate symptoms. Ranolazine appears to be particularly effective for patients with microvascular angina and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, certain antianginal therapies are approved in Europe and have been shown to improve symptoms, including ivabradine, nicorandil, and trimetazidine; however, these have yet to be approved in the United States. Ultimately, there are several different medications available to the physician for managing the patient with SIHD having chronic angina, when either used alone or in combination. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most important therapeutic approaches to optimizing contemporary treatment in response to individual patient needs.

  1. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder; chronic versus non-chronic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.A.; van Oppen, P.C.; van Megen, H.J.; Eikelenboom, M.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding chronicity in OCD is hampered by contradictory findings arising from dissimilar definitions of chronic OCD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of chronicity in OCD and to examine if chronic OCD is critically different from non-chronic OCD, using a

  3. Fundamentals of the LISA stable flight formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhurandhar, S V; Nayak, K Rajesh; Koshti, S; Vinet, J-Y

    2005-01-01

    The joint NASA-ESA mission, LISA, relies crucially on the stability of the three-spacecraft constellation. Each of the spacecraft is in heliocentric orbit forming a stable triangle. In this paper we explicitly show with the help of the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations that any configuration of spacecraft lying in the planes making angles of ±60 0 with the ecliptic and given suitable initial velocities within the plane, can be made stable in the sense that the inter-spacecraft distances remain constant to first order in the dimensions of the configuration compared with the distance to the Sun. Such analysis would be useful in order to carry out theoretical studies on the optical links, simulators, etc

  4. A model for a stable coronal loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, G.V.; Chiuderi, C.; Giachetti, R.

    1977-01-01

    We present here a new plasma-physics model of a stable active-region arch which corresponds to the structure observed in the EUV. Pressure gradients are seen, so that the equilibrium magnetic field must depart from the force-free form valid in the surrounding corona. We take advantage of the data and of the approximate cylindrical symmetry to develop a modified form of the commonly assumed sheared-spiral structure. The dynamic MHD behavior of this new pressure/field model is then evaluated by the Newcomb criterion, taken from controlled-fusion physics, and the results show short-wavelength stability in a specific parameter range. Thus we demonstrate the possibility, for pressure profiles with widths of the order of the magnetic-field scale, that such arches can persist for reasonable periods. Finally, the spatial proportions and magnetic fields of a characteristic stable coronal loop are described

  5. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  6. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  7. Stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Narra; Srinivas, Kota; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation we report stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L., a versatile medicinal herb via particle gun method. The vector KNTc, harbouring aadA as a selectable marker and egfp as a reporter gene which were under the control of synthetic promoter pNG1014a, targets inverted repeats, trnR / t rnN of the plastid genome. By use of this heterologous vector, recovery of transplastomic lines with suitable selection protocol have been successfully established with overall efficiency of two transgenic lines for 25 bombarded leaf explants. PCR and Southern blot analysis demonstrated stable integration of foreign gene into the target sequences. The results represent a significant advancement of the plastid transformation technology in medicinal plants, which relevantly implements a change over in enhancing and regulating of certain metabolic pathways.

  8. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  9. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  10. Formation of stable radicals during perfluoroalkane radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Demidov, S.V.; Kiryukhin, D.P.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Barkalov, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Accumulation and stabilization kinetics of perfluoroalkyls during α-radiolysis ( 60 Co) of perfluoralkanes (PFA) in a wide temperature range for different PFA fractions differing in the average molecular weight, is investigated. It is noted that low temperature (PFA) radiolysis (77 K) is of a linear nature of accumulation of stabilized radicals up to doses of approximately 700 KGy. In the case of PFA radiolysis at 300 K radiation yields of stable radicals are somewhat lower than at 47 K and at doses of 200-300 KGy, their accumulation ceases. It is shown that kinetics of formation and accumulation of stable radicals does not depend on molecular mass and PFA fraction viscosity. Perfluoroalkyl stability is explained by intra molecular conformation spheric insulation of the free valency. Perfluoroalkyl stability in different PFA fractions in a wide time range in different media is investigated

  11. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  12. Optimization of Parameters of Asymptotically Stable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Guerman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical methods of parameter optimization for asymptotically stable systems. We formulate a special mathematical programming problem that allows us to determine optimal parameters of a stabilizer. This problem involves solutions to a differential equation. We show how to chose the mesh in order to obtain discrete problem guaranteeing the necessary accuracy. The developed methodology is illustrated by an example concerning optimization of parameters for a satellite stabilization system.

  13. Multi-Stable Morphing Cellular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    stiffness on critical buckling load and arch stres - ses. It should be noted that although the arches in these studies snapped-through, they did not...switch roles in moving the VMT back from the second to the first stable equilibrium state. A prototype is designed and fabricated and the transition...pulling forward on the insert on the right blade and assisting its deployment. During this process the cable 3-4-1 goes slack and plays no role , but if

  14. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  15. Strongly stable real infinitesimally symplectic mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.; Kelley, A.

    We prove that a mapA εsp(σ,R), the set of infinitesimally symplectic maps, is strongly stable if and only if its centralizerC(A) insp(σ,R) contains only semisimple elements. Using the theorem that everyB insp(σ,R) close toA is conjugate by a real symplectic map to an element ofC(A), we give a new

  16. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  17. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  18. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  19. C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Among Crop and Dairy Farmers with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Stoleski

    2017-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Data obtained suggest that systemic inflammation is present in farmers with COPD and CRP is an important biomarker in COPD in means of reflecting disease severity and prognosis of exposed farmers.

  20. Stable isotope sup 15 N-urea and clinical research in nephrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Nobuhiro; Arai, Junko; Akimoto, Mitsuko; Miwa, Toichiro; Takuma, Takehide (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Stable isotope {sup 15}N-compound, {sup 15}N-urea, is useful marker to investigate nitrogen metabolism in clinical nephrology, particularly in chronic renal failure or dialysis. {sup 15}N-urea incorporation into plasma albumin in addition to plasma {sup 15}N disappearance was studied in 6 patients with endstage chronic renal failure. As a result, only minor fraction of administered {sup 15}N-urea was incorporated into albumin in this study. In addition, it was also confirmed that high energy diet may promote protein synthesis through {sup 15}N incorporation to plasma amino acids, such as alanine, in these patients with low protein meal. Therefore, administration of {sup 15}N-compound to human subjects may contribute to provide us the important informations on nitrogen metabolism. For instance, urea kinetics are described in the endstage chronic renal failure in this review. However, less expensive {sup 15}N-compounds should be provided and more simple but accurate measurement of {sup 15}N activity should be developed for the further clinical application of the stable isotope. (author).

  1. Stable isotope 15N-urea and clinical research in nephrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Nobuhiro; Arai, Junko; Akimoto, Mitsuko; Miwa, Toichiro; Takuma, Takehide

    1990-01-01

    Stable isotope 15 N-compound, 15 N-urea, is useful marker to investigate nitrogen metabolism in clinical nephrology, particularly in chronic renal failure or dialysis. 15 N-urea incorporation into plasma albumin in addition to plasma 15 N disappearance was studied in 6 patients with endstage chronic renal failure. As a result, only minor fraction of administered 15 N-urea was incorporated into albumin in this study. In addition, it was also confirmed that high energy diet may promote protein synthesis through 15 N incorporation to plasma amino acids, such as alanine, in these patients with low protein meal. Therefore, administration of 15 N-compound to human subjects may contribute to provide us the important informations on nitrogen metabolism. For instance, urea kinetics are described in the endstage chronic renal failure in this review. However, less expensive 15 N-compounds should be provided and more simple but accurate measurement of 15 N activity should be developed for the further clinical application of the stable isotope. (author)

  2. Chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon L

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Battling Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Kim

    2016-01-01

    While the principal of a New York elementary school (P.S. 48) took on chronic absenteeism from 2011 to 2013, a research team at the Center for New York City Affairs followed her efforts. The school drove down chronic absenteeism almost 10 percentage points. School staff routinely touched base with students, outside "success mentors"…

  4. Testing for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, M

    Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis. Investigations to achieve a diagnosis for chronic diarrhea range from screening blood and stool tests to more directed testing such as diagnostic imaging, and endoscopic and histological evaluation. The pathophysiology-based framework proposed in this chapter will allow the clinician to select screening tests followed by targeted tests to minimize cost and complications to the patient, while providing a highly effective method to achieve an accurate diagnosis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  7. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  8. The observation of a stable dibaryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhbazyan, B.A.; Sashin, V.A.; Kecheryan, A.O.; Martynov, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    V 0 -particle which is unambiguously interpreted as a weak decay of the stable dibaryon value of cross section H→p+Σ - ,Σ→n+π - is observed. Its mass is M H =(2218+-12) MeV c 2 with a standard deviation S=12 MeV/c 2 and the error of the mean σ=2.8 MeV/c 2 . The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High energies, JINR. 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  9. Protein labelling with stable isotopes: strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirsac, P.N.; Gilles, N.; Jamin, N.; Toma, F.; Gabrielsen, O.; Boulain, J.C.; Menez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A protein labelling technique with stable isotopes has been developed at the CEA: a labelled complete medium has been developed, performing as well as the Luria medium, but differing from it because it contains not only free aminated acids and peptides, but also sugars (96% of D-glucopyrannose) and labelled nucleosides. These precursors are produced from a labelled photosynthetic micro-organisms biomass, obtained with micro-algae having incorporated carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and deuterium during their culture. Labelling costs are reduced. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  10. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Ac; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary.

  11. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, Arthur; Burch, Micah; Krause, John R

    2018-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a sustained peripheral blood neutrophilia, absence of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein, bone marrow hypercellularity with less than 5% myeloblasts and normal neutrophil maturation, and no dysplasia. This leukemia has been associated with mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) that may activate this receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are the hallmark of chronic neutrophilic leukemia. We present a case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia and discuss the criteria for diagnosis and the significance of mutations found in this leukemia.

  12. Remarks on stable and quasi-stable k-strings at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armoni, A.; Shifman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss k-strings in the large-N Yang-Mills theory and its supersymmetric extension. Whereas the tension of the bona fide (stable) QCD string is expected to depend only on the N-ality of the representation, tensions that depend on specific representation R are often reported in the lattice literature. In particular, adjoint strings are discussed and found in certain simulations. We clarify this issue by systematically exploiting the notion of the quasi-stable strings which becomes well-defined at large N. The quasi-stable strings with representation-dependent tensions decay, but the decay rate (per unit length per unit time) is suppressed as Λ 2 F(N) where F(N) falls off as a function of N. It can be determined on the case-by-case basis. The quasi-stable strings eventually decay into stable strings whose tension indeed depends only on the N-ality. We also briefly review large-N arguments showing why the Casimir formula for the string tension cannot be correct, and present additional arguments in favor of the sine formula. Finally, we comment on the relevance of our estimates to Euclidean lattice measurements

  13. Analysis of electrocardiogram in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, Biljana; Svenda, Mirjana Zlatković; Mazić, Sanja; Stajić, Zoran; Delić, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is defined as a persistent airflow limitation usually progressive and not fully reversible to treatment. The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severity of disease is confirmed by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease produces electrical changes in the heart which shows characteristic electrocardiogram pattern. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate diagnostic values of electrocardiogram changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with no other comorbidity. We analyzed 110 electrocardiogram findings in clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the forced expiratory volume in the first second, ratio of forces expiratory volume in the first second to the fixed vital capacity, chest radiographs and electrocardiogram changes such as p wave height, QRS axis and voltage, right bundle branch block, left bundle branch block, right ventricular hypertrophy, T wave inversion in leads V1-V3, S1S2S3 syndrome, transition zone in praecordial lead and QT interval. We found electrocardiogram changes in 64% patients, while 36% had normal electrocardiogram. The most frequent electrocardiogram changes observed were transition zone (76.36%) low QRS (50%) and p pulmonale (14.54%). Left axis deviation was observed in 27.27% patients. Diagnostic values of electrocardiogram in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients should be screened electrocardiographically in addition to other clinical investigations.

  14. Stable isotope measurements of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.C.; Ferretti, D.F.; Vaughn, B.H.; Francey, R.J.; Allison, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide, δ 13 CO 2 are useful for partitioning surface-atmospheric fluxes into terrestrial and oceanic components. δC 18 OO also has potential for segregating photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we describe in detail the techniques for making these measurements. The primary challenge for all of the techniques used to measure isotopes of atmospheric CO 2 is to achieve acceptable accuracy and precision and to maintain them over the decades needed to observe carbon cycle variability. The keys to success such an approach are diligent intercalibrations of laboratories from around the world, as well as the use of multiple techniques such as dual inlet and GC-IRMS and the intercomparison of such measurements. We focus here on two laboratories, the Stable Isotope Lab at the Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado is described and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Atmospheric Research (CSIRO). Different approaches exist at other laboratories (e.g. programs operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and The Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Toboku University (TU)) however these are not discussed here. Finally, we also discuss the recently developed Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS) technique which holds significant promise for measuring ultra-small samples of gas with good precision. (author)

  15. Stable statistical representations facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennifer E; Melcher, David

    2014-10-01

    Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a tilted target. In "stable" blocks, the mean and/or local sizes of the Gabors were constant over successive displays, whereas in "unstable" baseline blocks they changed from trial to trial. Although there was no relationship between the context and the spatial location of the target, observers found targets faster (as indexed by faster correct responses and fewer saccades) as the global mean size became stable over several displays. Building statistical stability also facilitated scanning the scene, as measured by larger saccadic amplitudes, faster saccadic reaction times, and shorter fixation durations. These findings suggest a central role for peripheral visual information, creating context to free resources for detailed processing of salient targets and maintaining the illusion of visual stability.

  16. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  17. Protein-based stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehmlich, Nico; Schmidt, Frank; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; Bastida, Felipe; von Bergen, Martin; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Vogt, Carsten

    2010-12-01

    We describe a stable isotope probing (SIP) technique that was developed to link microbe-specific metabolic function to phylogenetic information. Carbon ((13)C)- or nitrogen ((15)N)-labeled substrates (typically with >98% heavy label) were used in cultivation experiments and the heavy isotope incorporation into proteins (protein-SIP) on growth was determined. The amount of incorporation provides a measure for assimilation of a substrate, and the sequence information from peptide analysis obtained by mass spectrometry delivers phylogenetic information about the microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of the particular substrate. In this article, we provide guidelines for incubating microbial cultures with labeled substrates and a protocol for protein-SIP. The protocol guides readers through the proteomics pipeline, including protein extraction, gel-free and gel-based protein separation, the subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and the calculation of the incorporation of stable isotopes into peptides. Extraction of proteins and the mass fingerprint measurements of unlabeled and labeled fractions can be performed in 2-3 d.

  18. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-06

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  19. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  20. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  1. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine. What causes CKD? The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure , which are responsible for up to ...

  2. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007422.htm Low back pain - chronic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your ...

  3. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  4. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with Disabilities Share Ending Chronic Homelessness Among People with Disabilities Last updated on May 31, 2018 We can end homelessness for people with disabilities in our communities who experience recurring ...

  5. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enjoying the present instead of worrying about the future. Focus on the small things that bring you ... E. The chronic leukemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  7. CHRONIC UNEXPLAINED OROFACIAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Vesnaver

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic unexplained orofacial pain is frequently the cause of prolonged suffering for the patient and an unsolvable problem for the therapist. Pathophysiology of the onset of this type of pain is virtually unknown. Still, it is possible to divide chronic orofacial pain into several separate categories, according to its onset, symptoms and therapy. All forms of this type of pain have a strong psychological component.Methods. A retrograde review was conducted, in which patients’ records, treated in 1994 for chronic unexplained orofacial pain, were followed through a 5 year period. The modalities of treatment then and at present were compared.Conclusions. Except for trigeminal neuralgia, where carbamazepine remains the first choice drug, treatment of chronic facial pain has changed considerably.

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  9. Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Gérard; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired polyneuropathy presumably of immunological origin. It is characterized by a progressive or a relapsing course with predominant motor deficit. The diagnosis rests on the association of non-length-dependent predominantly motor...

  10. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/ by guest on June 19, 2018 Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy Ellen W. Seely, MD; Cynthia Maxwell, ... M any women have been diag- nosed with hypertension (blood pressure Ͼ 140/ 90 mm Hg) when ...

  11. Wall-crossing between stable and co-stable ADHM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Ryo

    2018-06-01

    We prove formula between Nekrasov partition functions defined from stable and co-stable ADHM data for the plane following method by Nakajima and Yoshioka (Kyoto J Math 51(2):263-335, 2011) based on the theory of wall-crossing formula developed by Mochizuki (Donaldson type invariants for algebraic surfaces: transition of moduli stacks, Lecture notes in mathematics, vol 1972, Springer, Berlin, 2009). This formula is similar to conjectures by Ito et al. [J High Energy Phys 2013(5):045, 2013, (4.1), (4.2)] for A1 singularity.

  12. Chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Ingrid; Easton, Kellie

    2017-01-01

    1. The common symptoms and signs of chronic heart failure are dyspnoea, ankle swelling, raised jugular venous pressure and basal crepitations. Other conditions may be confused with chronic heart failure, including dependent oedema or oedema due to renal or hepatic disease. Shortness of breath may be due to respiratory disease or severe anaemia. Heart failure secondary to lung disease (cor pulmonale) should be distinguished from congestive cardiac failure. Heart failure may also present with l...

  13. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  14. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  15. Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang; Genton, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max

  16. Chance and stability stable distributions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    1999-01-01

    An introduction to the theory of stable distributions and their applications. It contains a modern outlook on the mathematical aspects of the theory. The authors explain numerous peculiarities of stable distributions and describe the principle concept of probability theory and function analysis. A significant part of the book is devoted to applications of stable distributions. Another notable feature is the material on the interconnection of stable laws with fractals, chaos and anomalous transport processes.

  17. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  18. The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review

  19. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M; Iglesias, J; Casas, J; Saviron, J M; Quintanilla, M

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Multivariate max-stable spatial processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.; Padoan, S. A.; Sang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.

  1. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea, s/n, Boa Viagem 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Miguelote, A Y; Chan, R [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santos, N O, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: yasuda@on.br, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: N.O.Santos@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [LERMA/CNRS-FRE 2460, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  2. Use of stable isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research is considered to be one of the most important steps to achieve sustainable agriculture development. This paper is focused on the role of stable isotopes and their applications in agriculture for plant and animal production, and to study the relationship between soil, plant, air, water, nutrients and agricultural pests. Symbiotic N 2 fixation and efficient use of chemical and organic N fertilizers using 15 N were reported. Factors affecting 13 C values and application of carbon isotope discrimination to physiological and eco-physiological studies and selection of genotypes with improved water-use efficiency and drought tolerance and the recent progress in this field are reviewed. Moreover, the use of carbon isotope compositions in monitoring environmental changes and its various applications in food technology, animal production and entomology are discussed. (author)

  3. Multivariate max-stable spatial processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-02-11

    Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.

  4. Perceptually stable regions for arbitrary polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J

    2003-01-01

    Zou and Yan have recently developed a skeletonization algorithm of digital shapes based on a regularity/singularity analysis; they use the polygon whose vertices are the boundary pixels of the image to compute a constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) in order to find local symmetries and stable regions. Their method has produced good results but it is slow since its complexity depends on the number of contour pixels. This paper presents an extension of their technique to handle arbitrary polygons, not only polygons of short edges. Consequently, not only can we achieve results as good as theirs for digital images, but we can also compute skeletons of polygons of any number of edges. Since we can handle polygonal approximations of figures, the skeletons are more resilient to noise and faster to process.

  5. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  6. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  8. Stable carbides in transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrkowski, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work different techniques were employed for the identification of stable carbides in two sets of transition metal alloys of wide technological application: a set of three high alloy M2 type steels in which W and/or Mo were total or partially replaced by Nb, and a Zr-2.5 Nb alloy. The M2 steel is a high speed steel worldwide used and the Zr-2.5 Nb alloy is the base material for the pressure tubes in the CANDU type nuclear reactors. The stability of carbide was studied in the frame of Goldschmidt's theory of interstitial alloys. The identification of stable carbides in steels was performed by determining their metallic composition with an energy analyzer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). By these means typical carbides of the M2 steel, MC and M 6 C, were found. Moreover, the spatial and size distribution of carbide particles were determined after different heat treatments, and both microstructure and microhardness were correlated with the appearance of the secondary hardening phenomenon. In the Zr-Nb alloy a study of the α and β phases present after different heat treatments was performed with optical and SEM metallographic techniques, with the guide of Abriata and Bolcich phase diagram. The α-β interphase boundaries were characterized as short circuits for diffusion with radiotracer techniques and applying Fisher-Bondy-Martin model. The precipitation of carbides was promoted by heat treatments that produced first the C diffusion into the samples at high temperatures (β phase), and then the precipitation of carbide particles at lower temperature (α phase or (α+β)) two phase field. The precipitated carbides were identified as (Zr, Nb)C 1-x with SEM, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques. (Author) [es

  9. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  10. A Note on Interpolation of Stable Processes | Nassiuma | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation procedures tailored for gaussian processes may not be applied to infinite variance stable processes. Alternative techniques suitable for a limited set of stable case with index α∈(1,2] were initially studied by Pourahmadi (1984) for harmonizable processes. This was later extended to the ARMA stable process ...

  11. Stable cycling in discrete-time genetic models.

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, A

    1981-01-01

    Examples of stable cycling are discussed for two-locus, two-allele, deterministic, discrete-time models with constant fitnesses. The cases that cycle were found by using numerical techniques to search for stable Hopf bifurcations. One consequence of the results is that apparent cases of directional selection may be due to stable cycling.

  12. Stable cycling in discrete-time genetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, A

    1981-11-01

    Examples of stable cycling are discussed for two-locus, two-allele, deterministic, discrete-time models with constant fitnesses. The cases that cycle were found by using numerical techniques to search for stable Hopf bifurcations. One consequence of the results is that apparent cases of directional selection may be due to stable cycling.

  13. Malaria infection during pregnancy in area of stable transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria infection during pregnancy in area of stable transmission. ... (LBW), a leading cause of neonatal death in areas of stable malaria transmission. ... areas of stable malaria transmission and the effective strategies for prevention and control. Keywords: malaria, pregnancy, semi-immune women, anaemia, low birthweight

  14. Acute kidney injury in stable COPD and at exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat MF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MF Barakat,1 HI McDonald,1 TJ Collier,1 L Smeeth,1 D Nitsch,1 JK Quint1,2 1Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: While acute kidney injury (AKI alone is associated with increased mortality, the incidence of hospital admission with AKI among stable and exacerbating COPD patients and the effect of concurrent AKI at COPD exacerbation on mortality is not known.Methods: A total of 189,561 individuals with COPD were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Using Poisson and logistic regressions, we explored which factors predicted admission for AKI (identified in Hospital Episode Statistics in this COPD cohort and concomitant AKI at a hospitalization for COPD exacerbation. Using survival analysis, we investigated the effect of concurrent AKI at exacerbation on mortality (n=36,107 and identified confounding factors.Results: The incidence of AKI in the total COPD cohort was 128/100,000 person-years. The prevalence of concomitant AKI at exacerbation was 1.9%, and the mortality rate in patients with AKI at exacerbation was 521/1,000 person-years. Male sex, older age, and lower glomerular filtration rate predicted higher risk of AKI or death. There was a 1.80 fold (95% confidence interval: 1.61, 2.03 increase in adjusted mortality within the first 6 months post COPD exacerbation in patients suffering from AKI and COPD exacerbation compared to those who were AKI free.Conclusion: In comparison to previous studies on general populations and hospitalizations, the incidence and prevalence of AKI is relatively high in COPD patients. Coexisting AKI at exacerbation is prognostic of poor outcome. Keywords: acute renal failure, mortality, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, prognosis

  15. Finasteride for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Meleth, Annal D; Cukras, Catherine; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T; Meyerle, Catherine B

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of finasteride, an inhibitor of dihydrotestosterone synthesis, in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Five patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were prospectively enrolled in this pilot study. Patients were administered finasteride (5 mg) daily for 3 months, after which study medication was withheld and patients were observed for 3 months. Main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity, central subfield macular thickness, and subretinal fluid volume as assessed by optical coherence tomography. Serum dihydrotestosterone, serum testosterone, and urinary cortisol were also measured. There was no change in mean best-corrected visual acuity. Mean center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume reached a nadir at 3 months and rose to levels that were below baseline by 6 months. The changes in both optical coherence tomography parameters paralleled those in serum dihydrotestosterone level. In four patients, center-subfield macular thickness and/or subretinal fluid volume increased after discontinuation of finasteride. In the remaining patient, both optical coherence tomography parameters normalized with finasteride and remained stable when the study medication was discontinued. Finasteride may represent a novel medical treatment for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Larger controlled clinical trials are needed to further assess the efficacy of finasteride for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy.

  16. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2, the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

  17. Bisoprolol in the treatment of chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal de Groote; Pierre-Vladimir Ennezat; Fréderic Mouquet

    2007-01-01

    Pascal de Groote1, Pierre-Vladimir Ennezat2, Fréderic Mouquet11Service de Cardiologie C, 2Service des soins intensifs cardiologiques, Hôpital Cardiologique, Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Lille, FranceAbstract: Bisoprolol fumarate is a highly selective beta-1 receptor blocker. Bisoprolol has been extensively studied in three large mortality trials in stable chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. The CIBIS trial enrolled 641 patients and demonstrated the goo...

  18. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain DK1-NH57388A, a Stable Mucoid Cystic Fibrosis Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Ciofu, Oana; Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with chronic pulmonary infections and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of stable mucoid P. aeruginosa strain DK1-NH57388A, a CF isolate which has previously been used ...

  19. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  20. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  1. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Lena; Riihimäki, Miia; Pringle, John; Wålinder, Robert

    2009-05-25

    Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13) in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-beta-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1

  2. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  3. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  4. A nomogram for predicting complications in patients with solid tumours and seemingly stable febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Paula Jiménez; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; García, Ignacio Matos; Marcos, Rosana; Castañón, Eduardo; Antonio, Maite; Font, Carme; Biosca, Mercè; Blasco, Ana; Lozano, Rebeca; Ramchandani, Avinash; Beato, Carmen; de Castro, Eva Martínez; Espinosa, Javier; Martínez-García, Jerónimo; Ghanem, Ismael; Cubero, Jorge Hernando; Manrique, Isabel Aragón; Navalón, Francisco García; Sevillano, Elena; Manzano, Aránzazu; Virizuela, Juan; Garrido, Marcelo; Mondéjar, Rebeca; Arcusa, María Ángeles; Bonilla, Yaiza; Pérez, Quionia; Gallardo, Elena; Del Carmen Soriano, Maria; Cardona, Mercè; Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Cruz, Juan Jesús; Ayala, Francisco

    2016-05-24

    We sought to develop and externally validate a nomogram and web-based calculator to individually predict the development of serious complications in seemingly stable adult patients with solid tumours and episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN). The data from the FINITE study (n=1133) and University of Salamanca Hospital (USH) FN registry (n=296) were used to develop and validate this tool. The main eligibility criterion was the presence of apparent clinical stability, defined as events without acute organ dysfunction, abnormal vital signs, or major infections. Discriminatory ability was measured as the concordance index and stratification into risk groups. The rate of infection-related complications in the FINITE and USH series was 13.4% and 18.6%, respectively. The nomogram used the following covariates: Eastern Cooperative Group (ECOG) Performance Status ⩾2, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic cardiovascular disease, mucositis of grade ⩾2 (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria), monocytes 0.1). The concordance index was 0.855 and 0.831 in each series. Risk group stratification revealed a significant distinction in the proportion of complications. With a ⩾116-point cutoff, the nomogram yielded the following prognostic indices in the USH registry validation series: 66% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 3.88 positive likelihood ratio, 48% positive predictive value, and 91% negative predictive value. We have developed and externally validated a nomogram and web calculator to predict serious complications that can potentially impact decision-making in patients with seemingly stable FN.

  5. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Crystal engineering of stable temozolomide cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N Jagadeesh; Sanphui, Palash; Nangia, Ashwini

    2012-10-01

    The antitumor prodrug temozolomide (TMZ) decomposes in aqueous medium of pH≥7 but is relatively stable under acidic conditions. Pure TMZ is obtained as a white powder but turns pink and then brown, which is indicative of chemical degradation. Pharmaceutical cocrystals of TMZ were engineered with safe coformers such as oxalic acid, succinic acid, salicylic acid, d,l-malic acid, and d,l-tartaric acid, to stabilize the drug as a cocrystal. All cocrystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), single crystal X-ray diffraction, and FT-IR as well as FT-Raman spectroscopy. Temozolomide cocrystals with organic acids (pK(a) 2-6) were found to be more stable than the reference drug under physiological conditions. The half-life (T(1/2)) of TMZ-oxalic and TMZ-salicylic acid measured by UV/Vis spectroscopy in pH 7 buffer is two times longer than that of TMZ (3.5 h and 3.6 h vs. 1.7 h); TMZ-succinic acid, TMZ-tartaric acid, and TMZ-malic acid also exhibited a longer half-life (2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 h, respectively). Stability studies at 40 °C and 75 % relative humidity (ICH conditions) showed that hydrolytic degradation of temozolomide in the solid state started after one week, as determined by PXRD, whereas its cocrystals with succinic acid and oxalic acid were intact at 28 weeks, thus confirming the greater stability of cocrystals compared to the reference drug. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) profile of TMZ-oxalic acid and TMZ-succinic acid cocrystals in buffer of pH 7 is comparable to that of temozolomide. Among the temozolomide cocrystals examined, those with succinic acid and oxalic acid exhibited both an improved stability and a comparable dissolution rate to the reference drug. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Stable nuclear transformation of Eudorina elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Kai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental step in evolution was the transition from unicellular to differentiated, multicellular organisms. Volvocine algae have been used for several decades as a model lineage to investigate the evolutionary aspects of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. There are two well-studied volvocine species, a unicellular alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a multicellular alga with differentiated cell types (Volvox carteri. Species with intermediate characteristics also exist, which blur the boundaries between unicellularity and differentiated multicellularity. These species include the globular alga Eudorina elegans, which is composed of 16–32 cells. However, detailed molecular analyses of E. elegans require genetic manipulation. Unfortunately, genetic engineering has not yet been established for Eudorina, and only limited DNA and/or protein sequence information is available. Results Here, we describe the stable nuclear transformation of E. elegans by particle bombardment using both a chimeric selectable marker and reporter genes from different heterologous sources. Transgenic algae resistant to paromomycin were achieved using the aminoglycoside 3′-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII gene of Streptomyces rimosus, an actinobacterium, under the control of an artificial promoter consisting of two V. carteri promoters in tandem. Transformants exhibited an increase in resistance to paromomycin by up to 333-fold. Co-transformation with non-selectable plasmids was achieved with a rate of 50 - 100%. The luciferase (gluc gene from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps, which previously was engineered to match the codon usage of C. reinhardtii, was used as a reporter gene. The expression of gluc was mediated by promoters from C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Heterologous heat shock promoters induced an increase in luciferase activity (up to 600-fold at elevated temperatures. Long-term stability and both constitutive and

  8. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...... urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab...... with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines....

  10. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  11. Chronic periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines, and interrelationship with other chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Elsa Maria; Reis, Cátia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, share common inflammatory risk factors with other systemic and chronic inflammatory disorders. Mucosal tissues, such as oral epithelia, are exposed to environmental stressors, such as tobacco and oral bacteria, that might be involved in promoting a systemic inflammatory state. Conversely, chronic disorders can also affect oral health. This review will summarize recent evidence for the interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and other prevalent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. The association with pregnancy is also included due to possible obstetric complications. We will focus on inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, because they have been shown to be increased in patients with chronic periodontitis, in patients with chronic systemic diseases, and in patients with both chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Therefore, an imbalance towards a proinflammatory immune response could underline a bidirectional link between chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Finally, we highlight that a close coordination between dental and other health professionals could promote oral health and prevent or ameliorate other chronic diseases.

  12. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  13. Microsatellites grant more stable flanking genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joukhadar Reem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, are DNA sequences that include tandem copies of specific sequences no longer than six bases. SSRs are ubiquitous in all genomes and highly mutable. Presentation of the hypothesis Results from previous studies suggest that flanking regions of SSR are exhibit high stability in a wide range of organisms. We hypothesized that the SSRs ability to discard weak DNA polymerases could be responsible for this unusual stability. . When the weak polymerases are being decayed over SSRs, the flanking sequences would have higher opportunity to be replicated by more stable DNA polymerases. We present evidence of the molecular basis of our hypothesis. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis could be tested by examining the activity of DNA polymerase during and after a number of PCRs. The PCR reactions should be run with the same SSR locus possessing differences in the SSR length. The hypothesis could also be tested by comparing the mutational rate of a transferred gene between two transformations. The first one has a naked T-DNA (transferred DNA, while the second one has the same T-DNA flanked with two SSRs. Implications of the hypothesis In any transformation experiment, flanking the T-DNA fragment with SSR sequences would result in more stably transferred genes. This process would decrease the unpredictable risks that may occur because of the mutational pressure on this foreign segment.

  14. LHC Report: Towards stable beams and collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, the LHC re-commissioning with beam has continued at a brisk pace. The first collisions of 2011 were produced on 2 March, with stable beams and collisions for physics planned for the coming days. Low intensity beams with just a few bunches of particles were used to test the energy ramp to 3.5 TeV and the squeeze. The results were successful and, as a by-product, the first collisions of 2011 were recorded 2 March. One of the main activities carried out by the operation teams has been the careful set-up of the collimation system, and the injection and beam dump protection devices. The collimation system provides essential beam cleaning, preventing stray particles from impacting other elements of the machine, particularly the superconducting magnets. In addition to the collimation system, also the injection and beam dump protection devices perform a vital machine protection role, as they detect any beam that might be mis-directed during rare, but not totally unavoidable, hardware hiccups...

  15. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs.

  16. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  17. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Geochemistry of the stable isotopes of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douthitt, C B [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1982-08-01

    One hundred thirty two new measurements of the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of silicon in terrestrial materials are presented. The total variation of delta/sup 30/Si found is 6.2 parts per thousand, centered on the mean of terrestrial mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, delta/sup 30/Si = -0.4 parts per thousand. Igneous rocks show limited variation; coexisting minerals exhibit small, systematic silicon isotopic fractionations that are roughly 1/3 the magnitude of concomitant oxygen isotopic fractionations at 1150/sup 0/C. In both igneous minerals and rocks, delta/sup 30/Si shows a positive correlation with silicon content, as does delta/sup 18/O. Opal from both sponge spicules and sinters is light, with delta/sup 30/Si = -2.3 and -1.4 parts per thousand respectively. Large delta/sup 30/Si values of both positive and negative sign are reported for the first time from clay minerals, opaline phytoliths, and authigenic quartz. All highly fractionated samples were precipitated from solution at low temperatures; however, aqueous silicon is not measurably fractionated relative to quartz at equilibrium. A kinetic isotope fractionation of approximately 3.5 parts per thousand is postulated to occur during the low temperature precipitation of opal and, possibly, poorly ordered phyllosilicates, with the silicate phase being enriched in /sup 28/Si. This fractionation, coupled with a Rayleigh precipitation model, is capable of explaining most non-magmatic delta/sup 30/Si variations.

  19. Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrorsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Berk, H. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W.; Simonen, T. C.

    2011-09-01

    Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.

  20. Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Berk, H. L. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Simonen, T. C. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.

  1. Introducing Stable Radicals into Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2017-09-27

    Ever since their discovery, stable organic radicals have received considerable attention from chemists because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Currently, one of the most appealing challenges for the chemical community is to develop sophisticated artificial molecular machines that can do work by consuming external energy, after the manner of motor proteins. In this context, radical-pairing interactions are important in addressing the challenge: they not only provide supramolecular assistance in the synthesis of molecular machines but also open the door to developing multifunctional systems relying on the various properties of the radical species. In this Outlook, by taking the radical cationic state of 1,1'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY •+ ) as an example, we highlight our research on the art and science of introducing radical-pairing interactions into functional systems, from prototypical molecular switches to complex molecular machines, followed by a discussion of the (i) limitations of the current systems and (ii) future research directions for designing BIPY •+ -based molecular machines with useful functions.

  2. STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij K. Vasil’chuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.

  3. Stable Isotope Group 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    The work of the group in 1984 is described and includes studies in isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation. Geothermal studies have decreased compared to other years, but major data summaries were made for Wairakei and Ngawha. The hydrology of Whakarewarewa and Rotorua is being elucidated using water isotopes. Models of the subsurface flows at Kawerau and Ngawha are being made to relate fluid to mineral isotope compositions. A study of the δ 13 C and δ 34 S compositions of New Zealand oils has been started. Groups of oils of related origin are being defined, and compositions will be compared with those of potential source rocks. A method was developed for isotope analysis of sulphur in rocks. The isotopic composition of water is being used to identify and characterise groundwater aquifers in the Wairarapa and at Poverty Bay. Stable carbon isotopes have been used to identify food sources for invertebrates, and to show biochemical pathways in lactation by cows. The geochronology group is involved in major studies in Antarctica, using U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Rocks from North Victoria Land, Marie Byrd Land and the USARP mountains are being compared with possible correlatives in New Zealand and Argentina. Strontium isotope data is being applied to the origin of magmas in several regions of New Zealand. The K-Ar data is being stored on computer files. Fission track measurements are being applied to unravel uplift histories in Westland and Taranaki

  4. ROBUST MPC FOR STABLE LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rodrigues

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new model predictive controller (MPC, which is robust for a class of model uncertainties, is developed. Systems with stable dynamics and time-invariant model uncertainty are treated. The development herein proposed is focused on real industrial systems where the controller is part of an on-line optimization scheme and works in the output-tracking mode. In addition, the system has a time-varying number of degrees of freedom since some of the manipulated inputs may become constrained. Moreover, the number of controlled outputs may also vary during system operation. Consequently, the actual system may show operating conditions with a number of controlled outputs larger than the number of available manipulated inputs. The proposed controller uses a state-space model, which is aimed at the representation of the output-predicted trajectory. Based on this model, a cost function is proposed whereby the output error is integrated along an infinite prediction horizon. It is considered the case of multiple operating points, where the controller stabilizes a set of models corresponding to different operating conditions for the system. It is shown that closed-loop stability is guaranteed by the feasibility of a linear matrix optimization problem.

  5. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Wang, Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie, Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu, Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-12-16

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 microM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  7. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Min; Wang Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl 4 in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 μM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  8. Stable boron nitride diamondoids as nanoscale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We predict the stability of diamondoids made up of boron and nitrogen instead of carbon atoms. The results are based on quantum-mechanical calculations within density functional theory (DFT) and show some very distinct features compared to the regular carbon-based diamondoids. These features are evaluated with respect to the energetics and electronic properties of the boron nitride diamondoids as compared to the respective properties of the carbon-based diamondoids. We find that BN-diamondoids are overall more stable than their respective C-diamondoid counterparts. The electronic band-gaps (E g ) of the former are overall lower than those for the latter nanostructures but do not show a very distinct trend with their size. Contrary to the lower C-diamondoids, the BN-diamondoids are semiconducting and show a depletion of charge on the nitrogen site. Their differences in the distribution of the molecular orbitals, compared to their carbon-based counterparts, offer additional bonding and functionalization possibilities. These tiny BN-based nanostructures could potentially be used as nanobuilding blocks complementing or substituting the C-diamondoids, based on the desired properties. An experimental realization of boron nitride diamondoids remains to show their feasibility. (paper)

  9. Predicting Chronic Climate-Driven Disturbances and Their Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Nate G.; Michaletz, Sean T.; Bennett, Katrina E.; Solander, Kurt C.; Xu, Chonggang; Maxwell, Reed M.; Middleton, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Society increasingly demands the stable provision of ecosystem resources to support our population. Resource risks from climate-driven disturbances--including drought, heat, insect outbreaks, and wildfire--are rising as a chronic state of disequilibrium results from increasing temperatures and a greater frequency of extreme events. This confluence of increased demand and risk may soon reach critical thresholds. We explain here why extreme chronic disequilibrium of ecosystem function is likely to increase dramatically across the globe, creating no-analog conditions that challenge adaptation. We also present novel mechanistic theory that combines models for disturbance mortality and metabolic scaling to link size-dependent plant mortality to changes in ecosystem stocks and fluxes. Efforts must anticipate and model chronic ecosystem disequilibrium to properly prepare for resilience planning.

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook ... Percent of visits to office-based physicians with COPD indicated on the medical record: 3.2% Source: ...

  11. Stable Control of Firing Rate Mean and Variance by Dual Homeostatic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan; Miller, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Homeostatic processes that provide negative feedback to regulate neuronal firing rates are essential for normal brain function. Indeed, multiple parameters of individual neurons, including the scale of afferent synapse strengths and the densities of specific ion channels, have been observed to change on homeostatic time scales to oppose the effects of chronic changes in synaptic input. This raises the question of whether these processes are controlled by a single slow feedback variable or multiple slow variables. A single homeostatic process providing negative feedback to a neuron's firing rate naturally maintains a stable homeostatic equilibrium with a characteristic mean firing rate; but the conditions under which multiple slow feedbacks produce a stable homeostatic equilibrium have not yet been explored. Here we study a highly general model of homeostatic firing rate control in which two slow variables provide negative feedback to drive a firing rate toward two different target rates. Using dynamical systems techniques, we show that such a control system can be used to stably maintain a neuron's characteristic firing rate mean and variance in the face of perturbations, and we derive conditions under which this happens. We also derive expressions that clarify the relationship between the homeostatic firing rate targets and the resulting stable firing rate mean and variance. We provide specific examples of neuronal systems that can be effectively regulated by dual homeostasis. One of these examples is a recurrent excitatory network, which a dual feedback system can robustly tune to serve as an integrator.

  12. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already...

  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Bleijenberg, G.

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been heated debate about chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) among researchers, practitioners, and patients. Few illnesses have been discussed so extensively. The existence of the disorder has been questioned, its underlying pathophysiology debated, and an effective

  14. Omalizumab for Chronic Urticaria:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazanfar, Misbah Nasheela; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The purpose of this study was to review real-life studies on effectiveness and safety of omalizumab in chronic urticaria (CU). Recent Findings CU is an itching skin disease characterized by wheals, angioedema, or both (present >6 weeks). Omalizumab is a humanized anti...

  15. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  16. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic urtic...... with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines.......Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...... urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab...

  17. Chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, the airways, the lymph nodes, the liver, the brain and the bones. Frequently found pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus species,

  18. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fatigue/Weakness: Reduce or eliminate physical exertion and workplace stress Schedule periodic rest breaks away from the workstation ... To Implement the Equal Employment Provisions of the Americans With Disabilities Act, as ... Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2011). NINDS chronic ...

  19. Chronic, unexplained pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic, unexplained pain (CUP) is a common clinical problem. The core symptom in this heterogeneous group of patients is pain for which no medical explanation is found. Patients also have many other characteristics (symptoms and psychosocial features) in common. Pathophysiologically, increased

  20. Diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) incorporates symptomatic and endo- scopic criteria in the clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), while in epidemiological studies the definition is based on symptoms only. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  1. Chronicity and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    over the years. It suggests a pragmatic analysis that places people's perceptions and practices within a field of possibilities shaped by policy, health care systems, and life conditions. In this field, the dimensions of chronicity and control are the distinctive analytical issues. They lead...

  2. Chronic toxicology of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review. There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist. Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

  3. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  4. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic-Posilovic, Gordana; Balenovic, Diana; Barisic, Ivan; Strinic, Dean; Stambolija, Vasilije; Udovicic, Mario; Uzun, Sandra; Drmic, Domagoj; Vlainic, Josipa; Bencic, Martina Lovric; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-12-15

    Bupivacaine toxicity following accidental overdose still lacks therapeutic solution. However, there are major arguments for testing BPC 157 against bupivacaine toxicity in vivo in rats, in particular, and then finally, in vitro. These are: the lack of any known BPC 157 toxicity, a lifesaving effect via the mitigation of arrhythmias in rats underwent hyperkalemia or digitalis toxicity, the elimination of hyperkalemia and arrhythmias in rats underwent succinylcholine toxicity and finally, the reduction of potassium-induced depolarization in vitro (in HEK293 cells) in severe hyperkalemia. Most importantly, BPC 157 successfully prevents and counteracts bupivacaine cardiotoxicity; BPC 157 is effective even against the worst outcomes such as a severely prolonged QRS complex. Here, rats injected with bupivacaine (100mg/kg IP) exhibited bradycardia, AV-block, ventricular ectopies, ventricular tachycardia, T-wave elevation and asystole. All of the fatalities had developed T-wave elevation, high-degree AV-block, respiratory arrest and asystole. These were largely counteracted by BPC 157 administration (50µg/kg, 10µg/kg, 10ng/kg, or 10pg/kg IP) given 30min before or 1min after the bupivacaine injection. When BPC 157 was given 6min after bupivacaine administration, and after the development of prolonged QRS intervals (20ms), the fatal outcome was markedly postponed. Additionally, the effect of bupivacaine on cell membrane depolarization was explored by measuring membrane voltages (Vm) in HEK293 cells. Bupivacaine (1mM) alone caused depolarization of the cells, while in combination with BPC 157 (1µm), the bupivacaine-induced depolarization was inhibited. Together, these findings suggest that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 should be a potential antidote for bupivacaine cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stable isotope separation by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Thermal diffusion in both gaseous and liquid phase has been subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention of K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty three years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important research and developments performed during the time at the National Institute for Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology (ITIM) at Cluj - Napoca, Romania in the field of separation of stable isotopes by thermal diffusion. An retrospective analysis of the research and results concerning isotope separation by thermal diffusion entails the following conclusions: - thermal diffusion is an adequate method for hydrogen isotope separation (deuterium and tritium) and for noble gas isotope separation (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe); - thermal diffusion is attractive also for 13 C enrichment using methane as raw material for separation, when annual yields of up to 100 g are envisaged; - lately, the thermal diffusion appears to be chosen as a final enrichment step for 17 O. An obvious advantage of this method is its non-specificity, i.e. the implied equipment can be utilized for isotope separation of other chemical elements too. Having in view the low investment costs for thermal diffusion cascades the method appears economically attractive for obtaining low-scale, laboratory isotope production. The paper has the following content: 1. The principle of method; 2. The method's application; 3. Research in the field of thermal diffusion at ITIM; 4. Thermal diffusion cascades for N, C, Ne, Ar and Kr isotope separation; 5. Conclusion

  6. Applications of stable isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren'kov, D.A.; Faust, Kh.

    1977-01-01

    The stable isotope 15 N has become widely used in agricultural studies. With it one can determine the true uptake of fertilizer and soil nitrogen by different crops as a function of their particular biological characteristics. Under field conditions, the extent of fertilizer nitrogen uptake by plants does not as a rule exceed 50%, being less for winter cereals and significantly more for perennial grasses. Applied fertilizer nitrogen, by intensifying the mobilization processes, increases the mobility of soil nitrogen. As a result, the accessibility of soil nitrogen to plants increases, and there is a greater chance of its being lost through washing-out. A considerable fraction of fertilizer nitrogen (on average 20-30%) becomes fixed in the soil in compounds which are not easily hydrolized and hence not readily available to plants. Nitrogen fixed in fulvic acids and non-specific compounds is the most mobile and can be used by plants. Fertilizer nitrogen in the soil undergoes various changes, as a result of which some is lost in the form of gaseous compounds. A certain amount of fertilizer nitrogen may become lost through washing-out. On the basis of 15 N investigations, it is possible to find ways of increasing the effectiveness of nitrogenous fertilizers and reducing nitrogen losses - for example, fertilizer application closer to the beginning of the period of active utilization of nutrients by plants, selection of more efficient fertilizer forms and the use of nitrification inhibitors. The wider employment of 15 N in agricultural studies should become possible through the use of cheaper compounds depleted or slightly enriched in 15 N. (author)

  7. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  9. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  10. Acute vs. chronic conditions (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack. A chronic condition, by contrast is a long- ... a broken bone, an acute condition. An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease ...

  11. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ...

  12. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  13. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  14. Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W David; Kurle, Carolyn M; Hopkins, John B

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, we provide a brief introduction and summarize the 10 research articles included in this Special Issue on Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology. The first three articles report correction and discrimination factors that can be used to more accurately estimate the diets of extinct and extant mammals using stable isotope analysis. The remaining seven applied research articles use stable isotope analysis to address a variety of wildlife conservation and management questions from the oceans to the mountains.

  15. Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2016-09-21

    We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max-stable process are demonstrated theoretically and numerically. Simulation studies and an application to Swiss rainfall data indicate the effectiveness of the proposed process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  17. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in ... as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney ...

  18. Vacuum therapy for chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Leonidovna Zaytseva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wound in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most urgent problems of modern diabetology and surgery. Numberof patients suffering from different types of chronic wounds follows increase in DM incidence. Vacuum therapy is a novel perspectivemethod of topical treatment for non-healing chronic wounds of various etiology. Current review addresses experimental and clinicalevidence for this method.

  19. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  20. Tellurium Stable Isotopes as a Paleoredox Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, N.; Johnson, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Despite arguments for variably-oxygenated shallow waters and anoxic deep marine waters, which delayed animal development until the Neoproterozoic Oxidation Event, the magnitude of atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic is still uncertain [1]. The evidence for low pO2 (<0.1-1% PAL) is based on geochemical and isotopic proxies, which track the mobilization of Fe and Mn on the continents. For example, large chromium isotope shifts occur at the Neoproterozoic Oxidation Event due to the initiation of Cr redox cycling, but this proxy is insensitive to fluctuations in the lower-pO2 conditions at other times during the Proterozoic. Tellurium, a metalloid with a lower threshold to oxidation, may be sensitive to pO2 shifts in a lower range. In the reduced forms, Te(-II) and Te(0), the element is insoluble and immobile. However, in the more oxidized phases, Te(IV) and Te(VI), Te can form soluble oxyanions (though it tends to adsorb to Fe-oxyhydroxides and clays) [2]. Te stable isotopes have been shown to fractionate during abiotic or biologic reduction of Te(VI) or Te(IV) to elemental Te(0) [3, 4]. Utilizing hydride generation MC-ICP-MS, we are able to obtain high precision (2σ 0.04‰) measurements of δ128Te/125Te for natural samples containing < 10 ng of Te. A suite of Phanerozoic and Proterozoic ironstones show significant variation in δ128Te/125Te (<0.5‰), suggesting that the Te redox cycle was active during the Proterozoic. Future directions will include Te isotope measurements of Precambrian paleosols to determine natural isotope variation before the Great Oxidation Event and experiments to determine fractionation during adsorption to Fe-oxyhydroxides. [1] Planavsky et al. (2014) Science 346 (6209), pp. 635-638 [2] Qin et al. (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51 (11), pp 6027-6035 [3] Baesman et al. (2007) Applied Environmental Microbiology 73 (7), pp 2135-2143 [4] Smithers and Krause (1968) Canadian Journal of Chemistry 46(4): pp 583-591

  1. Computerized respiratory sounds: a comparison between patients with stable and exacerbated COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Cristina; Oliveira, Ana; Marques, Alda

    2017-09-01

    Diagnosis of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is often challenging as it relies on patients' clinical presentation. Computerized respiratory sounds (CRS), namely crackles and wheezes, may have the potential to contribute for the objective diagnosis/monitoring of an AECOPD. This study explored if CRS differ during stable and exacerbation periods in patients with COPD. 13 patients with stable COPD and 14 with AECOPD were enrolled. CRS were recorded simultaneously at trachea, anterior, lateral and posterior chest locations using seven stethoscopes. Airflow (0.4-0.6l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals; crackles and wheezes with validated algorithms. At trachea, anterior and lateral chest, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the number of inspiratory/expiratory crackles or inspiratory wheeze occupation rate. At posterior chest, the number of crackles (median 2.97-3.17 vs. 0.83-1.2, P < 0.001) and wheeze occupation rate (median 3.28%-3.8% vs. 1.12%-1.77%, P = 0.014-0.016) during both inspiration and expiration were significantly higher in patients with AECOPD than in stable patients. During expiration, wheeze occupation rate was also significantly higher in patients with AECOPD at trachea (median 3.12% vs. 0.79%, P < 0.001) and anterior chest (median 3.55% vs. 1.28%, P < 0.001). Crackles and wheezes are more frequent in patients with AECOPD than in stable patients, particularly at posterior chest. These findings suggest that these CRS can contribute to the objective diagnosis/monitoring of AECOPD, which is especially valuable considering that they can be obtained by integrating computerized techniques with pulmonary auscultation, a noninvasive method that is a component of patients' physical examination. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. CYTOLOGY PULMONARY IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS MAINTAINED THE FIELD OR STABLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fortes Júnior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial secretion was collected by endoscopy (Welch-AllynÒ, 200cm long and 9mm diameter, from equines with different ages, races and sex, for posterior cytological analysis. Thirty-six equines were divided into two groups (Group I = stabled, n = 18; Group II = field regimen, n = 18. Animals of Group I (age = 3.5 years were lodged in the Tarumã´s Jockey Club in Curitiba, Parana State. The equines of Group II always were maintained at field condition (never were stabled, in the farm located in Jacarezinho, Paraná State. Following endoscopic exams, tracheobronchial secretion smears were stained by Pappenhein´s method and submitted to cytological analysis. Group I had higher frequency of tracheal discharge than Group II. The cytological analysis showed more presence of macrophages (58.8%, foamy cells (2.3%, body giant cells (0.2%, neutrophils (4.57%, eosinophils (0.7% and Curshmann´s spirals (0.04% on 3 of the 18 animals. The cytological analysis of Group II showed higher frequency of ciliated epithelial cells than Group I, and no Curshmann´s spirals were observed. In conclusion, data showed that horses stabled had more cytological alterations than the animals maintained at field, therefore more tracheobronchial complications. Thus, the care of place where horse are stabled have influence on development of respiratory diseases, may predispose to affections as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage, as well athletic horses may be never reach their full respiratory potential.

  3. Headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects of chronic hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Ozge, Cengiz; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Yalin, Osman Ozgür; Unal, Ozgür; Ozgür, Eylem S

    2006-02-01

    The frequency and characteristics of headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not clear and there are only a few studies that have assessed the relationship between chronic hypoxaemia and headache. We performed this study in order to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of headache in COPD patients. A total of 119 patients, with a mean age of 63.4 +/- 8.2 years, diagnosed with moderate or severe stable COPD were included in the study. Overall 31.9% of the patients complained of headache and 45.4% were reported to have sleep disorders. There were significant effects of family history of COPD, having other systemic disorders or sleep disorders (snoring, bruxism, restless leg syndrome, etc.) and laboratory data of chronic hypoxaemia and airway obstruction on headache co-morbidity. In conclusion, possibly being a specific subtype of elderly headache, headache in patients with moderate or severe COPD is a common problem and future studies are needed to obtain more knowledge about its pathophysiological and clinical basis.

  4. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  5. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  6. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Bergholt, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors...... are associated with the retreatment of bCSDH with a focus on surgical laterality. METHODS In a national database of CSDHs (Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study) the authors retrospectively identified all bCSDHs treated in the 4 Danish neurosurgical departments over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2012...... that a separated hematoma density and the absence of postoperative drainage were independent predictors of retreatment. CONCLUSIONS In bCSDHs bilateral surgical intervention significantly lowers the risk of retreatment compared with unilateral intervention and should be considered when choosing a surgical...

  7. Chronic Actinic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Çevirgen Cemil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD is characterized by persistent eczema-like lesions, mainly on sun-exposed sites, induced by ultraviolet B, sometimes ultraviolet A, and occasionally visible light. CAD is a rare photodermatitis. It is often associated with contact allergens including airborne allergens such as fragrances, plant antigens and topical medications. A 62 year old farmer is applied with eczematous lesions restricted to sun-exposed areas. Clinical findings and histopathologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of chronic actinic dermatitis. The patient also had contact allergy to multiple allergens. We present this case to emphasize the significance of patch test on CAD treatment and the success of topical tacrolimus and azathioprine.

  8. Chronic spinal subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.; Lensch, T.

    2008-01-01

    Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [de

  9. The burden of chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Sjøgren, Per; Juel, Knud

    2012-01-01

    sample consisted of 25,000 individuals (≥16 years old) living in Denmark. In all, 60.7% completed a mailed or online questionnaire. Associations were examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. The study population consisted of 14,925 individuals in whom a high prevalence of chronic pain (26......Chronic pain is currently considered a public health problem with high costs to the individual and society. To improve prevention and treatment of chronic pain, epidemiologic studies are mandatory for assessing chronic pain. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain...

  10. Use of FISH-translocations analyses for retrospective biological dosimetry: How stable are stable chromosome aberrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations, in particular dicentrics, in peripheral blood lymphocytes are used to estimate the absorbed dose immediately following a radiation accident. However, difficulties for dose estimation arise with old exposures, due to a decline of cells containing unstable dicentric aberrations. The fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique employing chromosome specific DNA libraries to 'paint' individual human chromosomes has opened new perspectives for rapid and reliable detection of stable chromosome aberrations such as translocations. The inherent stability of translocations over cell generations has enabled them to be used as a biodosemeter. However, due to the limited life of circulating T-lymphocytes, a level of uncertainty exists on the long-term persistence of stable translocations. The objectives of the present work are to present the current state of knowledge on the stability of translocations detected by FISH. The following aspects have been considered; (1) experience so far of retrospective biological dosimetry in humans following accidental and occupational over-exposure, (2) animal studies using mice and monkeys, (3) the influence of subsequent cell divisions on the yield and persistence of translocations following in vitro irradiation of human lymphocytes, and (4) the needs for further work to standardise and validate the use of FISH as a biological dosemeter, and to investigate the influence of various parameters such as radiation quality, dose rate and the discrimination of sub-types of translocations on persistence. (author)

  11. Chronic whiplash pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroussi, Richard; Singh, Virtaj; Fry, Adrielle

    2015-05-01

    Although most patients recover from acute whiplash injuries, those with chronic whiplash syndrome develop signs of central nervous system (CNS) amplification of pain and have a poor prognosis. In this context, specific pain generators from acute whiplash have been identified through clinical, biomechanical, and animal studies. This article gives a clinical perspective on current understanding of these pain generators, including the phenomenon of CNS sensitization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  13. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  14. Chronic childhood peer rejection is associated with heightened neural responses to social exclusion during adolescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Will, G.J.; Van, Lier P.A.; Crone, E.A.; Guroglu, B.

    2016-01-01

    This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study examined subjective and neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents (age 12-15) who either had a stable accepted (n = 27; 14 males) or a chronic rejected (n = 19; 12 males) status among peers from age 6 to 12. Both groups of adolescents

  15. Effects of a comprehensive self-management programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monninkhof, E.M.; Valk, P.D.L.P.M. van der; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Herwaarden, C.L.A. van; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a comprehensive self-management intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), symptoms and walking distance in patients with stable moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was part of the overall COPD

  16. Clinicoroentgenological control in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive clinicoroentgenological study was used to examine 494 patients with chronic pneumonia. Morphological and functional changes observed in the pulmonary pare and functional changes observed in the pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree were studied. Types of pneumosclerosis, tigns of exacerbation of chronic pneumonia and abscess formation, morphological and functional disorders of bronchial penetrability in the pneumonic zone were described. Three forms of chronic pneumonia: bronchial, bronchiectatic and abscessing are signled out. The bronchial form is subdivided into chronic pneumonia with chronic bronchitis without deformity and wi.th deforming chronic bronchitis. In the bronchiectatic form pneumonia can be with cylindrical, saccular and cyst-like bronchiectasia. The general diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is established clinically depending on type and variants in 89-94% of cases, by X-ray and sonographic findings in all patients; types and variants of disease are most frequently defined after bronchography

  17. Exploring Scintillometry in the Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate observation methods of heat and momentum exchange and key variables that characterise turbulence in the atmospheric stable surface layer (SSL), a layer defined as the lower part of the stable boundary layer (SBL) where surface fluxes do not change

  18. Stable isotope methodology and its application to nutrition and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Hachey, D.L.; Wong, W.W.; Abrams, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Stable Isotope Laboratory in its function as a core resource facility for stable isotope applications in human nutrition research. Three aspects are covered: Training of visitors, assessment of new instrumentation, and development of new methodology. The research achievements of the laboratory are indicated in the publications that appeared during this period. (author). 23 refs

  19. Optimization for getting stable plasma initiation in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Ryuji; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Abe, T.

    1988-06-01

    This paper analyses the plasma current build-up just after the breakdown, and investigates the method for obtaining more stable plasma initiation with reduced Volt-second consumption. Control of the amount of particles contained in the wall is necessary for getting the optimum plasma density just after the breakdown, and is essential for obtaining the stable current build-up. (author)

  20. Biomedical applications of mass spectrometry. Clinical uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahmer, U.I.; McCloskey, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The review covers typical or important examples of stable isotope usage in clinical fields during the period since the last triennial mass spectrometry conference in 1973. Items are included which involve uses of stable isotopes in human or clinically oriented studies, including measurements carried out on materials of human origin. 163 references. (U.K.)

  1. Solutions for the stable roommates problem with payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, Péter; Bomhoff, M.J.; Golovach, Petr A.; Kern, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The stable roommates problem with payments has as input a graph G = (V , E ) with an edge weighting w : E → R≥0 and the problem is to find a stable solution. By pinpointing a relationship to the accessibility of the coalition structure core of matching games, we give a constructive proof for showing

  2. DFT computations of the lattice constant, stable atomic structure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the most stable atomic structure and lattice constant of Fullerenes (C60). FHI-aims DFT code was used to predict the stable structure and the computational lattice constant of C60. These were compared with known experimental structures and lattice constants of C60. The results obtained showed that ...

  3. Method for recovering or recirculating stable nitroxide radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, Andre; Van Doren, Hendrik Arend; Bleeker, Ido Pieter; Gotlieb, Kornelis Fester.

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates fo a method for recovering stable nitroxide radicals, wherein at least a part of a reaction mixt. consisting of a soln. or suspension, or a filtrate or supernatant of a suspension, in which stable nitroxide radicals are present in non-solid form, is subjected to an azeotropic

  4. Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  5. Stable isotope geochemistry. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefs, J.

    1987-01-01

    Stable Isotope Geochemistry is an authoritative book comprising theoretical and experimental principles; surveying important fractionation mechanisms affecting the most important elements; discussing the natural variations of geologically important reservoirs. This updated 3rd edition, with a completely rewritten and extended main part, contains two new chapters on stable isotope composition of mantle material and on changes of the ocean during the geological past. (orig.)

  6. Trophic position of coexisting krill species: a stable isotope approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Bode, Antonio; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2014-01-01

    Four krill species with overlapping functional biology coexist in Greenland waters. Here, we used stable isotopes to investigate and discuss their trophic role and mode of coexistence. Bulk carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analyses of Thysanoessa longicaudata, T. inermis, T. raschii...

  7. Cognitive impairment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru F Crişan

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, especially in severe forms, is commonly associated with multiple cognitive problems. Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA is used to detect cognitive impairment evaluating several areas: visuospatial, memory, attention and fluency. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of stable COPD and exacerbation (AECOPD phases on cognitive status using MoCA questionnaire.We enrolled 39 patients (pts, smokers with COPD group D (30 stable and 9 in AECOPD and 13 healthy subjects (control group, having similar level of education and no significant differences regarding the anthropometric measurements. We analyzed the differences in MoCA score between these three groups and also the correlation between this score and inflammatory markers.Patients with AECOPD had a significant (p<0.001 decreased MoCA score (14.6±3.4 compared to stable COPD (20.2±2.4 and controls (24.2±5.8. The differences between groups were more accentuated for the language abstraction and attention (p<0.001 and delayed recall and orientation (p<0.001 sub-topics. No significant variance of score was observed between groups regarding visuospatial and naming score (p = 0.095. The MoCA score was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume (r = 0.28 and reverse correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP (r = -0.57, fibrinogen (r = -0.58, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (r = -0.55 and with the partial pressure of CO2 (r = -0.47.According to this study, COPD significantly decreases the cognitive status in advanced and acute stages of the disease.

  8. Pulmonary complications of smoked substance abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Tashkin, D P

    1990-01-01

    After tobacco, marijuana is the most widely smoked substance in our society. Studies conducted within the past 15 years in animals, isolated tissues, and humans indicate that marijuana smoke can injure the lungs. Habitual smoking of marijuana has been shown to be associated with chronic respiratory tract symptoms, an increased frequency of acute bronchitic episodes, extensive tracheobronchial epithelial disease, and abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, key cell...

  9. Stable isotopes for improving human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uauy, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    recent FAO review of nutrition programs in 19 Latin American countries found that over 20 percent of the population - approximately 83 million people out of an estimated 414 million in the study countries - receives some level of benefits in nutrition-related programs. The allocation of limited national and international assistance resources for these activities in the region is on the order of several billion dollars annually. Undoubtedly these programs are influencing child growth. Significant reductions in underweight and wasting have occurred; but stunting has been more resistant to change. In this setting providing food supplements may be beneficial for some while it may be detrimental for others. The definition of who should benefit from the programs and what is the right combination of nutrients/foods, education, and lifestyle interventions that is required to optimise nutrition and health at each stage of the life cycle is a truly complex problem. This demands the use of the best scientific tools to define who should benefit, what should done and measured as an outcome, how programs should be evaluated, when programs should be expanded, and when they should be stopped. Isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions. This presentation will serve to demonstrate how isotopes can contribute to refining nutrition interventions and their impact on public health. Isotopic methods can shorten the time needed to evaluate impact, because they provide sensitive measurements of biological effects. They are faster than traditional methods such as anthropometry for detecting changes in growth and body composition. Micronutrient malnutrition, and especially the bioavailability of vitamins and minerals from traditional foods, are not well evaluated using routine biochemical methods. Radioisotopes have been used successfully in the past. But recent developments in stable isotope techniques offer unique advantages for the design and evaluation of programmes that address

  10. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    patients with persistent microalbuminuria (mean urinary albumin excretion [UAE] 84 mg/24 h [range 30-300]) were followed prospectively for 5 years of clinical examinations that included the measurement of GFR (51Cr-labeled EDTA clearance) at least once a year. The mean GFR at baseline was 120 +/- 18 ml x....... Out of 40 patients, 14 progressed to diabetic nephropathy (UAE > 300 mg/24 h). These patients had a significant reduction in GFR (mean -2.2 +/- 3.8 ml x min-1 x year-1; P = 0.05), while GFR remained stable in the remaining 26 patients with nonprogressive microalbuminuria (change in GFR 0.5 +/- 2.1 ml...

  11. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  12. [Chronic appendicitis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; Romero-Briones, Carlos; Mendoza-García, Aurelio Valentín; García-Ramírez, Ulises Noel

    2008-01-01

    The term chronic appendicitis has been used to describe any type of chronic pain that originates in the appendix, with or without inflammation. This broad category can be divided more specifically into: chronic or recurrent appendicitis and appendiceal colic pain. a 41-year-old female, suffering intestinal chronic constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, hiporexia and febricula, treated with antibiotics, vermifuges, analgesics and antispasmodics, showing a slight and partial improvement. She was suffering chronic pain in lower abdomen, mostly on the right side along a year. With these symptoms, she underwent an exploratory laparotomy, that showed chronic appendicitis. Appendix had been removed. The histopathological report corresponded to chronic appendicitis. the histopathological characteristics and the clinical manifestations of the chronic appendicitis are different from those of acute appendicitis. Criteria for chronic appendicitis include: symptoms lasting longer than 4 weeks, confirmation of chronic swelling through histopathological examination, improvement of symptoms after appendectomy. The ultrasonic images, the barium enema and the computerized helicoidal tomography could be suggestive for its diagnosis.

  13. Prevalence of airflow obstruction in patients with stable systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Plesner, Louis Lind; Schou, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important differential diagnosis in heart failure (HF). However, routine use of spirometry in outpatient HF clinics is not implemented. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of both airflow obstruction and non...... failure clinics were examined with spirometry at their first visit and after optimal medical treatment for HF was achieved. airflow obstruction was classified and graded according to the GOLD 2011 revision. Results: Baseline spirometry was performed in 593 included patients and 71 (12%) had a clinical......%) had mild disease (GOLD I) and 180 (30%) patients had moderate to very severe disease (GOLD II-IV). No difference in spirometric variables was observed following up titration of medication. Conclusion: In stable patients with HF airflow obstruction is frequent and severely underdiagnosed. Spirometry...

  14. Invasive angiography and revascularization in patients with stable angina following prior coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Francis R; Biasco, Luigi; Pedersen, Frants

    2017-01-01

    . Follow-up data were available for all patients, by means of records linked to each Danish social security number. RESULTS: In patients with prior CABG and stable angina (n = 2,309), diagnostic angiography led to revascularization in 574 (24.9%) cases. Chronic kidney disease (HR 1.93 [1.08-3.44], P = 0......BACKGROUND: There are limited data to guide the optimum approach to patients presenting with angina after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although often referred for invasive angiography, the effectiveness of this is unknown; angina may also result from diffuse distal or micro......-vascular coronary disease and it is not known how often targets for intervention are identified. METHODS: Retrospective review of 50,460 patients undergoing angiography in East Denmark between January 2010 and December 2014. Clinical and procedural data were prospectively stored in a regional electronic database...

  15. Long-term L-Triiodothyronine (T3) treatment in stable systolic heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmager, Pernille; Schmidt, Ulla; Mark, Peter

    2015-01-01

    %, range: 37-52 and serum T3 levels 1·4 nmol/l (0·9-1·6). The T3 dose was 20 μg per day (10-40). TSH levels did not change between groups, whereas serum T3 levels increased in the active arm. Cardiac function as measured by LVEF, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and cardiac output did not change...... during T3-treatment and neither did the neurohormonal profile. There were no side-effects in terms of cardiac arrhythmias and no change in resting heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the hypothesis that oral T3 treatment might be beneficial to patients with chronic, stable systolic HF...

  16. Transient myocardial ischemia during nifedipine therapy in stable angina pectoris, and its relation to coronary collateral flow and comparison with metoprolol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K; Andersen, P E

    1993-01-01

    There are conflicting results concerning the anti-ischemic effect of nifedipine in patients with chronic stable angina. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the anti-ischemic effect of nifedipine may be related to coronary collateral circulation. Forty-one patients with stable...... of collateral circulation. In 17 patients, angiographically poor or no collateral flow was observed (group 1), and 24 had good collateral flow (group 2). Nifedipine was administered to 20 patients (8 in group 1, and 12 in group 2). In group 1, nifedipine reduced the frequency of total and asymptomatic ischemic...

  17. Prevalence and prognostic significance of adrenergic escape during chronic beta-blocker therapy in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Schellberg, Dieter; Nelles, Manfred; Froehlich, Hanna; Katus, Hugo; Remppis, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    Like aldosterone escape to ACE-inhibitors, adrenergic escape (AE) to beta-blockers appears conceivable in chronic heart failure (CHF), as generalized systemic neurohumoral activation has been described as the pathophysiological basis of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and prognostic value of AE with respect to different beta-blocker agents and doses. This was a prospective, observational study of 415 patients with systolic CHF receiving chronic stable beta-blocker therapy. AE was defined by norepinephrine levels above the upper limit of normal. Irrespective of the individual beta-blocker agents used and the dose equivalent taken, the prevalence of AE was 31-39%. Norepinephrine levels neither correlated with heart rate (r=0.02; 95% CI: -0.08-0.11; P=0.74) nor were they related to underlying rhythm (P=0.09) or the individual beta-blocker agent used (P=0.87). The presence of AE was a strong and independent indicator of mortality (adjusted HR: 1.915; 95% CI: 1.387-2.645; chi2: 15.60). We verified the presence of AE in CHF patients on chronic stable beta-blocker therapy, irrespective of the individual beta-blocker agent and the dose equivalent. As AE might indicate therapeutic failure, the determination of AE could help to identify those patients with CHF that might benefit from more aggressive treatment modalities. Heart rate, however, is not a surrogate for adrenergic escape.

  18. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years...

  19. Chronic Pain in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodofsky, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    This review includes a summary of contemporary theories of pain processing and advocates a multimodal analgesia approach for providing perioperative care. A summary of various medication classes and anesthetic techniques is provided that highlights evidence emerging from neurosurgical literature. This summary covers opioid management, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, ketamine, lidocaine, dexmedetomidine, corticosteroids, gabapentin, and regional anesthesia for neurosurgery. At present, there is not enough investigation into these areas to describe best practices for treating or preventing chronic pain in neurosurgery; but providers can identify a wider range of options available to personalize perioperative care strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of serious complications in patients with seemingly stable febrile neutropenia: validation of the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia in a prospective cohort of patients from the FINITE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Virizuela Echaburu, Juan; Antonio, Maite; Font, Carme; Biosca, Mercè; Ramchandani, Avinash; Martínez, Jerónimo; Hernando Cubero, Jorge; Espinosa, Javier; Martínez de Castro, Eva; Ghanem, Ismael; Beato, Carmen; Blasco, Ana; Garrido, Marcelo; Bonilla, Yaiza; Mondéjar, Rebeca; Arcusa Lanza, María Ángeles; Aragón Manrique, Isabel; Manzano, Aránzazu; Sevillano, Elena; Castañón, Eduardo; Cardona, Mercé; Gallardo Martín, Elena; Pérez Armillas, Quionia; Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco

    2015-02-10

    To validate a prognostic score predicting major complications in patients with solid tumors and seemingly stable episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN). The definition of clinical stability implies the absence of organ dysfunction, abnormalities in vital signs, and major infections. We developed the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia (CISNE), with six explanatory variables associated with serious complications: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥ 2 (2 points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1 point), chronic cardiovascular disease (1 point), mucositis of grade ≥ 2 (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria; 1 point), monocytes < 200 per μL (1 point), and stress-induced hyperglycemia (2 points). We integrated these factors into a score ranging from 0 to 8, which classifies patients into three prognostic classes: low (0 points), intermediate (1 to 2 points), and high risk (≥ 3 points). We present a multicenter validation of CISNE. We prospectively recruited 1,133 patients with seemingly stable FN from 25 hospitals. Complication rates in the training and validation subsets, respectively, were 1.1% and 1.1% in low-, 6.1% and 6.2% in intermediate-, and 32.5% and 36% in high-risk patients; mortality rates within each class were 0% in low-, 1.6% and 0% in intermediate-, and 4.3% and 3.1% in high-risk patients. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves in the validation subset were 0.652 (95% CI, 0.598 to 0.703) for Talcott, 0.721 (95% CI, 0.669 to 0.768) for Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC), and 0.868 (95% CI, 0.827 to 0.903) for CISNE (P = .002 for comparison between CISNE and MASCC). CISNE is a valid model for accurately classifying patients with cancer with seemingly stable FN episodes. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  2. Stable black phosphorus quantum dots for alkali PH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weilan; Song, Haizeng; Yan, Shancheng

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus, as a new two-dimensional material has been widely used in sensors, photovoltaic devices, etc. However, thin layered black phosphorus chemically degrades rapidly under ambient and aqueous conditions, which hinders the application of it in the chemical sensors. In this work, stable black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) in solution are successfully synthesized by functionalization with 4-nitrobenzene-diazonium (4-NBD). The stable BPQDs are investigated by TEM, AFM, Raman, and UV-absorption. As a potential application, the stable BPQDs are used as sensors in alkali solution, which exhibit outstanding performance. Our work paves the way towards a new application with BPQDs in solution.

  3. Use of stable isotopes in human nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, the Laboratory of Nutrition of the Department of Animal Biology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of UCAD has been using stable isotopic techniques for nearly twenty years. Stable isotopes were applied to different target populations to measure milk production, exclusive breastfeeding, body composition, micronutrient bioavailability and total energy expenditure.The application of stable isotopic techniques in nutrition has contributed to advocacy for exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in Senegal. It enabled government decision-makers to obtain essential information on the quality of foods needed for optimal effect during pregnancy and for infant growth and the results were reflected in the national policy on micronutrient supplementation.

  4. Stable monopole-antimonopole string background in SU(2) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.; Pak, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the instability of the Savvidy-Nielsen-Olesen (SNO) vacuum we make a systematic search for a stable magnetic background in pure SU(2) QCD. It is shown that a pair of axially symmetric monopole and antimonopole strings is stable, provided that the distance between the two strings is less than a critical value. The existence of a stable monopole-antimonopole string background strongly supports that a magnetic condensation of monopole-antimonopole pairs can generate a dynamical symmetry breaking, and thus the magnetic confinement of color in QCD

  5. Application of stable isotopes in ecological research : it's all elemental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotopes have been used traditionally in the physical sciences, primarily in geochemistry, sedimentology, and oceanography. Increasingly, however, stable isotopes are also being used in the biological sciences. Application of stable isotopes in ecological studies can provide new and innovative ways of examining a host of topics of fundamental importance to biologists. These topics include, among others, feeding ecology and food webs, nutrient flow and assimilation, habitat use, migration patterns, and distribution and discrimination of species subpopulations. Furthermore, ecological research with isotopes can be applied at many levels (i.e. tissue and organ, whole animal, population, community, and ecosystem). (author). 38 refs., 2 figs

  6. A Model Describing Stable Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  7. A model describing stable coherent synchrotron radiation in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Venturini, M.; Abo-Bakr, M.; Feikes, J.; Holldack, K.; Kuske, P.; Wuestefeld, G.; Huebers, H.-W.; Warnock, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  8. Treatment Strategies for Chronic Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Lord

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic somatic pain, including pain referred to the head, neck, shoulder girdle and upper limb from somatic structures, is addressed. Levels of evidence for the various treatments that have been prescribed for chronic whiplash associated disorders are considered. The challenge to find a treatment strategy for chronic pain after whiplash that completely relieves the condition and prevents its sequelae is reviewed.

  9. Evaluation of treatment response to autologous transplantation of noncultured melanocyte/keratinocyte cell suspension in patients with stable vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mariana Gontijo; Ramos, Daniel Gontijo; Ramos, Camila Gontijo

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic disease characterized by the appearance of achromic macules caused by melanocyte destruction. Surgical treatments with melanocyte transplantation can be used for stable vitiligo cases. To evaluate treatment response to the autologous transplantation of noncultured epidermal cell suspension in patients with stable vitiligo. Case series study in patients with stable vitiligo submitted to noncultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation and evaluated at least once, between 3 and 6 months after the procedure, to observe repigmentation and possible adverse effects. The maximum follow-up period for some patients was 24 months. Of the 20 patients who underwent 24 procedures, 25% showed an excellent rate of repigmentation, 50% good repigmentation, 15% regular, and 10% poor response. The best results were observed in face and neck lesions, while the worst in extremity lesions (88% and 33% of satisfactory responses, respectively). Patients with segmental vitiligo had a better response (84%) compared to non-segmental ones (63%). As side effects were observed hyperpigmentation of the treated area and the appearance of Koebner phenomenon in the donor area. Some limitations of the study included the small number of patients, a subjective evaluation, and the lack of long-term follow-up on the results. CONCLUSION: Noncultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation is efficient and well tolerated for stable vitiligo treatment, especially for segmental vitiligo on the face and neck.

  10. Evaluation of chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory; Trivedi, Rupal

    2011-11-15

    Chronic diarrhea, defined as a decrease in stool consistency for more than four weeks, is a common but challenging clinical scenario. It can be divided into three basic categories: watery, fatty (malabsorption), and inflammatory. Watery diarrhea may be subdivided into osmotic, secretory, and functional types. Watery diarrhea includes irritable bowel syndrome, which is the most common cause of functional diarrhea. Another example of watery diarrhea is microscopic colitis, which is a secretory diarrhea affecting older persons. Laxative-induced diarrhea is often osmotic. Malabsorptive diarrhea is characterized by excess gas, steatorrhea, or weight loss; giardiasis is a classic infectious example. Celiac disease (gluten-sensitive enteropathy) is also malabsorptive, and typically results in weight loss and iron deficiency anemia. Inflammatory diarrhea, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease, is characterized by blood and pus in the stool and an elevated fecal calprotectin level. Invasive bacteria and parasites also produce inflammation. Infections caused by Clostridium difficile subsequent to antibiotic use have become increasingly common and virulent. Not all chronic diarrhea is strictly watery, malabsorptive, or inflammatory, because some categories overlap. Still, the most practical diagnostic approach is to attempt to categorize the diarrhea by type before testing and treating. This narrows the list of diagnostic possibilities and reduces unnecessary testing. Empiric therapy is justified when a specific diagnosis is strongly suspected and follow-up is available.

  11. [Pathophysiology of chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerok, W

    2000-10-12

    The symptom of diarrhoea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge from the bowel (more than 3 times a day) and a semisolid or fluid consistency of the faecal matter. Diarrhoea is termed chronic when it lasts more than four weeks. Diarrhoea is the result of disturbances in enteral water and electrolyte balance. Increased intestinal motility is usually not the cause but the result of diarrhoea. Transport of water through the gut is dependent on the osmotic gradient between interstitium and gut lumen. The secretion of chloride ions by the cells of the intestinal glands plays a major role in water secretion into the gut lumen, while sodium and potassium absorption in the villous zone of the enterocytes is crucial for enteral water absorption. Enteral water and electrolyte balance is regulated by the autonomic and enteral nervous system, by gastrointestinal hormones and signal messengers of mesenchymal cells. Pathogenetically, one distinguishes between secretory and osmotic diarrhoea. Furthermore, mixed forms of both pathogenic types can occur. The various types can be differentiated clinically and by the "osmotic gap". Diarrhoea can be a symptom of various diseases. Its pathogenesis is illustrated using examples of diarrhoea in pathological bile acid absorption, bacterial infections, carbohydrate malabsorption or disaccharidase insufficiency and in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabulut, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) denote progressive lung diseases characterized by airway obstruction. COPD exhibits specific morphologic changes in the lung parenchyma, central and peripheral airways and pulmonary vasculature. A person with COPD may have either emphysema or chronic bronchitis, but most have both. Some people with COPD may also have an asthma-like or reactive component. Imaging modalities play important role in the detection or exclusion of COPD, distribution and extent of disease processes. Combined inspiratory and expiratory high resolution CT allows phenotyping of COPD (emphysema predominant, airway predominant, or mixed) and quantification of severity. Magnetic resonance imaging enables functional evaluation and demonstrates ventilation defects correlating closely with pulmonary function tests. Imaging techniques are also helpful in guiding the treatment, such as bullectomy in patients with bullous emphysema, lung volume reduction surgery or endoscopic interventions in those with severe emphysema, and smoking cessation and medical treatment designed to stop lung destruction in patients with mild or moderate emphysema or bronchiectasis.

  13. Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Dilip; Natarajan, Sathima

    2015-10-01

    Advances over the past decade have indicated that a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic predisposition, alcohol abuse, and smoking lead towards the development of chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disorder that causes significant and chronic incapacity in patients and a substantial burden on the society. Major advances have been made in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and the role of genetic predisposition is increasingly coming to the fore. Advances in noninvasive diagnostic modalities now allow for better diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at an early stage of the disease. The impact of these advances on surgical treatment is beginning to emerge, for example, patients with certain genetic predispositions may be better treated with total pancreatectomy versus lesser procedures. Considerable controversy remains with respect to the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern understanding of the neurobiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis suggests that a window of opportunity exists for effective treatment of the intractable pain after which central sensitization can lead to an irreversible pain syndrome in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Effective surgical procedures exist for chronic pancreatitis; however, the timing of surgery is unclear. For optimal treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis, close collaboration between a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pain management physicians is needed.

  14. Cognitive function in patients with stable coronary heart disease: Related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Drigny, Joffrey; Dupuy, Olivier; Lapierre, Gabriel; Labelle, Véronique; Fortier, Annik; Nigam, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD) sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC), 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC) and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis), cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography) and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy) were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max), cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery) and cognitive function (for all items) (Pcognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.

  15. Smoking, season, and detection of chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in clinically stable COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldsmith Charles H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remain unclear. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 100 outpatients with smoking-related, clinically stable COPD, and induced sputum was obtained in 62 patients. Results Patients had mean age (standard deviation of 65.8 (10.7 years, mean forced expiratory volume in one second of 1.34 (0.61 L, and 61 (61.0% were male. C. pneumoniae nucleic acids were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in 27 (27.0%. Current smoking (odds ratio {OR} = 2.6, 95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1, 6.6, P = 0.04, season (November to April (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.2, P = 0.007, and chronic sputum production (OR = 6.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 23.2, P = 0.005 were associated with detection of C. pneumoniae DNA. Conclusions Prospective studies are needed to examine the role of C. pneumoniae nucleic acid detection in COPD disease symptoms and progression.

  16. Stable isotope labeling strategy based on coding theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takuma; Koshiba, Seizo; Yokoyama, Jun; Kigawa, Takanori, E-mail: kigawa@riken.jp [RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center (QBiC), Laboratory for Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We describe a strategy for stable isotope-aided protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, called stable isotope encoding. The basic idea of this strategy is that amino-acid selective labeling can be considered as “encoding and decoding” processes, in which the information of amino acid type is encoded by the stable isotope labeling ratio of the corresponding residue and it is decoded by analyzing NMR spectra. According to the idea, the strategy can diminish the required number of labelled samples by increasing information content per sample, enabling discrimination of 19 kinds of non-proline amino acids with only three labeled samples. The idea also enables this strategy to combine with information technologies, such as error detection by check digit, to improve the robustness of analyses with low quality data. Stable isotope encoding will facilitate NMR analyses of proteins under non-ideal conditions, such as those in large complex systems, with low-solubility, and in living cells.

  17. Stable isotope labeling strategy based on coding theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takuma; Koshiba, Seizo; Yokoyama, Jun; Kigawa, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy for stable isotope-aided protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, called stable isotope encoding. The basic idea of this strategy is that amino-acid selective labeling can be considered as “encoding and decoding” processes, in which the information of amino acid type is encoded by the stable isotope labeling ratio of the corresponding residue and it is decoded by analyzing NMR spectra. According to the idea, the strategy can diminish the required number of labelled samples by increasing information content per sample, enabling discrimination of 19 kinds of non-proline amino acids with only three labeled samples. The idea also enables this strategy to combine with information technologies, such as error detection by check digit, to improve the robustness of analyses with low quality data. Stable isotope encoding will facilitate NMR analyses of proteins under non-ideal conditions, such as those in large complex systems, with low-solubility, and in living cells

  18. A theory of stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, J.F.; McPherson, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    In order to perform quantitative analysis using stable isotope dilution with mass spectrometry, an equation is derived which describes the relationship between the relative proportions of natural and labelled material and measured isotope ratios

  19. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , the tuples of cohomology classes on a compact, complex manifold, corresponding to the Chern classes of a complex vector bundle of stable rank. This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie ...

  20. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-06-23

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Ubeda, 18-22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes.

  1. A new intermediate for the production of flexible stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Method of incorporating ether linkages into perfluoroalkylene segment of a dianydride intermediate yields intermediate that may be used in synthesis of flexible, stable polyimides for use as high-temperature, solvent-resistant sealants.

  2. Stable Blind Deconvolution over the Reals from Additional Autocorrelations

    KAUST Repository

    Walk, Philipp; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    that under a sufficient zero separation of the corresponding signal in the $z-$domain, a stable reconstruction against additive noise is possible. Moreover, the stability constant depends on the signal dimension and on the signals magnitude of the first

  3. Distribution of radiocesium and stable elements within a pine tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, A.

    2011-01-01

    Distributions of 137 Cs and stable elements in different parts of a pine tree collected in Chernobyl-contaminated area in Belarus were determined. Samples include annual tree rings of wood, branches and needles with different ages. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in annual tree rings were the highest in cambium and decreased sharply towards inside. The youngest needles and branches contained higher 137 Cs and stable Cs than older ones. The concentration of 137 Cs being highest in growing parts suggests the highest radiation dose to the radiation-sensitive parts of tree. Distribution patterns of stable elements in pine tree differ among the elements. Distributions similar to those of Cs were observed for K and Rb, suggesting that alkaline metals tend to be translocated to young growing parts of pine tree. A similar distribution was also observed for phosphorus. Distributions of alkaline earth metals and several heavy metals were different from those of alkaline metals. (authors)

  4. Development of stable marker-free nuclear transformation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of stable marker-free nuclear transformation strategy in the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris. ... into Chlorella by electroporation has very low stability and it is hard to screen the transformants without antibiotic marker genes.

  5. The use of stable isotopes in medicinal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, D.; Thompson, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotopes have been employed increasingly as tracers over the last decade both to provide the clinician with the opportunity to broaden, in a quantitative manner, discrete areas of diagnosis and research, and the clinical chemist with definitive methodology for specific analyte analysis. These non-radioactive 'heavy' isotopes contain one or more extra neutrons in the nucleus compared with their more abundant 'lighter' analogues. Impetus in the application of stable isotopes for in vivo studies has come from an increased awareness of the possible harmful effects in the use of radionuclides, and a realisation of several positive advantages conferred by the use of stable isotopes in their own right - certain elements of clinical importance (especially nitrogen) lack a useable radio-nuclide equivalent; use of a 'cocktail' of stable isotopes permits a range of studies to be performed in the same patient simultaneously and, within specific constraints, serial studies can be performed in the same patients. (author)

  6. (2+1)-dimensional stable spatial Raman solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shverdin, M.Y.; Yavuz, D.D.; Walker, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the formation, propagation, and interaction of stable two-frequency (2+1)-dimensional solitons, formed in a Raman media driven near maximum molecular coherence. The propagating light is trapped in the two transverse dimensions

  7. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  8. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  9. Cognitive function in patients with stable coronary heart disease: Related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gayda

    Full Text Available Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC, 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis, cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery and cognitive function (for all items (P<0.05. Compared to OHC, CHD patients had lower [Formula: see text] peak, CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (during recovery and short term-working memory, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (P<0.05. [Formula: see text] peak and CI max were related to exercise cerebral oxygenation-perfusion and cognitive function (P<0.005. Cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (exercise was related to cognitive function (P<0.005. Stable CHD patients have a worse cognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.

  10. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  11. A constrained variational calculation for beta-stable matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, C.; Bishop, R.F.; Irvine, J.M

    1978-01-01

    A method of lowest-order constrained variation previously applied by the authors to asymmetric nuclear matter is extended to include electrons and muons making the nucleon fluid electrically neutral and stable against beta decay. The equilibrium composition of a nucleon fluid is calculated as a function of baryon number density and an equation of state for beta-stable matter is deduced for the Reid soft-core interaction. (author)

  12. [Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniak, Iu E; Grigor'ev, A I; Skuratov, V M; Ivanova, S M; Pokrovskiĭ, B G

    2006-01-01

    Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes was studied in 9 human subjects in a chamber with normal air pressure imitating a space cabin. Mass-spectrometry of isotopes in blood, urine, saliva, and potable water evidenced increases in the contents of heavy H isotope (deuterium) in the body liquids as compared with water. These results support one of the theories according to which the human organism eliminates heavy stable isotopes of biogenous chemical elements.

  13. Jealousy Graphs: Structure and Complexity of Decentralized Stable Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Jealousy Graphs: Structure and Complexity of Decentralized Stable Matching 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The stable matching...Franceschetti 858-822-2284 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Jealousy Graphs: Structure and...market. Using this structure, we are able to provide a ner analysis of the complexity of a subclass of decentralized matching markets. Jealousy

  14. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the “Making Choices©” Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the “think aloud” interview techniq...

  15. A parallel approach to the stable marriage problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes two parallel algorithms for the stable marriage problem implemented on a MIMD parallel computer. The algorithms are tested against sequential algorithms on randomly generated and worst-case instances. The results clearly show that the combination fo a very simple problem...... and a commercial MIMD system results in parallel algorithms which are not competitive with sequential algorithms wrt. practical performance. 1 Introduction In 1962 the Stable Marriage Problem was....

  16. [Bronchial inflammation during chronic bronchitis, importance of fenspiride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, B

    2002-09-01

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD): Chronic inflammation of the upper airways, pulmonary parenchyma and pulmonary vasculature is the characteristic feature of COPD. Two mechanisms besides inflammation are also involved: oxidative stress and imbalance between proteinases and antiproteinases. Cellular infiltration of the upper airways involved neutrophils, macrophages, T lymphocytes and eosinophils. Inflammatory mediators appear to play a crucial role in the interaction between inflammation and obstruction. PROPERTIES OF FENSPIRIDE: A nonsteroidal drug, fenspiride, exhibits interesting properties documented in vitro: anti-bronchoconstriction activity, anti-secretory activity, and anti-inflammatory activity (reduction in the activity of phospholipase A2 and release of proinflammatory leukotriens). Two french clinical trials have studied the efficacy of fenspiride in patients with acute excerbation or stable COPD and have demonstrated an improvement in the group treated with fenspiride compared with the placebo group.

  17. Low protein diet and chronic renal failure in Buddhist monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitprija, V; Suvanpha, R

    1983-08-13

    Clinical observations were made in five Buddhist monks with chronic renal failure on a low protein diet. These monks consumed only one meal and meditated three to four times a day. The estimated protein intake was from 15 to 19 g a day. Renal function remained stable over three years of observation. The general condition was satisfactory without any evidence of protein energy malnutrition. The data were compared with those of another group of patients who had a comparable degree of impairment of renal function but who consumed three meals a day of low protein diet. Protein intake was estimated to be from 25 to 30 g a day. These patients developed uraemia with severe renal failure and protein deficiency within three years. The findings support the role of protein restriction in maintenance of renal function in chronic renal failure and perhaps suggest a beneficial role for meditation.

  18. SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PIDOTIMOD IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Karaulov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of effective and safe immunomodulators for prophylaxis and treatment of frequently ailing children is pidotimod (Imunorix. Efficacy of the drug in pediatric practice was studied in more than 3200 patients with acute and recurrent respiratory infections. The article shows reasonability of pidotimod administration in children with acute and chronic bronchitis. This fact was confirmed with doubleblinded placebo-controlled studies. Treatment with pidotimod results in decreased terms of recovery of chronic bronchitis exacerbation, shortening of exacerbation. Realization of stable effect is related to recovery of key functions of inborn and adaptive immunity, it begins in 15 days after intake of the drug in therapeutic dose. Prophylactic doses of pidotimod should be used during next 30–60 days.Key words: children, bronchitis, pidotimod, immunity, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:139-143

  19. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  1. Wideband quin-stable energy harvesting via combined nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a wideband quintuple-well potential piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester using a combined nonlinearity: the magnetic nonlinearity induced by magnetic force and the piecewise-linearity produced by mechanical impact. With extra stable states compared to other multi-stable harvesters, the quin-stable harvester can distribute its potential energy more uniformly, which provides shallower potential wells and results in lower excitation threshold for interwell motion. The mathematical model of this quin-stable harvester is derived and its equivalent piecewise-nonlinear restoring force is measured in the experiment and identified as piecewise polynomials. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed in different levels of sinusoid excitation ranging from 1 to 25 Hz. The results demonstrate that, with lower potential barriers compared with tri-stable counterpart, the quin-stable arrangement can escape potential wells more easily for doing high-energy interwell motion over a wider band of frequencies. Moreover, by utilizing the mechanical stoppers, this harvester can produce significant output voltage under small tip deflections, which results in a high power density and is especially suitable for a compact MEMS approach.

  2. Tiotropium Bromide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gonzalez, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including β2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists. Tiotropium bromide, a long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilator (LAMA), is a treatment choice for moderate-to-severe COPD; its efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in recent trials. Studies also point to a beneficial role of tiotropium in the treatment of difficult-to-control asthma and a potential function in the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Combination of different bronchodilator molecules and addition of inhaled corticosteroids are viable therapeutic alternatives. A condensation of the latest trials and the rationale behind these therapies will be presented in this article.

  3. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: I. Long-term prognostic scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2013-10-16

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD will probably be in the year 2020 the third cause of death in the world. It appears therefore appropriate to try to make available tools capable of assessing the prognosis of patients with this disease. In the first part of this series of two papers, the question of the prognosis of stable COPD over several years is addressed. Eight prognostic scores are discussed, all of them published between 2004 and 2012. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon, with, in particular, emphasis on their discriminating power. An Internet program (www.medhyg. ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  4. Why do the lonely stay lonely? Chronically lonely adolescents' attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Van Petegem, Stijn; Weeks, Molly S; Asher, Steven R

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to identify mechanisms associated with chronic loneliness by examining the effect of adolescents' accumulated history of loneliness on responses to new social situations. Specifically, this study investigated whether attributions and emotions in situations of social inclusion and exclusion differ between chronically lonely adolescents and adolescents with a different loneliness history. A total of 730 adolescents (Mage at Wave 1 = 15.43 years) participated in a 4-wave longitudinal study with annual loneliness assessments. A chronic loneliness trajectory was identified, in addition to low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing loneliness trajectories. At Wave 4, vignettes depicting social inclusion and exclusion were presented, and participants rated a set of attributions and emotions following each vignette. Compared with individuals following other trajectories, chronically lonely adolescents were characterized by hypersensitivity to social exclusion (i.e., higher levels of negative emotions) and hyposensitivity to social inclusion (i.e., lower levels of enthusiasm). Further, chronically lonely adolescents had a stronger tendency to attribute social inclusion to circumstantial factors and social exclusion to internal and stable characteristics. This maladaptive attribution style partially mediated their emotional experiences. Together, results indicate that chronically lonely individuals respond to social situations in ways that may perpetuate rather than reduce their loneliness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Hippocampal morphology mediates biased memories of chronic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sara E.; Vachon-Presseau, Étienne; Abdullah, Taha B.; Baria, Alex T.; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2018-01-01

    Experiences and memories are often mismatched. While multiple studies have investigated psychological underpinnings of recall error with respect to emotional events, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the divergence between experiences and memories remain relatively unexplored in the domain of chronic pain. Here we examined the discrepancy between experienced chronic low back pain (CBP) intensity (twice daily ratings) and remembered pain intensity (n = 48 subjects) relative to psychometric properties, hippocampus morphology, memory capabilities, and personality traits related to reward. 77% of CBP patients exaggerated remembered pain, which depended on their strongest experienced pain and their most recent mood rating. This bias persisted over nearly 1 year and was related to reward memory bias and loss aversion. Shape displacement of a specific region in the left posterior hippocampus mediated personality effects on pain memory bias, predicted pain memory bias in a validation CBP group (n = 21), and accounted for 55% of the variance of pain memory bias. In two independent groups (n = 20/group), morphology of this region was stable over time and unperturbed by the development of chronic pain. These results imply that a localized hippocampal circuit, and personality traits associated with reward processing, largely determine exaggeration of daily pain experiences in chronic pain patients. PMID:29080714

  6. Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Zhang, Huanan; Robbins, Matthew T.; Nofar, Justin B.; Marshall, Shaun P.; Kobylarek, Michael J.; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes. Approach. Carbon fibers were first functionalized with one of two different formulations of PEDOT and subjected to accelerated aging in a heated water bath. After determining the best PEDOT formula to use, carbon fiber arrays were chronically implanted in rat motor cortex. Some rodents were also implanted with a single silicon electrode, while others received both. At the end of the study a subset of animals were perfused and the brain tissue sliced. Tissue sections were stained for astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. The local reactive responses were assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Main results. Electrophysiology recordings showed the carbon fibers detecting unit activity for at least 3 months with average amplitudes of ∼200 μV. Histology analysis showed the carbon fiber arrays with a minimal to non-existent glial scarring response with no adverse effects on neuronal density. Silicon electrodes showed large glial scarring that impacted neuronal counts. Significance. This study has validated the use of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays as a chronic neural recording technology. These electrodes have demonstrated the ability to detect single units with high amplitude over 3 months, and show the potential to record for even longer periods. In addition, the minimal reactive response should hold stable indefinitely, as any response by the immune system may reach a steady state after 12 weeks.

  7. [Chronic tophaceous gout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rozas, M; Prieto de Paula, J M; Franco Hidalgo, S; López Pedreira, M R

    2013-09-01

    Gout is a common illness, usually of unknown etiology, is more frequent in men, and with a prevalence that increases with age. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of acute arthritis due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints. The underlying disorder in most cases is hyperuricemia, usually as a consequence of impairment in its renal excretion. Although it is generally believed that both the diagnosis and treatment are simple, the truth is that the level of adherence of clinical decisions using the existing guidelines is poor. We describe a case of chronic tophaceous gout, and review the general characteristics of this condition. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic hypophosphatemic osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppers, B.; Schmid, L.; Hofmann, E.; Sauer, E.; Technische Univ. Muenchen; Technische Univ. Muenchen; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1980-01-01

    The process of chronic hypophosphatemic vitamine D-resistant rickets - observation of two cases. With the male patient - our first case - the disease was sporadic and had not been recognized for a long time. In his early adulthood it manifested itself as Umbauzonen (pseudofractures) in the larger context of active osteomalacia. It was possible to observe the pseudofractures before and while the patient was medicamentously treated. High doses of vitamine D 3 and dosage of phosphate mitigated the complains although with respect to the radiological, scintigraphical, humoral and histological findings there was only slow improvement or nor improvement at all. The patient's daughter is affected by the disease as well. In her case the pathological signs of her bones became better when treated with vitamine D 3. (orig.) [de

  9. Chronic hypophosphatemic osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, B.; Schmid, L.; Hofmann, E.; Sauer, E.

    1980-07-01

    The process of chronic hypophosphatemic vitamine D-resistant rickets is described by observation of two cases. With the male patient - our first case - the disease was sporadic and had not been recognized for a long time. In his early adulthood it manifested itself as Umbauzonen (pseudofractures) in the larger context of active osteomalacia. It was possible to observe the pseudofractures before and while the patient was medicamentously treated. High doses of vitamine D 3 and dosage of phosphate mitigated the complaints although with respect to the radiological, scintigraphical, humoral and histological findings there was only slow improvement or no improvement at all. The patient's daughter is affected by the disease as well. In her case the pathological signs of her bones became better when treated with vitamine D 3.

  10. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs...... and in the uncontrolled application of therapeutic techniques not yet validated.The European Headache Federation Expert Group on rCM presents hereby the updated definition criteria for this harmful subset of headache disorders. This attempt wants to be the first impulse towards the correct identification...... of these patients, the correct application of innovative therapeutic techniques and lastly aim to be acknowledged as clinical entity in the next definitive version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 (ICHD-3 beta)....

  11. [Chronic hypertension and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, Edouard; Tsatsaris, Vassili

    2012-09-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The management of patients with chronic hypertension requires a multidisciplinary approach prior to conception, during pregnancy and post-partum. In the preconception period, fetotoxic agents should be discontinued. It is also essential to undertake a full cardiovascular examination which may, in some cases, question the possibility of pregnancy. During pregnancy, blood pressure should be monitored and controlled, but not necessarily returned to a normal value. Low blood pressure levels could indeed lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction. Close clinical, biological and ultrasound monitoring is recommended, even postpartum, since those patients are at higher risk for preeclampsia.

  12. Pediatric chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzutzky, Arturo; Stern, Sara; Reiff, Andreas; Zurakowski, David; Steinberg, Evan A; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Sundel, Robert P

    2012-11-01

    Little information is available concerning the natural history and optimal treatment of chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO). We conducted a retrospective review to assess the clinical characteristics and treatment responses of a large cohort of pediatric CNO patients. Children diagnosed with CNO at 3 tertiary care centers in the United States between 1985 and 2009 were identified. Their charts were reviewed, and clinical, laboratory, histopathologic, and radiologic data were extracted. Seventy children with CNO (67% female patients) were identified. Median age at onset was 9.6 years (range 3-17), and median follow-up was 1.8 years (range 0-13). Half of the patients had comorbid autoimmune diseases, and 49% had a family history of autoimmunity. Patients with comorbid autoimmune diseases had more bone lesions (P coexisting autoimmunity was a risk factor for multifocal involvement and treatment with immunosuppressive agents. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologics were more likely to lead to clinical improvement than NSAIDs.

  13. Chronic female pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Maitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is defined as nonmalignant pain perceived in the structures related to the pelvis that has been present for more than 6 months or a non acute pain mechanism of shorter duration. Pain in the pelvic region can arise from musculoskeletal, gynaecological, urologic, gastrointestinal and or neurologic conditions. Key gynaecological conditions that contribute to CPP include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, endometriosis, adnexa pathologies (ovarian cysts, ovarian remnant syndrome, uterine pathologies (leiomyoma, adenomyosis and pelvic girdle pain associated with pregnancy. Several major and minor sexually transmitted diseases (STD can cause pelvic and vulvar pain. A common painful condition of the urinary system is Interstitial cystitis(IC. A second urologic condition that can lead to development of CPP is urethral syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with dysmenorrhoea in 60% of cases. Other bowel conditions contributing to pelvic pain include diverticular disease,Crohn′s disease ulcerative colitis and chronic appendicitis. Musculoskeletal pathologies that can cause pelvic pain include sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction, symphysis pubis and sacro-coccygeal joint dysfunction, coccyx injury or malposition and neuropathic structures in the lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral plexus. Prolonged pelvic girdle pain, lasting more than 6 months postpartum is estimated in 3% to 30% of women. Nerve irritation or entrapment as a cause of pelvic pain can be related to injury of the upper lumbar segments giving rise to irritation of the sensory nerves to the ventral trunk or from direct trauma from abdominal incisions or retractors used during abdominal surgical procedures. Afflictions of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, pudendal and obturator nerves are of greatest concern in patients with pelvic pain. Patient education about the disease and treatment involved is paramount. A knowledge of the differential

  14. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease

  15. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.

  16. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  17. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  18. Multi-stable perception balances stability and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander ePastukhov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report that multi-stable perception operates in a consistent, dynamical regime, balancing the conflicting goals of stability and sensitivity. When a multi-stable visual display is viewed continuously, its phenomenal appearance reverses spontaneously at irregular intervals. We characterized the perceptual dynamics of individual observers in terms of four statistical measures: the distribution of dominance times (mean and variance and the novel, subtle dependence on prior history (correlation and time-constant.The dynamics of multi-stable perception is known to reflect several stabilizing and destabilizing factors. Phenomenologically, its main aspects are captured by a simplistic computational model with competition, adaptation, and noise. We identified small parameter volumes (~3% of the possible volume in which the model reproduced both dominance distribution and history-dependence of each observer. For 21 of 24 data sets, the identified volumes clustered tightly (~15% of the possible volume, revealing a consistent `operating regime' of multi-stable perception. The `operating regime' turned out to be marginally stable or, equivalently, near the brink of an oscillatory instability. The chance probability of the observed clustering was <0.02.To understand the functional significance of this empirical `operating regime', we compared it to the theoretical `sweet spot' of the model. We computed this `sweet spot' as the intersection of the parameter volumes in which the model produced stable perceptual outcomes and in which it was sensitive to input modulations. Remarkably, the empirical `operating regime' proved to be largely coextensive with the theoretical `sweet spot'. This demonstrated that perceptual dynamics was not merely consistent but also functionally optimized (in that it balances stability with sensitivity. Our results imply that multi-stable perception is not a laboratory curiosity, but reflects a functional optimization of perceptual

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  20. General Information about Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  1. Chronic inflammatory and suppurative processes in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic methods of diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, bronchiectatic disease, lung abscess and gangrene, chronic non-specific pneumonia and cancer of lung and other pathalogical changes at chronic processes in lungs are discussed in detail

  2. Serial thallium-201 imaging at rest in patients with unstable and stable angina pectoris: relationship of myocardial perfusion at rest to presenting clinical syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Phillips, H.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether there are differences in myocardial perfusion at rest among patients with various unstable and stable angina syndromes, serial thallium-201 imaging was performed at rest in 19 patients presenting with rapidly worsening exertional angina (unstable angina, group A), 12 patients with rest angina alone without exertional symptoms (unstable angina, group B), and 34 patients with chronic stable angina. No patient had an episode of angina within 4 hours of study. Nineteen of 19 (100%) patients in group A demonstrated transient defects compared to only 3 of 12 (25%) patients in group B (p less than 0.0001) and 4 of 34 (12%) stable angina patients (p less than 0.0001). The majority of zones demonstrating transient defects in group A were associated with hypokinesis of the corresponding left ventriculogram segment without associated ECG evidence of previous infarction. There were no significant differences in the frequency of persistent thallium defects, severity of angiographic coronary artery disease, or frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities of myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries among the three groups of patients. Transient defects have been shown to reflect reduction in regional coronary blood flow to viable myocardium. Therefore, we conclude that regional resting hypoperfusion of viable myocardium is far more common in patients with exertional unstable angina symptoms than in patients with rest angina alone or chronic stable angina

  3. Dynamics and control of twisting bi-stable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Andres F.; van Gemmeren, Valentin; Anderson, Aaron J.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2018-02-01

    Compliance-based morphing structures have the potential to offer large shape adaptation, high stiffness and low weight, while reducing complexity, friction, and scalability problems of mechanism based systems. A promising class of structure that enables these characteristics are multi-stable structures given their ability to exhibit large deflections and rotations without the expensive need for continuous actuation, with the latter only required intermittently. Furthermore, multi-stable structures exhibit inherently fast response due to the snap-through instability governing changes between stable states, enabling rapid configuration switching between the discrete number of programmed shapes of the structure. In this paper, the design and utilisation of the inherent nonlinear dynamics of bi-stable twisting I-beam structures for actuation with low strain piezoelectric materials is presented. The I-beam structure consists of three compliant components assembled into a monolithic single element, free of moving parts, and showing large deflections between two stable states. Finite element analysis is utilised to uncover the distribution of strain across the width of the flange, guiding the choice of positioning for piezoelectric actuators. In addition, the actuation authority is maximised by calculating the generalised coupling coefficient for different positions of the piezoelectric actuators. The results obtained are employed to tailor and test I-beam designs exhibiting desired large deflection between stable states, while still enabling the activation of snap-through with the low strain piezoelectric actuators. To this end, the dynamic response of the I-beams to piezoelectric excitation is investigated, revealing that resonant excitations are insufficient to dynamically trigger snap-through. A novel bang-bang control strategy, which exploits the nonlinear dynamics of the structure successfully triggers both single and constant snap-through between the stable states

  4. Effectiveness of Ivabradine in Treating Stable Angina Pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liwen; Ke, Dazhi; Chen, Qingwei; Li, Guiqiong; Deng, Wei; Wu, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Many studies show that ivabradine is effective for stable angina.This meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of treatment duration and control group type on ivabradine efficacy in stable angina pectoris.Relevant articles in the English language in the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and related websites were identified by using the search terms "ivabradine," "angina," "randomized controlled trials," and "Iva." The final search date was November 2, 2015.Articles were included if they were published randomized controlled trials that related to ivabradine treatment of stable angina pectoris.Patients with stable angina pectoris were included.The patients were classified according to treatment duration (Angina outcomes were heart rate at rest or peak, exercise duration, and time to angina onset.Seven articles were selected. There were 3747 patients: 2100 and 1647 were in the ivabradine and control groups, respectively. The ivabradine group had significantly longer exercise duration when they had been treated for at least 3 months, but not when treatment time was less than 3 months. Ivabradine significantly improved time to angina onset regardless of treatment duration. Control group type did not influence the effect of exercise duration (significant) or time to angina onset (significant).Compared with beta-blocker and placebo, ivabradine improved exercise duration and time to onset of angina in patients with stable angina. However, its ability to improve exercise duration only became significant after at least 3 months of treatment.

  5. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP. The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term ''eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'' (ECRS was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001.ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States. KEY WORDS: chronic rhinosinusitis, clinical feature, diagnosis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophils

  6. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  7. [Chronically ill--chronically forgotten?--communication/mobility/everyday life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, R

    2007-04-01

    In the course of the recent years, the policy for the needs of disabled people has started a fundamental paradigm shift. Central elements of the current policy for the needs of disabled people are prevention, rehabilitation and integration. Self-determination instead of care forms the guiding principle. An indistinct definition of chronic disease makes it difficult to obtain a general idea of structures in the care and support for people with chronic diseases. The following compilation examines requirements in social legislation and questions the quality of life by means of the three exemplary aspects: communication, mobility and everyday life. Here the question remains whether the current focus on health neglects any relevant components of chronic diseases. It turns out that people with a chronic illness, although social legislation has improved, are neglected the more support they need. Care as an elementary social principle must be discussed on an interdisciplinary basis and in the context of the whole society.

  8. Chronic conditions, fluid states: chronicity and the anthropology of illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manderson, Lenore; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    .... Breaking new ground in medical anthropology by challenging the chronic/acute divide in illness and disease, the editors, along with a group of rising scholars and some of the most influential minds...

  9. Chronic conditions, fluid states: chronicity and the anthropology of illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manderson, Lenore; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    ... in the field, address the concept of chronicity, an idea used to explain individual and local life-worlds, question public health discourse, and consider the relationship between health and the globalizing forces that shape it."--pub. desc.

  10. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  11. Development of redox stable, multifunctional substrates for anode supported SOFCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Ramos, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Redox stable solid oxide fuel cells are beneficial in many aspects such as tolerance against system failures e.g fuel cut off and emergency shut down, but also allow for higher fuel utilization, which increases efficiency. State-ofthe-art Ni-cermet based anodes suffer from microstructural changes...... with a multifunctional anode support, the development of a two layer fuel electrode based on a redox stable strontium titanate layer for the electrochemically active layer and a redox stable Ni-YSZ support was pursued. Half-cells with well adhearing strontium titante anode layers on stateof-the-art Ni-YSZ cermet...... supports have been achieved. Redox tolerance of the half-cell depends could be increased by optimizing the redox stability of the cermet support....

  12. Do planetary seasons play a role in attaining stable climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2018-05-01

    A simple phenomenological account for planetary climate instabilities is presented. The description is based on the standard model where the balance of incoming stellar radiation and outward thermal radiation is described by the effective planet temperature. Often, it is found to have three different points, or temperatures, where the influx of radiation is balanced with the out-flux, even with conserved boundary conditions. Two of these points are relatively long-term stable, namely the point corresponding to a cold climate and the point corresponding to a hot climate. In a classical sense these points are equilibrium balance points. The hypothesis promoted in this paper is the possibility that the intermediate third point can become long-term stable by being driven dynamically. The initially unstable point is made relatively stable over a long period by the presence of seasonal climate variations.

  13. Self-similar anomalous diffusion and Levy-stable laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic principles for constructing the process of anomalous diffusion are considered, and corresponding models of random processes are reviewed. The self-similarity and the independent-increments principles are used to extend the notion of diffusion process to the class of Levy-stable processes. Replacing the independent-increments principle with the renewal principle allows us to take the next step in generalizing the notion of diffusion, which results in fractional-order partial space-time differential equations of diffusion. Fundamental solutions to these equations are represented in terms of stable laws, and their relationship to the fractality and memory of the medium is discussed. A new class of distributions, called fractional stable distributions, is introduced. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.

    1988-03-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: alphabetical lists of domestic and foreign customers;alphabetical lists of isotopes and services;alphabetical lists of states and countries;tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for each isotope and dollars for services divided into domestic, foreign, and DOE project categories. During FY 1987 sales of stable isotope products and services were made to 272 differnt customers, of whom 159 were domestic and 113 were foreign, representing 18 different foreign countries. The total revenue was $3,785,609 of which 12.3% was from sales to DOE project customers, 60.4% was from sales to other domestic customers, and 27.3% was from sales to foreign customers. this represented sales of 189 different stable isotopes plus associated services and was a 16.5% increase over FY 1986

  15. Stable radio frequency dissemination by simple hybrid frequency modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Longqiang; Wang, Rong; Lu, Lin; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Baofu; Wang, Peizhang

    2014-09-15

    In this Letter, we propose a fiber-based stable radio frequency transfer system by a hybrid frequency modulation scheme. Creatively, two radio frequency signals are combined and simultaneously transferred by only one laser diode. One frequency component is used to detect the phase fluctuation, and the other one is the derivative compensated signal providing a stable frequency for the remote end. A proper ratio of the frequencies of the components is well maintained by parameter m to avoid interference between them. Experimentally, a stable 200 MHz signal is transferred over 100 km optical fiber with the help of a 1 GHz detecting signal, and fractional instability of 2×10(-17) at 10(5) s is achieved.

  16. High precision and stable structures for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Mota Silva, S; Hauviller, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The central detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments require the use of light and stable structures capable of supporting delicate and precise radiation detection elements. These structures need to be highly stable under environmental conditions where external vibrations, high radiation levels, temperature and humidity gradients should be taken into account. Their main design drivers are high dimension and dynamic stability, high stiffness to mass ratio and large radiation length. For most applications, these constraints lead us to choose Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics ( CFRP) as structural element. The construction of light and stable structures with CFRP for these applications can be achieved by careful design engineering and further confirmation at the prototyping phase. However, the experimental environment can influence their characteristics and behavior. In this case, theuse of adaptive structures could become a solution for this problem. We are studying structures in CFRP with bonded piezoel...

  17. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  18. Dynamical SUSY breaking in meta-stable vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Seiberg, Nathan; Shih, David

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking in a long-lived meta-stable vacuum is a phenomenologically viable possibility. This relatively unexplored avenue leads to many new models of dynamical supersymmetry breaking. Here, we present a surprisingly simple class of models with meta-stable dynamical supersymmetry breaking: N = 1 supersymmetric QCD, with massive flavors. Though these theories are strongly coupled, we definitively demonstrate the existence of meta-stable vacua by using the free-magnetic dual. Model building challenges, such as large flavor symmetries and the absence of an R-symmetry, are easily accommodated in these theories. Their simplicity also suggests that broken supersymmetry is generic in supersymmetric field theory and in the landscape of string vacua

  19. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Farquhar, G D; Buckley, T N

    2017-06-01

    How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago, we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll. In this review, we bring together recent theoretical developments in understanding leaf water transport pathways and stable isotope theory to map a path for future work into understanding pathways of water transport and leaf water stable isotope composition. We emphasize the need for a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Preparation of thermally stable nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Parthiban, S; Elayaraja, K; Girija, E K; Yokogawa, Y; Kesavamoorthy, R; Palanichamy, M; Asokan, K; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2009-12-01

    Thermally stable hydroxyapatite (HAp) was synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of malic acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was done on the synthesized powders. These analyses confirmed the sample to be free from impurities and other phases of calcium phosphates, and were of rhombus morphology along with nanosized particles. IR and Raman analyses indicated the adsorption of malic acid on HAp. Thermal stability of the synthesized HAp was confirmed by DTA and TGA. The synthesized powders were thermally stable upto 1,400 degrees C and showed no phase change. The proposed method might be useful for producing thermally stable HAp which is a necessity for high temperature coating applications.