WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable child care

  1. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Mapping the Gap TM : Examining Child Care Supply & Demand Across the Country Checking In: A Snapshot of the Child Care Landscape – 2017 State Fact Sheets Child Care State Licensing Database Millennial Generation: How the Changing Economic Environment Impacts Parents’ Ability to Afford Child Care ...

  2. Child care subsidies revisted

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert Jongen

    2010-01-01

    Public spending on child care has taken a high flight in the Netherlands. One of the key policy goals of child care subsidies is to stimulate labour participation. We study the impact of child care subsidies on labour participation using a general equilibrium model.Next to the labour supply choice, we model the choice over formal and informal care. The choice between formal and informal care plays an important role in the overall impact of child care subsidies on labour participation. The mod...

  3. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) in which Australian child care facilities are surveyed to include those providing full-day care and therefore excludes kindergartens, play centers, nursery schools, and child minding centers that provide care for only part of the day. The document presents a breakdown of…

  4. Trends in Family Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  5. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  6. Child Malnutrition and Antenatal Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Forero-Ramirez; L.F. Gamboa (Luis); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective. To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries—Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru—where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in

  7. Foster Care and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lolita M

    2015-10-01

    Children in foster care need more from health providers than routine well-child care. The changes in legislation that were designed to prevent children from languishing in foster care also necessitate a plan that works with the child, the biological family, and the foster family in ensuring the best outcome for the child. This approach acknowledges that most foster children will return to the biological family. Recent research on the effect of adverse childhood experiences across all socioeconomic categories points to the need for specifically designed, focused, and coordinated health and mental health services for children in foster care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathways and Partnerships for Child Care Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Child Care, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 12 million American children regularly rely on child care to support their healthy development and school success. Of these, over 1.6 million children receive a child care subsidy from the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program each month. In addition, CCDF helps leverage child care investments from the Temporary Assistance for…

  9. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  10. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    B: NAVY OCCUPATIONS AND THEIR ABBREVIATIONS 315 APPENDIX C: MILITARY DAY CARE CENTER INFORMATION SHEET ---------------------------------- 316 APPENDIX... music , art, etc. e Naval Station, San Diego For tiny tots: one set of interlocking blocks, two sets interlocking squares, one set plastic blocks, twelve...sets peg boards, twenty puzzles, rythm instruments (six sets), one set flannel board letters, number shapes, two wooden trucks, one Tonka truck, piano

  11. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social policies such as child care services and parental leave entitlements. A related second topic is how child care quality is produced and influenced by policy measures. Positive findings from the UK and US...

  12. An Analysis of the Child and Adult Care Food Programs in Child Care Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapur, Kanika

    1999-01-01

    ...) that provides healthy meals and snacks in child and adult day care facilities. This report uses the Cost, Quality and Child Outcomes study to analyze the characteristics of three types of child care centers: (1...

  13. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  14. Preschool Child Care and Child Well-being in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.

    Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...

  15. Child Care and Other Support Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Latosha; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. military has come to realize that providing reliable, high-quality child care for service members' children is a key component of combat readiness. As a result, the Department of Defense (DoD) has invested heavily in child care. The DoD now runs what is by far the nation's largest employer-sponsored child-care system, a sprawling network…

  16. Employer Child Care Surviving and Thriving: Employer Child Care Trend Report #17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Today employer child care is accepted as standard benefit for employees and nearly all Fortune 500 companies have gotten involved. The current recession threatened to halt the growth of employer child care as companies consolidated, cut back, and folded. However, in reviewing the status of employer child care for this trend report, it appears that…

  17. Child-care Services for Working Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguret, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the attitudes of the public authorities in various countries concerning child-care services for working parents and the different systems of care in operation in industrial and developing nations. (Author/CT)

  18. A Cost Sharing Plan: Solutions for the Child Care Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet discusses the current child care crisis and suggests a solution to the crisis. The gap between the cost of child care and parents' ability to pay is restricting the expansion and availability of child care services and undercutting the quality of child care. The average cost of full-day child care in the Delaware Valley, Pennsylvania,…

  19. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social

  20. Planning an Effective Child Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rodney; Wright, Sydney

    This conference presentation offers general guidelines for planning a new child care facility. Particular attention is given to site selection, space requirements, functional requirements, materials, climate, and choosing an architect. (RH)

  1. Carefree in child care ?: child wellbeing, caregiving quality, and intervention programs in center-based child care

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Claudia Denise

    2014-01-01

    The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in center child care and to answer the question whether narrow-focused caregiver interventions are effective in improving child care quality. The reported meta-analysis shows that narrow-focus interv...

  2. Carefree in child care ? : child wellbeing, caregiving quality, and intervention programs in center-based child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Claudia Denise

    2014-01-01

    The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in

  3. Child Care Teaching as Women's Work: Reflections on Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miai; Reifel, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Child care teachers' experiences and their gendered understandings of their work were explored in this study. Two female child care teachers were interviewed individually and asked to describe their work as women's work. Analysis showed that teachers essentialized child care teaching, recognized the paradoxes of being a child care teacher,…

  4. Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours: Research to Policy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In November 2014, the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 was signed into law, reauthorizing the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)--the federal child care subsidy program--for the first time since 1996. In December 2015, the U.S. Office of Child Care issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which updated CCDF regulations…

  5. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  6. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Aware of America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report" presents 2011 data reflecting what parents pay for full-time child care in America. It includes average fees for both child care centers and family child care homes. Information was collected through a survey conducted in January 2012 that asked for the average costs charged for…

  7. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Lynette; Dobbins, Dionne; McCready, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  8. Small steps towards campus child care

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-09-15

    Sep 15, 2005 ... child-care facilities are rare at research institutions, a number of universities have recognized the recruitment, retention and employee-satisfaction benefits they offer. Unfortunately, old-fashioned attitudes and cost remain barriers at most institutions. Home from home. The luxury of on-site day care is offered.

  9. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  10. Making the Case for Public-Private Child Care Partnerships: Child Care Partnership Project. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finance Project, Washington, DC.

    The quality of child care in the United States has important implications for school preparedness, welfare reform, economic vitality, and the quality of family life. In this 8-minute videotape, business leaders describe why child care makes good business sense. Visuals explain the importance of early childhood for school and life success, and the…

  11. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  12. Child care at CERN: Recommendations for Improvements of the Child Care Situation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Alviggi, M G; Avramidou, R; Barillari, T; Bates, R; Benelli, G; Beolè, S; Berger, N; Boeriu, O; Bölla, G; Bornheim, A; Brigido, F; Calheiros, F; Garrido, M C; Llatas, M C; Chesneanu, D; Conde-Muíño, P; D'Auria, S; De Santo, A; David Tinoco Mendes, A; De La Cruz Burelo, E; Della Volpe, M; Delmastro, M; Demers, S M; Dimovasili, E; Dindar, K; Elder, S; Eno, S; Eschrich, K G; Fonseca Martin, T M; Gagnon, P; Gateau, M; Gemme, C; Gentile, S; Geurts, F; Goldfarb, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grothe, M; Hadjidakis, C; Hoffmann, D; Issever, C; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kandasamy, S; Koblitz, S; Koval'S'Kyi, D; Krivda, M; Lançon, E; Leahu, A E; Leahu, L; Lester, C G; Lipniacka-Wesolowska, A L; List, J; López-Noriega, M; Manca, G; Mariotti, C; Maselli, S; Merkel, P; Nachtman, J; Natale, S; Oldeman, R; Organtini, G; Patterson, R; Pesci, A; Primavera, M; Quadt, A; Rosati, M; Sbarra, C; Teuscher, R; Tique Aires Viegas, F; Trigger, I M; Tuominen, E; Van Lingen, F; Vandoni, G; Vanini, S; Veverkovai, K; Vickey, T; Wang, D; Wells, P; Wengler, T; Wittmer, B; Yumiceva Del Pozo, F X; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  13. Quasi-experimental evidenceon the relationbetween child care subsidiesand child care quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Jongen, E.; Leseman, Paul P M; Plantenga, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present quasi-experimental evidence on the relation between child care subsidies and child care quality. We exploit the difference in fund- ing of private and public centers in the Netherlands. A recent subsidy cut reduced funding for private centers while funding for public

  14. Making child care centers SAFER: a non-regulatory approach to improving child care center siting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Tarah S; Harvey, Margaret L; Rusnak, Sharee Major

    2011-01-01

    Licensed child care centers are generally considered to be safe because they are required to meet state licensing regulations. As part of their licensing requirements, many states inspect child care centers and include an assessment of the health and safety of the facility to look for hazardous conditions or practices that may harm children. However, most states do not require an environmental assessment of the child care center building or land to prevent a center from being placed on, next to, or inside contaminated buildings. Having worked on several sites where child care centers were affected by environmental contaminants, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) endeavor to raise awareness of this issue. One of ATSDR's partner states, Connecticut, took a proactive, non-regulatory approach to the issue with the development its Child Day Care Screening Assessment for Environmental Risk Program.

  15. [The child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Care plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Maldonado, Ana I; Gutiérrez Alonso, José Luis

    2002-06-01

    The authors state what is the nursing care to follow with a child affected by imperfect osteogenesis. This treatment is divided into three fundamental parts. In the first part, one plans out the psycho-sociological assistance the parents in question need in order to achieve their acceptance of a child suffering from a serious illness. In the second part, the authors describe the physical and psychological treatment which patients suffering imperfect osteogenesis should receive in order to avoid serious complications which can develop during their growth, treatment directed towards the family and the professional who shall care for this child. Finally in the third part, a child suffering imperfect osteogenesis shall receive the necessary knowledge and skills so that he/she can achieve maximum social integration.

  16. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  17. Highlights from the Technical Assistance and Child Care Resources Sponsored by the Office of Child Care. Office of Child Care Pathways and Partnerships Priorities. Issue Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Child Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Office of Child Care (OCC) administers the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program, a multibillion-dollar Federal and State partnership to support access to high-quality child care for working families. OCC helps States, Territories, and Tribes administer their CCDF programs through program support, policy guidance, technical…

  18. Raising Questions about Improving the Quality of Child Care: Child Care in the United States and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Marx, Elisabeth

    1992-01-01

    Describes and contrasts aspects of child care systems in France and the United States to stimulate discussion of child care standards. French child care is characterized by highly trained and reasonably compensated teachers who work in classrooms with class sizes and child-adult ratios considered excessive by U.S. standards. (HTH)

  19. Maternal perception regarding child care and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.

  20. 7 CFR 226.17 - Child care center provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child care center provisions. 226.17 Section 226.17... care center provisions. (a) Child care centers may participate in the Program either as independent... sponsoring organization. Child care centers participating as independent centers shall comply with the...

  1. Female labour participation and child care choices in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Borra Marcos

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes Spanish families' behaviour relating to child care and employment issues. It estimates a simultaneous equation econometric model to study the effect of child care costs on labour participation decisions and child care choices. Based on data from the Spanish Time Use Survey, our study indicates that female labour force participation is very elastic to changes in prices of day-care services. Also, choice of child care mode is conditional on employment status. In addition, th...

  2. Child Care for Young Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert L.; Madsen, Kim

    Early intervention can enhance the development of disabled infants and toddlers and reduce long-term education costs to society, but rural communities may be unable to provide coordinated early-intervention services that include quality child care. Barriers to rural service delivery include economic, geographic, and human-capital factors. Although…

  3. Past and Present Child Care in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Sandra L.

    Providing an historical and current account of Israel's early childhood care and educational system, this report depicts a state-supported system that has emphasized, through both home and classroom techniques, early intervention for the Jewish disadvantaged and handicapped child and family. Focusing on the goals, methods, and realities of child…

  4. Health Training Needs of Child Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Rick; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle

    2001-01-01

    Child care professionals in Hawaii were surveyed to assess health training needs. Respondents reported a high degree of comfort in managing common health conditions. The most commonly requested health services involved speech/language testing and vision/hearing screening. The most requested health/safety workshop topic was behavioral problems. The…

  5. Quality Control in Child Care Staff Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Merwin R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process of staff selection of child care staff at a residential treatment center for children, ages 8-16. Phases of candidate selection, an "open-door" interview procedure, the orientation of hired candidates and the agency's philosophy, procedures and practices are discussed. (GO)

  6. Child and Youth Care Approaches to Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the themes and issues related to child and youth care approaches to management. The profession is significantly underrepresented at the management level. To some extent, this reflects the challenges of being recognized in the broader human services sector as a profession, but perhaps more so, it reflects an underdevelopment…

  7. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  8. Collective labor supply and child care expenditures: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Ghysels, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. We find that the individual labor supplies are hardly affected by changes in the prices of child care services. In addition, the child care price effects on the

  9. Child Care Helps America Work and Learn. Issue No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Helps America Work and Learn" is a new publication produced by the Child Care Bureau. This new series will highlight some of the many Recovery Act-funded child care success stories from communities across the country that illustrate how the Bureau is working toward the shared goal of supporting children and families. This…

  10. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Kendall, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Every week in the United States, nearly 11 million children younger than age 5 are in some type of child care arrangement. On average, these children spend 36 hours a week in child care. While parents are children's first and most important teachers, child care programs provide early learning for millions of young children daily, having a profound…

  11. Active play opportunities at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for children's health and development, yet preschoolers are not meeting PA recommendations. The objective of this study was to examine different PA opportunities at child care and how variation in indoor versus outdoor and free versus teacher-led opportunities relate to children's PA. An observational study of 98 children (mean age 4.5 years, 49% girls) from 10 child care centers. Classrooms were observed for at least 4 full days per center (total 50 days) to categorize time into (1) not an active play opportunity (APO); (2) naptime; (3) APO, outdoor free play; (4) APO, outdoor teacher-led; (5) APO, indoor free play; and (6) APO, indoor teacher-led. Children wore accelerometers during observations. Linear regression models examined the influence of APO categories on moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Children's activity was 73% sedentary, 13% light, and 14% MVPA. For 88% of time children did not have APOs, including 26% time as naptime. On average, 48 minutes per day were APOs (41% sedentary, 18% light, and 41% MVPA), 33 minutes per day were outdoors. The most frequent APO was outdoor free play (8% of time); outdoor teacher-led time was child-initiated APOs (indoors and outdoors) versus teacher-led APOs. Preschoolers were presented with significantly fewer than recommended opportunities for PA at child care. More APOs are needed for children to meet recommendations, particularly those that encourage more outdoor time, more teacher-led and child-initiated active play, and flexibility in naptime for preschoolers. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Partnered women’s labour supply and child care costs in Australia: measurement error and the child care price

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Gong; Robert Breuing; Anthony King

    2011-01-01

    We show that measurement error in the constructed price of child care can explain why previous Australian studies have found partnered women’s labour supply to be unresponsive to child care prices. Through improved data and improved construction of the child care price variable, we find child care price elasticities that are statistically significant, negative and in line with elasticities found in other developed countries.

  13. Creating New Child Care Slots in Mini Child Care Centers: Big Bang for the Buck in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Small grants of $7,500 with technical assistance were offered to the child care community of New Jersey to either start or increase licensed capacity in mini-child care centers. Results of a subsequent analysis showed that 26 grantees created 481 new child care slots at an average cost of $561 per slot. (Author/SM)

  14. Our Families, Our Children: The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force Report on Quality Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispenza, Mary

    The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…

  15. Diarrhea & Child Care: Controlling Diarrhea in Out-of-Home Child Care. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.

    This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report…

  16. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-04-01

    While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and 'decreasing /stable' child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI 'decreased or stayed the same.' Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of -0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a -0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success.

  17. 5 CFR 792.200 - What are the benefits of the child care subsidy program law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... at Federal child care centers, non-Federal child care centers, and in family child care homes for... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the benefits of the child care... Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees-What Is the Child Care...

  18. National Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The relation between compliance with child care regulations and the quality of day care programs is discussed, and predictors of child care compliance are identified. Substantial compliance (90-97 percent, but not a full 100 percent compliance with state day care regulations) positively affects children. Low compliance (below 85 percent…

  19. L'inserimento del bambino al nido (Welcoming the Child into Child Care): Perspectives from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    Describes various approaches taken by Italian child-care programs to facilitate the young child's transition into a child care setting. Discusses the role of teachers as researchers, the role of parents as partners, and the benefits to young children. (KB)

  20. Caregiver-Child Relationships as a Context for Continuity in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of continuity--the caregiver-child relationship--within a larger global study of continuity in child care based at a university-affiliated child care center. Case studies are presented of two toddler boys, followed as they transitioned from their infant classroom to the preschool classroom at the age of…

  1. Options for Improving the Military Child Care System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zellman, Gail L; Gates, Susan M; Cho, Michelle; Shaw, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    .... Care in Child Development Centers (CDCs) is quite costly for DoD to provide; care for the youngest children is particularly expensive since parent fees are based on family income and not on the cost of care...

  2. Child Health Care Services in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbl, Reinhold; Ziniel, Georg; Winkler, Petra; Habl, Claudia; Püspök, Rudolf; Waldhauser, Franz

    2016-10-01

    We describe child health care in Austria, a small country in Central Europe with a population of about 9 million inhabitants of whom approximately 1.7 million are children and adolescents under the age of 20 years. For children and adolescents, few health care indicators are available. Pediatric and adolescent health provision, such as overall health provision, follows a complex system with responsibilities shared by the Ministry of Health, 19 social insurance funds, provinces, and other key players. Several institutions are affiliated with or cooperate with the Ministry of Health to assure quality control. The Austrian public health care system is financed through a combination of income-based social insurance payments and taxes. Pediatric primary health care in Austria involves the services of general pediatricians and general practitioners. Secondary care is mostly provided by the 43 children's hospitals; tertiary care is (particularly) provided in 4 state university hospitals and 1 private university hospital. The training program of residents takes 6 years and is completed by a final examination. Every year, this training program is completed by about 60 residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Child care in Vrsac and its development

    OpenAIRE

    Šljapić Živa; Šljapić-Roganović Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarov...

  4. Infectious disease in pediatric out-of-home child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael T

    2005-06-01

    Provision of some form of child care outside of the home is certainly not a new phenomenon. In the past, most out-of-home care was provided by a relative, a friend, or someone who had a specific relationship with the family of the child. The frequency of utilization of child care centers for out-of-home care and the different formats of out-of-home care services has increased within recent decades and will vary by geographic location. Also, there is an increased utilization of temporary child care such as "mother's day out" or baby-sitting services provided at churches, grocery stores, and other places. Child care centers represent special risks for transmission of infectious agents because young children exhibit high susceptibility to many community-acquired viruses and bacteria; they lack developmental understanding required for good hygiene; and they frequently receive antibiotics (appropriately and inappropriately). Infections acquired in child care centers can significantly impact the health of the children who acquire the infection and also result in significant economic impacts on the child's family, particularly if 1 or more of the parents has to lose time from work. In the United States, it is estimated that families who have children in child care lose 13 days of work per year for all types of infections. Interventions that have proven valuable for reducing infections within child care centers include the following: (1) formal written policies for infection control within the child care center, (2) formal education of child care center staff concerning infection control practices (needs to be repeated; preferably on a recurring basis), (3) good hand hygiene by both staff and children, (4) appropriate cleaning of contaminated surfaces, (5) separation of food preparation and diaper changing, (6) exclusion of certain ill children, (7) cohorting ill children when exclusion is not possible, (8) ensuring adequate age-appropriate immunization of child care

  5. 76 FR 3143 - Office of Child Care; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Care; Delegation of Authority Notice is hereby given that I have delegated to the Director, Office of Child Care, Administration for Children and Families, the authorities vested in me by the Secretary of... the child care related programs. 7. This delegation of authority does not include the authority to...

  6. "Who Cares for the Children?" Lessons from a Global Perspective of Child Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokteff, Maegan; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the argument that the meaning of child care and the policies that address it are explicitly linked with national ideologies, work force participation, economic success, and child outcomes. The relationship between family and child care policies is cyclical in nature, with a nation's ideology and vision of family often driving child care…

  7. Home, School Partnerships in Family Child Care: Providers' Relationships within Their Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Professional family child care providers' work with children from birth through age five can be exemplary, particularly with regard to building stable and substantive relational ties. Such long-term engagements with client children and their families offer potential for strong partnership with families and local contexts over time. This paper…

  8. Can We Trust Parental Reports of Child Care Subsidy Receipt?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Anna D.; Herbst, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research examining determinants and consequences of the means-tested child care subsidy program (the Child Care and Development Fund [CCDF]) has grown dramatically. To measure subsidy utilization, existing studies typically rely on parent-reported measures of subsidy receipt drawn from large surveys. As the research literature on child care subsidies has grown, however, so have concerns about the trustworthiness of parent-reported subsidy use. One way to assess...

  9. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  10. Is Part-Time Child Care Surrogate Parenting? Parents' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Avis

    The purpose of this survey and report is to gain information about parental planning for child-rearing when the mother is employed. This study is intended to explore mothers' perceptions of possible delegation of some basic child-rearing functions during the mothers' absence for employment. Comparison of the child care arrangements which the…

  11. Probiotics and child care absence due to infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of infections is higher in children attending child care compared with children cared for at home. This study examined the effect of a combination of probiotics on absence from child care because of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in healthy infants aged 8 to 14...... months at the time of enrollment in child care. METHODS: The ProbiComp study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 290 infants were randomly allocated to receive a placebo or a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a dose of 10......(9) colony-forming units of each daily for a 6-month intervention period. Absence from child care, occurrence of infant symptoms of illness, and doctor visits were registered by the parents using daily and weekly Web-based questionnaires. RESULTS: Median absence from child care was 11 days (interquartile...

  12. Identifying Child-Staff Ratios That Promote Peer Skills in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluz, Reli; Adi-Japha, Esther; Klein, Pnina S.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Early child care policy and practice are grounded in a growing understanding of the importance of the first years of life. In earlier studies, associations between child-staff ratios and peer skills yielded inconsistent findings. The current study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study…

  13. Stability of Subsidy Participation and Continuity of Care in the Child Care Assistance Program in Minnesota. Minnesota Child Care Choices Research Brief Series. Publication #2014-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…

  14. Principles of Child Health Care Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Mark L; Helm, Mark E; White, Patience H

    2017-09-01

    After passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more children and young adults have become insured and have benefited from health care coverage than at any time since the creation of the Medicaid program in 1965. From 2009 to 2015, the uninsurance rate for children younger than 19 years fell from 9.7% to 5.3%, whereas the uninsurance rate for young adults 19 to 25 years of age declined from 31.7% to 14.5%. Nonetheless, much work remains to be done. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) believes that the United States can and should ensure that all children, adolescents, and young adults from birth through the age of 26 years who reside within its borders have affordable access to high-quality and comprehensive health care, regardless of their or their families' incomes. Public and private health insurance should safeguard existing benefits for children and take further steps to cover the full array of essential health care services recommended by the AAP. Each family should be able to afford the premiums, deductibles, and other cost-sharing provisions of the plan. Health plans providing these benefits should ensure, insofar as possible, that families have a choice of professionals and facilities with expertise in the care of children within a reasonable distance of their residence. Traditional and innovative payment methodologies by public and private payers should be structured to guarantee the economic viability of the pediatric medical home and of other pediatric specialty and subspecialty practices to address developing shortages in the pediatric specialty and subspecialty workforce, to promote the use of health information technology, to improve population health and the experience of care, and to encourage the delivery of evidence-based and quality health care in the medical home, as well as in other outpatient, inpatient, and home settings. All current and future health care insurance plans should incorporate the principles for child

  15. Children's cortisol and the quality of teacher--child relationships in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonbee, Jared A; Mize, Jacquelyn; Payne, Amie Lapp; Granger, Douglas A

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-child relationships were examined as predictors of cortisol change in preschool children. Saliva for assays was collected from one hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds (101 boys) in the mornings and afternoons on 2 days at child care, and before and after a series of challenging tasks and a teacher-child interaction session outside the classroom. Parents reported on children's temperament, teachers and children reported on teacher-child relationship quality, and observers rated group-level teacher insensitivity. Teacher-reported relationship conflict predicted cortisol increases during teacher-child interaction and teacher-reported overdependence predicted cortisol increases from morning to afternoon, even after controlling for individual teacher, child, and classroom characteristics. The findings extend earlier work by suggesting that cortisol change across the child-care day is influenced by teacher-child relationship characteristics.

  16. Effects of Quality Improvement System for Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Kavanaugh, Amy; Lu, Xuejin; Brandi, Karen; Goodman, Jeff; Till, Lance; Watson, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Using multiple years of data collected from about 100 child care centers in Palm Beach County, Florida, the authors studied whether the Quality Improvement System (QIS) made a significant impact on quality of child care centers. Based on a pre- and postresearch design spanning a period of 13 months, QIS appeared to be effective in improving…

  17. Our children's future: child care policy in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ... of child care policy and asked them to consider a number of important questions. Based on a symposium on the topic held in 1998, Our Children's Future makes a significant contribution to understanding how Canada, with its particular institutions, history, politics, and values, should design a national child care strategy. Presenting a healthy and vigo...

  18. Safety Hazards in Child Care Settings. CPSC Staff Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    Each year, thousands of children in child care settings are injured seriously enough to need emergency medical treatment. This national study identified potential safety hazards in 220 licensed child care settings in October and November 1998. Eight product areas were examined: cribs, soft bedding, playground surfacing, playground surface…

  19. The importance of child care to improving economic opportunities for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-22

    Aug 22, 2017 ... Shelley Clark, director at the Centre for Population Dynamics at McGill University, delivers opening remarks at the child care conference in Montreal. Researchers and practitioners gathered in Montreal on August 11, 2017 to discuss the potential of child care to benefit women through improved economic ...

  20. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willem Nugteren; Cokky van der Venne; prof Berno van Meijel; Yvonne van der Zalm; Thóra van der Hafsteinsdóttir; Nienke Kool

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to

  1. Financing Child Care through Local Taxes: One City's Bold Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Kenneth E.; Strober, Myra H.

    1992-01-01

    Interviewed policymakers and conducted election day exit poll to examine Fremont, California City Council measure asking residents whether tax should pay for child care. Concluded that measure lost because city overestimated shortage of child-care slots, supporters underestimated opposition, and city council and public opinion polls overestimated…

  2. Child Care in the American South: Poverty, Costs, and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Vikki K.

    2012-01-01

    High-quality child care has been shown to improve the academic success and life adjustments of children living in poverty. During the past decade, many American states have adopted voluntary Quality Rating and Improvement (QRI) systems in an attempt to increase the level of quality in child care. Using data compiled by the National Association of…

  3. Pregnancy, Birth, Infant and Child Care: Midwifery Skill and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Birgit

    This presentation, which is based in part on a cross-cultural survey of East Africans and also on research conducted in Ethiopia, highlights the importance of traditional knowledge of midwifery. Examples of traditional skills in pregancy and birth care, and of child care and child rearing in several East African countries, are offered. It is…

  4. Child Care as Script: Children's Descriptions of Daily Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifel, Stuart; Garza, Margaret

    Children's knowledge of daily events in full-day child care was assessed. Interviews with 14 children produced spontaneous narratives that revealed script-like knowledge of the child care day, including events such as indoor play, outdoor play, breakfast, lunch, nap, and snack. Younger children reported a smaller number of events in their…

  5. Child care subsidies with endogenous education and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Laurie S.M.

    2014-01-01

    What are the effects of child care subsidies on education, fertility and the sectoral allocation of the labour force? In a general equilibrium setting the availability of affordable professional child care will have an impact on the relative supplies of educated and uneducated workers and the

  6. Are There Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; McCartney, Kathleen; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2007-01-01

    Effects of early child care on children's functioning from 4 1/2 years through the end of 6th grade (M age=12.0 years) were examined in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n=1,364). The results indicated that although parenting was a stronger and more consistent predictor of…

  7. Quality-Adjusted Cost Functions for Child-Care Centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mocan, H Naci

    1995-01-01

    Using a newly compiled data set, this paper estimates multi- product translog cost functions for 399 child care centers from California, Colorado, Connecticut, and North Carolina. Quality of child care is controlled by a quality index, which has been shown to be positively related to child outcomes by previous research. Nonprofit centers that receive public money, either from the state or federal government, (which is tied to higher standards), have total variable costs that are 18 percent hi...

  8. Making the "Child Safe" Environment "Adult Safe": Occupational Health and Safety Concerns for Child Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; Ginsburg, Gerri

    Results of a nonrandom nationwide survey of 89 child care workers in 20 states concerning work-related health and safety conditions confirm that similar hazardous conditions exist in child care programs throughout the nation. Results also confirm that concern and anger about such conditions and their potential consequences are widespread among…

  9. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  10. Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.

  11. We Can Do Better: Child Care Aware® of America's Ranking of State Child Care Center Regulations and Oversight. 2013 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Aware of America, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Each week, nearly 11 million children under age 5 are in some type of child care setting for an average of 35 hours. Parents, as consumers of child care, equate a child care license with state approval--a gold seal for those businesses to which a state grants a license. Child Care Aware® of America reviews state licensing policies, which include…

  12. Swedish child health care in a changing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ann-Christine; Lindbladh, Eva; Petersson, Kerstin; Råstam, Lennart; Håkansson, Anders

    2005-09-01

    Staff in Swedish child health care today feel a gap between policy and practice. By revealing the main lines in the development of child health care, we hoped to achieve a better understanding of the current trends and problems in today's Swedish child health care. A selection of official documents about the development of child health care during the period 1930-2000 was studied with the aid of discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified, which serve as a foundation for a periodization of the development of child health care. In the first period the main task of child health care, alongside checking on the development of the child, was to inform and educate the mothers. During the second period health supervision became the crucial task, to identify risks and discover abnormalities and disabilities. The third period focused on the discussion concerning the identification of health-related and social 'risk groups', and the work of child health care was increasingly geared to supervision of the parents' care of their children. Parents were to be given support so that they could cope with their difficulties by themselves. During the current period child health care is increasingly expected to direct its work towards the child's surroundings and the family as a whole and is now explicitly defined as an institution that should strengthen parents' self-esteem and competence. The level of responsibility for the child's health changed gradually during the different periods, from public responsibility to parental responsibility. The focus of efforts in child health care was changed from being general in the first and second periods to general and selective in period three, and then gradually becoming selective again in period four. While control of the child's physical health was central during the first two periods, psychosocial health came into focus in the last two, along with the importance of supporting the parents to enable them to handle their difficulties

  13. Mainstreaming Works! Volume I. Child Care Worker In-Service Education Module Special Needs Child Care Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact, Inc., Ft. Myers, FL.

    This in-service education module is intended to facilitate mainstreaming of young children with special needs in child care centers by providing information and training in mainstreaming concepts and activities to child care center owners, operators, and personnel. Guidelines for instructors in preparing for planned sessions are followed by a…

  14. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  15. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  16. Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-03-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from reasonably diverse backgrounds were followed from 1 month to 11 years with repeated observational assessments of parenting and child care quality, as well as teacher report and standardized assessments of children's cognitive-academic and social functioning, to determine whether those with histories of difficult temperament proved more susceptible to early rearing effects at ages 10 and 11. Evidence for such differential susceptibility emerges in the case of both parenting and child care quality and with respect to both cognitive-academic and social functioning. Differential susceptibility to parenting and child care quality extends to late middle childhood. J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, et al.'s (2007) failure to consider such temperament-moderated rearing effects in their evaluation of long-term child care effects misestimates effects of child care quality on social adjustment.

  17. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    reassurance, strong human relationships to stand in for those that were shattered . 0 0 S• i n | | |9 CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE IN FAMILIES The purpose of...was especially messy at meal time, mashing cereal in her hair and ears; 31 "an infant who pulls on a necklace and breaks it; " an infant who continually

  18. Smoke-Free Child Care = Proyecto de Cuidado Diurno Para Ninos Donde "No se Fuma."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This packet of materials on smoke-free child care contains: (1) "Smoke Free Child Care," a booklet warning child care providers about the dangers of second-hand smoke and the fact that children often imitate adult behaviors, such as smoking; (2) "Smoke-Free Child Care: A Booklet for Family Day Care Providers," warning about the…

  19. Peer Effects on Aggressive Behavior in Norwegian Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa A; Zachrisson, Henrik D

    2017-09-20

    This study examined whether exposure to changes in peer aggression predicted changes in child physical aggression (PA) in preschool children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study were used, including 956 children. In fixed effects models, within-child changes in exposure to peer aggression predicted changes in teacher-rated child PA across ages 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, changes in exposure to a peer group with two or more externalizing children increased teacher-rated child PA over time, but only for boys. No significant peer effects on parent-rated child PA were found. Findings point to the importance of avoiding the congregation of several problematic children, particularly boys, in the same ECEC groups. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Barriers to the Implementation of Continuity-of-Care Practices in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguillard, Amber E.; Pierce, Sarah H.; Benedict, Joan H.; Burts, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined barriers to the implementation of continuity-of-care practices in child care centers. We collected qualitative and quantitative data for 52 children at four centers that advertise their programs as continuity programs. Of the 52 children, only 7 of the children had been cared for in a single child-caregiver dyad between the…

  1. Child health and child care of very young children in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy

    2017-01-01

    With the global progress in reduction of child mortality, an increasing concern for the health, development and well-being of the surviving child has emerged. It is estimated that 250 million children are not reaching their developmental potential in developing countries, due to among others malnutrition, inadequate care and exposure to violence. In addition, structural and other social aspects of the immediate family and wider community environment of the child exert influence...

  2. Training in child and adolescent psychiatry for primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective — To obtain feedback from primary care nurses who attended two study days in child and adolescent mental health. The study days aimed to equip nurses with basic assessment and intervention skills for the most common problems in child and adolescent psychiatric nursing. Method — All 144 and 68 primary ...

  3. Project Iris - Caring for a sexually abused foster child.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Dorijn; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The traumatizing effects of child sexual abuse are generally acknowledged. Successfully fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse requires specific skills and knowledge. What expertise do foster families caring for these vulnerable children have? What do they need to succeed? What do foster

  4. Child Care as Shared Socialization--Center and Societal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Renatta M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses child care as a system of shared socialization, considering how this role shapes the provision of children's developmental needs, parental expectations of socialization, the child's needs, and the importance of collaboration between parents and caregivers. Examines the effects of cultural differences on expectations for children's…

  5. Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Volunteer Efforts Dental Care for a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate skip to submenu What We Do Cleft & Craniofacial ... version of this factsheet, click here How does cleft lip/palate affect the teeth? A cleft of the lip, ...

  6. 2015 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2015 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  7. 2016 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2016 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  8. 2014 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2014 reporting. Dataset contains...

  9. The role of play in Danish child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  10. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and

  11. Dual-Military Couples, Child Care and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ACSC/Williams, Ja Rai A./AY16 1 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Dual-Military Couples, Child Care & Retention ... retention of one or both members of dual-military marriages significantly decreases after ten years of service. Among the military community, child...care issues most negatively affected the retention decisions of members of dual-military marriages. The Air Force should place an emphasis on

  12. Cooperative Child Care for Rural Residents: The Experience from California

    OpenAIRE

    Coontz, Elizabeth Kim; Esper, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Over the past third of a century, Western welfare states have made policy shifts toward decentralization and privatization, and expected the private non-profit sector to take a larger role in addressing social welfare needs. In the US, welfare policies that focus on employment for the parents of young children, the large number of parents in the workforce, and inadequate child care services in rural communities combine to make the case for innovative child care strategies particularly compell...

  13. Addressing food allergy issues within child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Harvey L; Clark, Noreen M

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of food allergies in the pediatric population has risen significantly in the past decade. School districts and advocacy groups have made progress in developing systematic approaches to address pediatric food allergies; however, the widespread variance in child care settings, organization, and staff training still presents unique challenges. Addressing these obstacles requires multiple approaches to policy and guideline formulation and dissemination. This review discusses current issues in food allergy prevention and education in child care settings and offers potential solutions.

  14. Targeted child psychiatric services: a new model of pediatric primary clinician--child psychiatry collaborative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; McLaughlin, Thomas J; Jeffers-Terry, Mary; O'Brien, William H; Stille, Christopher J; Young, Lynda M; Antonelli, Richard C

    2006-06-01

    Between 15% and 25% of children and adolescents seen in pediatric primary care have a behavioral health disorder with significant psychopathology, high functional impairment, and frequent psychiatric diagnostic comorbidity. Because child psychiatry services are frequently unavailable, primary care clinicians are frequently left managing these children without access to child psychiatry consultation. We describe Targeted Child Psychiatric Services (TCPS), a new model of pediatric primary clinician-child psychiatry collaborative care, and describe program utilization and characteristics of children referred over the first 18 months of the program using a retrospective chart review. The TCPS model can serve a large number of pediatric primary care practices and provide collaborative help with the evaluation and treatment of complex attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, and pediatric psychopharmacology.

  15. Gender bias in child care and child health: global patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Lodha, Rakesh; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-04-01

    Gender-based discrimination is reported across the spectrum of paediatric healthcare including emergency, inpatient, outpatient and preventive care and is mostly reported from South Asia and China with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. Biases against young girls have been documented even in immunisation percentage, home food allocation, seeking medical care for childhood ailments and percentage of household healthcare expenditures allocated to them. Such gender discrimination in access to medical care is likely to have an influence on the overall health of female children. Over the last five decades, the under-5 sex ratios are worsening in India with declining number of girls. Deliberate parental neglect of girls' essential and life-saving medical care is also an important contributing factor apart from sex-selective abortions to the declining gender ratios. Corrective measures and focused action are needed.

  16. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  17. On the Effectiveness of Child Care Centers in Promoting Child Development in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Rosero

    2012-01-01

    Although the literature on the effectiveness of child care centers in developing countries is thin, most of the studies have concluded that the provision of these services are beneficial to enhance the development of poor children at early ages. Using different matching techniques, the results in this paper contrast with that conclusion as it finds no support of a positive effect of a large scale child care program in Ecuador on any of the dimensions considered of cognitive development. This ...

  18. The High Cost of Child Care Puts Quality Care out of Reach for Many Families. Issue Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Karen

    This issue brief presents data on the cost of child care, collected from local child care resource and referral agencies (CCR&Rs) surveyed by the Children's Defense Fund. The report's key findings on the high cost of child care are: (1) child care for a 4-year-old in a child care center averages $4,000 to $6,000 a year in cities and states…

  19. Understanding fatherhood in Greece: father's involvement in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Maridaki-Kassotaki

    Full Text Available The present study aims to depict a picture of Greek fathers concerning their involvement in family and child-centered tasks over the first year of the child. Eighty fathers from rural areas with low educational and occupational status and eighty fathers from urban districts with high educational and occupational status were asked to talk about their own perceptions of fatherhood and also their participation into two parenting commitments: (a preparations before and after the birth of the child and (b involvement in play with the child and a variety of daily child-care tasks. The results show that fathers in urban regions were more involved in these activities than their counterparts in rural areas. All fathers valued fatherhood as a pleasant experience. Many fathers, however, stated that child-rearing responsibilities cause them a lot of psychological strain. The results are discussed in relation to the division of roles between spouses in Greek families.

  20. Improving Support Services for Family Child Care through Relationship-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Bibbs, Tonya

    2011-01-01

    Family child care (FCC) providers often experience isolation from other early childhood and child care professionals. Yet, research suggests that providers who network with other providers, engage with community resources, and belong to support groups tend to offer higher quality child care. For example, the Family Child Care Network Impact Study…

  1. Not Babysitting: Work Stress and Well-Being for Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika

    2014-01-01

    Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…

  2. The Relationship between Women's Working Arrangements and Their Child Care Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandenHeuvel, Audrey

    1996-01-01

    An Australian survey examined the child care and working arrangements (part time, shift work, overtime) of 2,890 mothers. Differences in use of formal child care or unmet child care needs depended on children's ages and full-time/overtime status. Those working in nontraditional arrangements may be more likely to use informal child care. (SK)

  3. Quality in Family Child Care Networks: An Evaluation of All Our Kin Provider Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Toni; Reiman, Kayla; Nelson, Christina; Sager, Jessica; Wagner, Janna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of quality with a sample of 28 family child care providers in the All Our Kin Family Child Care Network, a staffed family child care network which offers a range of services including relationship-based intensive consultation, and 20 family child care providers who had no…

  4. Child care is not a substantial risk factor for gastrointestinal infection hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Andersen, Lise Geisler; Simonsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of age at first enrollment into child care and other child care-related factors on the risk for hospitalization from gastrointestinal infection.......The objective was to study the effect of age at first enrollment into child care and other child care-related factors on the risk for hospitalization from gastrointestinal infection....

  5. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  6. The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality in Thick and Thin Child Care Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…

  7. 5 CFR 792.211 - What is the definition of a Federally sponsored child care center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sponsored child care center? 792.211 Section 792.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... sponsored child care center? The term Federally sponsored child care center, for the purposes of this subpart, is a child care center that is located in a building or space that is owned or leased by the...

  8. Child Care Enrollment Decisions Among Dual Language Learner Families: The Role of Spanish Language Instruction in the Child Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 1,141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort ( N = 825) were used to describe child care enrollment decisions among Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learner (DLL) families. In particular, logistic regression models tested which child, family, and institutional characteristics predicted enrollment in early care and education (ECE) settings that used Spanish for instruction versus enrollment in settings that did not use Spanish. Results showed that whether the child's first language was exclusively Spanish and whether other DLL families previously attended the ECE arrangement strongly predicted whether that child enrolled. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed.

  9. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  10. Collective Labor Supply and Child Care Expenditures : Theory and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, Chris; Ghysels, Joris

    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. For this purpose we use data of the Flemish Families and Care Survey (FFCS, 2004-2005). The main findings are, firstly, that the supply of paid labor is hardly affected

  11. [Take care of a child, one work like any other?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    This article has its roots in the basic contradictions, which go back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, between the self-interest and the care of others, exemplified by the delegation of responsibility for the care of children and other vulnerable persons. This splitting of human life-supporting activities has sealed women's dependence on men by setting off the lucrative area from the private, non-lucrative sphere of activities. These contradictions become paradoxical as soon as we consider the delegation of responsibility for the care of a child to someone not related to the child. This article addresses the question of how the child's developmental needs can be met without damage to his/her sensitivity, and his/her perception of others or of the cooperation involved. As soon as it is born, the child, a thoroughly interactive being, discerns the relationships it entertains with those who are in charge of him/her. The persons - mostly women - who take care of the child are not interchangeable, since they bring their own subjectivity into their dealings with the child and this is reciprocal. The women's skills, frequently thought to be “undefinable”, but which many women, whether related or not to the child, have developed or should develop, are brought into play and are either transmitted or acquired in the course of their care of the child; these skills are not by nature “feminine skills”, but they require a great deal of reactivity and sensitivity and therefore, many child professionals, mothers' aids and children's care-takers in the home are hurt and insulted by the low esteem in which they are held. These skills and human qualities, which are the result of feelings more than of formalised knowledge, techniques or theories - albeit these are also necessary - make child care and child rearing an art. These skills seem to be in total contradiction with those that are current in the world of labour, where the tempo of work, flexibility of working

  12. Continuing Care for Mentally Stable Psychiatric Patients in Primary Care: Patients' Preferences and Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent I. O. Agyapong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the preferences of psychiatric patients regarding attendance for their continuing mental health care once stable from a primary care setting as opposed to a specialized psychiatric service setting. Methods. 150 consecutive psychiatric patients attending outpatient review in a community mental health centre in Dublin were approached and asked to complete a semistructured questionnaire designed to assess the objectives of the study. Results. 145 patients completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 97%. Ninety-eight patients (68% preferred attending a specialized psychiatry service even when stabilised on their treatment. The common reason given by patients in this category was fear of substandard quality of psychiatric care from their general practitioners (GPs (67 patients, 68.4%. Twenty-nine patients (20% preferred to attend their GP for continuing mental health care. The reasons given by these patients included confidence in GPs, providing same level of care as psychiatrist for mental illness (18 patients or 62%, and the advantage of managing both mental and physical health by GPs (13 patients, 45%. Conclusion. Most patients who attend specialised psychiatric services preferred to continue attending specialized psychiatric services even if they become mentally stable than primary care, with most reasons revolving around fears of inadequate psychiatric care from GPs.

  13. Road signs, gym equipment, child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D O

    2001-01-01

    A growing number of health care organizations have expanded their definition of preventive care by supporting community programs. Education, homelessness, poverty, nutrition, physical fitness, drugs, and risky behaviors are some issues being addressed.

  14. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  15. Primary Health Care and Child Spacing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is planned to train one interested woman from each of clubs during the coming year as a volunteer Community Based Distribution. (CBD) agent. Thus it is hoped that child spacing services will reach 25% of the households within the community. These CBD agents will be expected to work for a maximum of one hour a day; ...

  16. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2012-01-01

    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  17. Employee motivation and employee performance in child care : the effects of the introduction of market forces on employees in the Dutch child-care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care: The Effects of the Introduction of Market Focus on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector Mirjam Plantinga (RUG) This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on

  18. Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care : The effects of the Introduction of Market Forces on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on employee governance, motivation and performance. The Dutch child-care sector is transitioning from a welfare sector into a market sector. The transition process in child care is

  19. Measuring Child Work and Residence Adjustments to Parents'Long-Term Care Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Stern

    1996-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of various parent and child characteristics on the choice of care arrangements of the parent, taking inot account the potential endogeneity of some of the child chararcteristics. Three equations are estimated: a care choice equation, a child location equation, and a child work equation. Results suggest a hieracrchy of family decision making; child locations affect the care decision, which affect child work decisions. The results also question previous resear...

  20. Associations of Caregiver Stress with Working Conditions, Caregiving Practices, and Child Behaviour in Home-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…

  1. Evaluation of the activity of the child welfare commission in pursuance of the minimal care of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merfeldaite O.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Minimal and Average Care of the Child of the Republic of Lithuania (in effect since 1 January 2008 established the procedure for provision of minimal and average care for the child having behavioural problems and susceptible to crime. The article analyses activities of child welfare commission in implementing the minimal care of the child: the first part of the article provides a description of the concept of minimal care of the child and the responsibilities of implementing institutions; the second part analyses obstacles in implementing the law and envisages possible measures for a more effective activity of preventive work groups in municipalities and schools.

  2. Adapting Child Care Market Price Surveys to Support State Quality Initiatives. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscome, Kenley

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) require a state's child care market price survey to: (1) be statistically valid and reliable and (2) reflect variations in the cost of child care services by geographic area, type of provider, and age of child. States may use an alternative methodology for setting payment rates--such as…

  3. Cutting from the future? Impact of a subsidy reduction on child care quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Jongen, E.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Plantenga, J.

    2013-01-01

    High quality child care has been consistently linked with child development and future life outcomes. We examine how process quality in child care centers is influenced by the reduction of child care subsidies. The analysis is based on a 2012 reduction in subsidies for Dutch parents. Exploiting the

  4. Segregated from the Start: Peer Context in Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Kim, Jinseok

    2012-01-01

    A majority of U.S. children attend some type of child care before entering kindergarten. The quality of child care environment and of teacher-child interactions appear to influence children's development, but little attention has been paid to the influence of child-care peers. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort,…

  5. Child Health Booklet: experiences of professionals in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Nepomuceno de Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understanding the experiences of health professionals in primary care with the Child Health Booklet in child health care. Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach, in which participated nurses and doctors from six teams of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Belo Horizonte, MG. In total, were carried out 12 non-directive interviews, using two guiding questions. Results: A comprehensive analysis of the speeches enabled the construction of three categories that signal the experiences of the professionals with the booklet. The experiments revealed difficulties arising from the limitations of knowledge about the instrument; incomplete filling out of the booklet by many professionals that care for children; the daily confrontations of the process and the organization of work teams; disinterest of families with the instrument. Conclusion: The research points possible and necessary ways to improve the use of booklets as an instrument of full child health surveillance.

  6. Primary health care and child survival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Khanna, Rajesh; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-03-01

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) has been globally promoted as a comprehensive approach to achieve optimal health status and 'Health for all'. The PHC approach, although, initially received the attention but failed to meet the expectations of the people in India. The child health programs in India had been started for long as verticals programs, which later on integrated and had been planned in a way to deliver the services through the PHC systems. Nevertheless, the last decade has witnessed many new initiatives for improving child health, specially; a number of strategies under National Rural Health Mission have been implemented to improve child survival--Skilled Birth Attendant and Emergency Obstetric Care, Home Based Newborn Care, Sick newborn care units, Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses, strengthening Immunization services, setting up Nutritional rehabilitation centers etc. However, for a large proportion of rural population, an effective and efficient PHC system is the only way for service delivery, which still needs more attention. The authors note that although there have been improvements in infrastructure, community level health workers, and availability of the funding etc., the areas like community participation, district level health planning, data for action, inter-sectoral coordination, political commitment, public private partnership, accountability, and the improving health work force and need immediate attention, to strengthen the PHC system in the country, making it more child friendly and contributory in child survival, in India.

  7. Can We Trust Parental Reports of Child Care Subsidy Receipt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anna D; Herbst, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, research examining determinants and consequences of the means-tested child care subsidy program (the Child Care and Development Fund [CCDF]) has grown dramatically. To measure subsidy utilization, existing studies typically rely on parent-reported measures of subsidy receipt drawn from large surveys. As the research literature on child care subsidies has grown, however, so have concerns about the trustworthiness of parent-reported subsidy use. One way to assess the quality of parent-reported subsidy use is to examine its overlap with another subsidy receipt measure, drawn from a different source. The current paper uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), the only existing survey data source that contains an alternate measure of subsidy receipt - based on child care provider report - which permits a comparison to parent-reported measures. We find evidence that increases our confidence in the trustworthiness of parents as accurate reporters of subsidy receipt. In recognition that neither data source reflects "true" subsidy receipt, however, we conclude with a discussion of limitations and steps for future research.

  8. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less.

  9. South Vietnamese Rural Mothers’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Child Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Thac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 600 rural under-five mothers’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP in child care was performed in 4 southern provinces of Vietnam. The mothers were randomly selected and interviewed about sociodemographic factors, health seeking behaviour, and practice of home care of children and neonates. 93.2% of the mothers were literate and well-educated, which has been shown to be important for child health care. 98.5% were married suggesting a stable family, which is also of importance for child health. Only 17.3% had more than 2 children in their family. The mother was the main caretaker in 77.7% of the families. Only 1% would use quacks as their first health contact, but 25.2% would use a private clinic, which therefore eases the burden on the government system. Nearly 69% had given birth in a hospital, 27% in a commune health station, and only 2.7% at home without qualified assistance. 89% were giving exclusive breast feeding at 6 months, much more frequent than in the cities. The majority of the mothers could follow IMCI guideline for home care, although 25.2% did not deal correctly with cough and 38.7% did not deal correctly with diarrhoea. Standard information about Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI based home care is still needed.

  10. Homelessness and Aging Out of Foster Care: A National Comparison of Child Welfare-Involved Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; Marcal, Katherine E; Zhang, Jinjin; Day, Orin; Landsverk, John

    2017-06-01

    The present study represents the first large-scale, prospective comparison to test whether aging out of foster care contributes to homelessness risk in emerging adulthood. A nationally representative sample of adolescents investigated by the child welfare system in 2008 to 2009 from the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being Study (NSCAW II) reported experiences of housing problems at 18- and 36-month follow-ups. Latent class analyses identified subtypes of housing problems, including literal homelessness, housing instability, and stable housing. Regressions predicted subgroup membership based on aging out experiences, receipt of foster care services, and youth and county characteristics. Youth who reunified after out-of-home placement in adolescence exhibited the lowest probability of literal homelessness, while youth who aged out experienced similar rates of literal homelessness as youth investigated by child welfare but never placed out of home. No differences existed between groups on prevalence of unstable housing. Exposure to independent living services and extended foster care did not relate with homelessness prevention. Findings emphasize the developmental importance of families in promoting housing stability in the transition to adulthood, while questioning child welfare current focus on preparing foster youth to live.

  11. [Risk factors associated with mother negligence in child care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. Caring for the injured child in settings of limited resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Child Care in JOBS Employment and Training Program: What Difference Does Quality Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marcia K.

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from Job Opportunities and Basic Skills program. Found that participants increased their use of substitute child care and of licensed day-care homes/centers, after beginning job readiness activities. Child care was found to be highly variable in terms of convenience and program quality. Problems with child care increased…

  14. 45 CFR 261.56 - What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care arrangements are unavailable. (2) Refusal to work when an acceptable form of child care is... child care? 261.56 Section 261.56 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY....56 What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care? (a)(1) If the individual is a single...

  15. Demands and Job Resources in the Child Care Workforce: Swiss Lead Teacher and Assistant Teacher Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloechliger, Olivia R.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Center-based child care has been struggling with poor health and high turnover rates of child care staff and their adverse impact on care quality for decades. Yet little is known about personal and structural antecedents of job resources and job demands that are valid predictors of health and turnover in the child care workforce. Research…

  16. Impact of prenatal care on postpartum child care

    OpenAIRE

    NWARU, BRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although prenatal care has come a long way to be regarded as a standard routine care in pregnancy since its formal organization in the early 20th century, with several modifications to its content, it is just of recent that considerable attention was drawn to questions about its effectiveness. This awareness has led to several evaluations of the impact of prenatal care. Initially, these assessments concentrated on the effect of prenatal care on the more traditional outcomes (b...

  17. Care of the Child with Special Health Care Needs: A Report on 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Care of the child with special health care needs is gradually becoming a significant public health issue. To identify what these special health care needs are in our environment, 2 children presenting with clinical features of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy were studied. This crippling neuromuscular disorder has no cure at ...

  18. State Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems as a Means for Ensuring Quality Child Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The development of a checklist for use in monitoring and evaluating the quality of child care services, and the implications of use of the checklist by day care providers, are discussed. Several research studies that used the indicator checklist model have attempted to determine whether compliance with state child care regulations has a positive…

  19. Shared Care in Monitoring Stable Glaucoma Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtzer-Goor, Kim M.; van Vliet, Ellen J.; van Sprundel, Esther; Plochg, Thomas; Koopmanschap, Marc A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Lemij, Hans G.

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the quality of care provided by a hospital-based shared care glaucoma follow-up unit with care as usual. This randomized controlled trial included stable glaucoma patients and patients at risk for developing glaucoma. Patients in the Usual Care group (n=410) were seen by glaucoma

  20. 45 CFR 1306.35 - Family child care program option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... potentially harmful materials for controlling pests must not occur while children are on premises. (ii... offering the family child care option must ensure that providers have made plans to notify parents in the event of any emergency or unplanned interruption of service. The provider and parent together must...

  1. Enhancing Child Care Quality by Director Training and Collegial Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Gillian; Ferguson, Tammy McCormick; Ressler, Glory; Lomotey, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable evidence confirms that a director with good leadership and administrative skills is vital for developing and sustaining a high quality child care program, many directors assume the role with little management experience or training. This paper reports on a training program in Canada that combined a formal curriculum to…

  2. Values and Ethics in Child and Youth Care Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2008-01-01

    The implications of the practitioner's personal values are explored in relation to the professional issues of child and youth care practice. Values are inevitably a component of decision-making and therefore are integrally connected to ethics in the field. The prevalence of subjectivity over objectivity is emphasized in relation to in-the-moment…

  3. The importance of child care to improving economic opportunities for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 août 2017 ... Although evidence suggests that child care arrangements can help women to balance their burden of paid and unpaid work and increase productivity, the ... Agricultural Research, ont conclu un accord en vue d'un nouvel investissement de 25 millions de dollars canadiens à l'occasion du lancement de la.

  4. Husbands in Wives' Shoes: Changing Social Roles in Child Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Husbands in Wives' Shoes: Changing Social Roles in Child Care among Cameroon's Urban Residents. ... and society? This paper addresses these issues using historical, anthropological, psychological and sociological methods and techniques of data collection and analyses. Key Words: Fathers and childcare; changing ...

  5. Understanding Burnout in Child and Youth Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, Sean W.; Whelton, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations as it has been linked to turnover, absenteeism, a reduction in the quality of services, numerous physical and psychological disorders, and a disruption in interpersonal relations (Maslach et al. "2001"). Child and youth care workers are especially susceptible to burnout as the…

  6. 78 FR 29441 - Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... have learned a remarkable amount about the value of high quality early learning environments for young... the role child care can play in shaping those experiences. The most recent findings from the National..., Journal of Marriage and the Family, 2006) CCDF plays a critical role in providing access to school-age...

  7. Maternity leave, what about Paternity leave?: child care and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it is noteworthy that in child development and care, the roles of both parents are important. Analysis of the paper is done with the review of literatures and interviews conducted randomly among working women and men in Abeokuta on their experiences and views about maternity and paternity leaves respectively.

  8. Special Needs Child Care: Training Is a Key Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Marion; Widoff, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that appropriate staff training for family and child care center providers is critical in providing services to special needs--disabled--children, and outlines briefly a course designed to provide such training offered by Montgomery College in Montgomery County, Maryland. (BB)

  9. El Cuidado de Ninos. (Child Care). Spanish-English Wordbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Adin

    This wordbook was developed as a supplementary aid for both native Spanish speakers learning English and the English speaking who are learning Spanish. It contains definitions of selected words important to a particular trade or occupation--in this case, child care. The English spelling of the word defined is in parentheses above the Spanish…

  10. Child Care Centers' Role in Support of Breastfeeding Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Emily; Messer, Abigail L; Spatz, Diane L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate individual child care centers' attitudes and policies related to breastfeeding in two distinct areas in Philadelphia. Little is known about individual centers' approach to breastfeeding despite returning to work being cited as a major barrier to continued breastfeeding. Data were collected by compiling a list of child care centers in the areas of study and conducting telephone surveys of the 166 centers that met inclusion criteria. Surveys were administered using an adapted tool from the New York State Department of Health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 47 of the 166 (28%) of centers completed the survey. Results indicate there is room for improvement in education and training of staff on benefits of breastfeeding and human milk. The majority of centers (95%) surveyed indicated they would not feed an infant anything besides human milk unless specifically stated in a feeding plan. However, only 40% of centers had staff trained about benefits of breastfeeding and how to prepare and store human milk. Results varied between West Philadelphia and Center City. Widespread education of healthcare providers and child care center staff is necessary to ensure adherence to breastfeeding support guidelines and dissemination of accurate information to breastfeeding families. Nurses and other healthcare providers need to be aware of child care as a barrier to breastfeeding and the importance of providing comprehensive education and referral to community resources.

  11. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's participation in…

  12. Aesthetics in Asian Child Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice S.

    This speech presents observations, made on a trip in June 1976, of the aesthetic environments of children in China, Japan, and Hong Kong. Home, school and day care environments are compared in terms of living and play space, room decor, the presence of art and toys, dramatic play and performance, music, nature and outdoor appreciation, food and…

  13. Financial Management Guide: Child Care Food Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Intended for day care providers in Kentucky, this publication contains sample forms and guidelines for filling out the forms required by the Division of School Food Services of the Kentucky Department of Education. Topics covered include allowable expenditures during the month, program income, records, auditing, reimbursement for sponsors of child…

  14. Child care and child births: the role of grandparents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomése, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the involvement of grandparents in the care for young children and its effect on subsequent child births in dual-earner families, using data on 898 Dutch men and women aged 18–49 from the Netherlands' Kinship Panel Study. Three theoretical perspectives were used to develop

  15. Child care and child births: the role of grandparents in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomese, G.C.F.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the involvement of grandparents in the care for young children and its effect on subsequent child births in dual-earner families, using data on 898 Dutch men and women aged 18-49 from the Netherlands' Kinship Panel Study. Three theoretical perspectives were used to develop

  16. The Whole Child Matters: The Challenge of "Every Child Matters" for Pastoral Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral care embodies the idea that schools should not limit their activities to the transmission of knowledge but should educate the whole child. This paper outlines five "pastoral tasks", casework, preventive work, pastoral curriculum, community building and management, and considers how each might contribute to the five desired…

  17. Use of Color in Child Care Environments: Application of Color for Wayfinding and Space Definition in Alabama Child Care Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the use of color in physical design features associated with the exterior and interior designs of 101 child care centers in Alabama. Found that color was evidenced on the exterior of the centers at just over half of the sample. The interior environments had warm colors and bright accents in the setting; however, the majority of centers…

  18. Estimating Net Child Care Price Elasticities of Partnered Women With Pre-School Children Using a Discrete Structural Labour Supply-Child Care Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Gong; Robert Breuing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of the relationship between child care price and women's labour supply. We specify and estimate a discrete, structural model of the joint household decision over women’s labour supply and child care demand. Parents care about the well-being and development of their children and we capture this by including child care directly in household utility. Our model improves on previous papers in that we allow formal child care to be used for r...

  19. How Responsive is Female Labour Supply to Child Care Costs: New Australian Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiaodong; Breunig, Robert; King, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The degree of responsiveness of Australian women's labour supply to child care cost has been a matter of some debate. There is a view that the level of responsiveness is very low or negligible, running counter to international and anecdotal evidence. In this paper we review the Australian and international literature on labour supply and child care, and provide improved Australian estimates of labour supply elasticities and child care demand elasticities with respect to gross child care price...

  20. Child Care Fees Rising S-l-o-w-l-y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In the 1980s, when the child care market was still expanding at a great rate, child care fees were rising at a healthy rate. However, the wheels fell off in the early 1990s. With the collapse of the economy in 2001, child care programs were hard pressed to hold the line on fees. Child care fees continue to increase every year, but the rate of…

  1. Losing an only child: the one-child policy and elderly care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu

    2014-05-01

    China has had the one-child policy for more than 30 years. It reduced China's population growth within a short period of time and promoted economic development. However, it has also led to difficulties, and this paper focuses on those which pertain to ageing and losing one's only child. Approximately one million families have lost their only child in China. They suffer mentally and physically, and sometimes face social stigma and economic loss. What worries them most, however, is elderly care, which has become a severe crisis for the families who have lost their only children. This article draws upon several qualitative studies and 12 cases reported by the Chinese media in 2012 and 2013, and existing laws and policies for supporting those who have lost only children. It also analyses the current elderly care situation facing these families. The Chinese government has recognized the predicament and provides some help, which is increasing but is still not always adequate. To both sustain China's economic development and limit population growth, it is essential for the government to reform the one-child policy and provide a comprehensive support system for the families who have lost their only children, including financial relief and elderly care, and work to reduce stigma against these families. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 5 CFR 792.209 - What is the definition of child care subsidy program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and reporting to OPM information such as total cost and employee use of the program. ... Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees-What Is the Child Care... subsidy program? The term child care subsidy program, for the purposes of this subpart, means the program...

  3. Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

  4. The Effectiveness of a Brief Asthma Education Intervention for Child Care Providers and Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…

  5. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  6. Employment of New Mothers and Child Care Choice: Differences by Children's Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Arleen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examination of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth found that a woman's wages relate positively to early return to work after childbirth; higher family income delays return; income did not affect child care choice; greater child care tax credits increased early return; and tax credits did not affect child care choice, but predicted…

  7. Child Care: States Face Difficulties Enforcing Standards and Promoting Quality. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report discusses efforts to ensure and promote quality child care through enforcement of state standards and other activities. The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 authorized the dispersing of funds to states for child care services through the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). These funds are used…

  8. Parental Child Care Selection Criteria and Program Quality in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, Jean M.; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Venter-Barkley, Janet

    1998-01-01

    A study of 127 families and 50 child care facilities in 17 Missouri communities found that criteria for selecting child care were similar for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan parents; parents were more concerned with quality child care and caregiver "warmth" than with practical considerations; but ratings on caregiver warmth did not…

  9. From Policy to Practice: Implementation of Water Policies in Child Care Centers in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Ann E.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child care policies may contribute to healthy beverage consumption patterns. This study documented availability and accessibility of water and correspondence with state and federal policy and accreditation standards in child care centers. Design: One-day observations were conducted in a random sample of 40 Child and Adult Care Food…

  10. Parents' perspectives of the transition to home when a child has complex technological health care needs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brenner, Maria

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.

  11. Group functioning in child care centers: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation with structural characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.C.; Burk, W.J.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces and conceptually underpins an instrument to measure group functioning in child care groups, the Group Functioning Instrument for Child Care (GFI-CC). This instrument was applied in 44 Dutch child care groups (0- to 4-year-olds). The results of this first explorative

  12. Competition for a better future? Effects of competition on child care quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how competition affects child care centers’ quality. This paper examines the impact of competition on the quality of Dutch child care centers. The results show that high density of child care centers in an area improves scores in quality assessment measures. The positive

  13. Parental perspectives on negotiation of their child's care in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Antunes, Ana; Carvalho, Joana; Casey, Anne

    2013-03-01

    To increase understanding of parents' perspectives on the negotiation of care. A translated and validated questionnaire was completed by 444 parents of children admitted over a 16-month period to one hospital in Portugal. The overwhelming majority of participating parents believed that parents should always stay with their child in hospital and provide basic care, including being woken in the night to do so. However, over one third thought that their participation might disrupt the nurses' routines and a similar percentage felt uncomfortable telling nurses if they did not want to participate in care. Parents with higher levels of education and those aged over 30 were more likely to report good communication with the nursing team. Communication between parents and nurses is essential to partnership in care. Effective negotiation requires a clear definition of nurses' and parents' roles, as well as agreement on the level of participation in care by parents.

  14. Individual differences in effects of child care quality : The role of child affective self-regulation and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands.

  15. International Child Care Practices study: breastfeeding and pacifier use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E A S; Yu, Ly-Mee; Williams, Sheila

    2005-08-01

    Although the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative advises that no pacifiers be given to breastfeeding infants, both breastfeeding and pacifier use may protect against sudden infant death syndrome. The International Child Care Practice Study data set on child care practices associated with sudden infant death syndrome risk from 21 centers in 17 countries was used to describe infant-feeding practices and pacifier use and assess factors associated with breastfeeding. At approximately 3 months of age, rates of breastfeeding only (4%-80%) and pacifier use(12.5%-71%) varied between centers. Pacifier use was negatively associated with breastfeeding, and a dose-response effect was noted. Other negative (multiple birth, smoking by mother) and positive (intention to breastfeed, bed sharing, mothers' education) associations with breastfeeding only were identified. Although causality should not be inferred, these associations are consistent with previous studies. Advice on pacifiers should include potential benefits as well as risks.

  16. Analysis of teacher's workspace in a child care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Vera Helenamoro Bins; Dorneles, Vanessa; Ramos, Flávia Martini; Luiz, Mariana Morais

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents one Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) done in a child care institution in the city of Florianópolis, in south of Brazil. The objective of this work is to analyze the environment's performance of the child care center considering the well-being of all of its users, with the mainly focus in the teacher's work. For this analyze, was used a multi methods approach, using consecrated evaluations in the area of environmental psychology and ergonomic. The methods used were: Exploratory Visit, Walkthrough, Questionnaires, Observations, Ergonomic Analyze and Poem of Wishes. The methodological procedures used enabled the identification of the main problems that committed the interaction between environment, user and task, which in addition to serve as an argument to the recommendations done to the analyzed Institution, form a repertory that can serve as a base to future projects in institutions with the same character.

  17. Child Care Center Characteristics Associated With Preschoolers’ Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A.; Khoury, Jane C.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite children spending long hours in child care centers, it is unknown what center characteristics are associated with children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at the center and over the 24-hour day. Methods Mixed model ANOVA evaluated associations between 23 center characteristics (e.g., policies, facilities, practices, and staff training) and time in MVPA, measured with accelerometers, at the child care center and over the 24-hour day among 388 preschoolers from 30 randomly selected child care centers in Cincinnati, Ohio. Data collection occurred from November 2009 through January 2011; data analyses occurred in 2012–2014. Results Ninety percent of centers reported scheduling two or more outdoor sessions daily, yet only 40% of children had two or more outdoor sessions; 32% had no time outdoors. Eighty-three percent of centers reported scheduling ≥60 minutes outdoors; 28% of children experienced this during observation. Children spent a mean (SE) of 2.0 (0.06) minutes/hour in MVPA. Children with ≥60 minutes outdoor time had 0.6 minutes/hour more MVPA in child care (p=0.001), and 0.5 minutes/hour over the 24-hour day (p=0.001) than those who did not. Presence of an indoor play space, large outdoor playground, portable or fixed play equipment, staff PA training, weather and clothing policies, and TV/computer use were not related to children’s MVPA. Conclusions Outdoor time occurred less frequently than scheduled. Children with ≥60 minutes of outdoor time at the center were more active than children without. Centers may increase preschoolers’ PA by adhering to the scheduled ≥60 minutes of outdoor time daily. PMID:26585052

  18. Caring for an intimate stranger: parenting a child with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, E; Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Karamitri, I; Papadatou, D

    2017-05-01

    The care of an adult son or daughter with psychosis is filled with overwhelming demands caused by the symptomatology and illness exacerbations. Parents display disenfranchised grief over multiple losses and report increased levels of emotional burden. Most studies use quantitative methods and rely on pre-existing theoretical frameworks to investigate, through psychometric measures, the effects of being a carer. Meaning attributions to the disorder, and changes in parent-child relations over time, are poorly understood. This hermeneutic phenomenological study illuminates the subjective experience of parenting a son or daughter with psychosis, as it is lived and described by parents of young adults with psychosis. Findings suggest that the parents' perceptions of their child changes over the course of the disorder, leading to a redefinition of the parent-child relationship, causing alternations in attachment. Findings illuminate the parents' profound guilt over having contributed or not prevented the disorder, over not being 'good' parents and feeling ambivalent towards an 'intimate stranger.' Guilt is compensated by absolute dedication to the son or daughter's care, at the expense of their own well-being. Interventions for parents must be available as soon as possible, both during hospitalization and after discharge. Professionals should provide a therapeutic space, where parents could express intimate thoughts and feelings, address guilt, fear and resentment issues, be assisted in their parenting role as well as in the reconstruction of a sense of self and self-esteem. Professionals are invited to facilitate illness acceptance, provide accurate information, assist parents to redefine their relationship to the child and facilitate the integration of the traumatic experience into their personal and family narrative. Professionals must develop in depth awareness of their biases and attitudes, have an ongoing training on how to respond to the parents' needs, facilitate

  19. Safe, stable, nurturing relationships as a moderator of intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Merrick, Melissa T

    2013-10-01

    The present paper summarizes findings of the special issue papers on the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment and through meta-analysis explores the potential moderating effects of safe, stable, nurturing relationships (SSNRs). Studies were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis if they (1) were published in peer-reviewed journals; (2) tested for intergenerational continuity in any form of child maltreatment, using prospective, longitudinal data; and (3) tested for moderating effects of any variable of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The search revealed only one additional study beyond the four reports written for this special issue that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Estimates of intergenerational stability of child maltreatment from the studies included in this special issue are consistent with several other studies, which find that child maltreatment in one generation is positively related to child maltreatment in the next generation. Furthermore, meta-analytic results from the five studies that met the inclusion criteria suggest a protective, moderating effect of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The calculated fail-safe index indicated that 49 unpublished intergenerational studies with an average null effect would be required to render nonsignificant the overall moderation effect of SSNRs on child maltreatment. This special issue expanded the examination of SSNRs beyond the caregiver-child dyad. That is, these studies considered SSNRs in adult relationships as well as parent-child relationships. Results suggest that certain types of SSNRs between parents and other adults (e.g., romantic partner, co-parent, or adult social support resource) may decrease maltreatment continuity. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching child health-care concepts to Khmer mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, J A; Givens, S S

    1986-01-01

    For a course teaching western child health care to refugee Khmer mothers relocated to the U.S., the class content, process, teaching materials and evaluation are described. An average of 8 women attended each of 4 classes, 2-3 hr long, taught by nurse practitioners and an interpreter. They ranged in age from 27-48, with 2-6 children. Class outlines included: Class 1) taking temperatures, pediatrician visits, immunizations; Class 2) common childhood diseases in U.S., folk remedies, Western treatments including home remedies; Class 3) preventing accidents from burns, falls, cars, poisons, drowning and electricity; Class 4) milestones in growth and development to 5 yr, child stimulation activities. Each class was followed by a question and answer period to evaluate students. So problems included difficulty in reading thermometers, resistance against changing some traditional treatments, unfamiliarity with certain concepts such as specificity of immunizations for given diseases or medical prescription of antibiotics (drugs were available without prescription in Cambodia). Khmer mothers' concepts of child developmental milestones correlated well with western ideas. A cultural characteristic of these women that hampered evaluation was their habit of answering questions in the affirmative: Cambodians do not ask or respond to open-ended or multiple choice questions, for fear of offending the questioner. Another problem was the use of a set curriculum, without sufficiently incorporating students' own cultural health care practices into the discussion. It was felt that Khmer mothers developed a basic understanding of western health care practices.

  1. (Trans)Gender Role Expectations and Child Care in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Petterson, Lanna J; Mallard, Ryan W; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Samoan transgendered males are known as fa'afafine. Although Samoan women are characterized as the primary child care providers, fa'afafine report elevated willingness to invest in nieces and nephews compared to men and women. We hypothesized that Samoans hold unique transgender role expectations such that fa'afafine are expected to invest more toward nieces and nephews compared to others. Participants (N = 214) included Samoan men (30.23 years ±8.19), women (30.00 years ±10.93), and fa'afafine (30.25 years ±7.45). For a variety of child care activities, participants nominated men, women, fa'afafine, or all three of these categories of individuals as responsible for investing toward nieces and nephews. Participants also reported how frequently their family members asked them to perform these activities for nieces and nephews. Responsibility for performing these activities was typically designated for women; men and women viewed fa'afafine as least responsible. Men's, but not fa'afafine's, family members asked them to allocate investment toward nieces and nephews more frequently. These findings are not consistent with the transgender role expectation hypothesis. Discussion details how the findings contribute to the literature on child care in Samoa. Alternate hypotheses for explaining why fa'afafine report elevated willingness to invest in nieces and nephews are considered.

  2. Child Care Choices and Children's Cognitive Achievement: The Case of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Bernal; Michael P. Keane

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of child care versus maternal time inputs on child cognitive development using single mothers from the NLSY79. To deal with nonrandom selection of children into child care, we exploit the exogenous variation in welfare policy rules facing single mothers. In particular, the 1996 welfare reform and earlier state-level policy changes generated substantial increases in their work/child care use. We construct a comprehensive set of welfare policy variables and use them as in...

  3. Child care and the development of behavior problems among economically disadvantaged children in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N=349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate reductions in externalizing behavior problems. High-quality child care was especially protective against the development of behavior problems for boys and African American children. Child care type and the extent of care that children experienced were generally unrelated to behavior problems in middle childhood. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may...... be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 27,821 children born to mothers...... participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex...

  5. The art, science and philosophy of child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2009-02-01

    Pediatrics deals with promotion of health and well being of children and not merely diagnosis and treatment of their diseases. Children are truly the foundation of a society because healthy children grow to become healthy and strong adults who can actively participate in the developmental activities of a nation. Health and well being of children is intimately linked with the health, nutrition, education and awareness of their mothers. In order to improve child health and survival, it is therefore important to provide a life-cycle approach for the care of girl children with focus on equal opportunities for their nutrition (from birth through infancy, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy and lactation), optimal health care, education, dignity, empowerment, status and say in society. Every child must be viewed in totality - body, mind, heart and soul, and not in isolation but in context with the dynamics of their ecology, family, friends, teachers and society. We should treat the child and not his disease or laboratory reports. And every contact with the family should be effectively harnessed to provide "holistic care" and not mere "cure". We must give advice regarding life style changes, importance of personal hygiene, promotion of breast feeding, provision of safe environment, personal hygiene, optimal nutrition, immunizations and prevention of accidents. We should try to establish a rapport with the child and his parents to provide them emotionai support and win their faith, trust and confidence. We should make sincere efforts to become knowledgeable, upto-date and a rational physician to practice evidence-based pediatrics. Above all, we must strive to master the sublime art of medicine and acquire the divine gift of healing. And we should not allow technology to further dehumanize medicine!

  6. Diabetes, child care, and performance of family functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Parents caring for a child with diabetes may experience a burden on both a practical and an emotional level. Aim of the research : Analysis of the correlations between the care burden level and the perceived influence of type 1 diabetes in children on the performance of family functions. Material and methods : The study included 112 caregivers of children with diabetes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: full family, direct caregiver of the child, the child’s age 3–16 years, disease duration of at least 6 months, and no chronic diseases in siblings. The study material was collected using an interview questionnaire and the Caregiver Burden Scale. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The significance level was defined as p = 0.05. Results : A higher burden level of a caregiver in the individual subscales of the CB Scale was associated with a significant decrease in the intensity of performance of the cultural and social function as well as consumption function, the increased amount of time spent with a sick child, and an increase in parental disagreements. The overall burden level differentiated the performance of the religious function. An increase in the burden level on the overall effort subscale was accompanied by lower interest in sex and less frequent sexual intercourse. The higher level of caregiver burden occurs in families where permanent job income has fallen. The differences were shown in the performance of control-socialisation function due to the sense of burden on the environment subscale. Conclusions : The burden level of a caregiver is important in the perceived influence of the child’s illness on the functioning of the family. Stimulating a caregiver in dealing with the problems that are the consequence of the disease, as well as activating and preparing other family members to participate in the care of a sick child, and financial support may

  7. Collaborative Care: a Pilot Study of a Child Psychiatry Outpatient Consultation Model for Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallucco, Elise M; Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Bejarano, Carolina M; Kozikowksi, Chelsea B; Cuffe, Steven; Landy, Robin; Glowinski, Anne

    2017-07-01

    A Child Psychiatry Consultation Model (CPCM) offering primary care providers (PCPs) expedited access to outpatient child psychiatric consultation regarding management in primary care would allow more children to access mental health services. Yet, little is known about outpatient CPCMs. This pilot study describes an outpatient CPCM for 22 PCPs in a large Northeast Florida county. PCPs referred 81 patients, of which 60 were appropriate for collaborative management and 49 were subsequently seen for outpatient psychiatric consultation. The most common psychiatric diagnoses following consultation were anxiety (57%), ADHD (53%), and depression (39%). Over half (57%) of the patients seen for consultation were discharged to their PCP with appropriate treatment recommendations, and only a small minority (10%) of patients required long-term care by a psychiatrist. This CPCM helped child psychiatrists collaborate with PCPs to deliver mental health services for youth. The CPCM should be considered for adaptation and dissemination.

  8. Where's Papa? Fathers' Role in Child Care. Population Trends and Public Policy No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Martin

    Men are taking a more active role in child care. By 1991, 20% of preschool children were cared for by their fathers while their mothers worked outside the home--an increase since 1988, when only 15 percent of preschoolers were cared for by their fathers. This report summarizes the latest findings on child care arrangements of mothers who work…

  9. Developing the Child Care Workforce: Understanding "Fight" or "Flight" Amongst Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care sector in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one only on child care. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This report examines workforce development…

  10. Adding Two School Age Children: Does It Change Quality in Family Child Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Deborah J.; Howes, Carollee

    1997-01-01

    Randomly selected family child care homes providing minimal quality care were observed prior to, and after, enrolling two additional school age children. Results suggest that modest change in number and age range of children in family child care home providing minimally acceptable care may potentially decrease provider sensitivity and may be less…

  11. Child Care Prices and Female Labour Force Participation: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    The empirical findings for the labour force participation elasticity with regards to child prices are varied. While some estimates imply substantial participation gains from child care subsidies, others find insignificant effects from child care prices on participation decisions. This paper analyzes

  12. PESTICIDE MEASUREMENT RESULTS FROM THE FIRST NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY OF CHILD CARE CENTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 13 million children are placed in non-parental child care during the work day; however, children's exposures to chemicals in child care centers have not been characterized. To address this data gap, three federal agencies teamed to characterize contaminants in child...

  13. PESTICIDE RESULTS FROM AN INTERAGENCY EFFORT TO CHARACTERIZE CONTAMINANTS IN CHILD CARE CENTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 13 million children are placed in non-parental child care during the work day; but, children's exposures to chemicals in child care centers have not been characterized. To address this data gap, three federal agencies teamed to characterize contaminants in child ...

  14. Using Child Care Services: Families with Disabled Children in Nonmetropolitan Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gary G.; Van Horn, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from the 1991 National Household Education Survey examined usage of various child care services by families with disabled children in rural and urban areas. Type of child care used was related to locale, parent educational attainment, poverty status, child age, maternal employment, and one-parent family structure. Contains 36…

  15. Some Costs of Caring at Home for an Intellectually Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwynd, Jane

    1985-01-01

    Household expenditure patterns of families in the general population were compared with those of 91 families caring for an intellectually handicapped child. Results indicated that handicapped child families spent on average $NZ17 per week more on household items and $NZ7 a week on items related to care of the handicapped child. (Author/CL)

  16. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Home-Based Child Care Provider Unionization on the Cost, Type, and Availability of Subsidized Child Care in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindal, Todd; West, Martin R.; Willett, John B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In February 2005, Illinois became the first U.S. state to grant home-based child care providers (HBCPs) the right to form a labor union in order to bargain collectively with the state government. This policy inspired similar efforts across the country and represents a potentially important direction for child care policy. To date, the implications…

  18. Respite Child Care in California: Alternatives for At-Risk Families. A Report from the California Children's Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Vivian; Siegel, Patty

    Respite child care is a form of short-term care provided in a family day care home or a child care center for the purpose of helping families that are experiencing stress. At an average cost of $300 to $400 per month, respite care is cost effective. Since 1983, California's child care resource and referral agencies have administered a small…

  19. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Oken, E; Gillman, M W; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. We studied 27,821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾ 85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. A total of 17,721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.05; P=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.10; P=0.047). Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy.

  20. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  1. State Variations in Infant Feeding Regulations for Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Neelon, Sara E; Gonzalez-Nahm, Sarah; Grossman, Elyse; Davis, Melanie L; Neelon, Brian; Ayers Looby, Anna; Frost, Natasha

    2017-12-01

    Early care and education (ECE) settings have become primary targets for policy change in recent years. In our 2008 study, we assessed state and regional variation in infant feeding regulations for ECE and compared them to national standards. We conducted the same regulatory review to assess change over time. Because all but 2 states have updated their regulations, we hypothesized that states would have made substantial improvements in the number of regulations supporting infant feeding in ECE. For this cross-sectional study, we reviewed infant feeding regulations for all US states for child care centers (centers) and family child care homes (homes). We compared regulations with 10 national standards and assessed the number of new regulations consistent with these standards since our previous review. Comparing results from 2008 and 2016, we observed significant improvements in 7 of the 10 standards for centers and 4 of the 10 standards for homes. Delaware was the only state with regulations meeting 9 of the 10 standards for centers in 2008. In 2016, Delaware and Michigan had regulations meeting 8 of the 10 standards. Previously, Arkansas, the District of Columbia, Minnesota, Mississippi, Ohio, and South Carolina had regulations consistent with 4 of the 10 standards for homes. In 2016, Delaware, Mississippi, and Vermont had regulations meeting 7 of the 10 standards. Evidence suggests that enacting new regulations may improve child health outcomes. Given that many states recently enacted regulations governing infant feeding, our findings point to the growing interest in this area. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Effects of child-caregiver ratio on the interactions between caregivers and children in child-care centers: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.J. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of child-caregiver ratio on the quality of caregiver-child interaction in child-care centers, 217 caregivers (ages 18-56 years) from 64 child care centers were observed during two structured play episodes: one with a group of three children and one with a group of 5

  3. Do You Know My Child? Continuity of Nursing Care in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Jennifer; Rehm, Roberta S; Hinds, Pamela S; Baggott, Christina; Davies, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with complex, chronic conditions report a desire for continuity of care, but relatively little is known about the ways in which nursing continuity of care occurs and the extent to which it is delivered in the inpatient setting. The objective of this analysis, which arose from a study on best practices in parent/nurse interactions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), was to explore the delivery of continuity of nursing care in the PICU from the perspective of both parents and nurses. A qualitative, grounded theory study using situational analysis was conducted with seven parents and 12 nurse participants from a single PICU. Data sources included in-depth interviews, observation, and organizational written materials. Data were coded and analyzed using memoing and situational and positional maps to highlight emerging themes, context, and positions within the data. Parents repeatedly endorsed a desire for continuity of nursing care, wanting to ensure that the bedside nurse valued their child as an individual and understood the complexities of the child's care regimen. Nurses understood this need but faced both contextual and personal challenges to achieving continuity, including fluctuations in staffing needs, training demands, fear of emotional entanglement, and concern for missed learning opportunities. Continuity of nursing care is highly valued by parents of children with complex chronic condition in the PICU, but significant barriers to optimal delivery exist within the current critical care environment. Mechanisms for supporting nurses to deliver continuity of care are needed, as are alternative ways to help parents feel that all nurses caring for their child have the knowledge necessary to deliver safe and compassionate care.

  4. Child Care Choices, Food Choices, and Children’s Obesity Status

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...

  5. Report - Results of survey on child care needs - 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve; Weymaere, Emeline; Trilhe, Philippe; Palluel, Stephanie; Mangiorou, Maria-Anna; Mondlane, Bruna; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2017-01-01

    In June 2016, a working group reporting to the Director for Finance and Human Resources was established to study the sustainability of CERN nursery and school services. Among actions taken by the working group, a survey was carried out to achieve a better understanding of the needs of CERN families for child care and educational structures, to identify which services are in highest demand (e.g. crèche or early years, primary schooling) and to understand the expectations and preferences of CERN families regarding these services.

  6. [Influence of inclusive child day-care on nursery school teachers: a questionnaire survey of teachers with experience in inclusive child day-care in K City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Shinobu; Fukuzawa, Yukiko; Hamada, Yuuko

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this survey questionnaire is to investigate the factors influencing how nursery school teachers perceive inclusive child day-care in K City in order to qualify what support we can provide. The questionnaire was sent to nursery school teachers with experience in inclusive child day-care in K City. Three hundred seventeen teachers provided sufficient data for analysis. The results of this survey suggest that teachers perceive inclusive child day-care to lead up to self-development and the pleasure of child-caring. On the other hand, they feel a burden of inclusive child day-care, with teachers in their 40 s feeling a stronger burden than teachers in their 20 s. And teachers with experience in taking care of emotionally disturbed children or teachers with experience in taking care of hearing-impaired children feel a stronger burden than teachers without experience in taking care of them. The results of our survey also suggest that it is necessary for support systems to have special knowledge about disabled children and special ways of caring, and to decrease teachers' burden or dissatisfaction with inclusive child day-care.

  7. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional

  8. State Child Care Licensing Laws in the Fifty States: A New Look in the Face of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, Josephine; Jackson, Jolie

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews state child care licensing legislation in light of reported child abuse and neglect in some such facilities. Recommended are licensing of all facilities of any size or religious affiliation, criminal record screening, at least annual inspections, unannounced inspections, and required notice to parents when abuse has been…

  9. Trauma-Informed Care in the Massachusetts Child Trauma Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Barto, Beth; Griffin, Jessica L; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Hodgdon, Hilary; Bodian, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    Child maltreatment is a serious public health concern, and its detrimental effects can be compounded by traumatic experiences associated with the child welfare (CW) system. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a promising strategy for addressing traumatized children's needs, but research on the impact of TIC in CW is limited. This study examines initial findings of the Massachusetts Child Trauma Project, a statewide TIC initiative in the CW system and mental health network. After 1 year of implementation, Trauma-Informed Leadership Teams in CW offices emerged as key structures for TIC systems integration, and mental health providers' participation in evidence-based treatment (EBT) learning collaboratives was linked to improvements in trauma-informed individual and agency practices. After approximately 6 months of EBT treatment, children had fewer posttraumatic symptoms and behavior problems compared to baseline. Barriers to TIC that emerged included scarce resources for trauma-related work in the CW agency and few mental providers providing EBTs to young children. Future research might explore variations in TIC across service system components as well as the potential for differential effects across EBT models disseminated through TIC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Pinellas Plant: Child Care/Partnership School safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.

  11. Enhancing Early Child Care Quality and Learning for Toddlers at Risk: The Responsive Early Childhood Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Swank, Paul R.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; de Viliers, Jill; de Viliers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, social-emotional classroom activities (RECC).…

  12. 20 CFR 216.67 - “Child in care.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âChild in care.â 216.67 Section 216.67... care.” (a) Railroad Retirement Act. Part 222 of this chapter sets forth what is required to establish that a child is in an individual's care for purposes of the Railroad Retirement Act. This definition is...

  13. Child care quality in the Netherlands: trends in quality over the years 1995-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; de Kruif, R.E.L.; Fukkink, R.G.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.; van Zeijl, J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the quality of child care in a representative national sample of 42 child-care centers in the Netherlands and compared it with the quality of care that researchers have found using similar samples in 1995 (M. H. van IJzendoorn, L.W. C. Tavecchio, G. J. J. M. Stams, M. J. E.

  14. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and…

  15. Are Our Kids All Right? Answers to the Tough Questions about Child Care Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynerman, Susan B.

    Examining over 20 years of research findings, including the most recent research on child care and child development, this book attempts to answer the three most important questions parents have about day care: Is day care harmful? Are babies damaged by the fact that their mothers work? and, Are working parents, by being absent during most of the…

  16. Do Variables Associated with Quality Child Care Programs Predict the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Eva L.; Bennett, Patrick R.; Burnham, Melissa M.; Martin, Sally S.; Bingham, Ann; Allred, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Little research has been carried out on the inclusion of children with special needs in child care. The purpose of this study was to determine what variables predict the inclusion of children with disabilities in centers and home care. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of several indicators of quality child care and…

  17. Understanding Quality in Context: Child Care Centers, Communities, Markets, and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina C.; Kisker, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Early care and education can prepare children for school, but while some preschool and child care programs do an excellent job, others are inadequate and some may even harm healthy development. This study focuses on child care center directors to better understand why there is so much variation, and how public initiatives can better help…

  18. Effects of child care policy and environment on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; Ward, Dianne S; Senso, Meghan

    2010-03-01

    Child care centers differ systematically with respect to the quality and quantity of physical activity they provide, suggesting that center-level policies and practices, as well as the center's physical environment, are important influences on children's physical activity behavior. To summarize and critically evaluate the extant peer-reviewed literature on the influence of child care policy and environment on physical activity in preschool-aged children. A computer database search identified seven relevant studies that were categorized into three broad areas: cross-sectional studies investigating the impact of selected center-level policies and practices on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), studies correlating specific attributes of the outdoor play environment with the level and intensity of MVPA, and studies in which a specific center-level policy or environmental attribute was experimentally manipulated and evaluated for changes in MVPA. Staff education and training, as well as staff behavior on the playground, seem to be salient influences on MVPA in preschoolers. Lower playground density (less children per square meter) and the presence of vegetation and open play areas also seem to be positive influences on MVPA. However, not all studies found these attributes to be significant. The availability and quality of portable play equipment, not the amount or type of fixed play equipment, significantly influenced MVPA levels. Emerging evidence suggests that several policy and environmental factors contribute to the marked between-center variability in physical activity and sedentary behavior. Intervention studies targeting these factors are thus warranted.

  19. The Impact of Child Care Costs on Female Labour Supply: Evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa M. Powell

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides estimates for Canada of the impact of child care costs on female labour supply. This is done by linking two Statistics Canada microdata sources. Specifically, the data used in this paper are from the 1988 National Child Care Survey and the 1988 Monthly (September) Labour Force Survey. The paper provides child care price elasticities for labour force participation for married women and compares the results with those found by U.S. researchers. The paper also provides labour...

  20. Child Directed Interaction Training for young children in kinship care: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'zi, Amanda M; Stevens, Monica L; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2016-05-01

    This pilot study used a randomized controlled trial design to examine the feasibility and explore initial outcomes of a twice weekly, 8-session Child Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) program for children living in kinship care. Participants included 14 grandmothers and great-grandmothers with their 2- to 7-year-old children randomized either to CDIT or a waitlist control condition. Training was delivered at a local, community library with high fidelity to the training protocol. There was no attrition in either condition. After training, kinship caregivers in the CDIT condition demonstrated more positive relationships with their children during behavioral observation. The caregivers in the CDIT condition also reported clinically and statistically significant decreases in parenting stress and caregiver depression, as well as fewer externalizing child behavior problems than waitlist controls. Parent daily report measures indicated significant changes in disciplining that included greater use of limit-setting and less use of critical verbal force. Results appeared stable at 3-month follow-up. Changes in child internalizing behaviors and caregiver use of non-critical verbal force were not seen until 3-month follow-up. Results of this pilot study suggest both the feasibility of conducting full scale randomized clinical trials of CDIT in the community and the promise of this approach for providing effective parent training for kinship caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Important Evidence Highlights the Meaning of Teacher-Child Relationships for Child Development. Commentary on: "Formations of Attachment Relationships towards Teachers Lead to Conclusions for Public Child Care"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Sagi-Schwartz evaluates the article by Beckh and Becker-Stoll (2016) on attachment relationships with non-parental caregivers and how it may contribute to public child care. Beckh and Becker-Stoll first describe important background about research on early parent-child relationships, and how their nature and quality might…

  2. Unintentional injuries in child care centers in the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa, Andrew N; Newton, Manya F; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Stevens, Martha W

    2015-03-01

    The study systematically reviewed all types of unintentional injury and injury prevention research studies occurring within child care centers in the United States. A total of 2 reviewers searched 11 electronic databases to identify 53 articles meeting inclusion criteria. No studies used trauma registries or randomized control trials. Data were not pooled for further analysis because studies lacked standardized definitions for injury, rates, severity, exposure, and demographics. The following child care center injury rates were reported: (0.25-5.31 injuries per 100,000 child-hours); (11.3-18 injuries per 100 children per year); (6-49 injuries per 1000 child-years); (2.5-8.29 injuries per child-year); (2.6-3.3 injuries per child); (3.3-6.3 injuries per 100 observations); (635-835 medically attended injuries per year per 100,000 children and 271-364 child care center playground injuries per year per 100,000 children); and (3.8 injuries per child per 2000 exposure hours). Child care center injury rates were comparable to injury rates published for schools, playground, and summer camp. Most injuries were minor, while most severe injuries (fractures and concussions) were falls from playground structures. Future studies need to use standardized injury definitions and injury severity scales, focus efforts on preventing severe playground injuries in child care centers, and report child care parameters for inclusion in national injury databases. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Organizing to Coordinate Child Care Services. (With an Appendix) The Greater Minneapolis Day Care Association: Early History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Patricia; Berryman, Pauline

    Systems of coordinating child care services are analyzed as a guide to organizing. Federal Community Child Care (4-C) are the focus of the analysis. In Part I, evolution of coordination, an initial steering committee is followed through its various phases of expansion--initial impetus, visibility, staffing patterns, parent involvement, community…

  4. Understanding child maltreatment in Hanoi: intimate partner violence, low self-control, and social and child care support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Nguyen, Hai Trung; Kim, Jaeyop

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the role of low self-control, stress, depression, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse, and social support and child care support in the etiology of child abuse and neglect in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study estimated the prevalence of child maltreatment in a randomly selected, representative cluster sample of 269 Hanoi families. Among these families, 21% reported severe abuse of their children in the past year, 12% reported neglect. Low self-control was found to be strongly associated with child abuse. Life stressors were found to be strongly associated with neglect, but only indirectly with child abuse. Counter-intuitively, a positive interaction between social support and low self-control was found, suggesting that social support of parents low in self-control is associated with more maltreatment. Implications for research, intervention, and criminological theory are discussed.

  5. Maternal and Child Health Handbook use for maternal and child care: a cluster randomized controlled study in rural Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Keiko; Hattori, Tomoko; Toda, Akemi; Mulati, Erna; Hermawan, Lukas; Pritasari, Kirana; Bardosono, Saptawati; Kosen, Soewarta

    2018-01-09

    Effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCHHB), a home-based booklet for pregnancy, delivery and postnatal/child health, was evaluated on care acquisition and home care in rural Java, a low service-coverage area. We conducted a health centre-based randomized trial, with a 2-year follow-up. Intervention included (i) MCHHB provision at antenatal care visits; (ii) records and guides by health personnel on and with the MCHHB; and (iii) sensitization of care by volunteers using the MCHHB. The follow-up rate was 70.2% (183, intervention area; 271, control area). Respondents in the intervention area received consecutive MCH services including two doses of tetanus toxoid injections and antenatal care four times or more during pregnancy, professional assistance during child delivery and vitamin A supplements administration to their children, after adjustment for confounding variables and cluster effects (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.19-3.47). In the intervention area, home care (continued breastfeeding; introducing complementary feeding; proper feeding order; varied foods feeding; self-feeding training; and care for cough), perceived support by husbands, and lower underweight rates and stunting rates among children were observed. MCHHB use promoted continuous care acquisition and care at home from pregnancy to early child-rearing stages in rural Java. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  6. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care facility...

  7. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  8. 77 FR 42905 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...) clarify that the children of employees' same-sex domestic partners fall within the definition of `child... civilian employees; change the definition of ``child''; expand regulations to extend coverage to child care services for children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees; make certain technical...

  9. Training of Unskilled Child Care Providers: An In-House Program to Overcome Management's Financial Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian

    An in-house staff development program was designed and implemented for unskilled child caregivers employed at Tiny Tots Educare Academies, Inc., a privately owned and operated child care center located in Ellenton, Florida. Employees had little knowledge of child development and other topics related to early childhood education and, therefore,…

  10. Systematic screening of child abuse in out-of-hours primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, MCM

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious global health problem. This thesis focused on – improving – the detection of child abuse in the out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC). The main aim was to assess the diagnostic value of the screening instrument SPUTOVAMO-R2 for child abuse. We found that the detection rate of

  11. A review of state regulations to promote physical activity and safety on playgrounds in child care centers and family child care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L I; O'Donnell, Emily M; Benjamin, Sara E; Walker, Elizabeth; Slining, Meghan

    2010-03-01

    As interventions increasingly emphasize early child care settings, it is necessary to understand the state regulatory context that provides guidelines for outdoor physical activity and safety and sets standards for child care environments. Researchers reviewed regulations for child care facilities for 50 states, the District of Columbia and the Virgin Islands. We compared state regulations with national standards for 17 physical activity- and safety-related items for outdoor playground settings outlined in Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards: Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs (CFOC). State regulations were coded as fully, partially or not addressing the CFOC standard and state-level summary scores were calculated. On average, state regulations fully addressed one-third of 17 CFOC standards in regulations for centers (34%) and family child care homes (27%). Data suggest insufficient attention to outdoor play area proximity and size, equipment height, surfacing, and inspections. Considerable variation exists among state regulations related to physical activity promotion and injury prevention within outdoor play areas. Many states' regulations do not comply with published national health and safety standards. Enhancing regulations is one component of a policy approach to promoting safe, physically active child care settings.

  12. [Child health care and its development in Vrsac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljapić, Ziva; Sljapić-Roganović, Miljana

    2002-01-01

    Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and colera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care--"Cadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851) during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971.

  13. Child development in primary care: a surveillance proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. General mood of professional caregivers in child care centers and the quality of caregiver-child interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, E.J. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study is the first to relate professional caregivers' general mood to the observed quality of their interactions with the children in their care. A total of 238 female caregivers from 133 child care groups in 64 centers completed the General mood scale of Bar-On's Emotional Quotient

  15. Dietary intake of children attending full-time child care: What are they eating away from the child-care center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Khoury, Jane C; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Copeland, Kristen

    2015-09-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends children attending full-time child care obtain one-half to two-thirds of daily nutrient needs during their time at the child-care center, leaving one-third to one-half to be consumed away from the center. Although there are guidelines to optimize dietary intake of children attending child care, little is known about what these children consume away from the center. To describe the dietary intake away from the child-care center for preschool-aged children relative to the expected one-third to one-half proportion of recommended intake, and to examine the relationships between energy intake away from the center with weight status, food group consumption, and low-income status. Cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and January 2011. Participants (n=339) attended 30 randomly selected, licensed, full-time child-care centers in Hamilton County, OH. Child weight status and dietary intake (food/beverages consumed outside the child-care setting from the time of pickup from the center to the child's bedtime), including energy and servings of fruits, vegetables, milk, 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snack foods. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine independent associations of food group servings and low-income status to energy intake and energy intake to child weight status. The mean energy intake consumed away from the center (685±17 kcal) was more than the recommended target range (433 to 650 kcal). Intakes of fruits, vegetables, and milk were less than recommended. Food group servings and overweight/obesity status were positively associated with energy intake while away from the center. Preschool-aged children consume more energy and less fruits, vegetables, and milk outside of child-care centers than recommended. Overweight status was associated with children's dietary intake after leaving the child-care center. It may be beneficial to include parents in obesity prevention

  16. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2007-01-01

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies...

  17. Quality assessment of child care services in primary health care settings of Central Karnataka (Davangere District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert′s scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother′s education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers′ knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.

  18. Employment and Child Care Decisions of Mothers and the Well-being of their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Bernal

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of employment and child care decisions of women after birth in order to evaluate the effects of mothers' decisions on children's cognitive ability. I use data from the NLSY to estimate the model. The results suggest that the effects of maternal employment and child care use on children's cognitive ability are rather sizeable. In fact, having a full-time working mother who uses child care during the first 5 years after the birth of the child is...

  19. Where Are They Now? An Update on Defendants. Part 3--High Profile Sexual Abuse in Child Care Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Following up on "Child Abuse Storm Scale--Part 1" ("Child Care Information Exchange," Jan-Feb 1999) and Part 2 (Mar-Apr 1999), this article shares the current status of prominent sexual abuse in child care cases. Cases include McMartin Preschool, Fells Acres Day Care, Wee Care Nursery School (the Kelly Michaels case), Little Rascals, and Breezy…

  20. Weight charts and well-child care: how the pediatrician became the expert in child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosco, J P

    2001-12-01

    Weighing children became popular in the 1910s, when public health workers hoped to identify malnourished children based on weight. They measured tens of thousands of children in school halls and church basements, compared their results with standard weight charts, and reported evidence of widespread malnutrition. In the 1920s, physicians argued that a complete medical history and a physical examination, not just weight, were necessary to diagnose malnutrition. By the 1930s, the weight chart had become merely one of the many diagnostic tools used to monitor the health of well children in the physician's office. Weight charts remain an essential part of pediatric practice, but their history is more than a simple tale of scientific progress. This article explores how pediatrics emerged as a primary care specialty in the midst of conflict over the meaning of weight, the professional role of women in medicine, and the pediatrician's preeminence as a child health expert.

  1. 5 CFR 792.230 - May an agency use appropriated funds to improve the physical space of the family child care homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... improve the physical space of the family child care homes or child care centers? 792.230 Section 792.230... child care centers? An agency may not use appropriated funds under this program to improve the physical space of child care centers and family child care homes. ...

  2. Labor Supply Heterogeneity and Demand for Child Care of Mothers with Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apps, Patricia F.; Kabátek, J.; Rees, Ray; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a static structural model of hours of market labor supply, time spent on child care and other domestic work, and bought in child care for married or cohabiting mothers with pre-school age children. The father's behavior is taken as given. The main goal is to analyze the

  3. Early Head Start and Child Care Partnerships: Working Together To Serve Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Martha J.; Hallam, Rena A.; Beck, Heidi L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the growth of Early Head Start (EHS) programs, focusing on one EHS partnership with child care providers in Delaware to serve infants, toddlers, and their families. Includes discussion of partnership strategies that promote quality programming, ways the early care and education coordinator supports child development, strategies for…

  4. Raising Child Care Salaries and Benefits: An Evaluation of New York State Salary Enhancement Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Elisabeth; And Others

    Effects of the first year of New York State's salary enhancement program for classroom and supervisory staff in licensed, not-for-profit child care centers, including Head Start, were evaluated. The evaluation was designed to help New York policymakers assess the effectiveness of this approach to improving child care staff recruitment and…

  5. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  6. Child care quality in the Netherlands over the years: A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, K.O.W.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, M.J.J.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Fukkink, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: We assessed the quality of child care in a nationally representative sample of 200 Dutch child care centers using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale–Revised and/or Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale–Revised and compared it with a previous assessment in 2005. The

  7. Post-Up Study : Postpartum Depression Screening in Well-Child Care and Maternal Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee-van den Berg, Angarath I; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; IJzerman, Maarten J; Haasnoot-Smallegange, Riet M E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Postpartum depression often remains unaddressed. Screening in well-child care (WCC) may improve early detection, promote maternal recovery, and reduce effects on child development. We assessed the effectiveness of screening for postpartum depression in WCC compared with care as usual

  8. Child malnutrition and prenatal care: Evidence from three Latin American countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Forero-Ramirez (Nohora); L.F. Gamboa (Luis F.); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective. To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries-Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru-where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in utero and during

  9. The Daily Log: A System of Communication Between Home and Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Beverly; Eichholz, Barbara

    This paper indicates the benefits obtained when child care center staff use a daily log to record the activities of infants in care. Designed to provide parents with information about their child's activities, the log consists of entries such as time of feedings, food consumed, diaper changes, stimulation, play, sleep periods, crying periods, and…

  10. Psychiatric nursing care for adult survivors of child maltreatment: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zalm, Y.C.; Nugteren, W.A.; Hafsteinsdottir, T.B.; van der Venne, C.G.J.M.; Kool, N.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. Conclusions: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to ask

  11. Special Issues in Child Care: Supporting Infants Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ginger L.; Mullins, Sharon M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants and children with prenatal drug exposure and/or a caregiver with a substance abuse problem participate in child care centers and homes throughout the United States. Thus, child care providers are in a position to monitor not only the need for physical, cognitive, or behavioral early intervention, but also to collaborate with parents on…

  12. Older parents providing child care for adult children: Does it pay off?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.; Poortman, A.R.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether past grandparental child care is related to present support from adult children. On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors expected that grandparental child care creates a debt that is repaid in the form of receiving support later in life. Using data from the

  13. Child care practices and nutritional status of children aged 0-2 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Mother's knowledge about child care influences the amount and type of care that is given to children. Time taken to perform various activities was also found to vary with the mother's education level, her occupation, number of children less than five years in the house and the child's age and birth order.

  14. Improving quality of the child care environment through a consultancy programme for centre directors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, K.O.W.; Fukkink, R.G.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, M.J.J.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a newly developed on-site consultancy programme to improve global quality of the child care environment in non-parental child care centres for 0- to 4-year-old children as measured with the ITERS-R/ECERS-R. Using a randomised controlled trial with a pretest,

  15. Implementing the Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization: A Guide for States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schulman, Karen; Vogtman, Julie; Johnson-Staub, Christine; Blank, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014, with broad bipartisan support, Congress reauthorized CCDBG [Child Care and Development Block Grant] (the major federal child care program) for the first time since 1996. The new law strengthens CCDBG's dual role as a major early childhood education program and a work support for low-income families. This implementation guide is…

  16. 78 FR 49249 - Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program; Reopening of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 98 Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Administration for Children and Families, Department of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: HHS published a proposed rule for the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) in the...

  17. Commonly Asked Questions about Child Care Centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Civil Rights Div.

    This publication provides answers to 30 frequently asked questions about child care centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Questions are grouped into the following categories: coverage, general information, personal services, issues regarding specific disabilities, making the child-care facility accessible, tax provisions, the…

  18. Child Care Provider Awareness and Prevention of Cytomegalovirus and Other Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Child care facilities are prime locations for the transmission of infectious and communicable diseases. Children and child care providers are at high risk for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection which causes severe birth defects and developmental delays. Objective: The goals of study were: (1) to determine the level of cytomegalovirus…

  19. Effects of Universal Child Care Participation on Pre-teen Skills and Risky Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper uses a Danish panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment that generates variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities to investigate pre-teenage effects of child care participation at age three (either parental care, preschoo...

  20. Supply and Demand for Child Care Services in Turkey : A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Despite increases in availability of center based child care and preschool services in Turkey over the last decade, both the supply of services and utilization remain low. There are regional disparities in availability and the majority of children and households remain unserved in terms of child care and preschool services. This report has collected and assessed information on the supply a...

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Impacts of an Employer-Supported Child Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.

    2011-01-01

    Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…

  2. Intra-household work timing: the effect on joint activities and the demand for child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Maassen van den Brink, H.; van Praag, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether couples time their work hours and how this work timing influences child care demand and the time that spouses jointly spend on leisure, household chores, and child care. By using an innovative matching strategy, this study identifies the timing of work hours that cannot

  3. Child Care Time, Parents’ Well-Being, and Gender: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the ‘Well Being Module’ of the 2010 American Time Use Survey (N = 1699) to analyze how parents experience child care time in terms of meaning and stress levels. Multivariate multilevel regressions showed clear differences by gender and the circumstances of child care

  4. Fathers' Involvement in Child Care and Perceptions of Parenting Skill over the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Amy A.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Deutsch, Francine M.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study explored first-time fathers' perceived child care skill over the transition to parenthood, based on face-to-face interviews of 152 working-class, dual-earner couples. Analyses examined the associations among fathers' perceived skill and prenatal perception of skill, child care involvement, mothers' breastfeeding, maternal gatekeeping,…

  5. Intra-household work timing : The effect on joint activities and the demand for child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Klaveren, Chris; Van Den Brink, Henriette Maassen; Van Praag, Bernard

    This study examines whether couples time their work hours and how this work timing influences child care demand and the time that spouses jointly spend on leisure, household chores, and child care. By using an innovative matching strategy, this study identifies the timing of work hours that cannot

  6. An Instrument to Assess the Obesogenic Environment of Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dianne; Hales, Derek; Haverly, Katie; Marks, Julie; Benjamin, Sara; Ball, Sarah; Trost, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe protocol and interobserver agreements of an instrument to evaluate nutrition and physical activity environments at child care. Methods: Interobserver data were collected from 9 child care centers, through direct observation and document review (17 observer pairs). Results: Mean agreement between observer pairs was 87.26%…

  7. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  8. Physical Activity and Beverages in Home- and Center-Based Child Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S.; Garrison, Michelle M.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare obesity prevention practices related to physical activity and beverages in home- and center-based child care programs. Methods: A telephone survey of licensed home- and center-based child care programs in Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Washington between October and December 2008. Results: Most programs…

  9. National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us NRC Welcome to the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education (NRC) at the University of ... resources can be found here . ©2017 National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education Email: info@NRCKids.org Please ...

  10. Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants’ cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, E.M.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was

  11. OC05 - Tokenism or true partnership - parental involvement in a child's acute pain care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Jackie; Smith, Joanna; Kirshbaum, Marilynne; Chirema, Kathleen

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Parenting/parenthood. Family-centred care (FCC) is widely acknowledged as underpinning children's nursing. Delivering FCC requires nurses to advocate for family involvement, particularly in areas where evidence suggest the child's needs are not being met, such as pain care. To explore parental involvement in their child's acute pain care. A qualitative ethnographical approach was adopted, with non-participant observation and follow-up interviews. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Partnership between nurses and parents is not overtly evident in relation to pain care. Involvement is often 'unspoken', indicating that neither the nurse nor parent are clear about the extent to which parents can, or are, involved in care. Parents want greater involvement in their child's pain care and often initiate involvement by advocating for their child, with or without support from nurses. The 'Pillars of Partnership in Pain Care' model offers an alternative approach to involving parents.

  12. Effects of the Caregiver Interaction Profile Training on Caregiver-Child Interactions in Dutch Child Care Centers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies underscore the need to improve caregiver-child interactions in early child care centers. Objective: In this study we used a randomized controlled trial to examine whether a 5-week video feedback training can improve six key interactive skills of caregivers in early child care centers: Sensitive responsiveness, respect…

  13. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  14. State policies regarding nursing delegation and medication administration in child care settings: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heschel, Rhonda T; Crowley, Angela A; Cohen, Sally S

    2005-05-01

    Medication administration is an essential component of quality child care, and nurses play a central role in assuring high-quality training of child care providers. Through key informant interviews and review of public documents, this case study explored the development of state statutes and regulations for medication administration training of child care providers in the state of Connecticut, nursing liability issues related to the definition of this activity, and the role of the Connecticut State Board of Examiners for Nursing. This article also examines the interpretation of the nursing role within this context as delegation versus professional activity and the impact of such designation on nursing practice, child care providers' access to medication administration training by nurses, and children's health status in child care settings. As a result of this case study, the Connecticut State Board of Examiners for Nursing revised its policies, demonstrating an exemplar linkage among research, practice, and policy.

  15. Family context, victimization, and child trauma symptoms: variations in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships during early and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry; Leeb, Rebecca T; Mercy, James A; Holt, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Based on a nationally representative sample of 2,017 children age 2-9 years, this study examines variations in "safe, stable, and nurturing" relationships (SSNRs), including several forms of family perpetrated victimization, and documents associations between these factors and child trauma symptoms. Findings show that many children were exposed to multiple forms of victimization within the family (such as physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, child neglect, sibling victimization, and witnessing family violence), as evidenced by substantial intercorrelations among the different forms of victimization. Moreover, victimization exposure was significantly associated with several indices of parental dysfunction, family adversity, residential instability, and problematic parenting practices. Of all SSNR variables considered, emotional abuse and inconsistent or hostile parenting emerged as having the most powerful independent effects on child trauma symptoms. Also, findings supported a cumulative risk model, whereby trauma symptom levels increased with each additional SSNR risk factor to which children were exposed. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  16. Substitute Child Care As a Current Problem of Social Care in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavrecková Viera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the event of the breakdown of the original family, institutional care has for many decades been the preferred alternative to family substitute care or aid to the original family. The origins of this practice can be traced to the 1950s, when foster families were cancelled by the communist regime and the ideology of collective upbringing triumphed. The objective of this essay is to determine how substitute child care in the Czech Republic has changed in the last ten years. The unfortunate practice of giving preference to institutional care in the event of the breakdown of the original family is changing: between the years 2005-2016 the number of children in institutional facilities for the youngest children (up to three years of age has decreased by 30%; a similar trend may be observed in older children assigned to institutional or protective care. In contrast, the number of children in foster care has increased by 2.5 times since 2004. In 2016 40% more children lived in all forms of formal family substitute care compared to 2009. The problem remains the fragmented nature of legislation among the various ministries and the inadequate support of families in danger of social exclusion. A disproportionate number of children continue to be placed in substitute care due to non-existent public housing and inadequate networks of outpatient, field, and support services.

  17. Child maltreatment and the transition to adult-based medical and mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W; Schwarz, Donald F

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem with lifelong health consequences for survivors. Each year, >29 000 adolescents leave foster care via emancipation without achieving family permanency. The previous 30 years of research has revealed the significant physical and mental health consequences of child maltreatment, yet health and well-being have not been a priority for the child welfare system. To describe the health outcomes of maltreated children and those in foster care and barriers to transitioning these adolescents to adult systems of care. We reviewed the literature about pediatric and adult health outcomes for maltreated children, barriers to transition, and recent efforts to improve health and well-being for this population. The health of child and adult survivors of child maltreatment is poor. Both physical and mental health problems are significant, and many maltreated children have special health care needs. Barriers to care include medical, child welfare, and social issues. Although children often have complex medical problems, they infrequently have a medical home, their complex health care needs are poorly understood by the child welfare system that is responsible for them, and they lack the family supports that most young adults require for success. Recent federal legislation requires states and local child welfare agencies to assess and improve health and well-being for foster children. Few successful transition data are available for maltreated children and those in foster care, but opportunities for improvement have been highlighted by recent federal legislation.

  18. Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children’s development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children’s experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), this study examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children’s development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7–11 years old). Higher levels of child care quality were linked to moderate r...

  19. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Snapshot of Pregnancy & Infant Development Advances Snapshot of Child Development Advances Snapshot of Adult & Family Health Advances NICHD ... Meetings and Events BACK TO TOP Content Owner Child Development and Behavior Branch Last Reviewed Date 12/30/ ...

  20. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.

  1. [Secondary traumatization while under care of child protective services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, A

    1999-01-01

    Quality management is in everybody's mouth. Actually there is only few evaluation research in child protection, and almost no evaluated practice. The paper takes a perspective of "errors", not of "effectiveness". It roughly assesses the frequency of secondary traumas maltreated children experience when they are in care of the helping system. Examples and statistics from the "Vienna Child Protection Center" are used. The client's risk of experiencing a secondary trauma is about 1:3. In about 10% of all cases, the traumas are important and enduring; they range from psychotic episode to massive suicidality and long-lasting feelings of guilt and anxiety. Comparatively, the risk of being traumatized by psychotherapy is about 1:6. Psychotherapy leads to important and positive changes in about one third of all clients; similar effectiveness is attributed to those helping maltreated children. Causes of secondary traumas are: Helpers act too quickly in the heat of affect; they lack specialized knowledge (e.g. self-experience, crisis management); they seldom consult with neutral experts; they have few insight in the effects of their ideological and ethical back-ground; they deal with clients in a distrust enhancing way. On the structural level, I discuss sensationalism and scandalism of massmedia; bureaucratic procedures and their slowness, unaccessibility, inconsistency and indifference to the single case; policy of damage control when errors of the helping system become public; parallelism of decreasing financial/personal support and increasing numbers of customers; badly organized practice in criminal justice. The paper ends by demanding (more) quality circles and supervision.

  2. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B.; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001); the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22); negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684). Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05). Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. Trial registration: US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301 PMID:28542285

  3. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.

  4. Spiritual care of the child with cancer at the end of life: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Cheryl L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report an analysis of the concept of spiritual care of a child with cancer at the end of life. Spirituality is a vital dimension of a child's experience at the end of life; providing comfort; support; and a sense of connection. Spiritual care is paramount to address the substantial spiritual distress that may develop. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis guided the review process. The literature search was not limited by start date and literature through the end of 2012 was included. English, peer-reviewed texts in the databases CINAHL, ATLA and PubMed were included. Critical analysis of the literature identified surrogate terms, related concepts, attributes, antecedents and consequences. The analysis identified six attributes: assessing spiritual needs; assisting the child to express feelings; guiding the child in strengthening relationships; helping the child to be remembered; assisting the child to find meaning; and aiding the child to find hope. Antecedents include existential questions and spiritual distress. Consequences include a peaceful death, spiritual growth, a relationship of trust and enhanced end-of-life care. Spiritual care is a vital aspect of holistic nursing care; however, gaps in knowledge and practice prevent children from receiving adequate spiritual care at the end of life. Nurses would benefit from increased awareness, skills and knowledge about spiritual care. Research is needed to identify interventions that exert the greatest effect on patient care outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relational continuity of care in integrated maternity and child health clinics improve parents' service experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Miia; Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi

    2014-10-01

    In the Finnish primary health care, relational continuity of care is implemented in integrated maternity and child health clinics where the same nurse takes care of the family from the pregnancy until the child reaches school age. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between this relational continuity of care and the availability, utilisation and selected features of the maternity and child health clinic services, as evaluated by the parents. A comparative, cross-sectional service evaluation survey was used. Eighteen months after their baby's delivery, mothers (N = 987) and fathers (N = 835) from Southwest Finland evaluated specific maternity and child health clinic services. Comparisons were made between the parents who had relational continuity of care in the integrated maternity and child health clinics and those who did not. Home visits were more frequently provided when relational continuity of care in integrated maternity and child health clinics existed. Parents who had this relational continuity of care, evaluated several features of the service, especially provided support, more positively than parents who did not. Relational continuity of care in integrated maternity and child health clinics seems to increase parents' satisfaction with the services and might increase the provision of home visits.

  6. Relational continuity of care in integrated maternity and child health clinics improve parents’ service experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Miia; Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the Finnish primary health care, relational continuity of care is implemented in integrated maternity and child health clinics where the same nurse takes care of the family from the pregnancy until the child reaches school age. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between this relational continuity of care and the availability, utilisation and selected features of the maternity and child health clinic services, as evaluated by the parents. Methods A comparative, cross-sectional service evaluation survey was used. Eighteen months after their baby's delivery, mothers (N = 987) and fathers (N = 835) from Southwest Finland evaluated specific maternity and child health clinic services. Comparisons were made between the parents who had relational continuity of care in the integrated maternity and child health clinics and those who did not. Results Home visits were more frequently provided when relational continuity of care in integrated maternity and child health clinics existed. Parents who had this relational continuity of care, evaluated several features of the service, especially provided support, more positively than parents who did not. Conclusions Relational continuity of care in integrated maternity and child health clinics seems to increase parents’ satisfaction with the services and might increase the provision of home visits. PMID:25411571

  7. Development of a Tool to Evaluate Asthma Preparedness and Management in Child-Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chelsea A; Chan, Curtis; Stookey, Jodi; Patel, Anisha I; Evans, Jane; Cohn, Karen; Agana, Luz; Yen, Irene H; Fernandez, Alicia; Cabana, Michael D

    2015-06-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a common condition affecting many children in child-care centers. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program offers recommendations about creating an asthma-friendly child-care setting. However, no studies have investigated the extent to which child-care centers adhere to these recommendations. This study describes the development of a novel instrument to determine the ability of child-care centers to meet national recommendations for asthma. Methods: The Preparing for Asthma in Child Care (PACC) Instrument was developed using information from existing recommendations and standards, the peer-reviewed literature, site visits, and expert interviews. The survey questions were pilot-tested at 36 child-care centers throughout San Francisco. Results: The instrument is composed of 43 items across seven domains: smoking exposure, presence of a medical consultant and policies, management of ventilation and triggers, access to medication, presence of asthma action plans, staff training, and encouragement of physical activity. Discussion: The PACC Instrument is an evidence-based and comprehensive tool designed to identify areas to target to improve asthma care for children in child-care centers.

  8. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks for nutrition in child care 2011: are child-care providers across contexts meeting recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) recommends feeding practices for child-care providers to establish nutrition habits in early childhood to prevent obesity. With >12 million US children in child care, little is known about child-care providers' feeding practices. The purpose of this study was to examine child-care providers' feeding practices to assess whether providers met the Academy's benchmarks and whether attainment of benchmarks varied across child-care contexts (Head Start, Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP], and non-CACFP). Cross-sectional data was collected in 2011 and 2012 from 118 child-care providers who completed self-administered surveys regarding their feeding practices for 2- to 5-year-old children. χ(2) tests and analysis of variance were used to determine variation across contexts. Head Start providers sat more frequently with children during meals (P=0.01), ate the same foods as children (P=0.001), and served meals family style (Pchildren (P=0.01) received more nutrition-education opportunities compared with CACFP and non-CACFP. Head Start providers encouraged more balance and variety of foods (Pchildren about nutrition (PAcademy's benchmarks compared with CACFP and non-CACFP providers. Possible reasons for this compliance might be attributed to Head Start nutrition performance standards and increased nutrition-training opportunities for Head Start staff. Head Start programs can serve as a model in implementing the Academy's benchmarks. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Obesity Prevention Practices and Policies in Child Care Settings Enrolled and Not Enrolled in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.

  10. Child Care Consortiums by Employers: Four Interorganizational Issues to Consider When Developing a Joint Project [Manual. and] Hospital Employee Child Care Project, Final Report (January-March) and Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth L.; Spearly, Diane Hawk

    Growing out of a review of the process and outcome of the Hospital Employee Child Care Project (HECCP), an unsuccessful child care consortium, this manual was developed to help groups considering similar joint child care projects. After reading the manual, it is hoped that project initiators will be more sensitive to influences on the consortium,…

  11. Stable isotope and DNA evidence for ritual sequences in Inca child sacrifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Taylor, Timothy; Ceruti, Maria Constanza; Chavez, Jose Antonio; Reinhard, Johan; Grimes, Vaughan; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Cartmell, Larry; Stern, Ben; Richards, Michael P.; Worobey, Michael; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Four recently discovered frozen child mummies from two of the highest peaks in the south central Andes now yield tantalizing evidence of the preparatory stages leading to Inca ritual killing as represented by the unique capacocha rite. Our interdisciplinary study examined hair from the mummies to obtain detailed genetic and diachronic isotopic information. This approach has allowed us to reconstruct aspects of individual identity and diet, make inferences concerning social background, and gain insight on the hitherto unknown processes by which victims were selected, elevated in social status, prepared for a high-altitude pilgrimage, and killed. Such direct information amplifies, yet also partly contrasts with, Spanish historical accounts. PMID:17923675

  12. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 4, July-August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  13. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 2, March-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  14. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  15. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 1, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  16. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 3, May-June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  17. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  18. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of this newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  19. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 2, March-April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment for all…

  20. Child Care Health Connections. A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 22, Number 5, September-October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  1. Child Care Health Connections: A Health and Safety Newsletter for California Child Care Professionals. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…

  2. Care for the Other's Selfhood: A View on Child Care and Education through Heidegger's Analytic of Dasein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, Kosti

    2012-01-01

    Philosophical analysis concerning selfhood and care is of fundamental importance for child care and education. Martin Heidegger's analytic of Dasein introduces the concepts of self and care within the ontological domain while structuring the holistic understanding of human existence. Because of the ontological emphasis, Heidegger's concepts of…

  3. Preventive care and recall intervals. Targeting of services in child dental care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N J; Aspelund, G Ø

    2010-03-01

    Skewed caries distribution has made interesting the use of a high risk strategy in child dental services. The purpose of this study was to describe the preventive dental care given and the recall intervals used for children and adolescents in a low caries risk population, and to study how the time spent for preventive care and the length of intervals were associated with characteristics of the children and factors related to care delivery. Time spent for and type of preventive care, recall intervals, oral health and health behaviour of children and adolescents three to 18 years of age (n = 576) and the preventive services delivered were registered at routine dental examinations in the public dental services. The time used for preventive dental care was on average 22% of the total time used in a course of treatment (7.3 of 33.4 minutes). Less than 15% of the variation in time spent for prevention was explained by oral health, oral health behaviours and other characteristics of the children and the service delivery. The mean (SD) recall intervals were 15.4 (4.6) months and 55% of the children were given intervals equal to or longer than 18 months. Approximately 30% of the variation in the length of the recall intervals was explained by characteristics of the child and the service delivery. The time used for preventive dental care of children in a low risk population was standardized, while the recall intervals to a certain extent were individualized according to dental health and dental health behaviour.

  4. [Development and effect of a web-based child health care program for the staff at child daycare centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Soo

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop a web-based program on child health care, and to identify the effect of the program on knowledge of, attitudes towards child health care, and health care practice in staff of daycare centers. The program was developed through the processes of needs analysis, contents construction, design, development, and evaluation. After the program was developed, it was revised through feedback from 30 experts. To identify the effect of developed program, onegroup pretest-posttest design study was conducted with 64 staff members from 12 daycare centers in Korea. The program was developed based on users' needs and consisted of five parts: health promotion, disease and symptoms management, oral health, injury and safety, sheets and forms. This study showed that the total score of staff who used the program was significantly higher in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and their health care practice compared with pretest score (pchild health promotion as well as can provide the staff with the insightful child health information. Therefore, it is expected that this program will be applied to staff of other child care settings for children's health.

  5. Heavy with child? Pregnancy status and stable isotope ratios as determined from biopsies of humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Casey T; Fleming, Alyson H; Calambokidis, John; Kellar, Nicholas M; Allen, Camryn D; Catelani, Krista N; Robbins, Michelle; Beaulieu, Nicole E; Steel, Debbie; Harvey, James T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding reproductive rates of wild animal populations is crucially important for management and conservation. Assessing pregnancy status of free-ranging cetaceans has historically been difficult; however, recent advances in analytical techniques have allowed the diagnosis of pregnancy from small samples of blubber tissue. The primary objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to test the efficacy of blubber progesterone assays as a tool for diagnosing pregnancy in humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ); (ii) to estimate the pregnancy rate of humpback whales in Monterey Bay, California; and (iii) to investigate the relationship between stable isotopes and reproductive status of these whales. Progesterone concentrations of female whales fell into two distinct groups, allowing for diagnostic separation of pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. Pregnancy rate varied between years of the study (48.4%% in 2011 and 18.5% in 2012), but fell within the range of other estimates of reproductive success for this population. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were examined to investigate the impacts of pregnancy on these values. Neither δ 15 N nor δ 13 C varied in a consistent way among animals of different sex or reproductive status. The relationship between δ 15 N and δ 13 C was strongly positive for male and non-pregnant female humpbacks; however, no relationship existed for pregnant whales. This difference may be indicative of the effects of pregnancy on δ 15 N, resulting from tissue synthesis and reduced excretion of nitrogenous waste, as well as on δ 13 C through increased mobilization of lipid stores to meet the energetic demands of pregnancy. Ultimately, our results support the use of blubber progesterone assays for diagnosing pregnancy in humpback whales and indicate that, when paired with other approaches (e.g. stable isotope analysis), pregnancy status can be an informative tool for addressing questions about animal physiology, ecology and

  6. The Little Engine That Hasn't: The Poor Performance of Employer Tax Credits for Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Christina Smith; Campbell, Nancy Duff

    An increasingly popular approach to addressing child care needs of Americas families is to give state tax credits to employers that provide child care assistance to their employees, thereby permitting the employer to offset part of its child care expenditures against its state tax liability. Currently, 28 states have such tax credits, and a…

  7. 5 CFR 792.217 - Are part-time Federal employees eligible for the child care subsidy program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employees eligible for the child care subsidy program? Federal employees who work part-time are eligible for... for the child care subsidy program? 792.217 Section 792.217 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... COUNSELING PROGRAMS Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees-What Is...

  8. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are responsible for coordinating with outreach and admissions agencies to assist students with making arrangements for child care... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits...

  9. Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Child Care Centers Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Nouredini, Sahar; Swartz, Alicia; Sutherland, Andrew Mason; Stephens, Michelle; Davidson, Nita A; Rose, Roberta

    To reduce young children's exposure to pests and pesticides, an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention was provided for child care center staff. The 7-month IPM education and consultation intervention was conducted by trained nurse child care health consultants in 44 child care centers in California. IPM knowledge surveys were completed by child care staff, objective IPM assessments were completed by research assistants pre- and postintervention, and activity logs were completed by the nurses. There were significant increases in IPM knowledge for the child care staff who attended workshops. There were reductions in the prevalence of pests and increases in IPM practices at the postintervention compared with the preintervention time point. The nurses consulted an average of 5.4 hours per center. A nurse-led IPM intervention in child care centers can reduce exposure to harmful substances for young children attending child care centers. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Societal values and policies may curtail preschool children's physical activity in child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Saelens, Brian E

    2012-02-01

    Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children's physical activity in child care centers. Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. We identified 3 main barriers to children's physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on "academics." Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. Societal priorities for young children--safety and school readiness--may be hindering children's physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children's health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies.

  11. 25 CFR 20.508 - What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? 20.508 Section 20.508 Indians BUREAU OF... PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.508 What must the social services agency do when a child is placed in foster care, residential care or guardianship home? The social services agency must make...

  12. Consequences of Teen Parents’ Child Care Arrangements for Mothers and Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Blalock, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001 - 2006; N ≈ 7900), we examined child care arrangements among teen parents from birth through prekindergarten. Four latent classes of child care arrangements at 9, 24, and 52 months emerged: “parental care,” “center care,” “paid home-based care,” and “free kin-based care.” Disadvantaged teen-parent families were overrepresented in the “parental care” class, which was negatively associated with children’s preschool reading, math, and behavior scores and mothers’ socioeconomic and fertility outcomes compared to some nonparental care classes. Nonparental care did not predict any negative maternal or child outcomes, and different care arrangements had different benefits for mothers and children. Time spent in nonparental care and improved maternal outcomes contributed to children’s increased scores across domains. Child care classes predicted maternal outcomes similarly in teen-parent and nonteen-parent families, but the “parental care” class predicted some disproportionately negative child outcomes for teen-parent families. PMID:23729861

  13. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  14. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Among Child Care Center Directors in 2008 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Timothy R; Walker, Benjamin H; Aird, Laura D; Southward, Linda; McCown, John S; Martin, Judith M

    2017-06-01

    Children in child care centers represent an important population to consider in attempts to mitigate the spread of an influenza pandemic. This national survey, conducted in 2008 and 2016, assessed directors' reports of their child care centers' pandemic influenza preparation before and after the 2009 H1N1 novel influenza pandemic. This was a telephone-based survey of child care center directors randomly selected from a national database of licensed US child care centers who were queried about their preparedness for pandemic influenza. We grouped conceptually related items in 6 domains into indexes: general infection control, communication, seasonal influenza control, use of health consultants, quality of child care, and perceived barriers. These indexes, along with other center and director characteristics, were used to predict pandemic influenza preparedness. Among 1500 and 518 child care center directors surveyed in 2008 and 2016, respectively, preparation for pandemic influenza was low and did not improve. Only 7% of directors had taken concrete actions to prepare their centers. Having served as a center director during the 2009 influenza pandemic did not influence preparedness. After adjusting for covariates, child care health consultation and years of director's experience were positively associated with pandemic influenza preparation, whereas experiencing perceived barriers such as lack of knowing what to do in the event of pandemic influenza, was negatively associated with pandemic influenza preparedness. Pandemic influenza preparedness of child care center's directors needs to improve. Child care health consultants are likely to be important collaborators in addressing this problem. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Drinking water in California child care sites before and after 2011-2012 beverage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Yoshida, Sallie; Sharma, Sushma; Patel, Anisha; Vitale, Elyse Homel; Hecht, Ken

    2015-06-04

    Drinking water is promoted to improve beverage nutrition and reduce the prevalence of obesity. The aims of this study were to identify how water was provided to young children in child care and to determine the extent to which water access changed after a federal and state child care beverage policy was instituted in 2011 and 2012 in California. Two independent cross-sectional samples of licensed child care providers completed a self-administered survey in 2008 (n = 429) and 2012 (n = 435). Logistic regression was used to analyze data for differences between 2008 and 2012 survey responses, after adjustment for correlations among the measurements in each of 6 child care categories sampled. A significantly larger percentage of sites in 2012 than in 2008 always served water at the table with meals or snacks (47.0% vs 28.0%, P = .001). A significantly larger percentage of child care sites in 2012 than in 2008 made water easily and visibly available for children to self-serve both indoors (77.9% vs 69.0%, P = .02) and outside (78.0% vs 69.0%, P = .03). Sites that participated in the federal Child and Adult Care Food Program had greater access to water indoors and outside than sites not in the program. In 2012 most (76.1%) child care providers reported no barriers to serving water to children. Factors most frequently cited to facilitate serving water were information for families (39.0% of sites), beverage policy (37.0%), and lessons for children (37.9%). Water provision in California child care improved significantly between samples of sites studied in 2008 and 2012, but room for improvement remains after policy implementation. Additional training for child care providers and parents should be considered.

  16. Palliative Care for Children: Support for the Whole Family When Your Child Is Living with a Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious illness. 5 6 The palliative care team works with you, your child, and your care team. Together with your child’s health care providers, palliative care professionals will work with you and your child to make a care plan that is right ...

  17. Point-of-Care Child Psychiatry Expertise: The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Le, Thuy-Tien; Perrin, James M

    2015-05-01

    Since 2005, after a pilot program, the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP) has provided point-of-care psychiatry expertise and referral assistance by telephone to primary care providers. We examined its adoption and use and the practice characteristics associated with different adoption timelines and use patterns. We merged data on calls to MCPAP in 2005 to 2011 with practice data (enrollment year, panel size, regional team assignment). We categorized practices' days from enrollment to first call (adoption) (0-100, 101-365, > 365 days) and quartile of call frequency (use) (annual highest, middle, and lowest quartiles of number of calls per 1000 empanelled patients). We determined associations between adoption and use and practice characteristics using multivariate models. Among 285 practices, adoption and use varied: 55% called 0 to 100 days from enrollment and 16% called >365 days from enrollment. Practices in the highest quartile of use made a mean 15.5 calls/year per 1000 patients, whereas the lowest quartile made 0.4 calls/year per 1000 patients. Adoption within 100 days was associated with enrollment during or after 2007 (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-7.49) and assignment to the team at the pilot site (OR 4.42, 95% CI 2.16-9.04 for central Massachusetts). Highest-quartile use was associated with team assignment (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.86-6.87 for central Massachusetts) and panel size (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.31 for ≥ 10,000 vs < 2000 patients). Adoption and use of MCPAP varied widely. Timing of enrollment, assignment to the team from the program's pilot site, and panel size were associated with patterns of adoption and use. Findings may help other programs design effective implementation strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  19. Helping foster parents understand the foster child's perspective: a relational learning framework for foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wendy; Salmon, Karen

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of children in foster care is influenced by a variety of factors including previous experiences of maltreatment and adverse parenting, as well as the impact of separation from birth parents and placement in care. These factors make it difficult for foster parents to accurately interpret the child's behavioural cues, a necessary precursor to sensitive parenting. The relational learning framework introduced in this article, drawing on attachment theory, facilitates the foster parents' access to some features of the child's mental representations, or internal working model, which may be pivotal in understanding the child's behaviour and therefore successfully managing it. Recent studies suggest that parents' ability to understand the child's psychological perspective, or mental state, is related to the child's cognitive and social development. This article presents a method to enhance the foster parents' understanding of the child's psychological perspective. The model is currently being evaluated for use with foster parents, mental health and social work practitioners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Perceptions of Child Body Size and Health Care Seeking for Undernourished Children in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ashorn, Ulla

    2016-12-01

    Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally, but little is known about the ability of adults to detect different types of child undernutrition in low-income countries. We used focused ethnographic methods to understand how Malawian parents and grandparents describe the characteristics they use to identify good and poor child growth, their actual or preferred patterns of health seeking for undernourished children, and the perceived importance of child undernutrition symptoms in relation to other childhood illnesses. Malawians value adiposity rather than stature in assessing child growth. Symptoms of malnutrition, including wasting and edema, were considered the least severe childhood illness symptoms. Parents delayed health care seeking when a child was ill. When they sought care, it was for symptoms such as diarrhea or fever, and they did not recognize malnutrition as the underlying cause. These findings can be used to tailor strategies for preventing and treating growth faltering in Malawian children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. What factors increase Dutch child health care professionals’ adherence to a national guideline on preventing child abuse and neglect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke Ariënne Johanneke; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Fleuren, Margot A.H.; Haasnoot, Maria E.; Need, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines to support health care professionals in early detection of, and responses to, suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) have become increasingly widely available. Yet little is known about professionals’ adherence to these guidelines or the determinants that affect their uptake. This study

  2. Mothers’ Experiences of Participating in the Medical Care of their Child with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korning Lund, Line; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    Background: Only a few research studies have addressed parents’ experiences of participating in the medical care and treatment of their child diagnosed with cancer. Objective: To explore how mothers of children diagnosed with cancer experienced participating in the medical care of their child both...... at home to prevent hospitalisation" and "Good training in the medical care is significant". Conclusion: In general, mothers experienced participating in the medical care as positive. However, in several aspects of the medical care, the mothers lacked support and guidance from the health professionals...

  3. The impact of child care providers' feeding on children's food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer O; Anderson, Cheryl B; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2007-04-01

    In young children, the eating environment is an important social context within which eating behaviors develop. Among many low-income young children, the responsibility for feeding may have shifted from family members to child care providers because these children spend the majority of their day in child care settings. To examine the influence of feeding among low-income children in child care settings, feeding behaviors of child care providers in Head Start were observed and food consumption was assessed. Head Start, a comprehensive child development program that serves children from ages 3 to 5, was chosen because of the large percentage of minorities, the low-income status of the families, and the age of the children. Fifty child care providers (25 African-American; 25 Hispanic) randomly selected from Head Start centers in a large, urban southwestern city were observed on three mealtime occasions and self-reported feeding styles were assessed. Observed feeding behaviors were categorized into four feeding patterns based on their conceptual similarity to a general parenting typology (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and uninvolved). Measures of food consumption were assessed on 549 children sitting with the child care providers during lunch at the Head Start centers. Indulgent feeding behaviors were positively related to children's consumption of vegetables, dairy, entrée, and starch; authoritative feeding behaviors were positively related to dairy consumption. This research highlights the important influence that child care providers have in the development of healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors in minority children. Implications for intervention training for child care providers to promote healthy eating among Head Start children are discussed.

  4. A review of state regulations to promote infant physical activity in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Duffey, Kiyah J

    2014-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to review state regulations promoting increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviors in infants in child care and to assess consistency with recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We compared existing state and territory licensing and administrative regulations to recent IOM recommendations to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary time in very young children attending out-of-home child care (both child care centers and family child care homes). Three independent reviewers searched two sources (a publicly available website and WestlawNext™) and compared regulations with five IOM recommendations: 1) providing daily opportunities for infants to move, 2) engaging with infants on the ground, 3) providing daily tummy time for infants less than six months of age, 4) using cribs, car seats and high chairs for their primary purpose, and 5) limiting the use of restrictive equipment for holding infants while they are awake. We used Pearson chi-square tests to assess associations between geographic region, year of last update, and number of state regulations consistent with the IOM recommendations. The mean (SD) number of regulations for states was 1.9 (1.3) for centers and 1.6 (1.2) for homes out of a possible 5.0. Two states had regulations for all five recommendations, Arizona for centers and Virginia for homes. Six states and territories had zero regulations for child care centers and seven states and territories had zero regulations for family child care homes. There were no significant associations between geographic region and number of regulations consistent with IOM recommendations. Out-of-home child care settings are important targets for optimal early child health interventions. While most states had some regulations related to the promotion of physical activity among infants, few states had regulations for more than three of the five IOM recommendations. Enhancing state regulations in child care

  5. HOW MANY REPETITIONS OF CHILD CARE SKILLS ARE REQUIRED FOR HEALTH WORKER STUDENTS TO ACHIEVE PROFICIENCY? LEARNING CURVE PATTERNS IN CHILD CARE SKILLS ACQUISITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Zahra Emami; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Abadi, Fatemeh Sardar; Pour, Parastoo Majidi; Davoudi, Malihe; Banafsheh, Elahe

    2015-10-01

    The vulnerability of children under 5 years old requires paying more attention to the health of this group. In the Iranian health care system, health workers are the first line of human resources for health care in rural areas. Because most health workers begin working in conditions with minimal facilities, their clinical qualifications are crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the number of repetitions of child care skills, required for health worker students to achieve proficiency based on the learning curve. A time series research design was used. Participants in this study were first year health worker students enrolled in three health schools in 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and a checklist evaluating the health worker students' clinical skills proficiency for child care. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) using descriptive and inferential statistics including Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. Learning curve patterns in child care skills acquisition showed that for less than 20 and between 20 to 29 times, the level of skill acquisition had an upward slope. Between 30- 39 the learning curve was descending, however the slope became ascending once more and then it leveled off (with change of less than 5%). It seems that 40 repetitions of child care skills are sufficient for health worker students to achieve proficiency. This suggests that time, resources and additional costs for training health worker students' trainees can be saved by this level of repetition.

  6. Children With Special Health Care Needs: Child Health and Functioning Outcomes and Health Care Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Carmen

    This study describes health, functioning, and health care service use by medically complex technology-dependent children according to condition severity (moderately disabled, severely disabled, and vegetative state). Data were collected monthly for 5 months using the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Module 4.0 Parent-Proxy Report. Health care service use measured the number of routine and acute care office visits (including primary and specialty physicians), emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing health care services, special therapies, medications, medical technology devices (MTDs), and assistive devices. Child physical health was different across the condition severity groups. The average age of the children was 10.1 years (SD, 6.2); the average number of medications used was 5.5 (SD, 3.7); the average number of MTDs used was 4.2 (SD, 2.9); and the average number of assistive devices used was 4.3 (SD, 2.7). Severely disabled and vegetative children were similar in age (older) and had a similar number of medications, MTDs, and assistive devices (greater) than moderately disabled children. The advanced practice nurse care coordinator role is necessary for the health and functioning of medically complex, technology-dependent children. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) in the treatment of both-bone forearm fractures in the child: about 87 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaloussi, Saad; Amine Oukhouya, Mohamed; Alaoui, Othmane; Atarraf, Karima; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the complications of elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) in the treatment of both-bone forearm diaphyseal fractures in the child. Between January 2009 and December 2013, 87 children with both-bone forearm diaphyseal fractures were treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing with Métaizeau nails. 76 boys and 11 girls, with an average age of 12 years, were enrolled in the study. Nailing was promptly performed in 50 cases and after secondary displacement during plaster-cast treatment in the other cases. Both bones were nailed in all cases. All patients underwent systematic plaster immobilization for a period of about one month. On average, nails were removed after about 6 months. Functional outcomes were studied over a mean follow-up period of 10 months. Complications were marked by 14 superficial infections (14 cases), osteitis associated with material (2 cases), refracture (3 cases), pseudarthrosis (3 cases), delayed fracture consolidation (2 cases) and proximal radioulnar synostosis (1 case). Although intramedullary nailing ideally is an osteosynthesis technique suitable for the treatment of fractures in children, it is more invasive than orthopaedic treatment.Indications for treatment should remain within well-established limits.

  8. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F

    2013-07-01

    As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental

  9. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? 792.218 Section 792.218 Administrative... law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The bill includes non-Federal center-based child care as well as care in family child care homes, as long as the...

  10. Florida child care center directors' intention to implement oral health promotion practices in licensed child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ajay; Ocanto, Romer; Jacobs, Robin J; Bhoopathi, Vinodh

    2016-09-22

    To determine the factors associated with child care center directors' (CCCDs) intention to implement oral health promotion practices (OHPPs) in licensed childcare centers (CCCs) within the next year, and their self-perceived barriers in successfully implementing those practices. For this cross-sectional study, a pretested 45-item online survey was sent to 5142 CCCDs assessing pediatric oral health knowledge, attitudes towards oral health, intention to implement OHPPs, and self-perceived barriers to implementing OHPPs. An adjusted logistic regression model determined the factors associated with CCCDs intention to implement OHPPs within the next year. Participants were 877 CCCDs, with mean age of 48.5 ± 10.5 years, of whom 96 % were women, and 74 % were whites (Response rate = 19.4 %). The majority (67 %) of respondents reported that they intended to implement OHPPs in their center within a year. Insufficient funding, lack of enough training in oral health, and limited time to promote oral health were the most frequently cited barriers to implementing OHPPs. CCCDs of non-White race (p = 0.02), with a college degree or above (p = 0.05), and with positive attitudes (p centers, along with parental, staff and center level characteristics, and other relevant factors related to implementing OHPPs.

  11. Continuity of Care, Caregiver-Child Interactions, and Toddler Social Competence and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Karen; Elicker, James; Choi, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Continuity of care is a recommended practice in child care intended to promote secure and supportive relationships between infants and toddlers and their caregivers. Toddlers (N = 115) between 12 and 24 months were observed in 30 continuity and 29 noncontinuity classrooms. The average duration of care for toddlers with…

  12. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  13. Child deaths: confidential enquiry into the role and quality of UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnden, Anthony; Mayon-White, Richard; Mant, David; Kelly, Deirdre; Pearson, Gale

    2009-11-01

    In 2006 the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Perinatal Deaths was extended to pilot a collection of child deaths. This helped optimise data collection for local safeguarding children's boards, which, since April 2008, have a statutory responsibility to review all child deaths. Reviewing primary care records may highlight areas in which systems, skills, and care could be improved. To review the role and quality of primary care in child deaths. Confidential enquiry into child deaths. Five regions of the UK: North-East, South-West and West Midlands, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The confidential enquiry collected core data for all child deaths (age range 28 days to 17 years) and an age-stratified sample was assessed by multidisciplinary panels for avoidable factors. An independent detailed review was conducted of the primary care records on all children in the North-East region and all children who were reviewed by panel in the other four regions. Primary care records were reviewed for 168 child deaths. There were 25 (15%) deaths from acute infection, 22 (13%) from cancer, and 11 (7%) from asthma or epilepsy. Fifty-nine (35%) deaths were sudden: sudden unexplained death in infancy, suicides, and assaults. Of 149 with immunisation records, only 88 (59%) had been fully vaccinated on time. One or more primary care professionals were involved in the management of 90 (54%) children. Avoidable primary care factors were identified in 18 (20%) of these deaths. Avoidable primary care factors included failure in the recognition and management of serious infection, failure to vaccinate, and inadequate management of asthma and epilepsy. Decisions made about diagnosis and management in primary care may affect the cause, time, and circumstances of a child's death. Maintaining skills in assessing the acutely ill child remains an essential part of good clinical practice.

  14. [Role of the oral care provider to call attention to child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruythuysen, R J M; Wiggelendam, J M

    2017-04-01

    The focus on child abuse has increased in recent years. In 2015, the Royal Dutch Association of Dentists (KNMT) revised the Sign Code 'child abuse and domestic violence'. The core of the Sign Code is formed by the compulsory 5-step action plan for the signalling of, among other things, (a suspicion of) child abuse that must be followed. Dealing professionally with child abuse places high demands on the knowledge and communication skills of the health care provider. If the demands are met, the health care provider is by law adequately protected against complaints. Many health care providers are still uncomfortable about applying the Sign Code. The number of contacts with Safe at Home for advice and reports coming from oral care amounts to only a few one-thousandths of the total number of contacts. In dealing with the neglecting of oral care, the most common form of child abuse in the area of dental care, professional action is usually still limited to symptom relief. Organised care via chain formation offers possibilities for the coordination of targeted action on child abuse.

  15. Foster Children and Placement Stability: The Role of Child Care Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, Mary Elizabeth; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children who enter the child welfare system at a young age are at risk for a myriad of developmental, physical, and mental health problems. The risks faced by these vulnerable young children may be exacerbated by placement disruptions during foster care. This study utilizes administrative data from Illinois to explore the potential of child care…

  16. Child/Youth Homelessness: housing affordability, early intervention, and preventive care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Fumiya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.

  17. Early Childhood Education and Care Educators Supporting Parent-Child Relationships: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Nolan, Andrea; Bergmeier, Heidi; Hooley, Merrilyn; Olsson, Craig; Cann, Warren; Williams-Smith, Janet; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Building strong relationships between children and parents is vital for children's social and emotional development. A majority of children attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings where they experience a range of relationships (educator-child, educator-parent, parent-child). Educators build relationships with children and…

  18. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... of reimbursable lunches and suppers may be adjusted during, or at the end of the school year, in... donated foods. In accordance with the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, and with 7 CFR part...

  19. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  20. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  1. The Role of Value Priorities in Paternal and Maternal Involvement in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study used the theory of human values to explore parents' involvement with their children. The relationships between maternal and paternal value priorities and various forms of involvement in child care were examined in a sample of 209 couples with 1 child between 6 and 36 months of age. As predicted, giving high priority to…

  2. Identification and management of psychosocial problems by preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic

  3. Make Time to Talk: Language Building Tips for Center-Based Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute for Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Everyone knows that it's important to talk every day with each child, using the kind of talk that builds language and thinking skills. The phrase MAKE TIME TO TALK is to help child care providers remember things they can do when talking to children to help them learn new vocabulary and how to use language to express their ideas and needs, and that…

  4. Behavioral health care for children: the massachusetts child psychiatry access project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, John H; Sarvet, Barry

    2014-12-01

    Access to behavioral health care for children is essential to achieving good health care outcomes. Pediatric primary care providers have an essential role to play in identifying and treating behavioral health problems in children. However, they lack adequate training and resources and thus have generally been unable to meet children's need for behavioral health care. The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project has addressed this problem by delivering telephone child psychiatry consultations and specialized care coordination support to over 95 percent of the pediatric primary care providers in Massachusetts. Established in 2004, the project consists of six regional hubs, each of which has one full-time-equivalent child psychiatrist, licensed therapist, and care coordinator. Collectively, the hubs are available to over 95 percent of the 1.5 million children in Massachusetts. In fiscal year 2013 the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project served 10,553 children. Pediatric primary care providers enrolled in the project reported a dramatic improvement in their ability to meet the psychiatric needs of their patients. Telephone child psychiatry consultation programs for pediatric primary care providers, many modeled after the Massachusetts project, have spread across the United States. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Grant-Savela, Stacey D.; Brondino, Michael J.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions--brief PCIT,…

  6. Recruitment of family child care homes for an obesity prevention intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne S. Ward

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Results of these enhanced recruitment strategies demonstrate the many lessons learned about successful recruitment of a difficult-to-reach population, family child care homes; specifically, the importance of building relationships, communicating clearly, and identifying key motivators.

  7. Ethical Considerations for Care of the Child Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Martha A

    2017-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex, highly technical surgical procedure that can offer hope for children born with congenital heart defects. The procedure may only briefly prolong a life, has limited potential for decreasing mortality, and may lead to serious complications, however. Perioperative nurses play an important role in caring for the child who requires ECMO. They are involved in assessing the child, implementing the plan of care, and facilitating communication between the child's family members and the health care team. Thus, perioperative nurses have a responsibility to consider the broad range of ethical issues associated with the procedure. By examining the ethical concepts of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, justice, and moral distress, the perioperative nurse can better understand the dilemmas that can affect the care and outcome of the critically ill child who requires ECMO. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Child care in infancy and cognitive performance until middle childhood in the millennium cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amélie; Timmins, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study used a British cohort (n = ∼13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age 3 years, but only for children of mothers with low education. These effects did not persist to ages 5 or 7 years. Early center-based care was associated with better cognitive outcomes than informal care at ages 3 and 5 years, but not at 7 years. Effect sizes were larger among children whose mother had low education. Propensity score matching and multiple imputation revealed significant findings undetected using regression and complete-case approaches. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Technical attainment, practical success and practical knowledge: hermeneutical bases for child nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Débora Falleiros; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia

    2009-01-01

    This reflective study aimed to present some aspects of the concepts technical attainment, practical success and practical knowledge, with a view to a broader understanding of child nursing care. Health care is considered in the perspective of reconstructive practices, characterized as contingencies, highlighting the importance of the connection between technical attainment and practical success and the valuation of practical knowledge, based on philosophical hermeneutics, in the context of practical philosophy. Child health nursing can deal with technical attainment and practical success jointly, and also understand practical knowledge in the longitudinality of care. Health promotion, disease prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of child health should be indissociably associated with contextualized realities, shared between professionals and families, aiming to follow the child's growth and development, produce narratives, identify experiences, choices and decision making to broaden health care.

  10. Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants' cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Esther M; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2010-12-01

    This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was rated for sensitivity and for stimulation of infant development during one-to-one caregiving interactions. Infant cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (Mental Development Index). Higher levels of developmental stimulation in the centers predicted higher levels of infant cognitive development at 9 months, beyond infant cognitive development at 3 months (just before entering child care), parental education, and maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that even small increases in developmental stimulation provided in child care centers in the first year of life may foster infants' cognitive development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the caregiver interaction profile training on caregiver-child interactions in Dutch child care centers: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, K.O.W.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Fukkink, R.G.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, M.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies underscore the need to improve caregiver-child interactions in early child care centers. Objective: In this study we used a randomized controlled trial to examine whether a 5-week video feedback training can improve six key interactive skills of caregivers in early child

  12. Effects of the Caregiver Interaction Profile Training on caregiver-child interactions in Dutch child care centers : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, K.O.W.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Fukkink, R.G.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, M.J.J.M.

    Background Previous studies underscore the need to improve caregiver–child interactions in early child care centers. Objective In this study we used a randomized controlled trial to examine whether a 5-week video feedback training can improve six key interactive skills of caregivers in early child

  13. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided u...

  14. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  15. Improving nutrition and physical activity in child care: what parents recommend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sara E; Haines, Jess; Ball, Sarah C; Ward, Dianne S

    2008-11-01

    A large percentage of children in the United States spend part of their day in out-of-home child care. As rates of obesity continue to rise, especially among young children, child care has become a focus for nutrition and physical activity intervention. Parental involvement is an important component of these efforts. During summer 2006, parents of children in child care were surveyed to better understand their perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at the child-care center, and their recommendations for improvement. Parents of children who attended 94 licensed child-care centers in North Carolina were invited to complete a brief survey of perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at their centers using close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were used to identify suggestions for improvement. Five hundred eight parents from 91 child-care centers completed the questionnaire. The majority of parents reported quality of meals and snacks at the center as either excellent (30% meals, 27% snacks) or good (42% meals, 46% snacks). The main recommendations for improving meals and snacks were to increase fruits and vegetables and provide a variety of healthful foods. The majority of parents categorized the quality of physical activity at the center as excellent (36%) or good (46%), and suggested more structured, outdoor activities for children. Findings from this study provide insight into key areas of concern for parents regarding the nutrition and activity environment of child-care centers. This information may be used to create or modify interventions or policies and to help motivate parents to become advocates for change in child care.

  16. Labour Income Taxation, Human Capital and Growth: The Role of Child Care

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Sommacal, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of labour income taxation on growth in an OLG model where both formal schooling and child care enter the human capital production function as complements. We compare them with the effects obtained in a model where only formal schooling matters for skill formation. Using a numerical analysis we find that the omission of child care from the technology of skills' formation can significantly bias the results related to the effects of labour income taxation on growth.

  17. Child malnutrition and prenatal care: Evidence from three Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Forero-Ramirez, Nohora; Gamboa, Luis F.; Bedi, Arjun Singh; Sparrow, Robert

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective. To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries-Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru-where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in utero and during early childhood. Methods. An econometric analysis of cross-sectional Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data was conducted. The analysis included ordinary least-squares (OLS) regressions, estimates of...

  18. A review of state regulations to promote infant physical activity in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Slining, Meghan M; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Duffey, Kiyah J

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to review state regulations promoting increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviors in infants in child care and to assess consistency with recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Methods We compared existing state and territory licensing and administrative regulations to recent IOM recommendations to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary time in very young children attending out-of-home child care (both ...

  19. Improving Quality of the Child Care Environment through a Consultancy Programme for Centre Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne A.; Gevers Deynoot-Schaub, Mirjam J. J. M.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a newly developed on-site consultancy programme to improve global quality of the child care environment in non-parental child care centres for 0- to 4-year-old children as measured with the ITERS-R/ECERS-R. Using a randomised controlled trial with a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test, we compared 35…

  20. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Well-child care delivery in the community in China: Related factors and quality analysis of services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pan; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianghong; Li, Huayan; Zhang, Yaying; Ye, Yiyan

    2018-01-01

    Well-child health care services are essential for maintaining optimum child health and development. This study’s aim was to evaluate the quality of such services and identify factors affecting service quality from the perspective of well-child health care providers located in China’s Hunan Province. To achieve this, a qualitative descriptive method was employed, with 22 well-child health care providers being recruited, using purposive sampling, from among the provinces’ government community health centers. The participants completed individual semi-structured interviews lasting approximately 25–30 minutes that were designed to obtain their views on well-child health care administration in the province. Then, the interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. The main finding was that participants felt that the delivery of well-child health care services in Hunan Province is insufficient. Factors they mentioned as negatively affecting the delivery of such services included the region’s fragmented primary health care system, inadequate attention to this issue from parents and community health care center managers, and a lack of specialized well-child care knowledge. Thus, currently, well-child health care is not being successfully implemented in Hunan Province; consequently, in order to successfully implement well-child health care in this region, community health care centers should invest more resources and funding, particularly into education programs for well-child health care providers. PMID:29360836

  2. Well-child care delivery in the community in China: Related factors and quality analysis of services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Mao

    Full Text Available Well-child health care services are essential for maintaining optimum child health and development. This study's aim was to evaluate the quality of such services and identify factors affecting service quality from the perspective of well-child health care providers located in China's Hunan Province. To achieve this, a qualitative descriptive method was employed, with 22 well-child health care providers being recruited, using purposive sampling, from among the provinces' government community health centers. The participants completed individual semi-structured interviews lasting approximately 25-30 minutes that were designed to obtain their views on well-child health care administration in the province. Then, the interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. The main finding was that participants felt that the delivery of well-child health care services in Hunan Province is insufficient. Factors they mentioned as negatively affecting the delivery of such services included the region's fragmented primary health care system, inadequate attention to this issue from parents and community health care center managers, and a lack of specialized well-child care knowledge. Thus, currently, well-child health care is not being successfully implemented in Hunan Province; consequently, in order to successfully implement well-child health care in this region, community health care centers should invest more resources and funding, particularly into education programs for well-child health care providers.

  3. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates... 65 [FR Doc. C1-2011-18257 Filed 7-25-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1505-01-P ...

  4. One Welfare State, Two Care Regimes: Understanding Developments in Child and Elderly Care Policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooren, F.; Becker, U.

    2012-01-01

    The different development of child and elderly care in the Netherlands reflects the hybrid character of its welfare system, which, until the 1980s, featured both social democratic and conservative elements. While public involvement in the provision of elderly care services rapidly increased after

  5. Rural Neighborhood Context, Child Care Quality, and Relationship to Early Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Allison; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-08-01

    Prior research with older urban children indicates that disadvantaged neighborhood context is associated with poorer early development, including poorer verbal ability, reading recognition, and achievement scores among children. Neighborhood disadvantage in rural communities and at younger age levels may also be related to development; however this relationship has received little examination. In this study we utilize data from the Family Life Project, a representative sample of babies born to mothers in poor rural counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania, to address questions related to the relationship between neighborhood context (disadvantage and safety) and children's early language development. We examine mediation of this relationship by child care quality. We also examine geographic isolation and collective socialization as moderators of the relationship between neighborhood context and child care quality. Results indicated that while neighborhood disadvantage did not predict children's development or child care quality, neighborhood safety predicted children's receptive language, with child care quality a partial mediator of this relationship. Collective socialization but not geographic isolation moderated the relationship between neighborhood safety and child care quality. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed, including improving community safety through community policing, neighborhood watch, and social networks and increasing access to quality child care.

  6. Nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus at child care centers in South Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sooyoun; Yeoh, Yoonjae; Abe, Satoko

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus provided by child care centers in South Korea and Japan. The weekly lunch menus from Monday to Saturday that child care centers provided in November 2014 in South Korea and Japan were analyzed. For Korea, a total of 72 meals provided by 12 centers in Seoul were analyzed by referring to the homepage of the Center for Children's Foodservice Management, which serviced menus for child care centers. For Japan, a total of 30 meals provided by 5 child care centers in Tokyo were analyzed. Nutrient content and pattern in lunch menus were evaluated. The lunch menus in Korea and Japan provided 359.5 kcal (25.7% of the estimated energy requirement) and 376.3 kcal (29.5% of the estimated energy requirement), respectively. 'Rice + Soup + Main dish + Side dish I + Side dish II' were provided in 66.7% of meals in Korea, while various patterns with rice and soup as their bases were provided in Japan. The lunch menus of child care centers in Korea and Japan provide similar amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A, calcium, and other nutrients. However, there were significant differences in the lunch menu patterns in Korea and Japan. This study provides information about the nutritional content and pattern of lunch menus at child care centers in Asian countries with rice as a staple food.

  7. The incidence of accidents in child care centers of the local government organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraratsamee, Jariya; Ratanasiri, Amornrat; Kanato, Manop

    2012-08-01

    To study the incidence of accidents and the environment around the building of child care centers of the local government organizations under the Health Promoting Center 6. This was a descriptive study carried out among 1,871 child care centers of the local government organizations under the Health Promoting Center 6 within eight Northeastern provinces. The self administered questionnaires were handed out in the process of this study and data were collected between January 1 and February 28, 2011. One thousand eight hundred seventy one child care centers answered the questionnaires. The ratio of children per caregiver was found to be 17:1. In 2010 the incidence of injury in children was 7.17 per 100 persons. Ratio of injury between boys and girls was 1.9:1. The places mostly reported for the accidents were outside the building, the playground instruments, and inside the classrooms. Most child care centers were located on the street side and had no fence near the water sources (pool, pond) and trees. Only 22.9% had children water closets and those with adult water closet provided no support for holding. Most (93.3%) of the toilets had water containers inside. Environment around the child care center building may be the cause of many accidents. If the child care centers comply the convention instructions, children will be safe during they stay.

  8. Brief Report: Parent's Assessments of Their Care-Related Stress and Child's ASD Symptoms in Relation to Their child's Intervention History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Daniel; Csako, Rita; Landon, Jason; Goedeke, Sonja; Ty, Kelly

    2018-03-20

    Parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be stressful. Understanding parent's perceptions of their stress and their child's ASD-related symptoms is important for both the well-being of parent and child and for other reasons, such as intervention adherence and diagnostic accuracy. We report parent (N = 570) ratings of both their ASD Care-Related Stress scores and their child's symptoms in relation to the child's exposure to five mainstream ASD interventions. Differences across intervention history in the way parents perceive their child's symptoms and rate the stressfulness of performing ASD-related parenting duties were found.

  9. Requiring formal training in preventive health practices for child day care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoff, B Z; Willis, W O

    1991-01-01

    The study was a test of the feasibility of mandating training in preventive health practices for child day care providers in California. Three approaches were taken to determining the feasibility of mandatory training. They were (a) to identify persons and groups with the capability to provide training, (b) to identify systems and networks for communication and collaboration on health issues related to day care at the local level, and (c) to determine the child day care providers' concerns, needs, and future interests regarding child health. Information was collected on relevant courses offered by universities, colleges, and adult education programs; on training offered by child health authorities; and on formal curriculums offered by local and national sources. Day care center and family day care home providers were surveyed to determine their knowledge of child health issues, their concerns, and their future needs. The providers surveyed cared for a total of 14,340 children. Information on local networks was obtained from the surveys, from interviews, and from a special task force that had been set up to advise the State legislature. Study results supported the conclusion that a coordinated system of State-wide training was feasible, given the existing networks of training and educational resources, the number of day care providers who had already been motivated to seek some training in child health practices, and the almost unanimous interest among day care providers in obtaining training. Mandating training in child health for day care providers will require a commitment in the form of new legislation outlining basic requirements and allocating funding. The implementation and costs of such a mandate at the State and local level are discussed.

  10. [Suspected physical child abuse--recognition and actions in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupola, Sarimari; Kivitie-Kallio, Satu; Kallio, Pentti; Koskinen, Sari; Alapulli, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Every physician meeting with children should be aware of the most common types of injury and situations causing concern associated with child abuse. When encountering a child who has been or suspected to have been abused, even the physician may get anxious and uncertain about what he/she should be able to do. It is worth remembering that at the beginning the best way a doctor can help the child is to take care of the basic aspects of her/his work: careful clinical examination, appropriate medical record entries and prompt reports to the authorities.

  11. Measuring the Interactive Skills of Caregivers in Child Care Centers: Development and Validation of the Caregiver Interaction Profile Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Vermeer, Harriet J.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: High-quality caregiver-child interactions constitute the core of high-quality child care for young children. This article describes the background and development of the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales to rate 6 key skills of caregivers for interacting with 0-to 4-year-old children in child care centers: sensitive…

  12. Hours in non-parental child care are related to language development in a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, M.P.C.M.; Linting, M.; Henrichs, J.; Herba, C.M.; Verhage, M.L.; Schenk, J.J.; Arends, L.R.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.; Van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Methods: Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal

  13. Is Early Center-Based Child Care Associated with Tantrums and Unmanageable Behavior over Time up to School Entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Background: Existing research suggests that there is a relationship between greater exposure to center-based child care and child behavioral problems though the mechanism for the impact is unclear. However the measure used to document child care has usually been average hours, which may be particularly unreliable in the early months when fewer…

  14. Fathers’ Involvement in Child Health Care: Associations with Prenatal Involvement, Parents’ Beliefs, and Maternal Gatekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B.J.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 182 dual-earner couples experiencing the transition to parenthood, this study examined associations between prenatal involvement, gender role beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping and new fathers’ involvement in child health care. Results indicated that prenatal father involvement was associated with both fathers’ direct engagement in child health care and fathers’ perceived influence in child health-related decision-making. Fathers also demonstrated greater direct engagement in child health care when mothers held more nontraditional beliefs about gender roles. Moreover, when mothers were more encouraging of fathers’ involvement in childrearing, fathers felt more influential in child health-related decision-making, whereas when mothers engaged in greater gate closing behavior, fathers with more traditional gender role beliefs felt less influential in child health-related decision-making. This study suggests that fathers’ prenatal involvement, mothers’ beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping may play a role in the development of new fathers’ involvement in child health care at the transition to parenthood. PMID:26405366

  15. Fathers' Involvement in Child Health Care: Associations with Prenatal Involvement, Parents' Beliefs, and Maternal Gatekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B J; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Dush, Claire M Kamp

    2013-10-01

    Using data from 182 dual-earner couples experiencing the transition to parenthood, this study examined associations between prenatal involvement, gender role beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping and new fathers' involvement in child health care. Results indicated that prenatal father involvement was associated with both fathers' direct engagement in child health care and fathers' perceived influence in child health-related decision-making. Fathers also demonstrated greater direct engagement in child health care when mothers held more nontraditional beliefs about gender roles. Moreover, when mothers were more encouraging of fathers' involvement in childrearing, fathers felt more influential in child health-related decision-making, whereas when mothers engaged in greater gate closing behavior, fathers with more traditional gender role beliefs felt less influential in child health-related decision-making. This study suggests that fathers' prenatal involvement, mothers' beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping may play a role in the development of new fathers' involvement in child health care at the transition to parenthood.

  16. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N Al Dosari

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be measured, and prevention initiatives, such as screening and counseling for parents of children at risk, can be developed and incorporated into primary care practice.

  17. [Director Checklist and Child Care Checklist: Examinations for the Position of Center Director and the Position of Child Care Provider (with User Guides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheig Associates, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA.

    The two separate evaluation instruments combined here are designed to help companies identify applicants for the positions of director and child care provider who have the greatest probability of being outstanding performers on the job. Each instrument contains three sections. Section 1 is an interest and willingness checklist, which acts as a…

  18. Foods served in child care facilities participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu match and agreement with the new meal patterns and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu...

  19. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  20. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  1. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  2. Comparison of menus to actual foods and beverages served in North Carolina child-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Copeland, Kristen A; Ball, Sarah C; Bradley, Lauren; Ward, Dianne S

    2010-12-01

    Menus from child-care centers are an important source of information for parents, researchers, and child-care regulators, but previous research suggests that menus do not accurately represent foods served. The purpose of this study was to compare menus with actual foods and beverages served to children in child-care centers. Menus were collected and a dietary observation was conducted to document all foods and beverages served to children during the course of 1 day in 84 child-care centers in North Carolina in the fall of 2005. Frequencies of foods and beverages on the menus vs those served were computed by eating occasion, food category, and individual foods and beverages. Of the 254 meals and snacks served, 131 (52%) meals and snacks matched entirely what was stated on the menu. Of the 820 individual foods and beverages served, 710 (86.6%) matched those listed on the menus. An additional 110 foods and beverages were served but not listed on the menus. Grains, juice, and vegetables were served less often than indicated on the menus, and milk, protein-rich foods, fruits, mixed dishes, and foods of low nutritional value were served more often than listed on the menus. Overall, just over half of all meals and snacks matched menus, and nearly 90% of individual foods and beverages served matched those stated on menus. Parents of children in child care and dietetics practitioners providing consultation to child-care centers can encourage not only provision of healthy foods and beverages, but also accurate menus in child care. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A survey of child care centers about breastfeeding support in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanparast, Sara; Sweet, Linda; Newman, Lareen; McIntyre, Ellen

    2013-05-01

    Australia has high rates of breastfeeding initiation, with a consistent decline over the first year. Furthermore, there is a growing trend of maternal employment and rising numbers of children enrolled in different types of child care services, both of which can have a negative impact on breastfeeding. To provide evidence to better inform implementation of breastfeeding-friendly strategies in child care settings, this study examined breastfeeding policy and practice in child care centers in metropolitan Adelaide. The paper reports on a survey sent to 292 child care centers in metropolitan Adelaide in 2010. The survey collected information on center location and type, number of enrolled children under age 2, and number of breastfed babies. The survey also included questions about breastfeeding facilities and support, breastfeeding policies, staff training, and barriers to and recommendations to enhance breastfeeding support in child care centers. Of the 62 completed returned surveys (21% response rate), 43 centers (69.4%) reported that they currently have children who receive breast milk at the center; however, in most centers, the total number of breastfed children was reported to be between 1 and 4; 76% reported that the center was supportive of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months; and 80.6% had statements on breastfeeding as part of their food and nutrition policies or guidelines. Furthermore, 64.5% reported there was no formal or informal training for staff on breastfeeding support, but 50% reported that staff members do provide breastfeeding advice to mothers of children in their center. Despite some strategies in place to support breastfeeding, there are no standards on breastfeeding policies, practices, and training in child care settings. Therefore, the extent and scope of such support depend on parental request and the perceptions and attitudes of child care center staff toward breastfeeding.

  4. Evaluating the medical care of child sexual abuse victims in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Evaluation of the medical care provided to victims of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). Design: A retrospective cross sectional study. Setting: The general outpatient clinic of a 150 bed secondary health care facility in Ibadan, Nigeria Participants: Children < 18 years who were treated as Victim's sexual assault.

  5. Correlates of Burnout Symptoms among Child Care Teachers. A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöchliger, Olivia R.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2018-01-01

    Burnout is a widespread occupational stress outcome among child care teachers, jeopardizing the quality of care and children's development. This study aimed at exploring the relationships between individual and organizational level characteristics (representing the six work-life areas control, reward, workload, community, fairness, and values) and…

  6. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  7. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S.M.; Schepers, S.A.; Bergh, E.M. van den; Boer, Y. de; Streng, I.; Dijk-Lokkart, E.M. van; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  8. Who's Watching the Babies? Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important influences on a child's development is the quality of his or her early care and education experiences. It is estimated that more than 1 million children in the U.S. are cared for while their parents are at work by nonlicensed caregivers who are family, friends, or neighbors - and these caregivers can be difficult to reach…

  9. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  10. Infection Control in Child Day Care Centres : Development and evaluation of a hand hygiene intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P. Zomer (Tizza)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children attending child day care centres are at increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections compared to children cared for at home. Hand hygiene is known to be an effective measure to prevent infections. However, compliance with hand

  11. Una Guia Para Padres Para El Cuidado de Ninos (A Parent's Guide to Child Care).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Salem.

    This booklet was designed to help parents in Oregon in finding and financing child care for their children. The first section of the booklet provides information on the Oregon Department of Human Resources' Adult and Family Services (AFS) Division's Aid for Dependent Children (ADC) and Employment Related Day Care (ERDC) programs. This section…

  12. Couples’ work schedules and child-care use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Melissa; Roeters, Anne; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Various aspects of parental work schedules affect the opportunities and constraints that parents encounter when arranging care for their children. This study examined the extent to which the combination of couples’ work schedules was associated with their use of different types of child care,

  13. Child psychiatry in the Finnish health care reform: national criteria for treatment access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Pälvi; Salmelin, Raili K; Luoma, Ilona; Puura, Kaija; Rutanen, Mervi; Pukuri, Tarja; Tamminen, Tuula

    2010-06-01

    As a part of the Finnish National Health Care Project, to develop and validate nationwide standardised criteria for assessing the need for non-urgent child psychiatric specialised medical care (SMC). The Finnish criteria tool, a cutpoint measure indicating access to SMC, was developed on the basis of the Western Canada Waiting List Criteria Tool. The Finnish criteria were widely discussed at national level and finally confirmed by a national child psychiatric consensus meeting. The testing data included 949 new cases, aged 5-18 years, from SMC, family guidance clinics, primary health care and child protection. The Finnish Child Psychiatric Criteria Tool covers the entire case-mix of child psychiatric disorders. Danger to self or others and psychotic symptoms have been combined into a threshold item. This alone suffices to indicate access to SMC. Sensitivity of the tool was 82% and specificity 74% with cutoff point 16/75. Child psychiatric non-urgent SMC is provided in accordance with national criteria, publicly accessible in the Internet. The criteria development process evoked multisectoral discussion on organising child mental health services and, by determining the need of treatment requiring SMC, defined health policy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE): A Randomized Trial of a Parent Training for Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; French, Benjamin; Berkowitz, Steven J; Dougherty, Susan L; Scribano, Philip V; Wood, Joanne N

    Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE) is a 6-session group parent training designed to teach positive parenting skills. Our objective was to measure PriCARE's impact on child behavior and parenting attitudes. Parents of children 2 to 6 years old with behavior concerns were randomized to PriCARE (n = 80) or control (n = 40). Child behavior and parenting attitudes were measured at baseline (0 weeks), program completion (9 weeks), and 7 weeks after program completion (16 weeks) using the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory 2 (AAPI2). Linear regression models compared mean ECBI and AAPI2 change scores from 0 to 16 weeks in the PriCARE and control groups, adjusted for baseline scores. Of those randomized to PriCARE, 43% attended 3 or more sessions. Decreases in mean ECBI intensity and problem scores between 0 and 16 weeks were greater in the PriCARE group, reflecting a larger improvement in behavior problems [intensity: -22 (-29, -16) vs -7 (-17, 2), P = .012; problem: -5 (-7, -4) vs -2 (-4, 0), P = .014]. Scores on 3 of the 5 AAPI2 subscales reflected greater improvements in parenting attitudes in the PriCARE group compared to control in the following areas: empathy toward children's needs [0.82 (0.51, 1.14) vs 0.25 (-0.19, 0.70), P = .04], corporal punishment [0.22 (0.00, 0.45) vs -0.30 (-0.61, 0.02), P = .009], and power and independence [0.37 (-0.02, 0.76) vs -0.64 (-1.19, -0.09), P = .003]. PriCARE shows promise in improving parent-reported child-behavior problems in preschool-aged children and increasing positive parenting attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Current trends, figures and challenges in out of home child care: An internationalcomparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. del Valle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article closes the special issue of this journal about an international review of out-of-home child care, principally family foster care and residential care, tough several aspects related to adoption were included as well. Although a comparison on some data about residential and foster care, or kinship and non-kinship care, is carried out, the article tries above all to make a reflection on the implications of several themes that have emerged as more interesting or important. Matters such as the use of residential care and its role in the current child care system, the overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in foster care in several countries, the situation of unaccompanied young people asylum seeking, the use of adoption as a permanent solution, the challenges of the transition to the adulthood from care, the relevance of the professionalization and models based on social pedagogy, the evaluation and planning based on data, and the current financial crisis and its impact on child care systems are some of the remarkable topics that will be reviewed.

  16. Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child Care or School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure that the facility has clear procedures and staff who have training to give medication. Ask what they do to ... is used by other children Before and after staff members ... child understands good hygiene and the importance of hand washing after using the toilet and ...

  17. Providing High-Quality Support Services to Home-Based Child Care: A Conceptual Model and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromer, Juliet; Korfmacher, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Home-based child care accounts for a significant proportion of nonparental child care arrangements for young children in the United States. Yet the early care and education field lacks clear models or pathways for how to improve quality in these settings. The conceptual model presented here articulates the components of…

  18. Children with Special Health Care Needs in CHIP: Access, Use, and Child and Family Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickafoose, Joseph S; Smith, Kimberly V; Dye, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To assess how the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) affects outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We used data from a survey of parents of recent and established CHIP enrollees conducted from January 2012 through March 2013 as part of a congressionally mandated evaluation of CHIP. We identified CSHCN in the sample using the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative's CSHCN screener. We compared the health care experiences of established CHIP enrollees to the pre-enrollment experiences of previously uninsured and privately insured recent CHIP enrollees, controlling for observable characteristics. Parents of 4142 recent enrollees and 5518 established enrollees responded to the survey (response rates, 46% recent enrollees and 51% established enrollees). In the 10 survey states, about one-fourth of CHIP enrollees had a special health care need. Compared to being uninsured, parents of CSHCN who were established CHIP enrollees reported greater access to and use of medical and dental care, less difficulty meeting their child's health care needs, fewer unmet needs, and better dental health status for their child. Compared to having private insurance, parents of CSHCN who were established CHIP enrollees reported similar levels of access to and use of medical and dental care and unmet needs, and less difficulty meeting their child's health care needs. CHIP has significant benefits for eligible CSHCN and their families compared to being uninsured and appears to have some benefits compared to private insurance. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Hadad

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  20. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  1. Child-Care Instability and Behavior Problems: Does Parenting Stress Mediate the Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarz, Alejandra Ros; Hill, Heather D

    2017-10-01

    Child care instability is associated with more behavior problems in young children, but the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Theoretically, this relationship is likely to emerge, at least in part, because care instability leads to increased parenting stress. Moreover, low socioeconomic status and single-mother families may be more vulnerable to the effects of instability. This study tested these hypotheses using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (n=1,675) and structural equation modeling. Three types of child care instability were examined: long-term instability, multiplicity, and needing to use back-up arrangements. Overall, findings showed little evidence that parenting stress mediated the associations between care instability and child behavior problems among the full sample. Among single-mother and low-income families, however, needing to use back-up arrangements had small positive associations with parenting stress, which partially mediated the relationship between that type of care instability and child externalizing behavior problems.

  2. Distribution of radon concentrations in child-care facilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Min; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kang, Dae-Ryong; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, Si-Hyun; Kwak, Jung-Eun

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to provide fundamental data on the distribution of radon concentrations in child day-care facilities in South Korea and to help establish radon mitigation strategies. For this study, 230 child-care centers were randomly chosen from all child-care centers nationwide, and alpha track detectors were used to examine cumulative radon exposure concentrations from January to May 2015. The mean radon concentration measured in Korean child-care centers is approximately 52 Bq m -3 , about one-third of the upper limit of 148 Bq m -3 , which is recommended by South Korea's Indoor Air Quality Control in Public Use Facilities, etc. Act and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Furthermore, this concentration is about 50% lower than 102 Bq m -3 , which is the measured concentration of radon in houses nationwide from December 2013 to February 2014. Our results indicate that the amount of ventilation, as a major determining factor for indoor radon concentrations, is strongly correlated with the fluctuation of indoor radon concentrations in Korean child-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The influence of caregivers' anxiety and the home environment on child abuse. A study of children attending child-care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yukiko; Tanaka, Emiko; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tomisaki, Etsuko; Watanabe, Taeko; Tokutake, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Misako; Sugita, Chihiro; Anme, Tokie

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of child abuse is increasing in Japan. Therefore, we need appropriate and practical approaches for implementing feasible prevention, early detection, and support services for abused children. The purpose of this study was to examine child-rearing anxieties and the home environment as factors affecting caregivers of suspected abused children who attend child-care centers . First, we applied the millennium edition of the Japan Child and Family Research Institute (JCFRI) Child Rearing Support Questionnaire, and the Index of Child Care Environment (ICCE), for 1,801 caregivers whose children were enrolled in child-care centers based in City A. The millennium edition of the JCFRI Child Rearing Support Questionnaire measures difficulties in childcare for caregivers in terms of feelings, anxiety, and tendencies toward depression. The ICCE measures the quality and frequency of involvement of caregivers with their children and the child-care environment. Next, we interviewed the directors and child-care professionals in the centers to collect information on child abuse. The children were divided into two groups: abused and non-abused. The "abused group" consisted of the children whom the directors and professionals of the child-care centers suspected of being "possibly abused" and so had been placed under the protection of the center; furthermore, the center exchanged information with the City A Municipality "City A municipal government" about these children. We conducted Fisher's exact test to examine the relationship between the "abused group" and the "non-abused group," in relation to child-rearing anxiety and the children's home environments. Questionnaire scores from the two groups were assessed. We calculated odds ratios to examine the significant factors related to child abuse. Our dependent variable was child abuse, our main independent variables were items related to child-care difficulties and the child-care environment, and the moderating variables

  4. Auditing the needs of recovery room staff providing care for the child in an acute hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas-Holley, J

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the results of an audit into recovery nurse knowledge and understanding of paediatric care standards. It will critically analyse the availability of current standards for children's services in the recovery room and discuss the need for a national document specifically dedicated to standards of practise for the care of the child in the recovery room providing immediate post operative care. The article will also look at the development of such a document.

  5. Infection Control in Child Day Care Centres: Development and evaluation of a hand hygiene intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zomer, Tizza

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children attending child day care centres are at increased risk of acquiring gastrointestinal and respiratory infections compared to children cared for at home. Hand hygiene is known to be an effective measure to prevent infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is generally low. In order to develop successful interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance and reduce gastrointestinal and respiratory infections among children attending day care...

  6. New estimates of the relationship between female labour supply and the cost, availability, and quality of child care

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Gong; Robert Breunig; Anthony King

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises new evidence from two Treasury working papers on the responsiveness of female labour supply to child care costs, availability, and quality. In one study, we drew on lessons from the literature and new detailed data to provide new estimates of the labour supply elasticity with respect to child care price for married women with young children. We found that, in contrast with previous Australian estimates, the cost of child care does have a statistically significant and neg...

  7. Parental stress when caring for a child with cancer in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Masa’Deh, Rami; Collier, Jacqueline; Hall, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most studies report that being parents of a child with cancer is a stressful experience, but these have tended to focus on mothers and few have included both parents. Moreover, studies have focussed on families in Western countries and none have been published examining the psychological outcomes for parents living in an Arabic country. This research explores the stress levels of Jordanian parents caring for a child with cancer in order to identify the psychological needs ...

  8. Lived experiences of Jordanian mothers caring for a child with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Mohammad S; Al-Rawajfah, Omar M

    2017-07-18

    Caring for a child with a disability in the family is associated with a major increase in care-giving demands and burden. This qualitative study explores the perspectives, challenges and adaptations of Jordanian mothers living with a child with disability. Phenomenological qualitative tradition was utilized. Seven Jordanian mothers of children with disability were purposefully selected as having rich experiences for caring for a child with a disability. In-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured guide, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to extract main themes and subthemes. Mothers' experiences were reflected into four main themes: (1) increased perceived stigma, (2) fear for the future, (3) increased perceived care-giving burden and (4) adaptations to the child's disability. This study highlights key gaps in the provision of family-centered services for this population as well as multiple sociocultural issues impacting participation and quality of life. Healthcare professionals must deal with the child's disability from a family-centered and cultural perspective. Implications for rehabilitation When therapists meet the whole family's needs through a family-centered approach, the child with disability is less likely to be ignored, maltreated or abused. Family-centered practice adopts a sociocultural model which looks at the child from a wider point of view rather than just the disability itself. It requires therapists to review the context in which the child lives and address the specific needs of parents, siblings and other involved family members. Culture plays a huge role in shaping the family's perspective on disability and has a huge impact and implications for service delivery and development, quality of life and participation for children with disability and their families. Rehabilitation professionals must accommodate their time schedules to provide families with the communication, education

  9. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day Care Teacher Sickeness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette; Andersson, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational health points to work pressure as a trigger of sickness absence. However, reliable, objective measures of work pressure are in short supply. This paper uses Danish day care teachers as an ideal case for analysing whether work pressure measured by the child...... time periods, 2002–2003 and 2005–2006, by using generalized method of moments with lagged levels of the child-to-teacher ratio as instrument. Our estimation results are somewhat mixed. Generally, the results indicate that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to short-term sickness absence...

  10. Parental evaluation of processes of care in relation to the child, parent and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleger Sršen, Katja; Vidmar, Gaj; Sočan, Gregor; Zupan, Anton

    2014-09-01

    The Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC) is a questionnaire for parents used to evaluate the behaviours of healthcare providers. We applied its 20-item version (MPOC-20) to explore the associations between parental evaluation of processes of care and child, parent and family characteristics in Slovenia. A novelty of our approach was the emphasis on the role of a key person. Parents of 235 children who were admitted as inpatients or outpatients of six institutions (hospitals and health centres) because of chronic illness or disability participated in the study. Parents were asked to fill in a general questionnaire on several characteristics of the child, child's health problems, the family and the therapy programmes, and MPOC-20. Univariate associations of the five MPOC-20 scale scores with child, parent and family characteristics were tested first. Multiple linear regression was used for modelling scale scores in relation to child, parent and family characteristics. The analyses singled out availability of a key person as the factor most consistently and unequivocally influencing parental satisfaction. We also found a general positive effect of male sex of the child on the MPOC-20 scores. Neither the present age of children nor age at the onset of health problems was found to be associated with MPOC-20 scores. We found no notable association of the number of health problems with the MPOC-20 scores, but observed clear differences when comparing parental satisfaction with processes of care between different participating institutions.

  11. Understanding of prognosis and goals of care among couples whose child died of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelly E; Neville, Bridget A; Cook, Earl F; Aldridge, Sarah H; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2008-03-10

    Little is known about how couples care for the terminally ill child with cancer. We assessed both parents' understanding of prognosis and treatment goals for children with cancer and explored whether sex mediates these views. We also investigated whether discordance within couples regarding treatment goals was related to parental perception of the child's end-of-life (EOL) experience. We surveyed mothers and fathers of children who died of cancer and were cared for at Children's Hospital (Boston, MA) and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA) between 2000 and 2004. Our sample included 38 couples (response rate, 56%). Willingness to participate did not differ by sex. At diagnosis, fathers and mothers held a similar understanding of the child's prognosis, and 58% of couples agreed on the goal of cure. During the EOL period, a majority of fathers and mothers reported lessening suffering as the primary goal. However, within couples there was poor agreement about the primary goal of care (kappa = 0.07). When parents did not agree on the primary goal of lessening suffering, both parents were more likely to report that the child suffered significantly from cancer-directed treatment (P = .03). Though parent goals are often concurrent at diagnosis, they frequently differ during the EOL period. Parent disagreement about the goal of lessening suffering at the EOL appears to impact how parents describe their child's experience of suffering. Creating opportunities for parents to work through their goals together may lead to improvements in the child's EOL experience.

  12. Effect of child marriage on use of maternal health care services in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Krämer, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    To assess the association between child marriage (before 18 years of age) and maternal health care services use in Pakistan. We limited the data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, to ever-married females aged 15-24 years with at least one childbirth (n=1,404) to identify differences in prenatal care provision (skilled or unskilled medical care provider), antenatal care (antenatal visits; care at home or a hospital), care at delivery (assistance by unskilled medical care provider), and place of birth by early (younger than 18 years) compared with adult (18 years or older) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and health care services use were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), employment status, and partners' education. Overall, 66.1% of ever-married respondents aged 15-24 years in Pakistan with at least one childbirth were married before the age of 18 years. More than half (61.9%) of females married as children had no formal education, and the majority (71.0%) resided in rural areas. Child marriage was significantly associated with decreased likelihood of any prenatal care (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.534-0.993) and prenatal care by skilled medical care providers (adjusted OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.476-0.871) and increased likelihood of delivery assistance by unskilled medical providers (adjusted OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.435-2.518) and delivery at home (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.617-2.915). Efforts to increase the age of marriage and delay childbearing may have population-level effects on reducing disparities between females married as children and adults and improving maternal and child health in Pakistan. II.

  13. Regional disparities in child mortality within China 1996-2004: epidemiological profile and health care coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing Lin; Guo, Sufang; Yang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Yan

    2011-07-01

    China was one of the 68 "countdown" countries prioritized to attain Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4). The aim of this study was to analyze data on child survival and health care coverage of proven cost-effective interventions in China, with a focus on national disparities. National maternal and child mortality surveillance data were used to estimate child mortality. Coverage for proven interventions was analyzed based on data from the National Health Services Survey, National Nutrition and Health Survey, and National Immunization Survey. Consultations and qualitative field observations by experts were used to complement the Survey data. Analysis of the data revealed a significant reduction in the overall under-5 (U5) child mortality rate in China from 1996 to 2007, but also great regional disparities, with the risk of child mortality in rural areas II-IV being two- to sixfold higher than that in urban areas. Rural areas II-IV also accounted for approximately 80% of the mortality burden. More than 60% of child mortality occurred during the neonatal period, with 70% of this occurring during the first week of life. The leading causes of neonatal mortality were asphyxia at birth and premature birth; during the post-neonatal period, these were diarrhea and pneumonia, especially in less developed rural areas. Utilization of health care services in terms of both quantity and quality was positively correlated with the region's development level. A large proportion of children were affected by inadequate feeding, and the lack of safe water and essential sanitary facilities are vital indirect factors contributing to the increase in child mortality. The simulation analysis revealed that increasing access to and the quality of the most effective interventions combined with relatively low costs in the context of a comprehensive approach has the potential to reduce U5 deaths by 34%. China is on track to meet MDG 4; however, great disparities in health care do exist within

  14. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care- lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  15. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  16. Children in family foster care have greater health risks and less involvement in Child Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  18. Adult attachment and the perceived cost of housework and child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Sommer, Dion; Mathias, Lasgaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the link between new mothers’ attachment orientation and the perceived cost of sole responsibility in housework and child care. Background: The transition to motherhood can be very stressful, and according to the Vulnerability Stress Adaptation Model (VSA model......), the way it affects the couple relationship is likely to depend on interacting factors from different domains of risk (e.g. individual and couple level). We expected interactions to appear between domains of attachment and labour division. The hypothesis was that sole responsibility in child care...... and housework would predict lower relationship satisfaction, particularly among mothers who were high on attachment insecurity. Methods: Data from self-report measures of adult attachment, child care, housework and relationship satisfaction were collected from 255 first-time mothers at six months postpartum...

  19. Care for overweight children attending the 5-year preventive child health examination in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyse general practitioners' (GPs) care for children with a weight-for-height above normal based on the GPs' clinical evaluation, that is, 'GP-assessed overweight'.Design. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting GPs' care for children with GP......-assessed overweight at the 5-year preventive child health examination (PCHE).Results. Out of 1135 children attending the 5-year PCHE, 171 were assessed overweight by the GP. According to the Danish body mass index (kg/m(2)) growth charts, 147 children were overweight. The GPs addressed their concern about the child......% of cases.Conclusion. Various care activities were carried out for most children with GP-assessed overweight at the 5-year PCHE. However, the GP did not raise concern about the child's weight with the parents in almost one third of the children. It seems that there is a potential for improving...

  20. Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P tool included 62 items with 5 subscales: food served, healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.

  1. Preventing diseases and outbreaks at child care centers using an education, evaluation, and inspection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jordan; Clodfelter, Sharon

    2014-03-01

    From 2005 to 2008, Washoe County, Nevada, child care centers experienced an increase in illnesses from communicable disease outbreaks. The number of ill children and caregivers from these outbreaks went from 26 in 2005 to 266 in 2008, an increase of 923%. A clear need to reverse this trend existed. Therefore, in 2009 Washoe County strengthened its regulations for child care facilities by adding numerous communicable disease prevention standards. In addition, in 2009 a two-year education, evaluation, and inspection program was implemented at Washoe County child care centers. Following the implementation of this program, a decline occurred in the number of illnesses. The number of ill children and caregivers from outbreaks went from 266 in 2008 to 13 in 2011, a decrease of 95%.

  2. Family Models for Earning and Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCanadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity infamilies. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant andtoddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parentalpreferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.RésuméLa famille canadiennes a changé, dû en partie à une économie qui offre plus de possibilités d’emploi pour les femmes, et à une tendance culturelle qui valorise l’égalité des chances et la diversité dans les familles. En dépit de ces changements, les preuves quantitatives et qualitatives suggèrent une préférence continue pour les mères de passer plus de temps avec les enfants, particulièrement quand il s’agit de nouveau-nés ou d’enfants en bas âge. Donc, pour un couple moyen, la présence de jeunes enfants au foyer pousse les femmes à réduire leurs emplois rémunérés et les maris à augmenter les leurs. Notre étude des préférences parentales suggère un intérêt pour un accroissement des services pour jeunes enfants sous la forme d’éducation préscolaire et de garde d’enfants, et aussi un intérêt pour des politiques qui permettraient aux parents de passer plus de temps avec leurs enfants tels que cong

  3. Factors underlying taking a child to HIV care: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: With the aim of reducing pediatric loss to follow-up (LTFU) from HIV clinical care programs in sub-Saharan Africa, we sought to understand the personal and socio-cultural factors associated with the behavior of caregivers taking HIV-infected and -exposed children for care in western Kenya. Methods: Between ...

  4. CTEPP NC DATA CHILD DAY CARE CENTER WEEKLY MENUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains information on the weekly day care menus. The day care centers provided menus up to three months prior to field sampling. The Children’s Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest aggregate...

  5. CTEPP-OH DATA CHILD DAY CARE CENTER WEEKLY MENUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains information on the weekly day care menus for CTEPP-OH. The day care centers provided menus up to three months prior to field sampling. The Children’s Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the larg...

  6. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  7. Care of the child with Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carl O; Uyeki, Timothy M; Christian, Michael D; King, Mary A; Braner, Dana A V; Kanter, Robert K; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    To provide clinicians with practical considerations for care of children with Ebola virus disease in resource-rich settings. Review of the published medical literature, World Health Organization and government documents, and expert opinion. There are limited data regarding Ebola virus disease in children; however, reported case-fatality proportions in children are high. Ebola virus may affect immune regulation and endothelial function differently in children than adults. Considerations for care of children with Ebola virus disease are presented. Ebola virus disease is a severe multisystem disease with high mortality in children and adults. Hospitals and clinicians must prepare to provide care for patients with Ebola virus disease before such patients present for care, with particular attention to rigorous infection control to limit secondary cases. Although there is no proven specific treatment for Ebola virus disease, meticulous supportive care offers patients the best chance of survival.

  8. A nutrition and physical activity intervention for family child care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; Messner, Lana; Fitzgerald, Karen; Roths, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Family child care homes (FCCHs) provide child care to 1.9 million children in the U.S., but many do not meet established child care standards for healthy eating and physical activity. To determine the effects of a community-based train-the-trainer intervention on FCCHs policies and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity. Quasi-experimental design with replication in three independent cohorts of FCCHs. Registered FCCHs from 15 counties across Kansas participated in the Healthy Kansas Kids (HKK) program. Resource and referral agencies (RRAs) in each county recruited and enrolled between five and 15 child care providers in their service delivery area to participate in the program. The number of registered FCCHs participating in HKK in Years 1 (2006-2007); 2 (2007-2008); and 3 (2008-2009) of the program were 85, 64, and 87, respectively. A stratified random sample of registered FCCHs operating in Kansas (n=297) served as a normative comparison group. Child care trainers from each RRA completed a series of train-the-trainer workshops related to promotion of healthy eating and physical activity. FCCHs were subsequently guided through a four-step iterative process consisting of (1) self-evaluation; (2) goal setting; (3) developing an action plan; and (4) evaluating progress toward meeting goals. FCCHs also received U.S. Department of Agriculture resources related to healthy eating and physical activity. Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) self-assessment instrument (NAP SACC-SA). Analyses of outcome measures were conducted between 2008 and 2010. Healthy Kansas Kids FCCHs exhibited significant improvements in healthy eating (Δ=6.9%-7.1%) and physical activity (Δ=15.4%-19.2%) scores (phealthy eating and physical activity in FCCHs are feasible, sustainable, and effective. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour of toddlers and preschoolers in child care centres in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Clark, Dawne; Ogden, Nancy; Harber, Vicki; Carson, Valerie

    2015-04-29

    To describe duration of physical activity and duration and bouts of sedentary behaviour during child care in a sample of toddlers and preschoolers (19-60 months) from Alberta, Canada, and to examine whether duration and bouts differed among sex, age and parental immigration status groups. One hundred and fourteen children aged 19-60 months from eight child care centres throughout Alberta participated. Data were collected at baseline of a study examining revised Alberta Child Care Accreditation Standards. Duration of physical activity (light (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)) and duration and bouts (1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and ≥15 minutes) of sedentary behaviour during child care were accelerometer-derived using 15-second epochs during October/November, 2013. Median [Interquartile ranges] and ANOVAs, accounting for the clustered nature of the data, were calculated. Minutes/hour spent in sedentary behaviour, LPA and MVPA were 36.9 [32.9, 40.7], 18.4 [16.0, 20.9] and 4.2 [2.5, 5.6] respectively. Frequency/hour of sedentary bouts lasting 1-4, 5-9, 10-14 and ≥15 mins were 6.7 [6.1, 7.6], 0.9 [0.6, 1.1], 0.4 [0.2, 0.5] and 0.3 [0.2, 0.4] respectively. Preschoolers participated in less sedentary behaviour and more LPA and MVPA, and had fewer sedentary bouts lasting 10-14 and ≥15 mins compared to toddlers (p < 0.05). This is the first Canadian study to report on the duration of physical activity and duration and bouts of sedentary behaviour among both toddlers and preschoolers attending child care centres. These findings suggest child care interventions are needed to increase MVPA and decrease total sedentary behaviour while continuing to promote short sedentary bouts.

  11. Assessment of mealtime environments and nutrition practices in child care centers in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah Connell; Griffin, Monica; Lyn, Rodney

    2013-10-01

    The amount of time children spend in child care each week has increased in recent years. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the nutritional quality of foods served and the mealtime environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. Data were collected between April 2010 and September 2010. Each child care center provided a sample 5-day menu (breakfast, lunch, and an afternoon snack) at baseline. Energy and nutrient contents of the menus were analyzed using NutriKids Menu Planning & Nutritional Analysis software (LunchByte Systems, Inc., Rochester, NY). Foods and beverages on the menus were compared to MyPlate food group standards for preschoolers. The child care environment was assessed in each center over 1 full day using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument. Menus met one half to two thirds of the recommended levels for energy, carbohydrate, protein, and vitamins A and C. However, the menus were high in saturated fat and sodium content and did not meet the recommendations for iron or fiber. The majority of the centers did not meet the recommendations for MyPlate food group standards for preschoolers. On the day of the observation, seven centers did not serve a vegetable and more than half of the centers (n=13) did not serve any whole grains. Nineteen centers served high-sugar and/or high-fat foods and 11 did not have visible water indoors. This study identified determinants of the child care environment and nutritional characteristics of the combined meals and snacks offered to children. Findings from this study could inform child care centers how to provide healthier nutrition environments to preschool children.

  12. Management of anaphylaxis in child care centers: evaluation 6 and 12 months after an intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bina M; Bansal, Priya J; Tobin, Mary C

    2006-12-01

    Many young children with a history of allergic reactions or anaphylaxis spend considerable time in child care centers. We previously reported that a significant knowledge deficit exists in anaphylaxis recognition, evaluation, and treatment and that greater anaphylaxis education is needed among child care providers. To determine whether child care centers can recognize, evaluate, and treat anaphylactic episodes in children aged 1 to 6 years 6 months and 1 year after attending an allergy seminar. All 39 child care centers participating in the original study were selected to complete 6-month and 1-year follow-up surveys using a similar questionnaire. Those who did not attend the seminar or complete all the previous surveys were excluded. At 6 months and 1 year, 37 and 29 centers, respectively, completed surveys. There was a significant improvement regarding when to administer intramuscular epinephrine compared with before the allergy seminar. However, only 48% of the centers at 6 months (P = .02) and 31% at 1 year (P = .002) knew how to correctly administer intramuscular epinephrine compared with 77% four weeks after the seminar. With time, there was a significant decline in correctly recognizing typical anaphylaxis symptoms, including abdominal cramping, chest tightness, shortness of breath, low blood pressure, and diarrhea, whereas symptoms such as hives, swelling, and wheezing continued to be identified correctly. There is a need for renewed anaphylaxis education among child care providers. Initially, this intervention significantly increased the ability of child care center staff to recognize, evaluate, and treat anaphylaxis, but knowledge diminished gradually at 6-month and 1-year follow-up.

  13. Taxonomic systems in the field of health care, family care, and child and youth care : A systematic overview of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenboer, K. E.; Huyghen, A. M. N.; Tuinstra, J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Knorth, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomies of child, youth, and family care are needed for the adequate comparison of the effectiveness and usefulness of care and treatment programs. Until now, no systematic overview has been made of the taxonomies available and their outcomes. The aim of this paper is to systematically summarize

  14. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can

  15. Does Early Child Care Help or Hurt Children's Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    More children than ever attend center-based care early in life. We study whether children who attend center-based care before age 3 have better or worse language and motor skills, socio-emotional maturity, and school readiness just before entering primary school. In data covering about 36,000 children in one West German state, we use a marginal treatment effects framework to show how causal effects vary with observed characteristics of children, parents, and care centers and with unobserved p...

  16. Does early child care help or hurt childrens's development?

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    More children than ever attend center-based care early in life. We study whether children who attend center-based care before age 3 have better or worse language and motor skills, socio-emotional maturity, and school readiness just before entering primary school. In data covering about 36,000 children in one West German state, we use a marginal treatment effects framework to show how causal effects vary with observed characteristics of children, parents, and care centers and with unobserved p...

  17. 25 CFR 20.502 - Can Child Assistance funds be used to place Indian children in residential care facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How... in residential care facilities? You, the social service program, can use Child Assistance funds to... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can Child Assistance funds be used to place Indian...

  18. Preconception care: closing the gap in the continuum of care to accelerate improvements in maternal, newborn and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sohni V; Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    Preconception care includes any intervention to optimize a woman's health before pregnancy with the aim to improve maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. Preconception care bridges the gap in the continuum of care, and addresses pre-pregnancy health risks and health problems that could have negative maternal and fetal consequences. It therefore has potential to further reduce global maternal and child mortality and morbidity, especially in low-income countries where the highest burden of pregnancy-related deaths and disability occurs. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Women who received preconception care in either a healthcare center or the community showed improved outcomes, such as smoking cessation; increased use of folic acid; breastfeeding; greater odds of obtaining antenatal care; and lower rates of neonatal mortality. Preconception care is effective in improving pregnancy outcomes. Further studies are needed to evaluate consistency and magnitude of effect in different contexts; develop and assess new preconception interventions; and to establish guidelines for the provision of preconception care.

  19. Implementing a Post-Care Service System in Child Welfare: The Catawba County Child Wellbeing Project. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2012-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Phil; Mabry, Rhett; Ball, Heather; Wilson, Dawn; Brandes, Beth; Metz, Allison; Malm, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This is the first brief in a series, "Building a Post-Care Service System in Child Welfare: Lessons Learned from the Frontlines of Implementation Science in Catawba County." This brief sets the stage for a three-part series on the Catawba County Child Wellbeing Project by describing the Project's origins and historical context. Topics…

  20. Child rearing in a group setting: beliefs of Dutch, Caribbean Dutch, and Mediterranean Dutch caregivers in center-based child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, S.K.; Tavecchio, L.; Leseman, P.; Hoffenaar, P.

    2009-01-01

    Child care centers in Western countries are becoming increasingly culturally diverse, regarding both professional caregivers, children, and their parents. Child-rearing beliefs, which differ between cultures, are found to affect process quality and children’s developmental outcomes. The first aim of

  1. Measuring pregnancy care: towards better maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinni, Suzanne V; Cross, Wendy M; Swanson, Amy E; Wallace, Euan M

    2016-04-01

    Obstetrics remains the largest medico-legal liability in healthcare. Neither an increasing awareness of patient safety nor a long tradition of reporting obstetric outcomes have reduced either rates of medical error or obstetric litigation. International debate continues about the best approaches to measuring and improving patient safety. In this study, we set out to assess the feasibility and utility of measuring the process of maternity care provision rather than care outcomes. To report the development, application and results of a tool designed to measure the process of maternity care. A dedicated audit tool was developed, informed by local, national and international standards guiding best practice and then applied to a convenience sample of individual healthcare records as proof of function. Omissions of care were rated in order of severity (low, medium or high) based on the likelihood of serious consequences on patient safety and outcome. The rate of high severity omissions of care was less that 2%. However, overall rates of all omissions varied from 0 to 99%, highlighting key areas for clinical practice improvement. Measuring process of care provision, rather than pregnancy outcomes, is feasible and insightful, effectively identifying gaps in care provision and affording opportunities for targeted care improvement. This approach to improving patient safety, and potentially reducing litigation burden, promises to be a useful adjunct to the measurement of outcomes. © 2016 The Authors Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Improving access to mental health care for children: the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Barry; Gold, Joseph; Bostic, Jeff Q; Masek, Bruce J; Prince, Jefferson B; Jeffers-Terry, Mary; Moore, Charles F; Molbert, Benjamin; Straus, John H

    2010-12-01

    Inadequate access to care for mentally ill children and their families is a persistent problem in the United States. Although promotion of pediatric primary care clinicians (PCCs) in detection, management, and coordination of child mental health care is a strategy for improving access, limitations in training, time, and specialist availability represent substantial barriers. The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP), publicly funded with 6 regional consultation teams, provides Massachusetts PCCs with rapid access to child psychiatry expertise, education, and referral assistance. Data collected from MCPAP teams measured participation and utilization over 3.5 years from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2008. Data were analyzed for 35,335 encounters. PCC surveys assessed satisfaction and impact on access to care. The MCPAP enrolled 1341 PCCs in 353 practices covering 95% of the youth in Massachusetts. The MCPAP served 10,114 children. Practices varied in their utilization of the MCPAP, with a mean of 12 encounters per practice per quarter (range: 0-245). PCCs contacted the MCPAP for diagnostic questions (34%), identifying community resources (27%), and consultation regarding medication (27%). Provider surveys revealed improvement in ratings of access to child psychiatry. The rate of PCCs who reported that they are usually able to meet the needs of psychiatric patients increased from 8% to 63%. Consultations were reported to be helpful by 91% of PCCs. PCCs have used and value a statewide system that provides access to teams of psychiatric consultants. Access to child mental health care may be substantially improved through public health interventions that promote collaboration between PCCs and child mental health specialists.

  3. Caregiver food behaviours are associated with dietary intakes of children outside the child-care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Beth Dixon, L; Young, Candace; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Hayman, Laura L

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate whether food behaviours of parents are associated with children’s dietary intakes outside the child-care setting, and to compare children’s dietary intakes at home with foods and beverages consumed when they are at child-care centres. In 2005–2006, a survey was completed by parents of at least one child between 3 and 5 years old who attended group child-care centres. Surveys about nutrition practices were completed by centre directors. Research assistants observed foods and beverages consumed by children at lunchtime at the centres. Sixteen licensed group child-care centres in three underserved New York City communities (South Bronx, East/Central Harlem, Central Brooklyn) and the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Two hundred parents. Children were more likely to consume healthful foods including fruits or vegetables if parents reported purchasing food from produce stands/farmers’ markets, shopped for frozen or canned fruits frequently and ate family meals or meals prepared at home daily. Children were more likely to consume less healthful foods such as French fries, or fruit drinks, more frequently if parents reported eating meals from fast-food or other restaurants at least once weekly, or if children ate while watching television. Types of foods and beverages offered to children at home (e.g. higher-fat milk, soft drinks and desserts) were less healthful than those offered at child-care centres. Children’s dietary intakes at home need to be improved. Parents need to understand the importance of providing home environments that support healthful food behaviours in children.

  4. Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Recovery: Child and Parent Responses After Emergency Medical Care for Unintentional Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Bakker, Anne; Marsac, Meghan L; Fein, Joel A; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2015-11-01

    To assess psychological symptoms in injured children (aged 8-17 years) and their parents after emergency department (ED) care to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, co-occurrence of symptoms within families, and the relationship of these symptoms to parent-reported overall recovery. Children and parents (n = 263 child-parent dyads) were enrolled during ED treatment for unintentional injury. Approximately 5 months later, children and parents (n = 178 dyads) completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms and parents reported on child overall recovery. Follow-up assessments found significant posttraumatic stress symptoms in 15% of children and 5% of parents, significant depression symptoms in 13% of children and 16% of parents, and problematic overall recovery in 17% of children. For both children and parents, posttraumatic stress and depression symptom severity were strongly associated. Child and parent symptoms were only modestly associated with each other, and there were few families in which both child and parent had significant posttraumatic stress or depression. Parent symptoms, but not child symptoms, were inversely associated with children's overall recovery. For about 1 in 6 children and parents, unintentional injury treated in the ED can be associated with negative psychological sequelae and suboptimal recovery. Within families, child and parent responses may differ; their relative association with overall recovery deserves additional research. To promote emotional recovery, ED clinicians should be aware of the potential psychological impact of unintentional injury, provide timely evidence-based anticipatory guidance, and communicate these concerns to primary care clinicians.

  5. Interprofessional collaboration at transition of care: perspectives of child and family health nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaila, Kim; Schmied, Virginia; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue

    2015-01-01

    To examine collaboration in the provision of universal health services for children and families in Australia from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses. Collaboration is identified as a key concept contributing to families' smooth transition between maternity and child health services. However, evidence suggests that collaboration between services is often lacking. Few studies have explored how maternity and child health and family health services or professionals collaborate to facilitate a smooth transition. This study reports on data collected in phases 1 and 2 of a three-phase mixed-methods study investigating the feasibility of implementing a national approach to child health and family health services in Australia (Child Health: Researching Universal Services study). In phase 1, consultations (via discussion groups, focus groups and teleconferences) were held with 45 midwives and 60 child health and family health nurses. Themes identified were used to develop phase 2 surveys. In phase 2, 1098 child health and family health nurses and 655 midwives returned surveys. Midwives and child health and family health nurses reported 'some collaboration'. Midwives and child health and family health nurses indicated that collaboration was supported by having agreement on common goals and recognising and valuing the contributions of others. Organisational barriers such as poor communication and information transfer processes obstructed relationships. Good collaboration was reported more frequently when working with other professionals (such as allied health professionals) to support families with complex needs. This study provides information on the nature and extent of collaboration from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses providing universal health services for children and families. Both professional groups emphasised the impact of service disconnection on families. However, their ability to negotiate

  6. Transient and sustained effects of child-care attendance on hospital admission for gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enserink, Remko; Simonsen, Jacob; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Ethelberg, Steen; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Mølbak, Kåre

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that children experience a transient increase in mild episodes of gastroenteritis when they start attending out-of-home child care. We assessed the transient and sustained effects of cumulative day-care attendance, age at first enrolment and type of child care facility attended on hospitalization rates for gastroenteritis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of being hospitalized for gastroenteritis in two large cohorts of preschool (gastroenteritis compared with children never attending registered day-care. Such increased risk was highest shortly after starting day-care attendance and then gradually declined. After 12 months of attendance, attending either day-care centres or day-care homes was associated with a lower risk for hospitalization. Such decreased risk was confined to children starting day-care attendance before the age of one year and extended throughout, but not beyond, their preschool years. Attending day-care centres is associated with a higher risk for gastroenteritis hospitalization until completing 1 year of attendance. However, if children start attending day-care before the age of 1 year, they experience a lower risk of being hospitalized during their preschool years. This apparent protective effect does not last into the elementary school years. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  7. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling of the Influences of Family-Centered Care on Parent and Child Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Family-centered care is now practiced throughout the world by physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals. The call for adoption of family-centered care is based on the contention that the physical and psychological health of a child is influenced by parents' psychological health where family-centered care enhances parent well-being which in turn influences child well-being. We empirically assessed whether these relationships are supported by available evidence. M...

  8. Getting a grip on systems of care and child welfare using opposable thumbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, John D; Oppenheim, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this response paper is to discuss issues raised by two of the components of the definition of systems of care proffered by Hodges et al. [Hodges, S., Ferreira, K., Israel, N., & Mazza, J. (this issue). Systems of care, featherless bipeds, and the measure of all things. Evaluation and Program Planning]. In particular, this response will present some implications of the definition of the focus population and the value and core principle of family-driven care. It will also consider why these two components of the definition might serve as challenges to the applicability of the concept of systems of care to child welfare, and, in turn, integration of the model across child welfare and mental health. Recommendations for expanding and refining these component terms are provided.

  9. A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammina Caterina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

  10. Contracts, Vouchers, and Child Care Subsidy Stability: A Preliminary Look at Associations between Subsidy Payment Mechanism and Stability of Subsidy Receipt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holod, Aleksandra; Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation's largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children's care arrangements.…

  11. Mothers With Physical Disability: Child Care Adaptations at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane L.; Iezzoni, Lisa I.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study describes how women with physical disability experience caregiving for a new infant and how they adapt their home environment and care tasks. METHOD. In 2013, we conducted 2-hr telephone interviews with 22 women with significant physical disability who had delivered babies within the previous 10 yr. The semistructured, open-ended interview protocol addressed wide-ranging pregnancy-related topics. NVivo was used to sort the texts for content analysis. RESULTS. Night care, bathing, and carrying the baby were identified as the biggest challenges. Typical adaptations (with and without occupational therapy consultation) included use of a wrap for carrying the infant, furniture adaptations for mothers using wheelchairs, and assistance from caregivers. CONCLUSION. Women with physical disability can be fully capable of caring for an infant and can find ways to adapt their environment. Further research may determine the role of occupation therapy. PMID:27767945

  12. Child care quality and Dutch 2- and 3-year-olds' socio-emotional outcomes : Does the amount of care matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Dubas, Judith S.; Leseman, Paul P.M.

    High amounts of early child care have sometimes been linked to higher levels of behaviour problems, while high-quality child care has more often been related to fewer behaviour problems and more social competence. The current study investigated whether the level of centre emotional and behavioural

  13. Child malnutrition and antenatal care: Evidence from three Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, N.F.; Gamboa, L.F.; Bedi, A.S.; Sparrow, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of ever-earlier interventions to help children reach their physical and cognitive potential is increasingly being recognized. In part, as a result of this, in developing countries, antenatal care is becoming an important element of strategies to prevent child stunting in utero and later. Notwithstanding their policy relevance and substantial expansion, empirical evidence on the role of antenatal care (ANC) programs in combating stunting is scarce. This study analyze...

  14. Integration of Stable Droplet Formation on a CD Microfluidic Device for Extreme Point of Care Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Shruthi Vatsyayani

    With the advent of microfluidic technologies for molecular diagnostics, a lot of emphasis has been placed on developing diagnostic tools for resource poor regions in the form of Extreme Point of Care devices. To ensure commercial viability of such a device there is a need to develop an accurate sample to answer system, which is robust, portable, isolated yet highly sensitive and cost effective. This need has been a driving force for research involving integration of different microsystems like droplet microfluidics, Compact-disc (CD)microfluidics along with sample preparation and detection modules on a single platform. This work attempts to develop a proof of concept prototype of one such device using existing CD microfluidics tools to generate stable droplets used in point of care diagnostics (POC diagnostics). Apart from using a fairly newer technique for droplet generation and stabilization, the work aims to develop this method focused towards diagnostics for rural healthcare. The motivation for this work is first described with an emphasis on the current need for diagnostic testing in rural health-care and the general guidelines prescribed by WHO for such a sample to answer system. Furthermore, a background on CD and droplet microfluidics is presented to understand the merits and de-merits of each system and the need for integrating the two. This phase of the thesis also includes different methods employed/demonstrated to generate droplets on a spinning platform. An overview on the detection platforms is also presented to understand the challenges involved in building an extreme point of care device. In the third phase of the thesis, general manufacturing techniques and materials used to accomplish this work is presented. Lastly, design trials for droplet generation is presented. The shortcomings of these trials are solved by investigating mechanisms pertaining to design modification and use of agarose based droplet generation to ensure a more robust sample

  15. Child malnutrition and prenatal care: evidence from three Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohora Forero-Ramirez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries-Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru-where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in utero and during early childhood. METHODS: An econometric analysis of cross-sectional Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data was conducted. The analysis included ordinary least-squares (OLS regressions, estimates of concentration curves, and decompositions of a concentration index. RESULTS: The analysis shows that the use of PNC in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru is only weakly associated with a reduction in the level of child malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Further expansion of PNC programs is unlikely to play a large role in reducing inequalities in malnutrition.

  16. Child malnutrition and prenatal care: evidence from three Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Ramirez, Nohora; Gamboa, Luis F; Bedi, Arjun; Sparrow, Robert

    2014-03-01

    To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries-Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru-where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in utero and during early childhood. An econometric analysis of cross-sectional Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data was conducted. The analysis included ordinary least-squares (OLS) regressions, estimates of concentration curves, and decompositions of a concentration index. The analysis shows that the use of PNC in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru is only weakly associated with a reduction in the level of child malnutrition. Further expansion of PNC programs is unlikely to play a large role in reducing inequalities in malnutrition.

  17. Integrating Maternal Mental Health Care in the Pediatric Medical Home: Treatment Engagement and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Mary C; Platt, Rheanna E; Steinberg, Danielle N; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Osborne, Lauren M; Carter, Tracy; Payne, Jennifer L; Solomon, Barry S

    2017-10-01

    Maternal depression is associated with an array of poor child health outcomes, and low-income women face many barriers to accessing treatment. In this pilot study, we assessed treatment engagement in a maternal mental health clinic staffed by a case manager and psychiatrist in an urban pediatric practice. We also examined factors associated with engagement as well as child health outcomes and health care use. Nearly half of the women enrolled attended at least 4 sessions with a psychiatrist in 6 months. Text messaging with the case manager was associated with a greater compliance with psychiatrist sessions. Comparing index children with their siblings prior to enrollment, a higher percentage had immunizations up to date at 1 year of age (82% vs 43%, P = .01), and well-child visit compliance trended toward significance (65% vs 35%, P = .06). The pediatric setting holds promise as an innovative venue to deliver maternal mental health care.

  18. The Soul, Rhythms and Blues of Responsive Child and Youth Care at Home or Away from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Leon C.

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge base that underpins child and youth care work is re-examined through the device of musical metaphor, introducing six voices that impact on responsive practices with children, young people, and their families. The "Soul" of child and youth care is located in guarantees of physical safety and security and attending to bodily comforts,…

  19. Otitis Media, the Quality of Child Care, and the Social/Communicative Behavior of Toddlers: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Manlove, Elizabeth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of otitis media (OM) and the quality of child care on the social and communicative behaviors of toddlers, using a cumulative risk framework that included moderation. The study followed 72 children who began child care in infancy. Both process and structural aspects of the quality of 11 child…

  20. Child-Headed Households: A Feasible Way Forward, or an Infringement of Children's Right to Alternative Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In the face of growing international support for recognition of child-headed households, the author poses the following questions: What does the internationally recognised right to alternative care for children entail? Is the recognition of child-headed households as a form of alternative care in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child…

  1. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  2. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Employer-Sponsored Child Care Services on Selected Employee Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ann Gilman; And Others

    Described in this report is a study conducted to determine whether different kinds of employer-supported child care services had differing effects on the users of these services. Data were gathered on a year's attendance and turnover rates for 891 female employees who had used employer-provided child care. Subjects were randomly selected from 39…

  3. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Employer-Sponsored Child Care Services on Selected Employee Behaviors. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ann Gilman; And Others

    This executive summary describes a study conducted to determine whether different kinds of employer-supported child care services had differing effects on service users. Turnover and attendance data on 891 randomly selected female employees were gathered from 39 companies and hospitals offering on-site or off-site child care, information and…

  4. Parent Perspective on Care Coordination Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda G. Cady

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system’s inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed.

  5. Facilitating the Collection and Dissemination of Information to Parents of Children in a Child Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Maria P.

    To improve conditions at a nonprofit day care center serving low-income, mainly non-English-speaking families, this practicum addressed the need of recently immigrated parents to increase their knowledge of child development and available community resources. A total of 52 Hispanic parents were given materials at an information distribution area…

  6. 41 CFR 102-81.30 - What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 81-SECURITY Security § 102-81.30 What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal...

  7. Child welfare services involvement among the children of young parents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high rate of early parenthood among youth in foster care as well as the increased risk of child maltreatment among children whose adolescent parents have been neglected or abused, very little is known about child welfare services involvement among children whose parents were in foster care when they were born. This study uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) to examine the occurrence of child abuse and neglect investigations, indicated reports and out of home care placements among the children of youth in foster. Thirty-nine percent of the children were the subject of at least one CPS investigation, 17 percent had at least one indicated report and 11 percent were placed in out of home care at least once before their 5th birthday. Cox proportional hazard models are also estimated to identify characteristics of parenting foster youth and their placement histories associated with the risk of child welfare services involvement. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The role of the nursing team caring for a child approaching the end of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Elisabeth; Langevin, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    In a general paediatric department, nurses may have to care for children suffering from severe life-threatening illnesses. When supporting the child and his/her parents, sometimes until the end of life, they must learn to manage their emotions and adopt a position which is both sympathetic and professional.

  9. Validity of family child care providers' proxy reports on children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kelly R; Joschtel, Barbara; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-10-01

    Interventions to promote physical activity (PA) in children attending family child care homes (FCCHs) require valid, yet practical, measurement tools. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of two proxy report instruments designed to measure PA in children attending FCCHs. A sample of 37 FCCH providers completed the Burdette parent proxy report, modified for the family child care setting for 107 children 3.4±1.2 years of age. A second sample of 42 FCCH providers completed the Harro parent and teacher proxy report, modified for the family child care setting, for 131 children 3.8±1.3 years of age. Both proxy reports were assessed for validity using accelerometry as a criterion measure. Significant positive correlations were observed between provider-reported PA scores from the modified Burdette proxy report and objectively measured total PA (r=0.30; pproxy report was not associated with objectively measured PA. Proxy PA reports completed by family child care providers may be a valid assessment option in studies where more burdensome objective measures are not feasible.

  10. Quality Improvement in Home-Based Child Care Settings: Research Resources to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This "Topic of Interest" provides a comprehensive list of research in the Research Connections collection that was published in 2005 or later addressing issues related to quality improvement specifically in home-based child care. The resources are grouped under the following headings: Overviews, Summaries, and Reviews of Quality…

  11. Determinants of parental satisfaction with ultrasound hip screening in child health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, Marjon; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Sakkers, R.J.B.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown ultrasound (US) screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preventive child health care to be more effective than the current screening method. In the present study, 3-month-old infants were screened for DDH with US. The objective of this study was to examine

  12. Environmental health assessment of tribal child care centers in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children’s exposures to lead, allergens, pesticides, PCBs, and other chemical and biological agents may result in adverse health effects but we do not currently know the levels of these chemical and biological agents in child care facilities located in Portland Area I...

  13. Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

  14. Head Start/Child Care Partnerships: Program Characteristics and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Diane; Smith Leavell, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    As part of President Obama's Early Education Plan, Congress authorized $500 million in the 2014 Omnibus Act to support states and communities in expanding high-quality early learning through the creation of a new Early Head Start-Child Care Partnership initiative. This initiative has placed renewed interest on research regarding the nature and…

  15. Everyday Routines: A Window into the Cultural Organization of Family Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyan, Holli A.

    2015-01-01

    Eco(logical)-cultural Theory suggests that a daily routine results from individuals adapting cultural ideas to the constraints of a local context or ecology. Using Ecocultural Theory, this research examined family child care providers' descriptions of daily activities and overall approach to understand cultural models. The results highlighted a…

  16. Mandatory Nap Times and Group Napping Patterns in Child Care: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sally L; Smith, Simon S; Hurst, Cameron; Pattinson, Cassandra L; Thorpe, Karen J

    2017-01-01

    Policy provision for naps is typical in child care settings, but there is variability in the practices employed. One practice that might modify children's early sleep patterns is the allocation of a mandatory nap time in which all children are required to lie on their beds without alternate activity permitted. There is currently limited evidence of the effects of such practices on children's napping patterns. This study examined the association between duration of mandatory nap times and group-level napping patterns in child care settings. Observations were undertaken in a community sample of 113 preschool rooms with a scheduled nap time (N = 2,114 children). Results showed that 83.5% of child care settings implemented a mandatory nap time (range = 15-145 min) while 14.2% provided alternate activities for children throughout the nap time period. Overall, 31% of children napped during nap times. Compared to rooms with ≤ 30 min of mandatory nap time, rooms with 31-60 min and > 60 min of mandatory nap time had a two-and-a-half and fourfold increase, respectively, in the proportion of children napping. Nap onset latency did not significantly differ across groups. Among preschool children, exposure to longer mandatory nap times in child care may increase incidence of napping.

  17. Niche Marketing: Branding Your Early Child Care and Education Business without Getting Burned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Branding in the early child care and education marketplace is very similar to branding on the farm. It refers to the specific image the company develops and promotes to make services unique, recognizable, and memorable in the minds of prospects and customers. This article discusses how to establish a niche in a business, develop a brand, and…

  18. Low Quality of Basic Caregiving Environments in Child Care: Actual Reality or Artifact of Scoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Deborah J.; Guss, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Quality Rating Improvement Systems (QRIS) frequently include the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R) as part of rating and improving child care quality. However, studies utilizing the ITERS-R consistently report low quality, especially for basic caregiving items. This research examined whether the low scores reflected the…

  19. 78 FR 10503 - Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Final Guidance on Inaccessible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... the feeding of children age 3 years and younger, or to help such children with sucking or teething. (b... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0040] 16 CFR Part 1199 Children's Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Phthalates; Final Guidance on Inaccessible Component Parts AGENCY...

  20. The Quality of Early Childhood Educators: Children's Interaction in Greek Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina; Sakellariou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Though quality in early childhood education and care has attracted last decades enormous research interest there is still not a unanimous agreement about its definition. Yet, almost all definitions attempted include interaction, group size, adult:child ratio and early childhood educators' level of education, as important indices of quality.…