WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable charge separation

  1. Stable isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter, F.; Molinari, Ph.; Dirian, G.

    1964-01-01

    Pure deuterium has been separated from gaseous mixtures of hydrogen and deuterium by band displacement chromatography, using columns of palladium on a support. The best results were obtained with columns of Pd on sintered α alumina. With a column of this type, of total capacity about 2 liters, a preparative apparatus of low dead volume has been built which produces 1 liter of pure D 2 from a 50 p. 100 D 2 , 50 p. 100 100 H 2 mixture in about 12 minutes. As a first approximation chromatography is likened theoretically to counter current fractionation, neglecting superficial resistance to the exchange. and also longitudinal diffusions. The number of theoretical plates required necessary for a certain enrichment of the gas phase is determined graphically or by calculation, enabling comparisons to be made between the efficiencies of columns containing different amounts of palladium. Thermal Diffusion: For the separation of hydrogen isotopes a thermal diffusion installation, made of stainless steel and entirely tele-commanded has been constructed. The separation cascade is made up of two identical pairs of hot wire columns. Each pair can work separately or they may be connected by a thermosyphon. The temperature of the hot wire is kept at around 1000 deg C by direct current. With this installation, hydrogen samples with a deuterium content lower than o,5 ppm were obtained from a gas originally containing 32 ppm. It was thus possible to prepare tritium of 99,3 p. 100 concentration from gas with an initial content of 6 p. 100. For quantitative separation of xenon enriched five time in 124 Xe by thermal diffusion, two identical cascades were constructed, each consisting of 5 columns, working in parallel and the two being connected by thermosyphon or by a capillary tube linked to a thermal gas oscillation. The central tungsten wire is heated to 1200 deg C. The columns are grouped like cluster of a heat exchanger, in shell of 30 cm diameter through which cooling water

  2. Stable charged antiparallel domain walls in hyperferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    Charge-neutral 180° domain walls that separate domains of antiparallel polarization directions are common structural topological defects in ferroelectrics. In normal ferroelectrics, charged 180° domain walls running perpendicular to the polarization directions are highly energetically unfavorable because of the depolarization field and are difficult to stabilize. We explore both neutral and charged 180° domain walls in hyperferroelectrics, a class of proper ferroelectrics with persistent polarization in the presence of a depolarization field, using density functional theory. We obtain zero temperature equilibrium structures of head-to-head and tail-to-tail walls in recently discovered ABC-type hexagonal hyperferroelectrics. Charged domain walls can also be stabilized in canonical ferroelectrics represented by LiNbO3 without any dopants, defects or mechanical clamping. First-principles electronic structure calculations show that charged domain walls can reduce and even close the band gap of host materials and support quasi-two-dimensional electron(hole) gas with enhanced electrical conductivity.

  3. Quantum modeling of ultrafast photoinduced charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Troiani, Filippo; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2018-01-01

    Phenomena involving electron transfer are ubiquitous in nature, photosynthesis and enzymes or protein activity being prominent examples. Their deep understanding thus represents a mandatory scientific goal. Moreover, controlling the separation of photogenerated charges is a crucial prerequisite in many applicative contexts, including quantum electronics, photo-electrochemical water splitting, photocatalytic dye degradation, and energy conversion. In particular, photoinduced charge separation is the pivotal step driving the storage of sun light into electrical or chemical energy. If properly mastered, these processes may also allow us to achieve a better command of information storage at the nanoscale, as required for the development of molecular electronics, optical switching, or quantum technologies, amongst others. In this Topical Review we survey recent progress in the understanding of ultrafast charge separation from photoexcited states. We report the state-of-the-art of the observation and theoretical description of charge separation phenomena in the ultrafast regime mainly focusing on molecular- and nano-sized solar energy conversion systems. In particular, we examine different proposed mechanisms driving ultrafast charge dynamics, with particular regard to the role of quantum coherence and electron-nuclear coupling, and link experimental observations to theoretical approaches based either on model Hamiltonians or on first principles simulations.

  4. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei T.

    2018-04-03

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  5. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  6. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  7. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10 -24 per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures

  8. Exact solutions, energy, and charge of stable Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    In this work we deal with nontopological solutions of the Q-ball type in two spacetime dimensions. We study models of current interest, described by a Higgs-like and other, similar potentials which unveil the presence of exact solutions. We use the analytic results to investigate how to control the energy and charge to make the Q-balls stable. (orig.)

  9. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. • The small particle size was better changed than large ones and was more suitable recycled by TES. • The drying pretreatment is good for improving the short-term charging effect. - Abstract: Plastic products can be found everywhere in people’s daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (−)-PE–PS–PC–PVC–ABS–PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (−)-PE–PS–PC–PVC–ABS–PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator

  10. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products can be found everywhere in people's daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of O-18 stable isotope separation technology using membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Taek Soo; Choi, Hwa Rim; Park, Sung Hee; Lee, Ki Tae; Chang, Dae Shik

    2006-06-15

    The ultimate goal of this investigation is to develop the separation technology for O-18 oxygen stable isotope used in a cyclotron as a target for production of radioisotope F-18. F-18 is a base material for synthesis of [F-18]FDG radio-pharmaceutical, which is one of the most important tumor diagnostic agent used in PET (Positron Emission Tomography). More specifically, this investigation is focused on three categories as follow, 1) development of the membrane distillation isotope separation process to re-enrich O-18 stable isotope whose isotopic concentration is reduced after used in a cyclotron, 2) development of organic impurity purification technology to remove acetone, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile contained in a used cyclotron O-18 enriched target water, and 3) development of a laser absorption spectroscopic system for analyzing oxygen isotopic concentration in water.

  12. The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velicogna, D.; Koundakjiian, A.; Beausejour, I.

    1993-01-01

    Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Study on the Effect of the Separating Unit Optimization on the Economy of Stable Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Kun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic criterion called as yearly net profit of single separating unit (YNPSSU was presented to evaluate the influence of structure optimization on the economy. Using YNPSSU as a criterion, economic analysis was carried out for the structure optimization of separating unit in the case of separating SiF4 to obtain the 28Si and 29Si isotope. YNPSSU was calculated and compared with that before optimization. The results showed that YNPSSU was increased by 12.3% by the structure optimization. Therefore, the structure optimization could increase the economy of the stable isotope separation effectively.

  14. Production of stable isotopes utilizing the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Tarallo, F. J.; Stevenson, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    A plasma separation process (PSP) is being operated at Theragenics Corporation's®, Oak Ridge, TN, facility for the enrichment of stable isotopes. The PSP utilizes ion cyclotron mass discrimination to separate isotopes on a relatively large scale. With a few exceptions, nearly any metallic element could be processed with PSP. Output isotope enrichment factor depends on natural abundance and mass separation and can be fairly high in some cases. The Theragenics™ PSP facility is believed to be the only such process currently in operation. This system was developed and formerly operated under the US Department of Energy Advanced Isotope Separation program. Theragenics™ also has a laboratory at the PSP site capable of harvesting the isotopes from the process and a mass spectrometer system for analyzing enrichment and product purity. Since becoming operational in 2002, Theragenics™ has utilized the PSP to separate isotopes of several elements including: dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, molybdenum and nickel. Currently, Theragenics™ is using the PSP for the separation of 102Pd, which is used as precursor for the production of 103Pd. The 103Pd radioisotope is the active ingredient in TheraSeed®, which is used in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer and being investigated for other medical applications. New industrial, medical and research applications are being investigated for isotopes that can be enriched on the PSP. Pre-enrichment of accelerator or reactor targets offers improved radioisotope production. Theragenics operates 14 cyclotrons for proton activation and has access to HFIR at ORNL for neutron activation of radioisotopes.

  15. More Colleges Charge Students a Separate Fee for Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are charging students a separate fee for campus computing facilities and using the income for improvements. Critics feel the costs should be included in tuition, but supporters feel the fees highlight the costs of advancing technology and may reduce misuse. Most fees are pegged to semester or credit hours.…

  16. Separation of charge movement components in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, F; Bencini, C; Piperio, C; Squecco, R

    2001-11-15

    1. Intramembrane charge movements, I(ICM), were measured in rat skeletal muscle fibres in response to voltage steps from a -90 mV holding potential to a wide test voltage range (-85 to 30 mV), using a double Vaseline-gap voltage-clamp technique. Solutions were designed to minimise ionic currents. Ca(2+) current was blocked by adding Cd(2+) (0.8 mM) to the external solution. In a subset of experiments Cd(2+) was omitted to determine which components of the charge movement best correlated with L-type Ca(2+) channel gating. 2. Detailed kinetic analysis of I(ICM) identified two major groups of charges. The first two components, designated Q(a) and Q(b), were the only charges moved by small depolarising steps. The second group of components, Q(c) and Q(d), showed a more positive voltage threshold, -35.6 +/- 2.0 mV, (n = 6) in external solution with Cd(2+), and -41.1 +/- 2.0 mV (n = 12) in external solution without Cd(2+). Notably, in external solution without Cd(2+) the voltage threshold of Ca(2+) current, I(Ca), activation had a similar value, being -38.1 +/- 2.4 mV. 3. The sum of three Boltzmann functions, Q(1), Q(2) and Q(3), showing progressively more positive transition voltages, could be fitted to charge versus voltage, Q(ICM)-V, plots. The three Boltzmann terms identified three charge components: Q(1) described the shallow voltage-dependent Q(a) and Q(b) charges, Q(2) and Q(3) described the steep voltage-dependent Q(c) and Q(d) charges. 4. In external solution without Cd(2+) the charge kinetics changed: a slow decaying phase was replaced by a pronounced delayed hump. Moreover, the transition voltages of the individual steady-state charge components were shifted towards negative potentials (from 6.3 to 8.2 mV). Nevertheless, the overall charge and steepness factors were conserved. 5. In conclusion, these experiments allowed a clear separation of four components of intramembrane charge movements in rat skeletal muscle, showing that there are no fundamental

  17. Directional Charge Separation in Isolated Organic Semiconductor Crystalline Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Michael; Labastide, Joelle; Bond-Thompson, Hilary; Briseno, Alejandro; Collela, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    In the conventional view of organic photovoltaics (OPV), localized electronic excitations (excitons) formed in the active layer are transported by random 3D diffusion to an interface where charge separation and extraction take place. Because radiative de-excitation is usually strongly allowed in organic semiconductors, efficient charge separation requires high exciton mobility, with much of the diffusive motion ‘wasted’ in directions that don’t result in an interface encounter. Our research efforts are focused on ways to enforce a preferred directionality in energy and/or charge transport using ordered crystalline nanowires in which the intermolecular interactions that facilitate transport along, for example, the pi-stacking axis, can be made several orders of magnitude stronger than those in a transverse direction. The results presented in our recent work (Nature Communications) is a first step towards realizing the goal of directional control of both energy transport and charge separation, where excitons shared between adjacent molecules dissociate exclusively along the pi-stacking direction.

  18. Physical principle for optimizing electrophoretic separation of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takeaki; Tanaka, Hajime

    2008-04-01

    Electrophoresis is one of the most important methods for separating colloidal particles, carbohydrates, pharmaceuticals, and biological molecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, in terms of their charge (or size). This method relies on the correlation between the particle drift velocity and the charge (or size). For a high-resolution separation, we need to minimize fluctuations of the drift velocity of particles or molecules. For a high throughput, on the other hand, we need a concentrated solution, in which many-body electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions may increase velocity fluctuations. Thus, it is crucial to reveal what physical factors destabilize the coherent electrophoretic motion of charged particles. However, this is not an easy task due to complex dynamic couplings between particle motion, hydrodynamic flow, and motion of ion clouds. Here we study this fundamental problem using numerical simulations. We reveal that addition of salt screens both electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions, but in a different manner. This allows us to minimize the fluctuations of the particle drift velocity for a particular salt concentration. This may have an impact not only on the basic physical understanding of dynamics of driven charged colloids, but also on the optimization of electrophoretic separation.

  19. Photoinduced charge separation by polymer-bound chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1991-09-01

    This project has examined the photodynamic behavior of water-soluble polymers that have covalently linked hydrophobic chromophores spaced along the chains. These polymeric systems have been examined for photoinduced charge separation with electron-accepting ions having different total charge. Focus has been on the excited singlet (S{sub 1}) state formed by laser flash absorption. The effects of pH and ionic strength -- factors that govern the conformational nature of the polymer in solution -- have been studied. A second major effort has been to study photoinduced redox processes involving excited states of water-soluble variants of anthracene and acridine. 27 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radiopharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology; (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and non-radioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Priorities and summaries are based on statements in the references and from answers to a survey conducted in the fall of 1981. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for 26 Mg, 43 Ca, 70 Zn, 76 Se, 78 Se, 102 Pd, 111 Cd, 113 Cd, and 190 Os. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments

  1. Highly hydrothermally stable microporous silica membranes for hydrogen separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Wang, Fei; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Song, Chun-Lin; Wang, Yan-Li; Li, Qun-Yan

    2008-08-07

    Fluorocarbon-modified silica membranes were deposited on gamma-Al2O3/alpha-Al2O3 supports by the sol-gel technique for hydrogen separation. The hydrophobic property, pore structure, gas transport and separation performance, and hydrothermal stability of the modified membranes were investigated. It is observed that the water contact angle increases from 27.2+/-1.5 degrees for the pure silica membranes to 115.0+/-1.2 degrees for the modified ones with a (trifluoropropyl)triethoxysilane (TFPTES)/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) molar ratio of 0.6. The modified membranes preserve a microporous structure with a micropore volume of 0.14 cm3/g and a pore size of approximately 0.5 nm. A single gas permeation of H2 and CO2 through the modified membranes presents small positive apparent thermal activation energies, indicating a dominant microporous membrane transport. At 200 degrees C, a single H2 permeance of 3.1x10(-6) mol m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1) and a H2/CO2 permselectivity of 15.2 were obtained after proper correction for the support resistance and the contribution from the defects. In the gas mixture measurement, the H2 permeance and the H2/CO2 separation factor almost remain constant at 200 degrees C with a water vapor pressure of 1.2x10(4) Pa for at least 220 h, indicating that the modified membranes are hydrothermally stable, benefiting from the integrity of the microporous structure due to the fluorocarbon modification.

  2. Flexoelectric charge separation and size dependent piezoelectricity in dielectric solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenhui [Department of Physics, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Flexoelectric charge separation and the associated size dependent piezoelectricity are investigated in centrosymmetric dielectric solids. Direct piezoelectricity can exist as external mechanical stress is applied to non-piezoelectric dielectrics with shapes such as truncated pyramids, due to elastic strain gradient induced flexoelectric polarization. Effective piezoelectric coefficient is analyzed in truncated pyramids, which is strongly enhanced by size reduction and depends on flexoelectricity, elastic compliance, and aspect ratio of the non-piezoelectric dielectric solids. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Separation of effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge on mobility in irradiated power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupac, D.; Galloway, K.F.; Khosropour, P.; Anderson, S.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    An effective approach to separating the effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge on mobility degradation in irradiated MOSFETs is demonstrated. It is based on analyzing mobility data sets which have different functional relationships between the radiation-induced-oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge. Separation of effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge is possible only if these two trapped charge components are not linearly dependent. A significant contribution of oxide-trapped charge to mobility degradation is demonstrated and quantified

  4. Charge exchange effect on laser isotope separation of atomic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Hideaki; Izawa, Yasukazu; Otani, Hiroyasu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1982-01-01

    Uranium isotope separating experiment was performed using the two-step photoionization technique with dye laser and nitrogen laser by heating uranium metal with electron beam and producing atomic beam using generated vapour. The experimental results are described after explaining the two-step photoionization by laser, experimental apparatus, the selection of exciting wavelength and others. Enrichment factor depends largely on the spectrum purity of dye laser which is the exciting source. A large enrichment factor of 48.3 times was obtained for spectrum width 0.03A. To put the uranium isotope separation with laser into practice, the increase of uranium atomic density is considered to be necessary for improving the yield. Experimental investigation was first carried out on the charge exchange effect that seems most likely to affect the decrease of enrichment factor, and the charge exchange cross-section was determined. The charge exchange cross-section depends on the relative kinetic energy between ions and atoms. The experimental result showed that the cross-section was about 5 x 10 -13 cm 2 at 1 eV and 10 -13 cm 2 at 90 eV. These values are roughly ten times as great as those calculated in Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and it is expected that they become the greatest factor for giving the upper limit of uranium atomic density in a process of practical application. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Spin-Charge Separation in Finite Length Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yongyou

    2017-10-17

    Using time-dependent density functional theory, we study the optical excitations in finite length carbon nanotubes. Evidence of spin-charge separation is given in the spacetime domain. We demonstrate that the charge density wave is due to collective excitations of electron singlets, while the accompanying spin density wave is due to those of electron triplets. The Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid parameter and density–density interaction are extrapolated from the first-principles excitation energies. We show that the density–density interaction increases with the length of the nanotube. The singlet and triplet excitation energies, on the other hand, decrease for increasing length of the nanotube. Their ratio is used to establish a first-principles approach for deriving the Tomonaga–Luttinger parameter (in excellent agreement with experimental data). Time evolution analysis of the charge and spin line densities evidences that the charge and spin density waves are elementary excitations of metallic carbon nanotubes. Their dynamics show no dependence on each other.

  6. Proposal for implanting a magnetic stable isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, O.F.

    1988-07-01

    The implantation of an electromagnetic isotope separator able to separate elements of mass from 20 to 250 a.m.u., with an enrichment factor from 10 to 200 times the initial concentration, depending on the elements, is proposed. The most suitable separator type for Brazilian CNEN, considering building installations and minimum conditions for the equipment facilities, the retinue chronogram, the infrastructure, and the personnel training for operation is defined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Highly Hydrothermally Stable Microporous Membranes for Hydroge Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Qi; Wang, Fei; Wang, F.; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Song, C.; Wang, Yan-Li; Li, Qun-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Fluorocarbon-modified silica membranes were deposited on γ-Al2O3/α-Al2O3 supports by the sol−gel technique for hydrogen separation. The hydrophobic property, pore structure, gas transport and separation performance, and hydrothermal stability of the modified membranes were investigated. It is

  8. The laser proton acceleration in the strong charge separation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiuchi, M. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)]. E-mail: nishiuchi.mamiko@jaea.go.jp; Fukumi, A. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)]|[National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Daido, H. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Li, Z. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)]|[National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Kado, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, M. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Bulanov, S.V. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)]|[A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of the Sciences, Vavilov St. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Nayuki, T.; Fujii, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Noda, A.; Iwashita, Y.; Shirai, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Nakamura, S. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemi-dai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)]|[Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2006-09-18

    We report the experimental results of proton acceleration as well as the simple one-dimensional model which explains our experimental data. The proton acceleration experiment is carried out with a TW short pulse laser irradiated on a tantalum thin-foil target (3 {mu}m thickness) with an intensity of {approx}3x10{sup 18} Wcm{sup -2}. Accelerated protons exhibit a typical energy spectrum with two quasi-Maxwellian components with a high energy cut-off. We can successfully explain the higher energy part as well as the cut off energy of the proton spectrum with the simple-one-dimensional model based on the strong charge separation regime, which is the extension of the model proposed originally by [M. Passoni et al., Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 026411].

  9. Hydrothermally stable molecular separation membranes from organically linked silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Ashima sah, A.S.; Kreiter, Robert; Blank, David H.A.; Vente, Jaap F.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2008-01-01

    A highly hydrothermally stable microporous network material has been developed that can be applied in energy-efficient molecular sieving. The material was synthesized by employing organically bridged monomers in acid-catalysed sol–gel hydrolysis and condensation, and is composed of covalently bonded

  10. Hydrothermally stable molecular separation membranes from organically linked silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A.; Kreiter, R.; Blank, D.H.A.; Vente, J.F.; ten Elshof, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A highly hydrothermally stable microporous network material has been developed that can be applied in energy-efficient molecular sieving. The material was synthesized by employing organically bridged monomers in acid-catalysed sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation, and is composed of covalently bonded

  11. Photoprotection of reaction centers: thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy vs charge separation in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Ulrich; Soni, Vineet; Strasser, Reto J

    2011-05-01

    During desiccation, fluorescence emission and stable light-dependent charge separation in the reaction centers (RCs) of photosystem II (PSII) declined strongly in three different lichens: in Parmelia sulcata with an alga as the photobiont, in Peltigera neckeri with a cyanobacterium and in the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. Most of the decline of fluorescence was caused by a decrease in the quantum efficiency of fluorescence emission. It indicated the activation of photoprotective thermal energy dissipation. Photochemical activity of the RCs was retained even after complete desiccation. It led to light-dependent absorption changes and found expression in reversible increases in fluorescence or in fluorescence quenching. Lowering the temperature changed the direction of fluorescence responses in P. sulcata. The observations are interpreted to show that reversible light-induced increases in fluorescence emission in desiccated lichens indicate the functionality of the RCs of PSII. Photoprotection is achieved by the drainage of light energy to dissipating centers outside the RCs before stable charge separation can take place. Reversible quenching of fluorescence by strong illumination is suggested to indicate the conversion of the RCs from energy conserving to energy dissipating units. This permits them to avoid photoinactivation. On hydration, re-conversion occurs to energy-conserving RCs. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  12. Development of stable isotope separation technology for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Park, Kyung Bae

    2003-05-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to construct the domestic production system of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 used as target materials in accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes F-18 and Tl-201, respectively. In order to achieve this goal, diode laser spectroscopic analytical system was constructed and automatic measurement computer software for the direct analysis of H 2 16 O/H 2 18 O ratio were developed. Distillation process, laser process, and membrane diffusion process were analyzed for the evaluation of O-18 production. And electromagnetic process, plasma process, and laser process were analyzed for the evaluation of Tl-203 production. UV laser system, IR laser system, and detailed system Tl-203 production were designed. Finally, current and future worldwide demand/supply of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 were estimated

  13. Over all separation factors for stable isotopes by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuntong Ying; Nie Yuguang; Zeng Shi; Shang Xiuyong; Wood, Houston G.

    1999-01-01

    The separation factor for the elements with molar wight differences, γ 0 , is an important characteristic parameter for separation of varied isotopes. Besides the dependence on construction parameters of the gas centrifuge it depends on many variables. Some of them are operation conditions, such as feeding flow rate F, pressure at wall p w , temperature T 0 and distribution temperature on the wall and others. Separation factor γ 0 depends on physical properties, such as molar weight M, viscosity μ, product of ρD, where ρ is density of working media and D is its diffusion coefficient. It was taken four examples: UF 6 , WF 6 , OsO 4 and Xe [ru

  14. Kinetic separation of charge movement components in intact frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C L

    1994-12-01

    1. Procedures for a complete charge movement separation employed a combination of its steady-state inactivation and activation properties in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres in gluconate-containing solutions. 2. Holding potential shifts from -70 to -50 mV reduced the total charge available between -90 and -20 mV from 16.76 +/- 1.70 nC microF-1 (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 4 fibres) to 9.25 +/- 1.43 nC microF-1 without significant loss of tetracaine-resistant charge (q beta). 3. The steady-state and kinetic properties of tetracaine-sensitive charge (q gamma) persisted through holding potential changes from -90 to -70 mV in the presence of gluconate and generally resembled activation properties established hitherto in sulphate-containing solutions. 4. Further holding potential displacement to -50 mV abolished q gamma charge movements and depressed the charge-voltage curve. 5. Test voltage steps applied from a -70 mV prepulse level gave rapid monotonic q beta decays and similarly depressed activation functions in 2 mM tetracaine unchanged by holding potential shifts between -70 and -50 mV. 6. The isolated 'on' q gamma charge movements, I(t), always included early transients that preceded any prolonged charging phases and which increased with depolarization. They decayed to stable baselines in the absence of prolonged time-dependent or inward-current phases and yielded integrals, Q(t), that monotonically increased with test voltage. 7. 'Off' steps always elicited rapid monotonic q gamma decays that fully returned the 'on' charge. 8. 'On' and 'off' q gamma currents, I(t), following voltage steps from fixed conditioning to varying test levels mapped onto topologically distinct higher-order phase-plane trajectories, I(Q), that steeply varied with test voltage. 9. In contrast, voltage steps to fixed test potentials of either -70 or -20 mV elicited identical q gamma phase-plane trajectories independent of prepulse history. 10. The q gamma current thus reflects an independent

  15. Search for new charged massive stable particles at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    We report on a general search at CDF for new particles which are electrically charged and sufficiently long-lived to allow detection (γ c τ >= 1m). Examples of such particles include free quarks, 4th generation leptons which are lighter than their neutrino, and sextet quarks. Their signature would be particles with high momentum but relatively low velocity, β Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

  16. Commissioning results of the ReA EBIT charge breeder at the NSCL: First reacceleration of stable-isotope beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, A., E-mail: lapierre@nscl.msu.edu; Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Barquest, B.; Berryman, E.; Cooper, K.; Fogleman, J.; Krause, S.; Kwarsick, J.; Nash, S.; Perdikakis, G.; Portillo, M.; Rencsok, R.; Skutt, D.; Steiner, M.; Tobos, L.; Wittmer, W.; Bollen, G.; and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Latest results with the electron-beam ion trap of the ReA post-accelerator at the NSCL. • First reacceleration of stable-isotope beams. • First injection of stable-isotope beams from the NSCL’s beam stopping vault. -- Abstract: ReA is a reaccelerator of rare-isotope beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The rare isotopes are produced by fast projectile fragmentation. After production, they are separated in-flight and thermalized in a He gas “catcher” cell before being sent to ReA for reacceleration to a few MeV/u. One of its main components is an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) employed to convert injected singly charged ions to highly charged ions prior to injection into linear-accelerator structures. The ReA EBIT features a high-current electron gun, a long trap structure, and a two-field superconducting magnet to provide both the high electron-beam current density needed for fast charge breeding and high capture probability of injected beams. This paper presents recent commissioning results. In particular, {sup 39}K{sup +} ions have been injected, charge bred to {sup 39}K{sup 16+} and extracted for reacceleration up to 60 MeV. First charge-breeding results of beams injected from a commissioning Rb ion source in the NSCL’s beam “stopping” vault are also presented.

  17. Ultrafast long-range charge separation in organic semiconductor photovoltaic diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Simon; Rao, Akshay; Kumar, Abhishek; Smith, Samuel L; Chin, Alex W; Clark, Jenny; van der Poll, Tom S; Bazan, Guillermo C; Friend, Richard H

    2014-01-31

    Understanding the charge-separation mechanism in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) could facilitate optimization of their overall efficiency. Here we report the time dependence of the separation of photogenerated electron hole pairs across the donor-acceptor heterojunction in OPV model systems. By tracking the modulation of the optical absorption due to the electric field generated between the charges, we measure ~200 millielectron volts of electrostatic energy arising from electron-hole separation within 40 femtoseconds of excitation, corresponding to a charge separation distance of at least 4 nanometers. At this separation, the residual Coulomb attraction between charges is at or below thermal energies, so that electron and hole separate freely. This early time behavior is consistent with charge separation through access to delocalized π-electron states in ordered regions of the fullerene acceptor material.

  18. Electromagnetic separation of stable isotopes at the Institute of Atomic Energy, Academia Sinica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, M.; Li, G.; Su, S.; Mao, N.; Lu, H.

    1981-01-01

    For almost 20 years the Institute of Atomic Energy, Academia Sinica has been separating stable isotopes of the elements by electromagnetic separators and supplying these materials to research work in many fields of our country. In this article we shall attempt to outline the growth of the effort and describe the present situation. (orig.)

  19. Pharmacological separation of charge movement components in frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C L

    1982-03-01

    1. Charge movements to small 10 mV steps superimposed upon a wide range of closely spaced depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses were studied in frog skeletal muscles under different pharmacological conditions in hypertonic solutions.2. In control fibres, capacitance was strongly voltage-dependent, especially between potentials of -60 and -20 mV, confirming earlier work. There was a sharp increase in capacitance at around -50 mV. The dependence of non-linear charge on potential was asymmetrical and saturated at around 25 nC/muF.3. The presence of tetracaine abolished the ;hump' in the non-linear transients, which became simple monotonic decays. The dependence of capacitance upon potential was reduced. The maximum available amount of non-linear charge fell to 10 nC/muF.4. The presence of lidocaine abolished both the ;hump' as well as the monotonic part of the non-linear transients. This resulted in capacitance falling with depolarization from -85 mV.5. Comparing the steady-state properties of the non-linear charge under the different pharmacological conditions made it possible to deduce empirically the following components:(i) A lidocaine-resistant component (q(alpha)), which was responsible for the fall in observed capacitance with depolarization from the control voltage.(ii) A component resistant to tetracaine yet abolished by lidocaine (q(beta)). This possesses quasi-exponential kinetics, and a maximum charge of about 20 nC/muF.(iii) A component abolished by both lidocaine and tetracaine (q(gamma)), which possesses a maximum charge of 15 nC/muF. This has complex kinetics, and its steep dependence upon voltage resembles the potential-dependence of the development of tension in skeletal muscle.

  20. Paddle-Wheel BODIPY-Triphenylene Conjugates - Participation of Redox- Active Hexaoxatriphenylene in Excited State Charge Separation to Yield High-Energy Charge Separated States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Robert; Seetharaman, Sairaman; Babin, Eric M; Karr, Paul A; D'Souza, Francis

    2018-03-27

    Hexaoxatriphenylene, a scaffold linker often utilized in building covalent organic frameworks, is shown to be electroactive and a useful entity to build light energy harvesting donor-acceptor systems. To demonstrate this, new donor-acceptor conjugates have been synthesized by employ-ing BODIPY as a sensitizer. Excited state electron transfer leading to high energy charge sepa-rated states, useful to drive energy demanding photocatalytic reactions, from the electron rich hexa oxa triphenylene to 1BODIPY*, in the synthesized tri BODIPY-triphenylene 'paddle-wheel' conjugates, has been successfully demonstrated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The measured rate of charge separation was in the range of ~3-10 x 1011 s-1 reveal-ing ultrafast charge separation.

  1. Conditions for maximum isolation of stable condensate during separation in gas-condensate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivus, N.A.; Belkina, N.A.

    1969-02-01

    A thermodynamic analysis is made of the gas-liquid separation process in order to determine the relationship between conditions of maximum stable condensate separation and physico-chemical nature and composition of condensate. The analysis was made by considering the multicomponent gas-condensate fluid produced from Zyrya field as a ternary system, composed of methane, an intermediate component (propane and butane) and a heavy residue, C/sub 6+/. Composition of 5 ternary systems was calculated for a wide variation in separator conditions. At each separator pressure there is maximum condensate production at a certain temperature. This occurs because solubility of condensate components changes with temperature. Results of all calculations are shown graphically. The graphs show conditions of maximum stable condensate separation.

  2. Surface treatment of silica nanoparticles for stable and charge-controlled colloidal silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to control the surface charge of colloidal silica nanoparticles with 20 nm and 100 nm diameters. Untreated silica nanoparticles were determined to be highly negatively charged and have stable hydrodynamic sizes in a wide pH range. To change the surface to a positively charged form, various coating agents, such as amine containing molecules, multivalent metal cation, or amino acids, were used to treat the colloidal silica nanoparticles. Molecules with chelating amine sites were determined to have high affinity with the silica surface to make agglomerations or gel-like networks. Amino acid coatings resulted in relatively stable silica colloids with a modified surface charge. Three amino acid moiety coatings (L-serine, L-histidine, and L-arginine) exhibited surface charge modifying efficacy of L-histidine > L-arginine > L-serine and hydrodynamic size preservation efficacy of L-serine > L-arginine > L-histidine. The time dependent change in L-arginine coated colloidal silica was investigated by measuring the pattern of the backscattered light in a Turbiscan™. The results indicated that both the 20 nm and 100 nm L-arginine coated silica samples were fairly stable in terms of colloidal homogeneity, showing only slight coalescence and sedimentation. PMID:25565824

  3. Impact of charge-transfer excitons in regioregular polythiophene on the charge separation at polythiophene-fullerene heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkehn, M.; Tamura, H.; Burghardt, I.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses the mechanism of ultrafast charge separation in regioregular oligothiophene-fullerene assemblies representative of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT)-[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) heterojunctions, with special emphasis on the inclusion of charge transfer excitons in the oligothiophene phase. The formation of polaronic inter-chain charge separated species in highly ordered oligothiophene has been demonstrated in recent experiments and could have a significant impact on the net charge transfer to the fullerene acceptor. The present approach combines a first-principles parametrized multi-site Hamiltonian, based on time-dependent density functional theory calculations, with accurate quantum dynamics simulations using the multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Quantum dynamical studies are carried out for up to 182 electronic states and 112 phonon modes. The present analysis follows up on our previous study of (Huix-Rotllant et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6 1702) and significantly expands the scope of this analysis by including the dynamical role of charge transfer excitons. Our investigation highlights the pronounced mixing of photogenerated Frenkel excitons with charge transfer excitons in the oligothiophene domain, and the opening of new transfer channels due the creation of such charge-separated species. As a result, it turns out that the interfacial donor/acceptor charge transfer state can be largely circumvented due to the presence of charge transfer excitons. However, the latter states in turn act as a trap, such that the free carrier yield observed on ultrafast time scales is tangibly reduced. The present analysis underscores the complexity of the transfer pathways at P3HT-PCBM type junctions.

  4. Synthetic system mimicking the energy transfer and charge separation of natural photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.

    1985-05-01

    A synthetic molecular triad consisting of a porphyrin P linked to both a quinone Q and a carotenoid polyene C has been prepared as a mimic of natural photosynthesis for solar energy conversion purposes. Laser flash excitation of the porphyrin moiety yields a charge-separated state Csup(+.)-P-Qsup(-.) within 100 ps with a quantum yield of more than 0.25. This charge-separated state has a lifetime on the microsecond time scale in suitable solvents. The triad also models photosynthetic antenna function and photoprotection from singlet oxygen damge. The successful biomimicry of photosynthetic charge separation is in part the result of multistep electron transfers which rapidly separate the charges and leave the system at high potential, but with a considerable barrier to recombination.

  5. Promising Strategy To Improve Charge Separation in Organic Photovoltaics : Installing Permanent Dipoles in PCBM Analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, Hilde D.; Jahani, Fatemeh; Broer, Ria; Hummelen, Jan C.; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving organic synthesis and theoretical chemistry was applied to investigate a promising strategy to improve charge separation in organic photovoltaics: installing permanent dipoles in fullerene derivatives. First, a PCBM analogue with a permanent dipole in the side

  6. Neutrino scattering off the stable cadmium isotopes: II. Charged-current processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosly, W.; Ydrefors, E.; Suhonen, J.

    2015-09-01

    The present study is a continuation of our previous work (2015 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 42 025106) on neutral-current supernova-neutrino processes in the stable cadmium isotopes. Here we concentrate on the charged-current scattering processes of neutrinos off the stable cadmium isotopes covering an energy range characteristic of supernova neutrinos. As a theory framework we adopt the quasiparticle random-phase approximation in its charge-changing mode (pnQRPA) and the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model to construct the required nuclear wave functions of the odd-odd and odd-even isobars of the stable even-even reference cadmium isotopes, respectively. The cross sections of the charged-current neutrino and antineutrino scatterings off the stable cadmium isotopes are subsequently computed. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are also estimated by folding the cross sections with neutrino-energy spectra including the effects of matter oscillations within an effective two-neutrino framework. The calculations indicate that the folded cross sections have mass-number dependencies that are different for neutrinos and antineutrinos, and that odd-mass nuclei have relatively large cross sections. The matter oscillations affect the cross sections strongly and it is found that the computed averaged cross sections for antineutrinos differ notably for the normal/inverted mass hierarchy. This could have interesting consequences for the experimental solution of the mass-hierarchy problem in future large-scale neutrino telescopes.

  7. Charge separation sensitized by advanced II-VI semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, David F. [Univ.of California, Merced, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This proposal focuses on how the composition and morphology of pure and alloyed II-VI semiconductor heterostructures control their spectroscopic and dynamical properties. The proposed research will use a combination of synthesis development, electron microscopy, time-resolved electronic spectroscopy and modeling calculations to study these nanostructures. The proposed research will examine the extent to which morphology, compression due to lattice mismatch and alloy effects can be used to tune the electron and hole energies and the spectroscopic properties of II-VI heterojunctions. It will also use synthesis, optical spectroscopy and HRTEM to examine the role of lattice mismatch and hence lattice strain in producing interfacial defects, and the extent to which defect formation can be prevented by controlling the composition profile through the particles and across the interfaces. Finally, we will study the magnitude of the surface roughness in core/shell nanostructures and the role of shell thickness variability on the inhomogeneity of interfacial charge transfer rates.

  8. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  9. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, $Q$, greater than that of the electron, $e$. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0~fb$^{-1}$ and 18.8~fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7~$TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=8~$TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to $1e \\leq |Q| \\leq 8e$. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724~GeV are excluded for $|Q|=1e$, $2e$, $3e$, $4e$, $5e$, $6e$, $7e$, and $8e$, respectivel...

  10. Separation selectivity patterns of fully charged achiral compounds in capillary electrophoresis with a neutral cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorntantikul, Wasura; Srisa-art, Monpichar; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2013-01-01

    Based on the separation selectivity equation, related to the dimensionless parameters for fully charged achiral analytes using a neutral CD, the separation selectivity can be classified into seven patterns. With respect to CZE without CD, the presence of CD in the buffer may improve, or reduce, the separation selectivity with this effect being accompanied by the same or reversed electrophoretic mobility order for charged analytes. This can depend on the separation selectivity of the two analytes in free solution, the binding selectivity, the separation selectivity of analyte-CD complexes and the ratio of electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in free, and complexed forms. Using positional isomers of benzoic acids and phenoxy acids as test analytes and α-CD as a selector, the observed separation selectivity shapes were found to be in excellent agreement with the predicted separation selectivities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO₂ and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Diogo Vieira; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-10-23

    A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO₂) and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO₂ and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance.

  12. Formation of ion clusters in the phase separated structures of neutral-charged polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ha-Kyung; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Polyelectrolyte blends, consisting of at least one charged species, are promising candidate materials for fuel cell membranes, for their mechanical stability and high selectivity for proton conduction. The phase behavior of the blends is important to understand, as this can significantly affect the performance of the device. The phase behavior is controlled by χN, the Flory-Huggins parameter multiplied by the number of mers, as well as the electrostatic interactions between the charged backbone and the counterions. It has recently been shown that local ionic correlations, incorporated via liquid state (LS) theory, enhance phase separation of the blend, even in the absence of polymer interactions. In this study, we show phase diagrams of neutral-charged polymer blends including ionic correlations via LS theory. In addition to enhanced phase separation at low χN, the blends show liquid-liquid phase separation at high electrostatic interaction strengths. Above the critical strength, the charged polymer phase separates into ion-rich and ion-poor regions, resulting in the formation of ion clusters within the charged polymer phase. This can be shown by the appearance of multiple spinodal and critical points, indicating the coexistence of several charge separated phases. This work was performed under the following financial assistance award 70NANB14H012 from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of the Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD).

  13. A Charge Separation Study to Enable the Design of a Complete Muon Cooling Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, C. [Muons, Inc.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M. [Muons, Inc.; Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc.; Derbenev, Yaroslav [JLAB; Morozov, Vasiliy [JLAB; Neuffer, David [FNAL; Yonehara, K. [FNAL

    2013-12-01

    The most promising designs for 6D muon cooling channels operate on a specific sign of electric charge. In particular, the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) and Rectilinear RFOFO designs are the leading candidates to become the baseline 6D cooling channel in the Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). Time constraints prevented the design of a realistic charge separator, so a simplified study was performed to emulate the effects of charge separation on muons exiting the front end of a muon collider. The output of the study provides particle distributions that the competing designs will use as input into their cooling channels. We report here on the study of the charge separator that created the simulated particles.

  14. Photoinduced Dynamics of Charge Separation: From Photosynthesis to Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklas, Jens; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2015-06-18

    Understanding charge separation and charge transport is crucial for improving the efficiency of organic solar cells. Their active media are based on organic molecules and polymers, serving as both light-absorbing and transport layers. The charge-transfer (CT) states play an important role, being intermediate for free carrier generation and charge recombination. Here, we use light-induced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the CT dynamics in blends of the polymers P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7 with the fullerene derivative C-60-PCBM. Time-resolved EPR measurements show strong spin-polarization patterns for all polymer-fullerene blends, confirming predominant generation of singlet CT states and partial orientation ordering near the donor-acceptor interface. These observations allow a comparison with charge separation processes in molecular donor-acceptor systems and in natural and artificial photosynthetic assemblies, and thus the elucidation of the initial steps of sequential CT in organic photovoltaic materials.

  15. Using the gravitational energy of water to generate power by separation of charge at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajuan; Huang, Xu; Soh, Siowling

    2015-06-01

    When a fluid comes into contact with a solid surface, charge separates at the interface. This study describes a method that harvests the gravitational energy of water-available in abundance naturally, such as in rain and rivers-through the separation of charge at the interface. Essentially, it is found that water can be charged by flowing it across a solid surface under its own weight; thus, a continuous flow of water can produce a constant supply of power. After optimizing the system, a power of up to ∼170 μW (per Teflon tube of 2 mm in diameter) can be generated. The efficiency, defined as the energy generated by the system over the gravitational energy that the water losses, can reach up to ∼3-4%. In order to generate a continuous stream of positively-charged water, there should also be a constant production of negatively-charged species in the system. Experimental results suggest that the negative charge transfers constantly to the atmosphere due to dielectric breakdown of air. With regards to applications related to high electrical potential of water droplets, the amount of charge generated in a single water droplet is found to be equivalent to that produced by charging the water droplet with a high-voltage power supply operated at ∼5 kV. In general, the energy generated is clean, renewable, and technically simple and inexpensive to produce.

  16. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-07-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g -1 ). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li + ) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li + and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries.

  17. Mass, charge, and energy separation by selective acceleration with a traveling potential hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, L. Schwager; Barr, W. L.; Lowder, R. S.; Post, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    A traveling electric potential hill has been used to generate an ion beam with an energy distribution that is mass dependent from a monoenergetic ion beam of mixed masses. This effect can be utilized as a novel method for mass separation applied to identification or enrichment of ions (e.g., of elements, isotopes, or molecules). This theory for mass-selective acceleration is presented here and is shown to be confirmed by experiment and by a time-dependent particle-in-cell computer simulation. Results show that monoenergetic ions with the particular mass of choice are accelerated by controlling the hill potential and the hill velocity. The hill velocity is typically 20%-30% faster than the ions to be accelerated. The ability of the hill to pickup a particular mass uses the fact that small kinetic energy differences in the lab frame appear much larger in the moving hill frame. Ions will gain energy from the approaching hill if their relative energy in the moving hill frame is less than the peak potential of the hill. The final energy of these accelerated ions can be several times the source energy, which facilitates energy filtering for mass purification or identification. If the hill potential is chosen to accelerate multiple masses, the heaviest mass will have the greatest final energy. Hence, choosing the appropriate hill potential and collector retarding voltage will isolate ions with the lightest, heaviest, or intermediate mass. In the experimental device, called a Solitron, purified 20Ne and 22Ne are extracted from a ribbon beam of neon that is originally composed of 20Ne:22Ne in the natural ratio of 91:9. The isotopic content of the processed beam is determined by measuring the energy distribution of the detected current. These results agree with the theory. In addition to mass selectivity, our theory can also be applied to the filtration of an ion beam according to charge state or energy. Because of this variety of properties, the Solitron is envisioned to

  18. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  19. Charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon capacitors in the presence of hydrogen deactivated dopants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witczak, Steven C.; Winokur, Peter S.; Lacoe, Ronald C.; Mayer, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    An improved charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitors is presented which accounts for the deactivation of substrate dopants by hydrogen at elevated irradiation temperatures or small irradiation biases. Using high-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements, radiation-induced inversion voltage shifts are separated into components due to oxide trapped charge, interface traps, and deactivated dopants, where the latter is computed from a reduction in Si capacitance. In the limit of no radiation-induced dopant deactivation, this approach reduces to the standard midgap charge separation technique used widely for the analysis of room-temperature irradiations. The technique is demonstrated on a p-type MOS capacitor irradiated with 60 Co γ rays at 100 degree sign C and zero bias, where the dopant deactivation is significant.(c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Separation of intramembrane charging components in low-calcium solutions in frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C L

    1991-08-01

    The inactivation of charge movement components by small (-100 to -70 mV) shifts in holding potential was examined in voltage-clamped intact amphibian muscle fibers in low [Ca2+], Mg(2+)-containing solutions. The pulse protocols used both large voltage excursions and smaller potential steps that elicited prolonged (q gamma) transients. Charge species were distinguished through the pharmacological effects of tetracaine. These procedures confirmed earlier observations in cut fibers and identified the following new properties of the q gamma charge. First, q gamma, previously defined as the tetracaine-sensitive charge, is also the component primarily responsible for the voltage-dependent inactivation induced by conditions of low extracellular [Ca2+]. Second, this inactivation separates a transient that includes a "hump" component and which has kinetics and a voltage dependence distinct from the monotonic decay that remains. Third, q gamma, previously associated with delayed charge movements, can also contribute significant charge transfer at early times. These findings suggest that the parallel inhibition of calcium signals and charge movements reported in low [Ca2+] solutions arises from influences on q gamma charge (Brum et al., 1988a, b). They also reconcile reports that implicate tetracaine-sensitive (q gamma) charge in excitation-contraction coupling with evidence that early intramembrane events are also involved in this process (Pizarro et al., 1989). Finally, they are relevant to hypotheses of possible feedback or feed-forward roles of q gamma in excitation-contraction coupling.

  1. Initial study of dry ultrafine coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging with subsequent electrostatic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, T.A.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Elstrodt, R.H.; Haden, N.H.

    1990-10-01

    A novel, dry process using electrostatics to beneficiate ultrafine coal is being developed by the Coal Preparation Division at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. The historical concept of triboelectricity and its eventual use as a means of charging coal for electrostatic separation will be discussed. Test data from a first-generation and a second-generation Tribo-Electrostatic separator are presented showing the effects of feed particle size, separator voltage, solids concentration in air, and particle velocity on separation performance. 10 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  3. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-28

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  4. Reconstruction of quasi-stable charged sleptons in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Polesello, G

    1999-01-01

    This note summarizes the work done on the reconstruction of quasi stable charged sparticles in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. In particular, we focus on the case of the , the lighter supersymmetric partner of the lepton, in the framework of the Gauge Mediated SUSY Breaking Models. Such particles are tracked in the muon spectrometer and behave like muons with b<1. A detailed study based on full simulation of the detector shows that, if it is possible to trigger on them, the slow sleptons can be reconstructed in the MDT chambers, and the time delay with respect to particles travelling at the speed of light can be accurately measured. As a result of this study, parameterisations for the obtained resolution in and in momentum are given for a charged slepton of 100 GeV mass at h~0.

  5. Numerical and experimental investigation on static electric charge model at stable cone-jet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Reza; Pishevar, Ahmad Reza; Valipouri, Afsaneh; Pǎrǎu, Emilian I.

    2018-03-01

    In a typical electro-spinning process, the steady stretching process of the jet beyond the Taylor cone has a significant effect on the dimensions of resulting nanofibers. Also, it sets up the conditions for the onset of the bending instability. The focus of this work is the modeling and simulation of the initial stable jet phase seen during the electro-spinning process. The perturbation method was applied to solve hydrodynamic equations, and the electrostatic equation was solved by a boundary integral method. These equations were coupled with the stress boundary conditions derived appropriate at the fluid-fluid interface. Perturbation equations were discretized by the second-order finite difference method, and the Newton method was implemented to solve the discretized nonlinear system. Also, the boundary element method was utilized to solve the electrostatic equation. In the theoretical study, the fluid is described as a leaky dielectric with charges only on the jet surface in dielectric air. In this study, electric charges were modeled as static. Comparison of numerical and experimental results shows that at low flow rates and high electric field, good agreement was achieved because of the superior importance of the charge transport by conduction rather than convection and charge concentration. In addition, the effect of unevenness of the electric field around the nozzle tip was experimentally studied through plate-plate geometry as well as point-plate geometry.

  6. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Batteries using lithium (Li) metal as anodes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with dendrite growth along with limited cycle life, especially at high charge current densities, hinder their practical uses. Here we report that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as an additive in LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-solvent-based electrolytes significantly enhances the charging capability and cycling stability of Li metal batteries. In a Li metal battery using a 4-V Li-ion cathode at a moderately high loading of 1.75mAh cm(-2), a cyclability of 97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles along with very limited increase in electrode overpotential is accomplished at a charge/discharge current density up to 1.75 mA cm(-2). The fast charging and stable cycling performances are ascribed to the generation of a robust and conductive solid electrolyte interphase at the Li metal surface and stabilization of the Al cathode current collector.

  7. Mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion chromatography for intact protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Hu, Zhuo; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-05-10

    A mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase C8PN composed of octyl and amino group has been developed for separation of intact protein. Before the separation of proteins, a set of probe compounds were employed to evaluate the chromatographic properties of C8PN, demonstrating typical reversed phase/positively charged repulsion interaction on this stationary phase as estimated. Then the new C8PN stationary phase was used to separate a standard protein mixture on the reversed phase mode. Compared with a commercial C4 stationary phase, it showed different selectivity for some proteins. In order to better understand the properties of C8PN, the effect of acetonitrile content was investigated based on retention equation. Higher values of the equation parameters on C8PN demonstrated that the protein retentions were more sensitive to the change of acetonitrile content. Besides, the influences of buffer salt additives on the protein retentions were also studied. The retention factors of the proteins got larger with the increase of buffer salt concentration, which confirmed the positively charged repulsion interaction on the column. Finally, the C8PN was further applied to separate oxidized- and reduced- forms of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. Our study indicated the advantages and application potential of mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase for intact protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-hole spectral function and spin-charge separation in the t-J model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, A. S.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.

    2001-07-01

    Worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations of the hole Green function with subsequent spectral analysis were performed for 0.1hole spectral function in the thermodynamic limit. Spectral analysis reveals a δ-function-sharp quasiparticle peak at the lower edge of the spectrum that is incompatible with the power-law singularity and thus rules out the possibility of spin-charge separation in this parameter range. Spectral continuum features two peaks separated by a gap ~4÷5 t.

  9. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes

  10. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  11. Spin-charge separation and anomalous correlation functions in the edge states of quantum hall liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H C

    1998-01-01

    First, we have investigated chiral edges of a quantum Hall liquids at filling factor nu=2. The separation of spin and charge degrees of freedom becomes manifest in the presence of long- range Coulomb interaction. Due to the spin-charge separation the tunneling density of states takes the form D(omega) approx ( -lnl omega l) sup 1 sup / sup 2. Experimentally, the spin-charge separation can be revealed in the temperature and voltage dependence of the tunneling current into Fermi liquid reservoir. Second, the charge and spin correlation functions of partially spin-polarized edge electrons of a quantum Hall bar are studied using effective Hamiltonian and bosonization techniques. In the presence of the Coulomb interaction between the edges with opposite chirality we find a different crossover behavior in spin and charge correlation functions. The crossover of the spin correlation function in the Coulomb dominated regime is characterized by an anomalous exponent, which originates from the finite value of the effect...

  12. Light dependence of quantum yields for PSII charge separation and oxygen evolution in eucaryotic algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) charge separation (Phi(P)) and oxygen production (Phi(O2)) were determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen production and variable fluorescence in four different aquatic microalgae representing three different taxonomic groups: the freshwater alga

  13. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO 2 and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer (∼ 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  14. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-03-06

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO{sub 2} and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer ({approx} 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  15. Chemically Stable Covalent Organic Framework (COF)-Polybenzimidazole Hybrid Membranes: Enhanced Gas Separation through Pore Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bishnu P; Chaudhari, Harshal D; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K

    2016-03-24

    Highly flexible, TpPa-1@PBI-BuI and TpBD@PBI-BuI hybrid membranes based on chemically stable covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could be obtained with the polymer. The loading obtained was substantially higher (50 %) than generally observed with MOFs. These hybrid membranes show an exciting enhancement in permeability (about sevenfold) with appreciable separation factors for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4. Further, we found that with COF pore modulation, the gas permeability can be systematically enhanced. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Bifunctional separator as a polysulfide mediator for highly stable Li-S batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Syed Ali

    2016-05-24

    The shuttling process involving lithium polysulfides is one of the major factors responsible for the degradation in capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries (LSBs). Herein, we demonstrate a novel and simple strategy—using a bifunctional separator, prepared by spraying poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on pristine separator—to obtain long-cycle LSBs. The negatively charged SO3– groups present in PSS act as an electrostatic shield for soluble lithium polysulfides through mutual coulombic repulsion, whereas PEDOT provides chemical interactions with insoluble polysulfides (Li2S, Li2S2). The dual shielding effect can provide an efficient protection from the shuttling phenomenon by confining lithium polysulfides to the cathode side of the battery. Moreover, coating with PEDOT:PSS transforms the surface of the separator from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, thereby improving the electrochemical performance. We observed an ultralow decay of 0.0364% per cycle when we ran the battery for 1000 cycles at 0.25 C—far superior to that of the pristine separator and one of the lowest recorded values reported at a low current density. We examined the versatility of our separator by preparing a flexible battery that functioned well under various stress conditions; it displayed flawless performance. Accordingly, this economical and simple strategy appears to be an ideal platform for commercialization of LSBs.

  17. Prolonged charge-separated states of starburst tetra(diphenylaminofluoreno)[60]fullerene adducts upon photoexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Anandakathir, Robinson; Ito, Osamu; Chiang, Long Y

    2007-08-02

    Construction of starburst C60(>DPAF-C9)4 pentads was coupled with the use of highly fluorescent diphenylaminofluorene-C9 (DPAF-C9) addends as donor components in conjunction with the fullerene acceptor during single-photon excitation processes. High quantum yields (PhiCS) of charge-separation processes in the range 0.83-0.90 for C60(>DPAF-C9)n (n = 1, 2, or 4) were obtained in the formation of C60*-(>DPAF*+-C9)(>DPAF-C9)n-1 transient states. The lifetime of the radical ion-pairs (tauRIP) was found to be 900 ns for starburst C60(>DPAF-C9)4 (3) samples, which is 6-fold longer than that of the linear analogue C60(>DPAF-C9) (1), with a ca. 2 times increase of the charge-separation rate (kCS) compared to that of 1. These data implied the important role of sterically hindered DPAF-C9 pendants arranged in a starburst-like environment that encapsulates the central C60 core on extending the tauRIP. We interpreted the phenomena by the occurrence of intramolecular migration or exchange of electron or positive charge among multiple DPAF-C9 pendants of C60*-(>DPAF*+-C9)(>DPAF-C9)n-1, which gives an increased rate in charge generation and delayed charge recombination.

  18. Quantum-coherent dynamics in photosynthetic charge separation revealed by wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Elisabet; Prior, Javier; Chin, Alex W.; Morgan, Sarah E.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Plenio, Martin B.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Experimental/theoretical evidence for sustained vibration-assisted electronic (vibronic) coherence in the Photosystem II Reaction Center (PSII RC) indicates that photosynthetic solar-energy conversion might be optimized through the interplay of electronic and vibrational quantum dynamics. This evidence has been obtained by investigating the primary charge separation process in the PSII RC by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) and Redfield modeling of the experimental data. However...

  19. Modeling of reversible charge separation in reaction centers of photosynthesis: an incoherent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A G; Shuvalov, V A

    2014-02-21

    Primary charge separation in reaction centers (RCs) of bacterial photosynthesis is modeled in this work. An incoherent population dynamics of RCs states is formulated by kinetic equations. It is assumed that charge separation is accompanied by regular motion of the system along additional coordinates. This motion modulates an energetics of the reactions, and this modulation causes femtosecond oscillations in the population of the states. The best qualitative and quantitative accordance with experimental data on native, modified and mutant RCs of Rba. sphaeroides is achieved in the five states model that includes two excited states P(*)905BAHA and P(*)940BAHA and three charge separated states I, P(+)BA(-)HA and P(+)BAHA(-) (P is a primary electron donor, bacteriochlorophyll dimer, BA and HA are electron acceptors, monomeric bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin in active A-branch respectively). The excited states emit at 905 and 940 nm and have approximately the same energy and high interaction rate. The intermediate state I is populated earlier than the P(+)BA(-)HA state and has energy close to the energy of the excited states, a high rate of population and depopulation and spectral identity to the BA(-). A sum of the I and P(+)BA(-)HA populations fits the experimental kinetics of the BA(-) absorption band at 1020 nm. The model explains an oscillatory phenomenon in the kinetics of the P(*) stimulated emission and of the BA(-) absorption. In the schemes without the I state, accordance with the experiment is achieved at unreal parameter values or is not achieved at all. A qualitative agreement of the model with the experiment can be achieved at a wide range of parameter values. The nature of the states I and P(*)940BAHA is discussed in terms of partial charge separation between P and BA and inside P respectively. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Charge separation energetics at organic heterojunctions: on the role of structural and electrostatic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Frédéric; D'Avino, Gabriele; Muccioli, Luca; Cornil, Jérôme; Beljonne, David

    2014-10-14

    Improving the performance of organic photovoltaic cells requires the individuation of the specific factors limiting their efficiency, by rationalizing the relationship between the chemical nature of the materials, their morphology, and the electronic processes taking place at their interface. In this contribution, we present recent theoretical advances regarding the determination of the energetics and dynamics of charge carriers at organic-organic interfaces, highlighting the role of structural and electrostatic disorder in the separation of electron-hole pairs. The influence of interfacial electrostatic interactions on charge carrier energetics is first illustrated in model aggregates. Then, we review some of our recent theoretical studies in which we combined molecular dynamics, quantum-chemical and classical micro-electrostatic methods to evaluate the energy landscape explored by the mobile charges in the vicinity of donor-acceptor interfaces with realistic morphologies. Finally, we describe the theoretical challenges that still need to be overcome in order to gain a complete overview of the charge separation processes at the molecular level.

  1. Charge separation of dense two-dimensional electron-hole gases: mechanism for exciton ring pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, R; Chen, Gang; Snoke, D; Simon, Steven H; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Liu, Y; Denev, S

    2004-03-19

    We report on new experiments and theory that unambiguously resolve the recent puzzling observation of large diameter exciton emission halos around a laser excitation spot in two dimensional systems. We find a novel separation of plasmas of opposite charge with emission from the sharp circular boundary between these two regions. This charge separation allows for cooling of initially hot optically generated carriers as they dwell in the charge reservoirs for very long times.

  2. Phase separation in strongly correlated electron systems with two types of charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, K.I.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Sboychakov, A.O.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A competition between the localization of the charge carriers due to Jahn-Teller distortions and the energy gain due to their delocalization in doped manganite and related magnetic oxides is analyzed based on a Kondo-lattice type model. The resulting effective Hamiltonian is, in fact, a generalization of the Falicov-Kimball model. We find that the number of itinerant charge carriers can be significantly lower than that implied by the doping level x. The phase diagram of the model in the T plane is constructed. The system exhibits magnetic ordered (antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, or canted) states as well the paramagnetic states with zero and nonzero density of the itinerant electrons. It is shown that a phase-separation is favorable in energy for a wide doping range. The characteristic size of inhomogeneities in a phase-separated state is of the order of several lattice constants. We also analyzed the two-band Hubbard model in the limit of strong on-site Coulomb repulsion. It was shown that such a system has a tendency to phase separation into the regions with different charge densities even in the absence of magnetic or any other ordering, if the ratio of the bandwidths is large enough. The work was supported by the European project CoMePhS and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 05-02-17600. (authors)

  3. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  4. Local Intermolecular Order Controls Photoinduced Charge Separation at Donor/Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feier, Hilary M.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Pace, Natalie A.; Park, Jaehong; Bergkamp, Jesse J.; Sellinger, Alan; Gust, Devens; Rumbles, Garry

    2016-03-23

    How free charge is generated at organic donor-acceptor interfaces is an important question, as the binding energy of the lowest energy (localized) charge transfer states should be too high for the electron and hole to escape each other. Recently, it has been proposed that delocalization of the electronic states participating in charge transfer is crucial, and aggregated or otherwise locally ordered structures of the donor or the acceptor are the precondition for this electronic characteristic. The effect of intermolecular aggregation of both the polymer donor and fullerene acceptor on charge separation is studied. In the first case, the dilute electron acceptor triethylsilylhydroxy-1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxyphthalocyaninatosilicon(IV) (SiPc) is used to eliminate the influence of acceptor aggregation, and control polymer order through side-chain regioregularity, comparing charge generation in 96% regioregular (RR-) poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with its regiorandom (RRa-) counterpart. In the second case, ordered phases in the polymer are eliminated by using RRa-P3HT, and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) is used as the acceptor, varying its concentration to control aggregation. Time-resolved microwave conductivity, time-resolved photoluminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements show that while ultrafast charge transfer occurs in all samples, long-lived charge carriers are only produced in films with intermolecular aggregates of either RR-P3HT or PC61BM, and that polymer aggregates are just as effective in this regard as those of fullerenes.

  5. Insights into collaborative separation process of photogenerated charges and superior performance of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-07-01

    ZnO nanowires/Cu4Bi4S9 (ZnO/CBS) and ZnO nanowires/CBS-graphene nanoplates (ZnO/CBS-GNs), as well as two types of solar cells were prepared. The photovoltaic responses of CBS-GNs and ZnO/CBS-GNs can be improved with incorporation of GNs. The transient surface photovoltage (TPV) can provide detailed information on the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers. The multichannel separation process from the TPVs indicates that the macro-photoelectric signals can be attributed to the photogenerated charges separated at the interface of CBS/GNs, rather than CBS/ZnO. The multi-interfacial recombination is the major carrier loss, and the hole selective p-V2O5 can efficiently accelerate the charge extraction to the external circuit. The ZnO/CBS-GNs cell exhibits the superior performance, and the highest efficiency is 10.9%. With the adequate interfaces of CBS/GNs, GNs conductive network, energy level matching, etc., the excitons can easily diffuse to the interface of CBS/GNs, and the separated electrons and holes can be collected quickly, inducing the high photoelectric properties. Here, a facile strategy for solid state solar cells with superior performance presents a potential application.

  6. Insights into collaborative separation process of photogenerated charges and superior performance of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Gu, Yuzong [Institute of Microsystems Physics and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2016-07-25

    ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} (ZnO/CBS) and ZnO nanowires/CBS-graphene nanoplates (ZnO/CBS-GNs), as well as two types of solar cells were prepared. The photovoltaic responses of CBS-GNs and ZnO/CBS-GNs can be improved with incorporation of GNs. The transient surface photovoltage (TPV) can provide detailed information on the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers. The multichannel separation process from the TPVs indicates that the macro-photoelectric signals can be attributed to the photogenerated charges separated at the interface of CBS/GNs, rather than CBS/ZnO. The multi-interfacial recombination is the major carrier loss, and the hole selective p-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can efficiently accelerate the charge extraction to the external circuit. The ZnO/CBS-GNs cell exhibits the superior performance, and the highest efficiency is 10.9%. With the adequate interfaces of CBS/GNs, GNs conductive network, energy level matching, etc., the excitons can easily diffuse to the interface of CBS/GNs, and the separated electrons and holes can be collected quickly, inducing the high photoelectric properties. Here, a facile strategy for solid state solar cells with superior performance presents a potential application.

  7. On the Molecular Origin of Charge Separation at the Donor-Acceptor Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sini, Gjergji

    2018-01-22

    Fullerene-based acceptors have dominated organic solar cells for almost two decades. It is only within the last few years that alternative acceptors rival their dominance, introducing much more flexibility in the optoelectronic properties of these material blends. However, a fundamental physical understanding of the processes that drive charge separation at organic heterojunctions is still missing, but urgently needed to direct further material improvements. Here a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to understand the intimate mechanisms by which molecular structure contributes to exciton dissociation, charge separation, and charge recombination at the donor–acceptor (D–A) interface. Model systems comprised of polythiophene-based donor and rylene diimide-based acceptor polymers are used and a detailed density functional theory (DFT) investigation is performed. The results point to the roles that geometric deformations and direct-contact intermolecular polarization play in establishing a driving force (energy gradient) for the optoelectronic processes taking place at the interface. A substantial impact for this driving force is found to stem from polymer deformations at the interface, a finding that can clearly lead to new design approaches in the development of the next generation of conjugated polymers and small molecules.

  8. TITANIUM DIOXIDE TRIADS FOR IMPROVED CHARGE-SEPARATION USING CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, T.M.; Gaylor, T.N.; de la Garza, L.; Rajh, T.

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially one of the best solutions to solar energy conversion because of the low cost of required materials and production processes. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticulate fi lms are the basis for one of these types of cells, providing large surface area for dye-sensitizer adsorption. Because TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms develop defects caused by oxygen defi ciency, deep reactive electron traps are formed. With the addition of an enediol ligand, these electron traps are deliberately removed, enhancing the conduction of electrons within the fi lm. In this project, TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms made by a layer-by-layer dip coating method were modifi ed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). DOPAC binds to the titanium atoms on the surface of the nanoparticles, restoring their octahedral geometry. This restructuring of the surface shifts the spectral properties of the TiO2 to the visible spectrum and improves the separation of charges which is observed using photoelectrochemistry. Furthermore, DOPAC enables the electronic attachment of other molecules to the surface of TiO2 fi lms, such as the conductive polymer polyaniline base. This conductive polymer provides an extended separation of charges which increases photocurrent production by forming a triad with the TiO2 semiconductor through the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid linker. The photocurrent increases due to the donor properties of the conductive polymer thereby decreasing charge pair recombination.

  9. Event-shape-engineering study of charge separation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fufang; Bryon, Jacob; Wen, Liwen; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Recent measurements of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions have indicated charge-separation signals perpendicular to the reaction plane, and have been related to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). However, the correlation signal is contaminated with the background caused by the collective motion (flow) of the collision system, and an effective approach is needed to remove the flow background from the correlation. We present a method study with simplified Monte Carlo simulations and a multi-phase transport model, and develop a scheme to reveal the true CME signal via event-shape engineering with the flow vector of the particles of interest. Supported by a grant (DE-FG02-88ER40424) from U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics

  10. Macroscopic electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts: Potential implications for planetary paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The production of transient magnetic fields by hypervelocity meteoroid impact has been proposed to possibly explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields in certain lunar samples as well as across broader areas of the lunar surface. In an effort to understand the lunar magnetic record, continued experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range allow characterizing magnetic fields produced by the 5 km/s impacts of 0.32-0.64 cm projectiles over a broad range of impact angles and projectile/target compositions. From such studies, another phenomenon has emerged, macroscopic electric charge separation, that may have importance for the magnetic state of solid-body surfaces. This phenomenon was observed during explosive cratering experiments, but the magnetic consequences of macroscopic electric charge separation (as opposed to plasma production) during explosion and impact cratering have not, to our knowledge, been explored before now. It is straightforward to show that magnetic field production due to this process may scale as a weakly increasing function of impactor kinetic energy, although more work is needed to precisely assess the scaling dependence. The original intent of our experiments was to assess the character of purely electrostatic signals for comparison with inferred electrostatic noise signals acquired by shielded magnetic sensors buried within particulate dolomite targets. The results demonstrated that electrostatic noise does affect the magnetic sensors but only at relatively short distances (less than 4 cm) from the impact point (our magnetic studies are generally performed at distances greater than approximately 5.5 cm). However, to assess models for magnetic field generation during impact, measurements are needed of the magnetic field as close to the impact point as possible; hence, work with an improved magnetic sensor design is in progress. In this paper, we focus on electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts as a potential transient

  11. Digitally grown AlInAsSb for high gain separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuexi; Han, Xi; Sun, Yaoyao; Jiang, Zhi; Guo, Chunyan; Xiang, Wei; Dong, Yinan; Cui, Jie; Yao, Yuan; Jiang, Dongwei; Wang, Guowei; Xu, Yingqiang; Niu, Zhichuan

    2018-01-01

    We report on the growth of high quality GaSb-based AlInAsSb quaternary alloy by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to fabricate avalanche photodiodes (APDs). By means of high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), phase separation phenomenon of AlInAsSb random alloy with naturally occurring vertical superlattice configuration was demonstrated. To overcome the tendency for phase segregation while maintaining a highly crystalline film, a digital alloy technique with migration-enhanced epitaxy growth method was employed, using a shutter sequence of AlSb, AlAs, AlSb, Sb, In, InAs, In, Sb. AlInAsSb digital alloy has proved to be reproducible and consistent with single phase, showing sharp satellite peaks on HRXRD rocking curve and smooth surface morphology under atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using optimized digital alloy, AlInAsSb separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication (SAGCM) APD was grown and fabricated. At room temperature, the device showed high performance with low dark current density of ∼14.1 mA/cm2 at 95% breakdown and maximum stable gain before breakdown as high as ∼200, showing the potential for further applications in optoelectronic devices.

  12. Analysis of space-charge effects on the ion beam in a magnetic sector-type mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, A.

    1988-01-01

    Profiles of ion beams in a magnetic sector-type mass separator are analysed by comparing with calculated ion trajectories from viewpoint of the space-charge effect; the calculation is based on a new method which takes into account the space-charge effect analytically. In the analysis, the space-charge potential in the ion beam, an axial third order aberration at the ion beam source, the space-charge neutralization and a beam of neutral particles accompanied by the ion beam are discussed. Influences of the space-charge of the primary ions are also shown to be important in the analysis of the secondary electrons. (author)

  13. Super spin-charge separation for class A, C and D disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClair, Andre; Robinson, Dean J

    2008-01-01

    We prove versions of super spin-charge separation for all three of the symmetry groups SU(N), Sp(2N) and SO(N) of disordered Dirac fermions in 2 + 1 dimensions, which involve the supercurrent algebras gl(1|1) N ,osp(2|2) -2N and osp(2|2) N respectively. For certain restricted classes of disordered potentials, the latter supercurrent algebra based conformal field theories can arise as non-trivial low energy fixed points. For all cases with such a fixed point, we compute the density of states exponents as a function of N. (fast track communication)

  14. Time-resolved pure spin fractionalization and spin-charge separation in helical Luttinger liquid based devices

    OpenAIRE

    Calzona, Alessio; Carrega, Matteo; Dolcetto, Giacomo; Sassetti, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Helical Luttinger liquids, appearing at the edge of two-dimensional topological insulators, represent a new paradigm of one-dimensional systems, where peculiar quantum phenomena can be investigated. Motivated by recent experiments on charge fractionalization, we propose a setup based on helical Luttinger liquids that allows to time-resolve, in addition to charge fractionalization, also spin-charge separation and pure spin fractionalization. This is due to the combined presence of spin-momentu...

  15. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonergan, Mark [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  16. Theoretical perspectives on electron transfer and charge separation events in photochemical water cleavage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, J.J.; Lenoir, P.M.; Musho, M.K.; Tembe, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    We study in this paper the dynamics induced by models for photochemical water cleavage systems, focusing on the spatial and temporal factors influencing electron transfer and charge separation processes in such systems. The reaction-diffusion theory is formulated in full generality and the consequences explored in a number of spatio-temporal regimes, viz. the spatially homogeneous system in the long-time limit (i.e. the steady state for a well-stirred system), the spatially homogeneous system in evolution, and the spatially inhomogeneous system in evolution (where, in the latter study, we consider electron transfer at the cluster surface to be governed by a rate constant that reflects the localized nature of such processes). The results of numerical simulations are presented for all three cases and used to highlight the importance of heterogeneous environments in enhancing the cage escape yield of charge separated species, and to demonstrate the dependence of the hydrogen yield on the localization of electron-transfer processes in the vicinity of the microcatalyst surface

  17. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-03-19

    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  18. Polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in charged nanosized colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögelein, Christoph; Nägele, Gerhard; Buitenhuis, Johan; Tuinier, Remco; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2009-05-01

    We study polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in aqueous dispersions of charge-stabilized silica spheres, where the ionic strength and polymer (dextran) concentration are systematically varied, using dynamic light scattering and visual observation. Without polymers and for increasing salt and colloid content, the dispersions become increasingly unstable against irreversible cluster formation. By adding nonadsorbing polymers, a depletion-driven attraction is induced, which lowers the stabilizing Coulomb barrier and enhances the cluster growth rate. The initial growth rate increases with increasing polymer concentration and decreases with increasing polymer molar mass. These observations can be quantitatively understood by an irreversible dimer formation theory based on the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek pair potential, with the depletion attraction modeled by the Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij potential. At low colloid concentration, we observe an exponential cluster growth rate for all polymer concentrations considered, indicating a reaction-limited aggregation mechanism. At sufficiently high polymer and colloid concentrations, and lower salt content, a gas-liquidlike demixing is observed initially. Later on, the system separates into a gel and fluidlike phase. The experimental time-dependent state diagram is compared to the theoretical equilibrium phase diagram obtained from a generalized free-volume theory and is discussed in terms of an initial reversible phase separation process in combination with irreversible aggregation at later times.

  19. Search for Heavy Stable Charged Particles at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV Utilizing a Multivariate Approach

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00375809

    Heavy stable charged particles (HSCPs) have been searched for at the Large Hadron Collider since its initial data taking in 2010. The search for heavy stable charged particles provide a means of directly probing the new physics realm, as they produce a detector signature unlike any particle discovered to date. The goal of this research is to investigate an idea that was introduced in the later stages of 2010-2012 data taking period. Rather than utilizing the current tight selection on the calculated particle mass the hypothesis is that by incorporating a multivariate approach, specif- ically an artificial neural network, the remaining selection criteria could be loosened allowing for a greater signal acceptance while maintaining acceptable background rejection via the multivariate discriminator from the artificial neural network. The increase in signal acceptance and retention or increase in background rejection increases the discovery potential for HSCPs and as a secondary objective calculates improved limit...

  20. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO2 and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Vieira Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO2 and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance.

  1. Spin-charge separation and superconductivity from the t-J model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, M.J.; Wang, Y.R.

    1993-01-01

    With use of a spin-charge-separation treatment of the t-J model that accurately imposes the constraint of single electron site occupancy, a number of interesting results are obtained for the superconducting state. The most relevant is that superconductivity arises from $p----wave pairing of holons. This pairing leads to temperature (T) dependences of the electronic properties that are essentially the same as those given by s-wave BCS theory and suggests the possibility that the electrons are correlated in singlet pairs that are symmetric with respect to interchange of spin. On the other hand, the magnetic properties are dominated by the excitations of the spin liquid, leading to a spin susceptibility χ s that is proportional to T and a nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation rate 1/T 1 T that is proportional to T 2

  2. Long-lived charge-separated states in ligand-stabilized silver clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pelton, Matthew

    2012-07-25

    Recently developed synthesis methods allow for the production of atomically monodisperse clusters of silver atoms stabilized in solution by aromatic thiol ligands, which exhibit intense absorption peaks throughout the visible and near-IR spectral regions. Here we investigated the time-dependent optical properties of these clusters. We observed two kinetic processes following ultrafast laser excitation of any of the absorption peaks: a rapid decay, with a time constant of 1 ps or less, and a slow decay, with a time constant that can be longer than 300 ns. Both time constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent increases, indicating that the two processes correspond to the formation and recombination, respectively, of a charge-separated state. The long lifetime of this state and the broad optical absorption spectrum mean that the ligand-stabilized silver clusters are promising materials for solar energy harvesting. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Potential gradients in concrete caused by charge separations in a complex electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrdal, R. [Rescon AS, Sagstua (Norway)

    1997-12-01

    Assessments of the severity of corrosion from potentials mapping at the concrete surface are disturbed by potential gradients in the concrete. Experiments have been carried out with the purpose of determining the origin and magnitude of potential gradients associated with potential measurements at concrete surfaces. It has been found that charge separations leading to liquid junction potentials and streaming potentials contribute to a large degree. The magnitude of the measured potential gradients was sometimes more than 100 mV. Gradients up to 30 mV was observed between embedded reference electrodes as a result of water exposure at the concrete surface. A theoretical model of streamlining potentials in concrete is developed, based on the observed drift in surface potentials.

  4. Spin-charge separation in the t-J model: Magnetic and transport anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Z.Y.; Sheng, D.N.; Ting, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    A real spin-charge separation scheme is found based on a saddle-point state of the t-J model. In the one-dimensional (1D) case, such a saddle-point reproduces the correct asymptotic correlations at the strong-coupling fixed point of the model. In the two-dimensional (2D) case, the transverse gauge field confining spinon and holon is shown to be gapped at finite doping so that a spin-charge deconfinement is obtained for its first time in 2D. The gap in the gauge fluctuation disappears at half-filling limit, where a long-range antiferromagnetic order is recovered at zero temperature and spinons become confined. The most interesting features of spin dynamics and transport are exhibited at finite doping where exotic residual couplings between spin and charge degrees of freedom lead to systematic anomalies with regard to a Fermi-liquid system. In spin dynamics, a commensurate antiferromagnetic fluctuation with a small, doping-dependent energy scale is found, which is characterized in momentum space by a Gaussian peak at (π/a,π/a) with a doping-dependent width. This commensurate magnetic fluctuation contributes a non-Korringa behavior for the NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate. There also exists a characteristic temperature scale below thich a pseudogap behavior appears in the spin dynamics. Furthermore, an incommensurate magnetic fluctuation is also obtained at a finite energy regime. In the transport, a strong-range phase intereference leads to an effective holon Lagrangian which can give rise to a series of interesting phenomena including linear-T resistivity and a T 2 Hall angle. We discuss the striking similarities of these theoretical features with those found in the high-T c cuprates and give a consistent picture for the latter. Electronic properties like Fermi surface and superconducting pairing in this framework are also discussed

  5. Search for Heavy Stable Charged Particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hesketh, Gavin; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The result of a search at the LHC for heavy stable charged particles produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is described. The data sample was collected with the CMS detector and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 inverse picobarns. Momentum and ionization-energy-loss measurements in the inner tracker detector are used to identify tracks compatible with heavy slow-moving particles. Additionally, tracks passing muon identification requirements are also analyzed for the same signature. In each case, no candidate passes the selection, with an expected background of less than 0.1 events. A lower limit at the 95% confidence level on the mass of a stable gluino is set at 398 GeV/c2, using a conventional model of nuclear interactions that allows charged hadrons containing this particle to reach the muon detectors. A lower limit of 311 GeV/c2 is also set for a stable gluino in a conservative scenario of complete charge suppression, where any hadron containing this particle becomes neutral before rea...

  6. Optimizing multi-step B-side charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faries, Kaitlyn M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kressel, Lucas L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dylla, Nicholas P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wander, Marc J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanson, Deborah K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Holten, Dewey [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Laible, Philip D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kirmaier, Christine [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Using high-throughput methods for mutagenesis, protein isolation and charge-separation functionality, we have assayed 40 Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction center (RC) mutants for their P+ QB- yield (P is a dimer of bacteriochlorophylls and Q is a ubiquinone) as produced using the normally inactive B-side cofactors BB and HB (where B is a bacteriochlorophyll and H is a bacteriopheophytin). Two sets of mutants explore all possible residues at M131 (M polypeptide, native residue Val near HB) in tandem with either a fixed His or a fixed Asn at L181 (L polypeptide, native residue Phe near BB). A third set of mutants explores all possible residues at L181 with a fixed Glu at M131 that can form a hydrogen bond to HB. For each set of mutants, the results of a rapid millisecond screening assay that probes the yield of P+ QB- are compared among that set and to the other mutants reported here or previously. For a subset of eight mutants, the rate constants and yields of the individual B-side electron transfer processes are determined via transient absorption measurements spanning 100 fs to 50 μs. The resulting ranking of mutants for their yield of P+ QB- from ultrafast experiments is in good agreement with that obtained from the millisecond screening assay, further validating the efficient, high-throughput screen for B-side transmembrane charge separation. Results from mutants that individually show progress toward optimization of P+ HB- → P+ QB- electron transfer or initial P* → P+ HB- conversion highlight unmet challenges of optimizing both processes simultaneously.

  7. Improved Charge Separation in WO3/CuWO4 Composite Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous tungsten oxide/copper tungstate (WO3/CuWO4 composite thin films were fabricated via a facile in situ conversion method, with a polymer templating strategy. Copper nitrate (Cu(NO32 solution with the copolymer surfactant Pluronic®F-127 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA, generic name, poloxamer 407 was loaded onto WO3 substrates by programmed dip coating, followed by heat treatment in air at 550 °C. The Cu2+ reacted with the WO3 substrate to form the CuWO4 compound. The composite WO3/CuWO4 thin films demonstrated improved photoelectrochemical (PEC performance over WO3 and CuWO4 single phase photoanodes. The factors of light absorption and charge separation efficiency of the composite and two single phase films were investigated to understand the reasons for the PEC enhancement of WO3/CuWO4 composite thin films. The photocurrent was generated from water splitting as confirmed by hydrogen and oxygen gas evolution, and Faradic efficiency was calculated based on the amount of H2 produced. This work provides a low-cost and controllable method to prepare WO3-metal tungstate composite thin films, and also helps to deepen the understanding of charge transfer in WO3/CuWO4 heterojunction.

  8. The Impact of Donor-Acceptor Phase Separation on the Charge Carrier Dynamics in pBTTT:PCBM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.

    2015-04-07

    The effect of donor–acceptor phase separation, controlled by the donor–acceptor mixing ratio, on the charge generation and recombination dynamics in pBTTT-C14:PC70BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends is presented. Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy spanning the dynamic range from pico- to microseconds in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions reveals that in a 1:1 blend exciton dissociation is ultrafast; however, charges cannot entirely escape their mutual Coulomb attraction and thus predominantly recombine geminately on a sub-ns timescale. In contrast, a polymer:fullerene mixing ratio of 1:4 facilitates the formation of spatially separated, that is free, charges and reduces substantially the fraction of geminate charge recombination, in turn leading to much more efficient photovoltaic devices. This illustrates that spatially extended donor or acceptor domains are required for the separation of charges on an ultrafast timescale (<100 fs), indicating that they are not only important for efficient charge transport and extraction, but also critically influence the initial stages of free charge carrier formation.

  9. Engineering Hydrogen Bonding Interaction and Charge Separation in Bio-Polymers for Green Lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liwen; Shi, Yijun; Hua, Jing; Zhuang, Wei; Zhu, Jiahua

    2017-06-08

    Synthetic additives are widely used in lubricants nowadays to upgrade lubrication properties. The potential of integrating sustainable components in modern lubricants has rarely been studied yet. In this work, two sustainable resources lignin and gelatin have been synergistically incorporated into ethylene glycol (EG), and their tribological properties were systematically investigated. The abundant hydrogen bonding sites in lignin and gelatin as well as their interchain interaction via hydrogen bonding play the dominating roles in tuning the physicochemical properties of the mixture and improving lubricating properties. Moreover, the synergistic combination of lignin and gelatin induces charge separation of gelatin that enables its preferable adsorption on the friction surface through electrostatic force and forms a robust lubrication layer. This layer will be strengthened by lignin through the interpolymer chain hydrogen bonding. At an optimized lignin:gelatin mass ratio of 1:1 and 19 wt % loading of each in EG, the friction coefficient can be greatly stabilized and the wear loss was reduced by 89% compared to pure EG. This work presents a unique synergistic phenomenon between gelatin and lignin, where hydrogen bonding and change separation are revealed as the key factor that bridges the individual components and improves overall lubricating properties.

  10. Charge separation in photoinitiated electron transfer reactions induced by a polyelectrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerstein, D.; Rabani, J.; Matheson, M.S.; Meisel, D.

    1978-01-01

    When uncharged molecules quench the luminescence of Ru(bpy) 3 /sup 2+*/ by electron transfer to the quencher, the addition of poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVS) may, through its potential field, affect the rate of quenching, enhance the net separated charge yield, and slow the back reaction of the separated photoredox products. In all such cases that we have studied the quenching rate in the presence of PVS was reduced to about 60% of the rate measured in the absence of PVS. For two neutral species, iron(III) nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) and cobalt(III) acetylacetonate (Co(acac) 3 ), photoreduction of the quencher was observed, and the redox yield escaping geminate recombination was substantially increased by added PVS. In the case of FeNTA the rate of the bulk back reaction was not changed appreciably by the presence of PVS owing to the rapid neutralization of Fe(NTA) - by protonation. For Co(acac) 3 the rate of the bulk back reaction was decreased by several orders of magnitude and the back reaction was shown to occur via the enolate form of the ligand which is released to the bulk solution. 4 figures, 4 tables

  11. Closed Pore Structured NiCo2O4-Coated Nickel Foams for Stable and Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Xi; Yan, Zhanheng; Tian, Dongliang; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaofang; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-30

    To solve the serious problem caused by oily wastewater pollution, unique interface designs, for example, membranes with superwetting properties such as superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity and superhydrophilicity/underwater superoleophobicity, provide a good way to achieve oil/water separation. Here, inspired by the liquid storage property of the honeycomb structure, we propose a strategy to fabricate NiCo 2 O 4 -coated nickel foams for stable and efficient oil/water separation. NiCo 2 O 4 with a closed-pore structure was formed by assembling nanoflakes with a micro/nanoscale hierarchical structure. Compared with nickel foam coated by NiCo 2 O 4 with an open-pore structure (NiCo 2 O 4 nanowires), the enclosed nanostructure of NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes can firmly hold water for a more stable superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic interface. As a consequence, the NiCo 2 O 4 -nanoflake-coated nickel foam has a larger oil breakthrough pressure than the NiCo 2 O 4 -nanowire-coated nickel foam because of a slightly larger oil advancing angle and a lower underwater oil adhesion force, which makes it more stable and efficient for oil/water separation. Moreover, the NiCo 2 O 4 -coated nickel foams have excellent chemical and mechanical stability, and they are reusable for oil-water separation. This work will be beneficial for the design and development of stable underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related device applications, such as oil/water separation.

  12. Charge density modification of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals for stable silver nanoparticles suspension preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeng, Fanny; Denneulin, Aurore; Neuman, Charles; Bras, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) has been found to be a great method for producing metallic particles in a sustainable way. In this work, we propose to evaluate the influence of the charge density of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO)-oxidized CNC on the morphology and the stability of synthetized silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were obtained by sol–gel reaction using borohydride reduction, and charge density of TEMPO-oxidized CNC was tuned by an amine grafting. The grafting was performed at room temperature and neutral pH. Crystallinity and morphology were kept intact during the peptidic reaction on CNC allowing knowing the exact impact of the charge density. Charge density has been found to have a strong impact on shape, organization, and suspension stability of resulting silver particles. Results show an easy way to tune the charge density of CNC and propose a sustainable way to control the morphology and stability of silver nanoparticles in aqueous suspension

  13. Chiral separation of tedizolid using charge single isomer derivatives of cyclodextrins by capillary electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Katarzyna; Gruba, Ewa; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Bednarek, Elżbieta

    2016-02-20

    A method to enantioseparate tedizolid (TED), the second analogue after linezolid (LIN) in a truly new class of antibacterial agents, the oxazolidinones, was developed based on capillary electrokinetic chromatography using cyclodextrin as chiral pseudophase (CD-cEKC). The single isomer R-tedizolid possesses one chiral centre at C5 of the oxazolidinone ring, which is associated with the antibacterial activity of the drug. Tedizolid enantiomers are non-charged and therefore require the use of charged cyclodextrins (CCDs) as carrier hosts to achieve a velocity difference during migration. During method development, hydrophilic anionic single-isomer and moderately hydrophobic and hydrophobic cyclodextrins were tested, including heptakis-(2,3-dihydroxy-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HS-β-CD), heptakis-(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HDAS-β-CD), oktakis-(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfo)-γ-cyclodextrin (ODAS-γ-CD) and heptakis-(2,3-dimethyl-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HDMS-β-CD). Only CDs that have acetyl groups at the C2 and C3 positions with seven (HDAS-β-CD) or eight (ODAS-γ-CD) residues of glucopyranose units provided baseline separation of the tedizolid enantiomers with the addition of organic solvent. During the experiments, different organic solvents were tested, such as methanol, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, which varied in their abilities to donate or accept protons. The best enantiomer separation results were obtained using the CD-cEKC method with 37.5mM HDAS-β-CD dissolved in 50mM formic buffer (pH 4.0) with the addition of acetonitrile (81.4:18.6, v/v) at 27ºC, normal polarity, and 12kV. Finally, the apparent binding constants for each enantiomer-HDAS-β-CD pair were calculated. Moreover, in order to evaluate the behaviour of TED and LIN enantiomers relative to chiral selector, enantioselective interactions towards the precursors of TED and LIN isomers were also investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Atom Probe Analysis of Ex Situ Gas-Charged Stable Hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Daniel; Bagot, Paul A J; Moody, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we report on the atom probe tomography analysis of two metallic hydrides formed by pressurized charging using an ex situ hydrogen charging cell, in the pressure range of 200-500 kPa (2-5 bar). Specifically we report on the deuterium charging of Pd/Rh and V systems. Using this ex situ system, we demonstrate the successful loading and subsequent atom probe analysis of deuterium within a Pd/Rh alloy, and demonstrate that deuterium is likely present within the oxide-metal interface of a native oxide formed on vanadium. Through these experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of ex situ hydrogen analysis for hydrides via atom probe tomography, and thus a practical route to three-dimensional imaging of hydrogen in hydrides at the atomic scale.

  15. Development of temperature stable charge based piezoelectric composite quasi-static pressure sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    In this work piezoelectric composite charge based sensors are developed, aimed at quasi-static pressure sensor or switch type applications. The use of piezoelectric composite materials allows for manufacturing robust devices which can easily be integrated with conventional polymer processing.

  16. Prediction and Experimental Evidence for Thermodynamically Stable Charged Orbital Domain Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing’an; Gray, K. E.; Wilkins, S. B.; Garcia Fernandez, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    The quest for miniaturization is prevalent in many fields of modern science and technology. The ultimate limit for conduction would be a one-dimensional (1D) chain of atoms and, for example, carbon nanotubes are a notable approximation to this ideal. Here we present strong evidence for an unexpected phenomenon—a sliding charge-density wave along pseudo-1D, atomically homogeneous orbital domain walls (ODWs) in insulating bilayer manganite crystals. At a threshold electric field, crystals exhibit abrupt transformations to higher conductance, while x-ray diffraction confirms that these are not due to heating or melting of charge order. The conductance data resemble those of well-known pseudo-1D sliding-charge-density waves, in particular the presence of a depinning voltage. The vital link is our theoretical insight that ODWs must be partially charged due to competition between orbital-induced strain and Coulomb repulsion. The ideas found here embody a new principle for creating ultra-nano conductive paths in other materials and devices.

  17. Fundamental limits on wavelength, efficiency and yield of the charge separation triad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Punnoose

    Full Text Available In an attempt to optimize a high yield, high efficiency artificial photosynthetic protein we have discovered unique energy and spatial architecture limits which apply to all light-activated photosynthetic systems. We have generated an analytical solution for the time behavior of the core three cofactor charge separation element in photosynthesis, the photosynthetic cofactor triad, and explored the functional consequences of its makeup including its architecture, the reduction potentials of its components, and the absorption energy of the light absorbing primary-donor cofactor. Our primary findings are two: First, that a high efficiency, high yield triad will have an absorption frequency more than twice the reorganization energy of the first electron transfer, and second, that the relative distance of the acceptor and the donor from the primary-donor plays an important role in determining the yields, with the highest efficiency, highest yield architecture having the light absorbing cofactor closest to the acceptor. Surprisingly, despite the increased complexity found in natural solar energy conversion proteins, we find that the construction of this central triad in natural systems matches these predictions. Our analysis thus not only suggests explanations for some aspects of the makeup of natural photosynthetic systems, it also provides specific design criteria necessary to create high efficiency, high yield artificial protein-based triads.

  18. Photochemical charges separation and photoelectric properties of flexible solar cells with two types of heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Cheng, Xiuying; Gu, Yuzong

    2015-12-01

    Photochemical charges generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to energy conversion for solar cells. Here, Zn2SnO4 nanowires/Cu4Bi4S9 (ZTO/CBS), ZTO nanowires/CBS-reduced graphene oxide (ZTO/CBS-RGO), and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were measured. The signals of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that RGO with high electron mobility can evidently improve the photovoltaic response. Besides, ZTO/CBS and ZTO/CBS-RGO cells exhibit the excellent performance and the highest efficiencies of 1.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The internal relations of photoelectric properties to some factors, such as film thickness, direct paths, RGO conductive network, energy level matching, etc., were discussed in detail. Qualitative and quantitative analyses further verified the comprehensive effect of RGO and other factors. Importantly, the fine bendable characteristic of BHJ solar cells with excellent efficiency and facile, scalable production gives the as-made flexible solar cells device potential for practical application in future.

  19. Strategies for Efficient Charge Separation and Transfer in Artificial Photosynthesis of Solar Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxing; Li, Ailong; Yao, Tingting; Ma, Changtong; Zhang, Xianwen; Shah, Jafar Hussain; Han, Hongxian

    2017-11-23

    Converting sunlight to solar fuels by artificial photosynthesis is an innovative science and technology for renewable energy. Light harvesting, photogenerated charge separation and transfer (CST), and catalytic reactions are the three primary steps in the processes involved in the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy (SE-CE). Among the processes, CST is the key "energy pump and delivery" step in determining the overall solar-energy conversion efficiency. Efficient CST is always high priority in designing and assembling artificial photosynthesis systems for solar-fuel production. This Review not only introduces the fundamental strategies for CST but also the combinatory application of these strategies to five types of the most-investigated semiconductor-based artificial photosynthesis systems: particulate, Z-scheme, hybrid, photoelectrochemical, and photovoltaics-assisted systems. We show that artificial photosynthesis systems with high SE-CE efficiency can be rationally designed and constructed through combinatory application of these strategies, setting a promising blueprint for the future of solar fuels. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The influence of microstructure on charge separation dynamics in organic bulk heterojunction materials for solar cell applications

    KAUST Repository

    Scarongella, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    Light-induced charge formation is essential for the generation of photocurrent in organic solar cells. In order to gain a better understanding of this complex process, we have investigated the femtosecond dynamics of charge separation upon selective excitation of either the fullerene or the polymer in different bulk heterojunction blends with well-characterized microstructure. Blends of the pBTTT and PBDTTPD polymers with PCBM gave us access to three different scenarios: either a single intermixed phase, an intermixed phase with additional pure PCBM clusters, or a three-phase microstructure of pure polymer aggregates, pure fullerene clusters and intermixed regions. We found that ultrafast charge separation (by electron or hole transfer) occurs predominantly in intermixed regions, while charges are generated more slowly from excitons in pure domains that require diffusion to a charge generation site. The pure domains are helpful to prevent geminate charge recombination, but they must be sufficiently small not to become exciton traps. By varying the polymer packing, backbone planarity and chain length, we have shown that exciton diffusion out of small polymer aggregates in the highly efficient PBDTTPD:PCBM blend occurs within the same chain and is helped by delocalization. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Hierarchically Macroporous Graphitic Nanowebs Exhibiting Ultra-fast and Stable Charge Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo

    2018-02-01

    The macro/microstructures of carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitor applications play a key role in their electrochemical performance. In this study, hierarchically macroporous graphitic nanowebs (HM-GNWs) were prepared from bacterial cellulose by high-temperature heating at 2400 °C. The HM-GNWs were composed of well-developed graphitic nanobuilding blocks with a high aspect ratio, which was entangled as a nanoweb structure. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of the HM-GNWs resulted in remarkable charge storage performance. In particular, the HM-GNWs exhibited very fast charge storage behaviors at scan rates ranging from 5 to 100 V s-1, in which area capacitances ranging from 8.9 to 3.8 mF cm-2 were achieved. In addition, 97% capacitance retention was observed after long-term cycling for more than 1,000,000 cycles.

  2. Long-lived photoinduced charge separation for solar cell applications in phthalocyanine–fulleropyrrolidine dyad thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M. Antonietta; Denk, Patrick; Hoppe, Harald; Neugebauer, Helmut; Winder, Christoph; Meissner, Dieter; Brabec, Christoph; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Gouloumis, Andreas; Vázquez, Purificación; Torres, Tomás

    2003-01-01

    The photophysical properties of a new dyad molecule composed of a covalently linked Zn-phthalocyanine (antenna/donor) and a C60 derivative (acceptor) have been investigated. We report experimental evidence of long-lived charge separation in the solid state with a lifetime several orders of magnitude

  3. Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  4. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Separation along the Magnetic Field in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au +Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  5. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-01-01

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  6. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  7. Mass, charge, and energy separation by selective acceleration with a traveling potential hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, L.S.; Barr, W.L.; Lowder, R.S.; Post, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    A traveling electric potential hill has been used to generate an ion beam with an energy distribution that is mass dependent from a monoenergetic ion beam of mixed masses. This effect can be utilized as a novel method for mass separation applied to identification or enrichment of ions (elements, isotopes, or molecules). This theory for mass-selective acceleration is presented here and is shown to be confirmed by experiment and by a time-dependent particle-in-cell computer simulation. Results show that monoenergetic ions with the particular mass of choice are accelerated by controlling the hill potential and the hill velocity. The hill velocity is typically 20-30% faster than the ions to be accelerated. The ability of the hill to pickup a particular mass uses the fact that small kinetic energy differences in the lab frame appear much larger in the moving hill frame. Ions will gain energy from the approaching hill if their relative energy in the moving hill frame is less than the peak potential of the hill. The final energy of these accelerated ions can be several times the source energy, which facilitates energy filtering for mass purification or identification. If the hill potential is chosen to accelerate multiple masses, the heaviest mass will have the greatest final energy. Hence, choosing the appropriate hill potential and collector retarding voltage will isolate ions with the lightest, heaviest, or intermediate mass. In the experimental device, called a Solitron, purified 20 Ne and 22 Ne are extracted from a ribbon beam of neon that is originally composed of 20 Ne: 22 Ne in the natural ratio of 91:9. The isotopic content of the processed beam is determined by measuring the energy distribution of the detected current. These results agree with the theory. In addition to mass selectivity, our theory can also be applied to the filtration of an ion beam according to charge state or energy. The Solitron is envisioned to have broad applications

  8. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen

    2016-01-01

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold...... behavior with respect to both applied field strength and applied field angle. The importance of the hot CT in helping the charge carrier dissociation is also analyzed in our scheme....

  9. Golan Heights Groundwater Systems: Separation By REE+Y And Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Geyer, S.; Knoeller, K.; Roediger, T.; Weise, S.; Dulski, P.; Moeller, P.; Guttman, J.

    2008-12-01

    In a semi-arid to arid country like Israel, all freshwater resources are under (over-) utilization. Particularly, the Golan Heights rank as one of the most important extraction areas of groundwater of good quality and quantity. Additionally the mountain range feed to a high degree the most important freshwater reservoir of Israel, the Sea of Galilee. Hence, knowing the sources and characters of the Golan Heights groundwater systems is an instantaneous demand regarding sustainable management and protection. Within the "German-Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian Joint Research Program for the Sustainable Utilisation of Aquifer Systems", hundreds of water samples were taken from all over the Jordan-Dead Sea rift-system to understand groundwater flow-systems and salinisation. For that purpose, each sample was analysed for major and minor ions, rare earth elements including yttrium (REY) and stable isotopes of water (d18O, d2H). The REY distribution in groundwater is established during infiltration by the first water-rock interaction and consequently reflects the leachable components of sediments and rocks of the recharge area. In well- developed flow-systems, REY are adsorbed onto pore surfaces are in equilibrium with the percolating groundwater, even if the lithology changes (e.g. inter-aquifer flow). Thus, groundwater sampled from wells and springs still show the REY distribution pattern established in the recharge area. Since high temperatures do not occur in Golan Heights, d2H and d18O are less controlled by water-rock interaction than by climatic and geomorphological factors at the time of replenishment. Applying the REY signature as a grouping criterion of groundwaters, d18O vs. d2H plots yield a new dimension in interpreting isotope data. The combined use of hydrochemical and isotopic methods enabled us to contain the areas of replenishment and the flow-paths of all investigated groundwater in the Golan Heights. Despite location, salinity or temperature of spring or

  10. Fabrication of stable and durable superhydrophobic surface on copper substrates for oil-water separation and ice-over delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Yang, Fuchao; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-03-15

    We report a simple and rapid method to fabricate superhydrophobic films on copper substrates via Fe(3+) etching and octadecanethiol (ODT) modification. The etching process can be as short as 5 min and the ODT treatment only takes several seconds. In addition, the whole process is quite flexible in reaction time. The superhydrophobicity of as-prepared surfaces is mechanically durable and chemically stable, which have great performance in oil-water separation and ice-over resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Charge and spin density in s-stable rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, H. de.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study of the electronic structure of rare earth intermetallic compounds, in particular the electronic charge and spin density distribution. These are closely related to the properties of the rare earth ions, which carry the partly filled 4f shell. In chapter 1 a survey of the theory of hyperfine interaction as far as it has a bearing on the Moessbauer effect of 155 Gd and 151 Eu is given. Also some details of the Moessbauer spectra, which have practical importance are discussed. In chapter 2 the experimental set-up is described. Special attention is paid to the gamma radiation source and gamma detection requirements. In chapter 3 the author introduces the theoretical framework which will be used to interpret the measurements. In chapter 4 the results of the 155 Gd Moessbauer measurements are presented. Also it is discussed how the result can be understood in terms of the charge and spin density in rare earth intermetallic compounds. In order to lend support to the picture emerging from the previous chapter, in chapter 5 the conduction electron band structure of some representative Gd intermetallics is computed with an approximate semi-empirical LCAO method. The results are compared with those from chapter 4. Finally, in chapter 6, the 151 Eu resonance is used to investigate the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field and line width in the Eu intermetallic compounds Eu 2 Mg 17 and EuMg 5 . (Auth.)

  12. A psychometric cut-point to separate emergently suicidal depressed patients from stable depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, W Vaughn; Batson, Nicolas; Webster, Megan; Joshi, Indu; Derreberry, Todd; McDonough, Adam; Farris, Suzan

    2013-07-01

    The design of safe clinical trials targeting suicidal ideation requires operational definitions of what degree of suicidal ideation is too excessive to allow safe participation. We examined the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) to develop a psychometric cut-point that would identify patients having a suicidal emergency. The Emergency Department (ED) and the out-patient clinic of a university hospital. We used the SSI to contrast 23 stable, depressed adult out-patients versus 11 depressed adult ED patients awaiting psychiatric admission for a suicidal emergency. The performance of the SSI was examined with nominal logistic regression. ED patients were older than out-patients (Pmodel of SSI score and group yielded a score of 16 (Pmodel was expanded to include SSI along with age, gender, ethnicity, sedative-hypnotic use, and over-the-counter use, only SSI score remained significant as a predictor. A SSI score ≥16 may be useful as an exclusion criterion for out-patients in depression clinical trials.

  13. Direct Observation of Charge Separation on Anatase TiO2 Crystals with Selectively Etched {001} Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Dong, Guojun; Li, Shaopeng; Lu, Gongxuan; Bi, Yingpu

    2016-03-09

    Synchronous illumination X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SIXPS) was employed for the first time to directly identify the photogenerated charge separation and transfer on anatase TiO2 single-crystals with selectively etched {001} facets. More specifically, for the TiO2 crystals with intact {001} and {101} facets, most of photogenerated charge carriers rapidly recombined, and no evident electron-hole separation was detected. With selectively etching on {001} facets, high efficient charge separation via hole transfer to titanium and electron to oxygen was clearly observed. However, when the {001} facets were completely etched into a hollow structure, the recombination for photogenerated electron-hole pairs would dominate again. These demonstrations clearly reveal that the appropriate corrosion on {001} facets could facilitate more efficient electron-hole separation and transfer. As expected, the optimized TiO2 microcrystals with etched {001} facets could achieve a hydrogen generation rate of 74.3 μmol/h/g, which is nearly 7 times higher than the intact-TiO2 crystals.

  14. Charge Separation in P3HT:SWCNT Blends Studied by EPR: Spin Signature of the Photoinduced Charged State in SWCNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Holt, Josh M; Mistry, Kevin; Rumbles, Garry; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Poluektov, Oleg G

    2014-02-06

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) could be employed in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices as a replacement or additive for currently used fullerene derivatives, but significant research remains to explain fundamental aspects of charge generation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, which is sensitive only to unpaired electrons, was applied to explore charge separation in P3HT:SWCNT blends. The EPR signal of the P3HT positive polaron increases as the concentration of SWCNT acceptors in a photoexcited P3HT:SWCNT blend is increased, demonstrating long-lived charge separation induced by electron transfer from P3HT to SWCNTs. An EPR signal from reduced SWCNTs was not identified in blends due to the free and fast-relaxing nature of unpaired SWCNT electrons as well as spectral overlap of this EPR signal with the signal from positive P3HT polarons. However, a weak EPR signal was observed in chemically reduced SWNTs, and the g values of this signal are close to those of C70-PCBM anion radical. The anisotropic line shape indicates that these unpaired electrons are not free but instead localized.

  15. A compact electron beam ion source with integrated Wien filter providing mass and charge state separated beams of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M. [DREEBIT GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Peng, H. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zschornack, G. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Sykora, S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    A Wien filter was designed for and tested with a room temperature electron beam ion source (EBIS). Xenon charge state spectra up to the charge state Xe{sup 46+} were resolved as well as the isotopes of krypton using apertures of different sizes. The complete setup consisting of an EBIS and a Wien filter has a length of less than 1 m substituting a complete classical beamline setup. The Wien filter is equipped with removable permanent magnets. Hence total beam current measurements are possible via simple removal of the permanent magnets. In dependence on the needs of resolution a weak (0.2 T) or a strong (0.5 T) magnets setup can be used. In this paper the principle of operation and the design of the Wien filter meeting the requirements of an EBIS are briefly discussed. The first ion beam extraction and separation experiments with a Dresden EBIS are presented.

  16. A compact electron beam ion source with integrated Wien filter providing mass and charge state separated beams of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Peng, H.; Zschornack, G.; Sykora, S.

    2009-06-01

    A Wien filter was designed for and tested with a room temperature electron beam ion source (EBIS). Xenon charge state spectra up to the charge state Xe46+ were resolved as well as the isotopes of krypton using apertures of different sizes. The complete setup consisting of an EBIS and a Wien filter has a length of less than 1 m substituting a complete classical beamline setup. The Wien filter is equipped with removable permanent magnets. Hence total beam current measurements are possible via simple removal of the permanent magnets. In dependence on the needs of resolution a weak (0.2 T) or a strong (0.5 T) magnets setup can be used. In this paper the principle of operation and the design of the Wien filter meeting the requirements of an EBIS are briefly discussed. The first ion beam extraction and separation experiments with a Dresden EBIS are presented.

  17. Direct Imaging of Highly Anisotropic Photogenerated Charge Separations on Different Facets of a Single BiVO4 Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Fan, Fengtao; Chen, Ruotian; An, Hongyu; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2015-07-27

    Spatially resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SRSPS) was employed to obtain direct evidence for highly anisotropic photogenerated charge separation on different facets of a single BiVO4 photocatalyst. Through the controlled synthesis of a single crystal with preferentially exposed {010} facets, highly anisotropic photogenerated hole transfer to the {011} facet of single BiVO4 crystals was observed. The surface photovoltage signal intensity on the {011} facet was 70 times stronger than that on the {010} facets. The influence of the built-in electric field in the space charge region of different facets on the anisotropic photoinduced charge transfer in a single semiconductor crystal is revealed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Intramolecular charge separation in spirobifluorene-based donor–acceptor compounds adsorbed on Au and indium tin oxide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, Daniel; Otero, Luis; Gervaldo, Miguel; Fungo, Fernando; Dittrich, Thomas; Lin, Chih-Yen; Chi, Liang-Chen; Fang, Fu-Chuan; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements were performed with a Kelvin-probe in spirobifluorene-based donor (diphenylamine)–acceptor (dicyano or cyanoacrylic acid moieties) compounds adsorbed from highly diluted solutions onto Au and indium tin oxide electrode surfaces. Strong intramolecular charge separation (negative SPV signals up to more than 0.1 V) due to directed molecule adsorption was observed only for spirobifluorene donor–acceptor compounds with carboxylic acid moiety. SPV signals and onset energies of electronic transitions depended on ambience conditions. - Highlights: ► Fluorene donor–acceptor derivatives were adsorbed at Au and indium tin oxide. ► Surface photovoltage measurements were performed with a Kelvin-probe. ► Strong intra-molecular charge separation was observed. ► SPV signals depended on ambience conditions

  19. Design and synthesis of bipyridine platinum(II) bisalkynyl fullerene donor-chromophore-acceptor triads with ultrafast charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sai-Ho; Chan, Chris Tsz-Leung; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Lam, Wai Han; Kwok, Wai-Ming; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-07-16

    Donor-chromophore-acceptor triads, (PTZ)2-Pt(bpy)-C60 and ((t)BuPTZ)2-Pt(bpy)-C60, along with their model compound, (Ph)2-Pt(bpy)-C60, have been synthesized and characterized; their photophysical and electrochemical properties have been studied, and the origin of the absorption and emission properties has been supported by computational studies. The photoinduced electron transfer reactions have been investigated using the femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. In dichloromethane, (Ph)2-Pt(bpy)-C60 shows ultrafast triplet-triplet energy transfer from the (3)MLCT/LLCT excited state within 4 ps to give the (3)C60* state, while in (PTZ)2-Pt(bpy)-C60 and ((t)BuPTZ)2-Pt(bpy)-C60, charge-separated state forms within 400 fs from the (3)MLCT/LLCT excited state with efficiency of over 0.90, and the total efficiency with the contribution of (3)C60* is estimated to be 0.99. Although the forward electron transfer reactions are very rapid, the charge-separated state recombines to the singlet ground state at a time of hundreds of nanoseconds because of the difference in spin multiplicity between the charge-separated state and the ground state.

  20. Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion: the energetic cost of charge separation from molecular-excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, James R

    2013-08-13

    This review starts with a brief overview of the technological potential of molecular-based solar cell technologies. It then goes on to focus on the core scientific challenge associated with using molecular light-absorbing materials for solar energy conversion, namely the separation of short-lived, molecular-excited states into sufficiently long-lived, energetic, separated charges capable of generating an external photocurrent. Comparisons are made between different molecular-based solar cell technologies, with particular focus on the function of dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells as well as parallels with the function of photosynthetic reaction centres. The core theme of this review is that generating charge carriers with sufficient lifetime and a high quantum yield from molecular-excited states comes at a significant energetic cost-such that the energy stored in these charge-separated states is typically substantially less than the energy of the initially generated excited state. The role of this energetic loss in limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion by such devices is emphasized, and strategies to minimize this energy loss are compared and contrasted.

  1. High-resolution peptide mapping separations with MS-friendly mobile phases and charge-surface-modified C18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Matthew A; Koza, Stephan M; McCall, Scott A; Alden, Bonnie A; Iraneta, Pamela C; Fountain, Kenneth J

    2013-07-16

    Ionic analytes, such as peptides, can be challenging to separate by reverse-phase chromatography with optimal efficiency. They tend, for instance, to exhibit poor peak shapes, particularly when eluted with mobile phases preferred for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that a novel charged-surface C18 stationary phase alleviates some of the challenges associated with reverse-phase peptide separations. This column chemistry, known as CSH (charged-surface hybrid) C18, improves upon an already robust organosilica hybrid stationary phase, BEH (ethylene-bridged hybrid) C18. Based on separations of a nine-peptide standard, CSH C18 was found to exhibit improved loadability, greater peak capacities, and unique selectivity compared to BEH C18. Its performance was also seen to be significantly less dependent on TFA-ion pairing, making it ideal for MS applications where high sensitivity is desired. These performance advantages were evaluated through application to peptide mapping, wherein CSH C18 was found to aid the development of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity LC-UV-MS peptide mapping method for the therapeutic antibody, trastuzumab. From these results, the use of a C18 stationary phase with a charged surface, such as CSH C18, holds significant promise for facilitating challenging peptide analyses.

  2. Enhanced charge separation in ternary P3HT/PCBM/CuInS2 nanocrystals hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, Aurélie; Luszczynska, Beata; Pepin-Donat, Brigitte; Lombard, Christian; Bouthinon, Benjamin; Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Gromova, Marina; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pouget, Stéphanie; Chandezon, Frédéric; Sadki, Saïd; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-15

    Geminate recombination of bound polaron pairs at the donor/acceptor interface is one of the major loss mechanisms in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. One way to overcome Coulomb attraction between opposite charge carriers and to achieve their full dissociation is the introduction of high dielectric permittivity materials such as nanoparticles of narrow band gap semiconductors. We selected CuInS2 nanocrystals of 7.4 nm size, which present intermediate energy levels with respect to poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Efficient charge transfer from P3HT to nanocrystals takes place as evidenced by light-induced electron spin resonance. Charge transfer between nanocrystals and PCBM only occurs after replacing bulky dodecanethiol (DDT) surface ligands with shorter 1,2-ethylhexanethiol (EHT) ligands. Solar cells containing in the active layer a ternary blend of P3HT:PCBM:CuInS2-EHT nanocrystals in 1:1:0.5 mass ratio show strongly improved short circuit current density and a higher fill factor with respect to the P3HT:PCBM reference device. Complementary measurements of the absorption properties, external quantum efficiency and charge carrier mobility indicate that enhanced charge separation in the ternary blend is at the origin of the observed behavior. The same trend is observed for blends using the glassy polymer poly(triarylamine) (PTAA).

  3. Highly stable and magnetically separable alginate/Fe3O4 composite for the removal of strontium (Sr) from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Hong, Jeongsik; Park, In-Su; Ryu, Taegong; Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Hyuncheol; Ryu, Jungho

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a highly stable alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite was synthesized, and systematically investigated for the practical application of strontium (Sr) removal in complex media, such as seawater and radioactive wastewater. To overcome the drawbacks of the use of alginate microspheres, high contents of alginic acid and Fe 3 O 4 were used to provide a more rigid structure with little swelling and facile separation, respectively. The synthesized composite was optimized for particle sizes of seawater spiked with 50 mg/L of Sr, the alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite showed 12.5 mg/g of Sr uptake, despite the highly concentrated ions in seawater. The adsorption experiment for radio-active 90 Sr revealed a removal efficiency of 67% in real seawater, demonstrating the reliability of the alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct observation of ultrafast long-range charge separation at polymer–fullerene heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Provencher, Françoise

    2014-07-01

    In polymeric semiconductors, charge carriers are polarons, which means that the excess charge deforms the molecular structure of the polymer chain that hosts it. This results in distinctive signatures in the vibrational modes of the polymer. Here, we probe polaron photogeneration dynamics at polymer:fullerene heterojunctions by monitoring its time-resolved resonance-Raman spectrum following ultrafast photoexcitation. We conclude that polarons emerge within 300 fs. Surprisingly, further structural evolution on ≤50-ps timescales is modest, indicating that the polymer conformation hosting nascent polarons is not significantly different from that near equilibrium. We interpret this as suggestive that charges are free from their mutual Coulomb potential because we would expect rich vibrational dynamics associated with charge-pair relaxation. We address current debates on the photocarrier generation mechanism at molecular heterojunctions, and our work is, to our knowledge, the first direct probe of molecular conformation dynamics during this fundamentally important process in these materials. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-Lived Charge Separation at Heterojunctions between Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Perylene Diimide Electron Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Suk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arias, Dylan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackburn, Jeffrey L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sisto, Thomas J. [Columbia University; Peurifoy, Samuel [Columbia University; Zhang, Boyuan [Columbia University; Nuckolls, Colin [Columbia University

    2018-04-13

    Nonfullerene electron acceptors have facilitated a recent surge in the efficiencies of organic solar cells, although fundamental studies of the nature of exciton dissociation at interfaces with nonfullerene electron acceptors are still relatively sparse. Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs), unique one-dimensional electron donors with molecule-like absorption and highly mobile charges, provide a model system for studying interfacial exciton dissociation. Here, we investigate excited-state photodynamics at the heterojunction between (6,5) s-SWCNTs and two perylene diimide (PDI)-based electron acceptors. Each of the PDI-based acceptors, hPDI2-pyr-hPDI2 and Trip-hPDI2, is deposited onto (6,5) s-SWCNT films to form a heterojunction bilayer. Transient absorption measurements demonstrate that photoinduced hole/electron transfer occurs at the photoexcited bilayer interfaces, producing long-lived separated charges with lifetimes exceeding 1.0 us. Both exciton dissociation and charge recombination occur more slowly for the hPDI2-pyr-hPDI2 bilayer than for the Trip-hPDI2 bilayer. To explain such differences, we discuss the potential roles of the thermodynamic charge transfer driving force available at each interface and the different molecular structure and intermolecular interactions of PDI-based acceptors. Detailed photophysical analysis of these model systems can develop the fundamental understanding of exciton dissociation between organic electron donors and nonfullerene acceptors, which has not been systematically studied.

  6. Janus Membranes with Charged Carbon Nanotube Coatings for Deemulsification and Separation of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Peng; Yang, Jing; Yang, Hao-Cheng; Wu, Ming-Bang; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2018-03-21

    Oil/water separation, especially for those surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, is required to protect our ecological environment from destruction. Janus membranes with a function of deemulsification appear as a kind of efficient materials for the separation of O/W emulsions because of a precise adjustment of the surface nature for the hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers. However, existing strategies of membrane preparation suffer from complicated multisteps, leading to uncontrolled thickness of the hydrophilic deemulsification layer. Herein, we present a facile and tunable method to prepare a series of Janus membranes consisting of negatively or positively charged carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hydrophobic microfiltration membranes by vacuum filtration. The thickness of the hydrophilic CNT coating is thus well-controlled by engineering the amount of CNTs deposited on the substrate membrane. The prepared Janus membranes are effective for the separation of both heavy oil and light oil from O/W emulsions through deemulsification owing to the charge-screening effect. It is very interesting that those membranes displaying a combination of water contact angle and underwater oil contact angle both above 90° have a unique oil delivery behavior and thus high separation performance of oil from O/W emulsions. Such Janus membranes can retrieve 89% of oil in 40 min from the 1,2-dichloroethane/water emulsions with the droplet size of 19 μm. This easy-to-prepare and easy-to-tune strategy provides feasibilities for practical applications of Janus membranes to the deemulsification and separation of O/W emulsions.

  7. Polarization Energies at Organic–Organic Interfaces: Impact on the Charge Separation Barrier at Donor–Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ryno, Sean

    2016-05-31

    We probe the energetic landscape at a model pentacene/fullerene-C60 interface to investigate the interactions between positive and negative charges, which are critical to the processes of charge separation and recombination in organic solar cells. Using a polarizable force field, we find that polarization energy, i.e. the stabilization a charge feels due to its environment, is larger at the interface than in the bulk for both a positive and a negative charge. The combination of the charge being more stabilized at the interface and the Coulomb attraction between the charges, results in a barrier to charge separation at the pentacene-C60 interface that can be in excess of 0.7 eV for static configurations of the donor and acceptor locations. However, the impact of molecular motions, i.e., the dynamics, at the interface at room temperature results in a distribution of polarization energies and in charge separation barriers that can be significantly reduced. The dynamic nature of the interface is thus critical, with the polarization energy distributions indicating that sites along the interface shift in time between favorable and unfavorable configurations for charge separation.

  8. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991 - September 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, W.

    1996-01-01

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as 13 C, 17 O, 18 O, and 203 Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes (≤ 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of 26 Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation

  9. Degree of phase separation effects on the charge transfer properties of P3HT:Graphene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bkakri, R., E-mail: bkakrirabeb@hotmail.com [Équipe Dispositifs Électroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Kusmartseva, O.E.; Kusmartsev, F.V. [Physics Department, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Song, M. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bouazizi, A. [Équipe Dispositifs Électroniques Organiques et Photovoltaïque Moléculaire, Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2015-05-15

    Graphene layers were introduced into the matrix of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl) (RR-P3HT) via solution processing in the perspective of the development of organic nanocomposites with high P3HT/Graphene interfaces areas for efficient charge transfer process. P3HT and graphene act as electrons donor and electrons acceptor materials, respectively. Spatial Fourier Transforms (FFT) and power spectral density (PSD) analysis of the AFM images show that the phase separation decreases with increasing the graphene weight ratio in the P3HT matrix. The Raman spectra of the P3HT:Graphene nanocomposites shows that the G-band of graphene shifts to low frequencies with progressive addition of graphene which proves that there is an interaction between the nanowires of P3HT and the graphene layers. We suggest that the shift of the G-band is due to electrons transfer from P3HT to graphene. The quenching of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of P3HT with addition of graphene proves also that an electrons transfer process occurred at the P3HT/Graphene interfaces. - Highlights: • Graphene layers are elaborated from expandable graphite oxide. • The effects of the graphene doping level on the charge transfer process were studied. • The phase separation process decreases with increasing the graphene content in the P3HT matrix. • Quenching of the PL intensity is due to electrons transfer from P3HT to graphene.

  10. Robust Inclusion Complexes of Crown Ether Fused Tetrathiafulvalenes with Li+@C-60 to Afford Efficient Photodriven Charge Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supur, M.; Kawashima, Y.; Larsen, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    ) obtained by UV/Vis titrations in benzonitrile (PhCN) at room temperature. On the basis of DFT studies at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, the orbital interactions between the crown ether moieties and the p surface of the fullerene together with the endohedral Li+ have a crucial role in robust complex formation....... Interestingly, complexation of Li+@C-60 with crown ethers accelerates the intersystem crossing upon photoexcitation of the complex, thereby yielding 3(Li+@C-60)*, when no charge separation by means of 1Li(+)@C-60* occurs. Photoinduced charge separation by means of 3Li(+)@C-60* with lifetimes of 135 and 120 ms...... for 1 center dot Li+@C-60 and 2 center dot Li+@C-60, respectively, and quantum yields of 0.82 in PhCN have been observed by utilizing time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy and then confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at 4 K. The difference in crown ether structures...

  11. Drawing Catalytic Power from Charge Separation: Stereoelectronic and Zwitterionic Assistance in the Au(I)-Catalyzed Bergman Cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Passos Gomes, Gabriel; Alabugin, Igor V

    2017-03-08

    The synergy between bond formation and bond breaking that is typical for pericyclic reactions is lost in their mechanistic cousins, cycloaromatization reactions. In these reactions, exemplified by the Bergman cyclization (BC), two bonds are sacrificed to form a single bond, and the reaction progress is interrupted at the stage of a cyclic diradical intermediate. The catalytic power of Au(I) in BC stems from a combination of two sources: stereoelectronic assistance of C-C bond formation (i.e., "LUMO umpolung") and crossover from a diradical to a zwitterionic mechanism that takes advantage of the catalyst's dual ability to stabilize both negative and positive charges. Not only does the synergy between the bond-forming and charge-delocalizing interactions lead to a dramatic (>hundred-billion-fold) acceleration, but the evolution of the two effects results in continuous reinforcement of the substrate/catalyst interaction along the cyclization path. This cooperativity converts the BC into the first example of an aborted [3,3] sigmatropic shift where the pericyclic "transition state" becomes the most stable species on the reaction hypersurface. Aborting the pericyclic path facilitates trapping of cyclic intermediate by a variety of further reactions and provides a foundation for the discovery of new modes of reactivity of polyunsaturated substrates. The application of distortion/interaction analysis allows us to quantify the increased affinity of Au-catalysts to the Bergman cyclization transition state as one of the key components of the large catalytic effect.

  12. Charge separation dynamics at bulk heterojunctions between poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PbS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firdaus, Yuliar; Fron, Eduard; Khetubol, Adis; Van der Auweraer, Mark, E-mail: mark.vanderauweraer@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Photochemistry and Spectroscopy, Division of Molecular Imaging and Photonics, Chemistry Department, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B2404, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Miranti, Rany; Borchert, Holger; Parisi, Jürgen [Department of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, University of Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9-11, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Vandenplas, Erwin; Cheyns, David [Imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-08-07

    Photo-induced electron transfer between poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and small (2.4 nm) PbS quantum dots (QDs), capped by different ligands, was studied by picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence and by photo-induced absorption (PIA) measurements. In line with previous experiments, we observed that the efficiency of the quenching of P3HT by PbS QDs increased upon decreasing the average thickness of the ligand shell. This trend was also observed in the PIA spectra and in prior work on the performance of photovoltaic devices where the active layer was a blend of P3HT with PbS QDs capped by different ligands. Combining the pico- and femtosecond fluorescence decays showed that the quenching in blend films of P3HT and PbS QDs treated with 1,4-benzenedithiol occurred over a broad time scale ranging from tens of femtoseconds to hundreds of picoseconds. This complex kinetics was attributed to exciton hopping followed by electron transfer to the conduction band of the QDs. We also compared the wavelength dependence of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the hybrid photovoltaic devices to those devices where the photoactive layer consists of PbS QDs only. Although excitation in the first excitonic transition of the PbS QDs yielded a similar IQE in both devices, the IQE of the hybrid devices tripled at wavelengths where also P3HT started to absorb. This suggests that upon excitation of P3HT in the latter devices, charge generation occurs by photo-induced electron transfer from P3HT to the QDs rather than by energy transfer to the QDs followed by exciton dissociation in the QDs.

  13. A Molecular Tetrad That Generates a High-Energy Charge-Separated State by Mimicking the Photosynthetic Z-Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favereau, Ludovic; Makhal, Abhinandan; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Petersson, Jonas; Göransson, Erik; Hammarström, Leif; Odobel, Fabrice

    2016-03-23

    The oxygenic photosynthesis of green plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria is the major provider of energy-rich compounds in the biosphere. The so-called "Z-scheme" is at the heart of this "engine of life". Two photosystems (photosystem I and II) work in series to build up a higher redox ability than each photosystem alone can provide, which is necessary to drive water oxidation into oxygen and NADP(+) reduction into NADPH with visible light. Here we show a mimic of the Z-scheme with a molecular tetrad. The tetrad Bodipy-NDI-TAPD-Ru is composed of two different dyes-4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (Bodipy) and a Ru(II)(bipyridine)3 (Ru) derivative-which are connected to a naphthalene diimide (NDI) electron acceptor and tetraalkylphenyldiamine (TAPD) playing the role of electron donor. A strong laser pulse excitation of visible light where the two dye molecules (Ru and Bodipy) absorb with equal probability leads to the cooperative formation of a highly energetic charge-separated state composed of an oxidized Bodipy and a reduced Ru. The latter state cannot be reached by one single-photon absorption. The energy of the final charge-separated state (oxidized Bodipy/reduced Ru) in the tetrad lies higher than that in the reference dyads (Bodipy-NDI and TAPD-Ru), leading to the energy efficiency of the tetrad being 47% of the sum of the photon threshold energies. Its lifetime was increased by several orders of magnitude compared to that in the reference dyads Bodipy-NDI and TAPD-Ru, as it passes from about 3 ns in each dyad to 850 ns in the tetrad. The overall quantum yield formation of this extended charge-separated state is estimated to be 24%. Our proof-of-concept result demonstrates the capability to translate a crucial photosynthetic energy conversion principle into man-made molecular systems for solar fuel formation, to obtain products of higher energy content than those produced by a single photon absorption.

  14. Charge- and Size-Selective Molecular Separation using Ultrathin Cellulose Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2016-08-30

    To date, it is still a challenge to prepare high-flux and highselectivity microporous membranes thinner than 20 nm without introducing defects. In this work, we report for the first time the application of cellulose membranes for selective separation of small molecules. A freestanding cellulose membrane as thin as 10 nm has been prepared through regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC). The freestanding membrane can be transferred to any desired substrate and shows a normalized flux as high as 700 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 when supported by a porous alumina disc. According to filtration experiments, the membrane exhibits precise size-sieving performances with an estimated pore size between 1.5–3.5 nm depending on the regeneration period and initial TMSC concentration. A perfect discrimination of anionic molecules over neutral species is demonstrated. Moreover, the membrane demonstrates high reproducibility, high scale-up potential, and excellent stability over two months.

  15. Elucidating the Ultrafast Dynamics of Photoinduced Charge Separation in Metalloporphyrin-Fullerene Dyads Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J.; Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Hirsch, A.

    2016-01-01

    Metalloporphyrins are prominent building blocks in the synthetic toolbox of advanced photodriven molecular devices. When the central ion is paramagnetic, the relaxation pathways within the manifold of excited states are highly intricate so that unravelling the intramolecular energy and electron...... transfer processes is usually a very complex task. This fact is critically hampering the development of applications based on the enhanced coupling offered by the electronic exchange interaction. In this work, the dynamics of charge separation in a copper porphyrin-fullerene are studied with several......, these results exemplify the potential of multielectron excitation features in transient X-ray spectra as future diagnostics of subfemtosecond electronic dynamics. From a practical point of view, this work is paving the way for elucidating out-of-equilibrium electron transfer events coupled to magnetic...

  16. Absence of carrier separation in ambipolar charge and spin drift in p{sup +}-GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Martinelli, L. [Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Arscott, S. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), Université de Lille, CNRS, Avenue Poincaré, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2015-10-19

    The electric field-induced modifications of the spatial distribution of photoelectrons, photoholes, and electronic spins in optically pumped p{sup +} GaAs are investigated using a polarized luminescence imaging microscopy. At low pump intensity, application of an electric field reveals the tail of charge and spin density of drifting electrons. These tails disappear when the pump intensity is increased since a slight differential drift of photoelectrons and photoholes causes the buildup of a strong internal electric field. Spatial separation of photoholes and photoelectrons is very weak so that photoholes drift in the same direction as photoelectrons, thus exhibiting a negative effective mobility. In contrast, for a zero electric field, no significant ambipolar diffusive effects are found in the same sample.

  17. Ordered, microphase-separated, noncharged-charged diblock copolymers via the sequential ATRP of styrene and styrenic imidazolium monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, ZX; Newell, BS; Bailey, TS; Gin, DL

    2014-12-15

    A series of imidazolium-based noncharged-charged diblock copolymers (1) was synthesized by the direct, sequential ATRP of styrene and styrenic imidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonamide monomers with methyl, n-butyl, and n-decyl side-chains. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on initial examples of 1 with a total of 50 repeat units and styrene:imidazolium-styrene repeat unit ratios of 25:25, 20:30, and 15:35 showed that their ability to form ordered nanostructures (i.e., sphere and cylinder phases) in their neat states depends on both the block ratio and the length of the alkyl side-chain on the imidazolium monomer. To our knowledge, the synthesis of imidazolium-based BCPs that form ordered, phase-separated nanostructures via direct ATRP of immiscible co-monomers is unprecedented. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-Scale Quantum Many-Body Perturbation on Spin and Charge Separation in the Excited States of the Synthesized Donor-Acceptor Hybrid PBI-Macrocycle Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2017-03-17

    The reliable calculation of the excited states of charge-transfer (CT) compounds poses a major challenge to the ab initio community because the frequently employed method, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), massively relies on the underlying density functional, resulting in heavily Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange-dependent excited-state energies. By applying the highly sophisticated many-body perturbation approach, we address the encountered unreliabilities and inconsistencies of not optimally tuned (standard) TD-DFT regarding photo-excited CT phenomena, and present results concerning accurate vertical transition energies and the correct energetic ordering of the CT and the first visible singlet state of a recently synthesized thermodynamically stable large hybrid perylene bisimide-macrocycle complex. This is a large-scale application of the quantum many-body perturbation approach to a chemically relevant CT system, demonstrating the system-size independence of the quality of the many-body-based excitation energies. Furthermore, an optimal tuning of the ωB97X hybrid functional can well reproduce the many-body results, making TD-DFT a suitable choice but at the expense of introducing a range-separation parameter, which needs to be optimally tuned. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Light-harvesting complex 1 stabilizes P+QB- charge separation in reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Francesco; Dezi, Manuela; Rebecchi, Alberto; Mallardi, Antonia; Palazzo, Gerardo; Melandri, Bruno Andrea; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2004-11-09

    The kinetics of charge recombination following photoexcitation by a laser pulse have been analyzed in the reaction center-light harvesting complex 1 (RC-LH1) purified from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In RC-LH1 core complexes isolated from photosynthetically grown cells P(+)Q(B)(-) recombines with an average rate constant, k approximately 0.3 s(-1), more than three times smaller than that measured in RC deprived of the LH1 (k approximately 1 s(-1)). A comparable, slowed recombination kinetics is observed in RC-LH1 complexes purified from a pufX-deleted strain. Slowing of the charge recombination kinetics is even more pronounced in RC-LH1 complexes isolated from wild-type semiaerobically grown cells (k approximately 0.2 s(-1)). Since the kinetics of P(+)Q(A)(-) recombination is unaffected by the presence of the antenna, the P(+)Q(B)(-) state appears to be energetically stabilized in core complexes. Determinations of the ubiquinone-10 (UQ(10)) complement associated with the purified RC-LH1 complexes always yield UQ(10)/RC ratios larger than 10. These quinone molecules are functionally coupled to the RC-LH1 complex, as judged from the extent of exogenous cytochrome c(2) rapidly oxidized under continuous light excitation. Analysis of P(+)Q(B)(-) recombination, based on a kinetic model which considers fast quinone equilibrium at the Q(B) binding site, indicates that the slowing down of charge recombination kinetics observed in RC-LH1 complexes cannot be explained solely by a quinone concentration effect and suggests that stabilization of the light-induced charge separation is predominantly due to interaction of the Q(B) site with the LH1 complex. The high UQ(10) complements detected in RC-LH1 core complexes, but not in purified light-harvesting complex 2 and in RC, are proposed to reflect an in vivo heterogeneity in the distribution of the quinone pool within the chromatophore bilayer.

  20. Two-terminal charge tunneling: Disentangling Majorana zero modes from partially separated Andreev bound states in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-04-01

    We show that a pair of overlapping Majorana bound states (MBSs) forming a partially separated Andreev bound state (ps-ABS) represents a generic low-energy feature in spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) hybrid nanowire in the presence of a Zeeman field. The ps-ABS interpolates continuously between the "garden variety" ABS, which consists of two MBSs sitting on top of each other, and the topologically protected Majorana zero modes (MZMs), which are separated by a distance given by the length of the wire. The really problematic ps-ABSs consist of component MBSs separated by a distance of the order of the characteristic Majorana decay length ξ , and have nearly zero energy in a significant range of control parameters, such as the Zeeman field and chemical potential, within the topologically trivial phase. Despite being topologically trivial, such ps-ABSs can generate signatures identical to MZMs in local charge tunneling experiments. In particular, the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) generated by ps-ABSs has the quantized value 2 e2/h , and it can remain unchanged in an extended range of experimental parameters, such as Zeeman field and the tunnel barrier height. We illustrate the formation of such low-energy robust ps-ABSs in two experimentally relevant situations: a hybrid SM-SC system consisting of a proximitized nanowire coupled to a quantum dot and the SM-SC system in the presence of a spatially varying inhomogeneous potential. We then show that, unlike local measurements, a two-terminal experiment involving charge tunneling at both ends of the wire is capable of distinguishing between the generic ps-ABSs and the non-Abelian MZMs. While the MZMs localized at the opposite ends of the wire generate correlated differential conduction spectra, including correlations in energy splittings and critical Zeeman fields associated with the emergence of the ZBCPs, such correlations are absent if the ZBCPs are due to ps-ABSs emerging in the

  1. Charge separation in branched TiO{sub 2} nanorod array homojunction aroused by quantum effect for enhanced photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxia [State Key Laboratory of Materials and Processing Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Wuhan 430062 (China); Ni, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Materials and Processing Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zeng, Dawen, E-mail: dwzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials and Processing Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liao, Guanglan [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xie, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Materials and Processing Die & Mould Technology, Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Charge separation in homojunction based on the broadened band gap by quantum effect. • Absolute charge separation by the passivation effect of TiO{sub 2} nanorod. • Long-distance electron transfer behavior in photocatalysis. • Roughed surface for enhanced light harvesting by light trapping effect. - Abstract: As known, the electron transfer behavior in photocatalysis is short-distance transportation, which leads the photo-induced electrons and holes to be localized. The temporarily separated electrons and holes will recombine with each other in the localized region. In this paper, we successfully achieved electron transfer in a homojunction of branched rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod @nanoparticle core-shell architecture by quantum confinement effect aroused by the nanoparticle, which is proved by the blue-shifting in UV–vis absorption spectrum of the homojunction. Meanwhile, an absolute charge separation is also achieved by the long-distance electron transfer along the single-crystalline rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod as uninterrupted high-speed electron transfer channel to FTO substrates. Based on the effective charge separation, the photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous benzene by the homojunction is significantly enhanced, yielding 10 times CO{sub 2} than that of the nanorod array. This homojunction interfacial charge separation, aroused by quantum effect, through long-distance transfer along the single-crystalline nanorod gives us inspiration to achieve efficient charge separation with defect-less interfaces, which might can be utilized for real-time environmental abatement and energy generation simultaneously.

  2. Charge separation relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s(NN)] = 2.76 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, S A; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Boyer, B; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Bugaiev, K; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, W; Carena, F; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, K; Das, I; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; Erasmo, G D; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanova, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jacobs, P M; Jang, H J; Janik, R; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jirden, L; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kakoyan, V; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, J S; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, T; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, B; Kim, S; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Korneev, A; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lazzeroni, C; Lea, R; Le Bornec, Y; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, K S; Lee, G R; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Ma, K; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Marin Tobon, C A; Markert, C; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Naumov, N P; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Pastirčák, B; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puchagin, S; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, B; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, P; Roy, C; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, S; Sharma, N; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, T; Sinha, B C; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strabykin, K; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sultanov, R; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szostak, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, J H; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Ovrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, V; Wagner, B; Wan, R; Wang, Y; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, M; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilk, A; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, Y; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhu, J; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-04

    Measurements of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations with the ALICE detector at the LHC are reported for Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s(NN)] = 2.76 TeV. Two- and three-particle charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 0.8 are presented as a function of the collision centrality, particle separation in pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum. A clear signal compatible with a charge-dependent separation relative to the reaction plane is observed, which shows little or no collision energy dependence when compared to measurements at RHIC energies. This provides a new insight for understanding the nature of the charge-dependent azimuthal correlations observed at RHIC and LHC energies.

  3. Theoretical investigation of the possibility of isotope separation during motion of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of a cylindrical capacitor and a linear current flowing along its axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirochkin, Yu. A.; Kirochkin, A. Yu.

    2007-10-01

    A characteristic feature of the trajectories of charges moving in constant axisymmetric radial electric and azimuthal magnetic fields, whose strengths are inversely proportional to the center from the symmetry axis is the exponential dependence of the turning points on the parameters of motion. This leads to a noticeable difference in the trajectories for isotope ions, which makes it possible to obtain a new method for their electromagnetic separation. The trajectories of isotopes being separated are studied theoretically. The conditions under which the trajectories are closed and form toroidal surfaces (storage vortex rings) have been determined earlier. These results are given for convenience in analyzing another problem, associated with the formation of such ionic toroidal vortex surfaces (stable in Wood’s sense) during a streak lightning discharge in the atmosphere (ball lightning model).

  4. Search for Stable and Long-Lived Massive Charged Particles in $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130-209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2003-01-01

    A search for stable and long-lived massive particles of electric charge |Q/e|=1 or fractional charges of 2/3, 4/3, and 5/3 is reported using data collected by the OPAL detector at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies from 130 to 209 GeV. These particles are assumed to be pair-produced in e+e- collisions and not to interact strongly. No evidence for the production of these particles was observed. Model-independent upper limits on the production cross-section between 0.005 and 0.028 pb have been derived for scalar and spin-1/2 particles with charge +-1. Within the framework of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), this implies a lower limit of 98.0 (98.5) GeV on the mass of long-lived right (left)- handed scalar muons and scalar taus. Long-lived charged heavy leptons and charginos are excluded for masses below 102.0 GeV. For particles with fractional charge +-2/3, +-4/3, and +-5/3, the upper limit on the production cross-section varies between 0.005 and 0.020 pb. All mass and cross-section l...

  5. The $1^{+}\\to n^{+}$ charge breeding method for the production of radioactive and stable continuous /pulsed multi-chargedion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N; Bouly, J L; Curdy, Jean Claude; Geller, R; Lamy, T; Solé, P; Sortais, P

    1999-01-01

    The principle of the 1+ -> n+ charge breeding method by injecting a mono-charged ion beam in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source is recalled. Some 1+ ->n+ breeding efficiencies in continuous mode are given, like 9% for Ar1+ ->Ar8+ and 5% for Rb1+->Rb15+. The global capture efficiency is deduced from the whole charge state distribution spectrum. The ECRIT (ECR Ion Trap) mode that allows to produce a pulsed multi-charged beam is explained. The n+ ions are extracted in a 20 ms pulse. The breeding-bunching efficiencies are measured for Rb1+->Rb15+ (2.2%) and Pb1+->Pb22+ (1.3 %). Ion trapping time in the ECRIT plasma is evaluated to some hundreds of ms. A new application of the 1+->n+ method is developed: the production of multi-charged natural metallic ions. First experiments have been done on uranium: a 500 nA continuous current of U26+ has been measured. Finally, the future developments on the 1+->n+ experiment are discussed. A description of a 1+ ->n+ dedicated high performance ECRIS named PHOENIX (Prod...

  6. Cyanobacterial flv4-2 Operon-Encoded Proteins Optimize Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhutsina, Volha; Bersanini, Luca; Aro, Eva-Mari; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) complexes drive the water-splitting reaction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. However, too much light can damage and disrupt PSII. In cyanobacteria, the flv4-2 operon encodes three proteins (Flv2, Flv4, and Sll0218), which safeguard PSII activity under air-level CO2 and in high light conditions. However, the exact mechanism of action of these proteins has not been clarified yet. We demonstrate that the PSII electron transfer properties are influenced by the flv4-2 operon-encoded proteins. Accelerated secondary charge separation kinetics was observed upon expression/overexpression of the flv4-2 operon. This is likely induced by docking of the Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer in the vicinity of the QB pocket of PSII, which, in turn, increases the QB redox potential and consequently stabilizes forward electron transfer. The alternative electron transfer route constituted by Flv2/Flv4 sequesters electrons from QB(-) guaranteeing the dissipation of excess excitation energy in PSII under stressful conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that in the absence of the flv4-2 operon-encoded proteins, about 20% of the phycobilisome antenna becomes detached from the reaction centers, thus decreasing light harvesting. Phycobilisome detachment is a consequence of a decreased relative content of PSII dimers, a feature observed in the absence of the Sll0218 protein. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design features and initial operation of a linear plasma device for the feasibility study of charge separation in curved magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K.S.; Kim, Seongcheol; Choi, Dahye; Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr; Hwang, Y.S.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An innovative divertor concept utilizing direct energy conversion is presented. • A linear plasma device have been designed and operated for study of charge separation. • Preliminary experiments show the possibility of charge separation with cusp magnetic field. • Parametric study considering loss of adiabaticity shows a good agreement with experiments. - Abstract: Mitigation of heat flux impinging on divertor plates is a critical engineering issue even for the fusion reactor adopting innovative super-X divertor. In this work, we are exploring the possibility for resolving this problem by converting a substantial portion of thermal energy of ions into electricity in front of the divertor plates. Since successful energy conversion is followed by the separation of electrons from the plasma, the rigorous investigation for the conditions of efficient charge separation is essential. Considering that the charge separation is affected by intricate relations between plasma density, drift velocity, Larmor radius, and field curvature, we have recently designed and constructed a new linear plasma device at Seoul National University for studying the feasibility of the charge separation by curved magnetic field. The device consists of the driving section including a typical electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source operating at 2.45 GHz wave frequency and the diffusion section where a cylindrical chamber is surrounded by a pair of solenoid coils for generating various curved magnetic field structures. The plasma density in the experimental region is measured to be around the middle of 10{sup 15} m{sup −3} for the optimum ECR field, depending on the gas pressure and microwave power. The preliminary results clearly show that the charged particles in the plasma with a density range of 10{sup 15} m{sup −3} can be separated quite well by an extremely slanted cusp magnetic field. We are planning to increase the microwave power to increase the plasma

  8. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  9. Search for stable and long-lived massive charged particles in $e^{+} e^{-}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130-183 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-01-01

    A search for stable and long-lived massive particles of electric charge |Q/e| = 1 or 2/3, pair-produced in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies from 130 to 183 GeV, is reported by the OPAL collaboration at LEP. No evidence for production of these particles was observed in a mass range between 45 and 89.5 GeV. Model-independent upper limits on the production cross-section between 0.05 and 0.19 pb have been derived for scalar and spin-1/2 particles with charge +/-1. Within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM), this implies a lower limit of 82.5 (83.5) GeV on the mass of long-lived right- (left-)handed scalar muons and scalar taus. Long-lived charged leptons and charginos are excluded for masses below 89.5 GeV. For particles with charge +/-2/3 the upper limits on the production cross-section vary between 0.05 and 0.2 pb. All limits, on masses and on cross-sections, are valid at the 95% confidence level for particles with lifetimes longer than 10^{-6} s.

  10. Search for magnetic monopoles and stable particles with high electric charges in 8 TeV $pp$ collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Mora, Jennifer; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Noordeh, Emil; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; 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Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-03-18

    A search for highly ionizing particles produced in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV center-of-mass energy is performed by the ATLAS collaboration at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 7.0 fb$^{-1}$. A customized trigger significantly increases the sensitivity, permitting a search for such particles with charges and energies beyond what was previously accessible. No event is found in the signal region, leading to production cross-section upper limits in the mass range 200--2500 GeV for magnetic monopoles with magnetic charge in the range $0.5g_{D}<|g|<2.0g_{D}$, where $g_{D}$ is the Dirac charge, and for stable particles with electric charge in the range $10<|z|<60$. Model-dependent limits are presented in given pair-production scenarios, and model-independent limits are presented in fiducial regions of particle energy and pseudorapidity.

  11. The application of the signal flow graph method to charged-particle optics - the formula derivation of a three-sector isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Zhao Zhiyong; Sun Quinren

    1987-01-01

    A brief introduction of the Signal Flow Graph (SFG) method is given. The application of it to charged-particle optics (CPO) is described. The method has the advantages of simplicity, visualisation and computerisation. An example of the application of SFG is given for the design of a three-sector electromagnetic isotope separator. (orig.)

  12. The application of the signal flow graph method to charged-particle optics: The formula derivation of a three-sector isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.; Zhao, Z.; Sun, Q.

    1987-01-01

    A brief introduction of the Signal Flow Graph (SFG) Method is given. The application of it to charged-particle optics (CPO) is described. The method has the advantages of simplicity, visualisation and computerisation. An example of the application of SFG is given for the design of a three-sector electromagnetic isotope separator

  13. Charge separation relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Festanti, Andrea; 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Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacobs, Peter; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jirden, Lennart; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kakoyan, Vanik; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Korneev, Andrey; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Naumov, Nikolay; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piuz, Francois; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puchagin, Sergey; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Pulvirenti, Alberto; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, Bartolomeu; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sano, Satoshi; Santo, Rainer; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schreiner, Steffen; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Siciliano, Melinda; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stefanini, Giorgio; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strabykin, Kirill; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sukhorukov, Mikhail; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Tosello, Flavio; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; van der Kolk, Naomi; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vikhlyantsev, Oleg; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vranic, Danilo; Øvrebekk, Gaute; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Dong; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Shiming; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-02

    Measurements of charge dependent azimuthal correlations with the ALICE detector at the LHC are reported for Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. Two- and three-particle charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in the pseudo-rapidity range $|\\eta | < 0.8$ are presented as a function of the collision centrality, particle separation in pseudo-rapidity, and transverse momentum. A clear signal compatible with the expectation of a charge-dependent separation relative to the reaction plane is observed, which shows little or no collision energy dependence when compared to measurements at RHIC energies. Models incorporating effects of local parity violation in strong interactions fail to describe the observed collision energy dependence.

  14. Stable co-existence of separate replicons in Escherichia coli is dependent on once-per-cell-cycle initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarstad, K.; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2003-01-01

    DNA replication in most organisms is regulated such that all chromosomes are replicated once, and only once, per cell cycle. In rapidly growing Escherichia coli, replication of eight identical chromosomes is initiated essentially simultanously, each from the same origin, oriC. Plasmid-borne ori......C sequences (mini-chromosomes) are also initiated in synchrony with the eight chromosomal origins. We demonstrate that specific inactivation of newly formed, hemimethylated origins (sequestration) was required for the stable coexistence of oriC-dependent replicons. Cells in which initiations were not confined...

  15. Heavy stable charged tracks as signatures of non-thermal dark matter at the LHC: a study in some non-supersymmetric scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Avirup; Mondal, Tanmoy; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    We consider two theoretical scenarios, each including a ℤ 2-odd sector and leading to an elementary dark matter candidate. The first one is a variant of the Type-III seesaw model where one lepton triplet is ℤ 2-odd, together with a heavy sterile neutrino. It leads to a fermionic dark matter, together with the charged component of the triplet being a quasi-stable particle which decays only via a higher-dimensional operator suppressed by a high scale. The second model consists of an inert scalar doublet together with a ℤ 2-odd right-handed Majorana neutrino dark matter. A tiny Yukawa coupling delays the decay of the charged component of the inert doublet into the dark matter candidate, making the former long-lived on the scale of collider detectors. The parameter space of each model has been constrained by big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints, and also by estimating the contribution to the relic density through freeze-out of the long-lived charged particle as well the freeze-in production of the dark matter candidate. We consider two kinds of signals at the Large Hadron Collider for each case. For the first kind of models, namely two charged tracks and single track [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and for the second kind, the characteristic signals are opposite as well as same-sign charged track pairs. We perform a detailed analysis using event selection criteria consistent with the current experimental programmes. It is found that the scenario with a lepton triplet can be probed upto 960 (1190) GeV with an integrated luminosity of 300 (3000) fb-1, while the corresponding numbers for the inert doublet scenario are 630 (800) GeV. Furthermore, the second kind of signal mentioned in each case allows us to differentiate different dark matter scenarios from each other.

  16. Search for Stable Heavy Charged Particles in $e^+ e^-$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130-136, 161 and 172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chernyaev, E; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1997-01-01

    A search for stable or long-lived heavy charged particles in $e^+e^-$ interactions at energies of 130-136, 161 and 172 GeV has been performed using the data taken by the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The search is based on particle identification provided by the Time Projection Chamber and the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. Upper limits at 95\\% confidence level are derived on the cross-section for heavy long-lived pair-produced charge $\\pm e$ and $\\pm 2/3e$ particles in the range of 0.4-2.3 pb for masses from 45 to 84 GeV/$c^2$. Within supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, long-lived charginos with masses from 45 to 84 (80)~GeV/$c^2$ for high (low) sneutrino masses can be excluded at 95\\% confidence level. %Mass limits for long-lived sleptons are obtained. %For selectrons no general mass limits can be given. Left-handed (right-handed) long-lived or stable smuons and staus with masses between 45 and 68 (65)~GeV/$c^2$ can be excluded at 95\\% confidence level.

  17. Development of acid stable, hyper-crosslinked, silica-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography supports for the separation of organic bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lianjia; Luo, Hao; Dai, Jun; Carr, Peter W

    2006-05-05

    A new generation of extremely acid stable "hyper-crosslinked" (HC) phases have been developed with good plate counts for basic drug separations. In our previous work, we successfully developed an approach for synthesizing HC stationary phases on silica substrates using aluminum trichloride catalyzed Friedel-Crafts (F-C) chemistry to improve the stability of silica-based RPLC stationary phases at low pH. However, the performance of basic analytes on these HC phases under acidic conditions was unusually poor compared to that of conventional silica-based C18 phases. The effects of the specific F-C catalysts used and the specific silica substrate on the chromatographic properties of HC phases have been studied. Modified synthetic strategies that give both good observed plate counts for basic analytes under acidic conditions and very good low pH stability without compromising other chromatographic properties of the hyper-crosslinked phases have been developed. Replacement of aluminum trichloride with tin tetrachloride as the catalyst for the F-C chemistry and use of a very high purity silica result in significantly improved plate counts for basic analytes. In formic acid buffered mobile phases, which are highly compatible with electrospray ionization LC-MS, basic analytes showed much better performance on the tin tetrachloride catalyzed HC phases than on any conventional commercial phase tested. The tin tetrachloride catalyzed HC phase is as stable as the original aluminum trichloride catalyzed HC phases, and much more stable than the bench mark acid stable commercial phase.

  18. Long-Lived Photoinduced Charge Separation in a Trinuclear Iron-μ 3 -oxo-based Metal–Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Lauren [Department; Kucheryavy, Pavel [Department; Liu, Cunming [X-ray; Zhang, Xiaoyi [X-ray; Lockard, Jenny V. [Department

    2017-06-14

    The presence of long-lived charge-separated excited states in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can enhance their photocatalytic activity by decreasing the probability that photogenerated electrons and holes recombine before accessing adsorbed reactants. Detecting these charge separated states via optical transient absorption, however, can be challenging when they lack definitive optical signatures. Here, we investigate the long-lived excited state of a MOF with such vague optical properties, MIL-100(Fe), comprised of Fe3-μ3-oxo clusters and trimesic acid linkers using Fe K-edge X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy, to unambiguously determine its ligand-to-metal charge transfer character. Spectra measured at time delays up to 3.6 μs confirm the long lived nature of the charge separated excited state. Several trinuclear iron μ3- oxo carboxylate complexes, which model the trinuclear cores of the MOF structure, are measured for comparison using both steady state XAS and XTA to further support this assignment and corresponding decay time. The MOF is prepared as a colloidal nanoparticle suspension for these measurements so both its fabrication and particle size analysis are presented, as well.

  19. Final Technical Report for the Energy Frontier Research Center Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (EFRC:CST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Bout, David A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Our EFRC was founded with the vision of creating a broadly collaborative and synergistic program that would lead to major breakthroughs in the molecular-level understanding of the critical interfacial charge separation and charge transfer (CST) processes that underpin the function of candidate materials for organic photovoltaic (OPV) and electrical-energy-storage (EES) applications. Research in these energy contexts shares an imposing challenge: How can we understand charge separation and transfer mechanisms in the presence of immense materials complexity that spans multiple length scales? To address this challenge, our 50-member Center undertook a total of 28 coordinated research projects aimed at unraveling the CST mechanisms that occur at interfaces in these nanostructured materials. This rigorous multi-year study of CST interfaces has greatly illuminated our understanding of early-timescale processes (e.g., exciton generation and dissociation dynamics at OPV heterojunctions; control of Li+-ion charging kinetics by surface chemistry) occurring in the immediate vicinity of interfaces. Program outcomes included: training of 72 graduate student and postdoctoral energy researchers at 5 institutions and spanning 7 academic disciplines in science and engineering; publication of 94 peer-reviewed journal articles; and dissemination of research outcomes via 340 conference, poster and other presentations. Major scientific outcomes included: implementation of a hierarchical strategy for understanding the electronic communication mechanisms and ultimate fate of charge carriers in bulk heterojunction OPV materials; systematic investigation of ion-coupled electron transfer processes in model Li-ion battery electrode/electrolyte systems; and the development and implementation of 14 unique technologies and instrumentation capabilities to aid in probing sub-ensemble charge separation and transfer mechanisms.

  20. Transient and modulated charge separation at CuInSe{sub 2}/C{sub 60} and CuInSe{sub 2}/ZnPc hybrid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzé, Natascha von, E-mail: natascha.von_morze@helmholtz-berlin.de; Dittrich, Thomas, E-mail: dittrich@helmholtz-berlin.de; Calvet, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.calvet@helmholtz-berlin.de; Lauermann, Iver, E-mail: iver.lauermann@helmholtz-berlin.de; Rusu, Marin, E-mail: rusu@helmholtz-berlin.de

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Surface physical properties of non- and Na-treated CuInSe{sub 2} layers studied. • Evidence of exciton dissociation and charge separation at CuInSe{sub 2}/ZnPc interface. • Strong band bending at the CuInSe{sub 2} surface in contact with C{sub 60} observed. • No evidence for exciton dissociation at the CuInSe{sub 2}/C{sub 60} interface found. • Cu-poor phase at CuInSe{sub 2}/organic interface crucial for charge separation. - Abstract: Spectral dependent charge transfer and exciton dissociation have been investigated at hybrid interfaces between inorganic polycrystalline CuInSe{sub 2} (untreated and Na-conditioned) thin films and organic C{sub 60} as well as zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layers by transient and modulated surface photovoltage measurements. The stoichiometry and electronic properties of the bare CuInSe{sub 2} surface were characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy which revealed a Cu-poor phase with n-type features. After the deposition of the C{sub 60} layer, a strong band bending at the CuInSe{sub 2} surface was observed. Evidence for dissociation of excitons followed by charge separation was found at the CuInSe{sub 2}/ZnPc interface. The Cu-poor layer at the CuInSe{sub 2} surface was found to be crucial for transient and modulated charge separation at CuInSe{sub 2}/organic hybrid interfaces.

  1. Basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies come from positive-negative charge separation caused by gravitation of quasi-Casimir pressure in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure. f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The macro-f QF T is the statistic average pressure collided by net virtual neutrinos ν 0 flux (after self-offset in opposite directions) and in direct proportion to the mass. But micro-f QF T is in direct proportion to the scattering section. The electric mass (in inverse proportion to de Broglie wavelength λ) far less than nucleonic mass and the electric scattering section (in direct proportion to λ2 ) far large than that of nucleon, then the net ν 0 flux pressure exerted to electron far large than that to nucleon and the electric displacement far large than that of nucleon, it causes the gravitational polarization of positive-negative charge center separation. Because the gravity far less than the electromagnetic binding force, in atoms the gravitational polarization only produces a little separation. But the net ν 0 flux can press a part freedom electrons in plasma of ionosphere into the earth's surface, the static electric force of redundant positive ions prevents electrons from further

  2. Separation of 3′-sialyllactose and lactose by nanofiltration: A trade-off between charge repulsion and pore swelling induced by high pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Separation of 3′-sialyllactose (SL) and lactose is an essential final step for the production of the next generation of infant formulas containing sialyllated prebiotics. Due to the difference in molecular weight (MW) between SL and lactose and the charge density of SL, nanofiltration could provide...... a rapid, inexpensive alternative for the separation of SL and lactose compared to traditional chromatography. The performance of four commercial nanofiltration membranes (NF45, DSS-ETNA01PP, NTR-7540 and NP010) for the separation of SL and lactose was assessed at various pH. The difference in retention...... between SL and lactose was only significant in the NP010 and NTR-7450 membranes, whereas the NF45 and DSS ETNA01PP membranes exhibited either too high lactose retention (i.e. insufficient separation) or too low SL retention (i.e. losing the target SL compound), respectively. Operation at increased pH did...

  3. Chemical physics behind formation of efficient charge-separated state for complexation between PC70BM and designed diporphyrin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anamika; Banerjee, Shrabanti; Ghosh, Shalini; Bauri, Ajoy K; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2016-01-05

    The present work reports supramolecular interaction of [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) with two designed diporphyrin molecules having dithiophene (1) and carbazole (2) spacer in solvent having varying polarity. Studies on complex formation reveal relatively higher binding constant for PC70BM/2 complex in all the solvent studied. Solvent dependence of charge separation and charge recombination processes in PC70BM/diporphyrin non-covalent complexes has been well established in present work. Donor-acceptor geometry and stabilization of the singlet excited state of the diporphyrin during charge recombination are considered to be the possible reasons for this behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamical mechanism of charge separation by photoexcited generation of proton–electron pairs in organic molecular systems. A nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Kentaro, E-mail: kyamamoto@fukui.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Takatsuka, Kazuo, E-mail: kaztak@fukui.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2016-08-22

    Graphical abstract: Asymptotic biradical state produced by the excited-state coupled proton–electron transfer (CPET), resulting in charge separation (proton–electron pair creation) on a proton–electron acceptor A, in a series of photochemical systems generally denoted as X–Mn–OH{sub 2}⋯A, where X = (OH, Ca(OH){sub 3}) and A = (N-methylformamidine, guanidine, imidazole, or ammonia clusters). - Abstract: In this perspective article, we review, along with presenting new results, a series of our theoretical analyses on the excited-state mechanism of charge separation (proton–electron pair creation) relevant to the photoinduced water-splitting reaction (2H{sub 2}O → 4H{sup +} + 4e{sup −} + O{sub 2}) in organic and biological systems, which quite often includes Mn clusters in various molecular configurations. The present mechanism is conceived to be universal in the triggering process of the photoexcited water splitting dynamics. In other words, any Mn-based catalytic charge separation is quite likely to be initiated according to this mechanism. As computationally tractable yet realistic models, we examine a series of systems generally expressed as X–Mn–OH{sub 2}⋯A, where X = (OH, Ca(OH){sub 3}) and A = (N-methylformamidine, guanidine, imidazole or ammonia cluster) in terms of the theory of nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics. We first find both an electron and a proton are simultaneously transferred to the acceptors through conical intersections upon photoexcitation. In this mechanism, the electron takes different pathways from that of the proton and reaches the densely lying Rydberg-like states of the acceptors in the end, thereby inducing charge separation. Therefore the presence of the Rydberg-like diffused unoccupied states as an electron acceptor is critical for this reaction to proceed. We also have found another crucial nonadiabatic process that deteriorates the efficiency of charge separation by rendering the created pair of proton

  5. Effect of different photoanode nanostructures on the initial charge separation and electron injection process in dye sensitized solar cells: A photophysical study with indoline dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idígoras, Jesús [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Sobuś, Jan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jancelewicz, Mariusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Azaceta, Eneko; Tena-Zaera, Ramon [Materials Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Paseo Miramón 196, Donostia-San Sebastián, 20009 (Spain); Anta, Juan A. [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Ziółek, Marcin, E-mail: marziol@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Ultrafast and fast charge separation processes were investigated for complete cells based on several ZnO-based photoanode nanostructures and standard TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers sensitized with the indoline dye coded D358. Different ZnO morphologies (nanoparticles, nanowires, mesoporous), synthesis methods (hydrothermal, gas-phase, electrodeposition in aqueous media and ionic liquid media) and coatings (ZnO–ZnO core–shell, ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell) were measured by transient absorption techniques in the time scale from 100 fs to 100 μs and in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. All of ZnO cells show worse electron injection yields with respect to those with standard TiO{sub 2} material. Lower refractive index of ZnO than that of TiO{sub 2} is suggested to be an additional factor, not considered so far, that can decrease the performance of ZnO-based solar cells. Evidence of the participation of the excited charge transfer state of the dye in the charge separation process is provided here. The lifetime of this state in fully working devices extends from several ps to several tens of ps, which is much longer than the typically postulated electron injection times in all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells. The results here provided, comprising a wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods, point to the universality of the poor performance of ZnO as photoanode material with respect to standard TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods has been checked for ZnO cells. • All ZnO cells work worse than TiO{sub 2} ones. • Effective refractive index might be an additional factor in solar cell performance. • Excited charge transfer state of indoline dyes participates in the charge separation.

  6. Charge-transfer excitations in low-gap systems under the influence of solvation and conformational disorder: Exploring range-separation tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Thiago B. de, E-mail: thiago.branquinho-de-queiroz@uni-bayreuth.de; Kümmel, Stephan [Theoretical Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-08-28

    Charge transfer excitations play a prominent role in the fields of molecular electronics and light harvesting. At the same time they have developed a reputation for being hard to predict with time-dependent density functional theory, which is the otherwise predominant method for calculating molecular structure and excitations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that range-separated hybrid functionals, in particular with an “optimally tuned” range separation parameter, describe charge-transfer excitations reliably for different molecules. Many of these studies focused on molecules in vacuum. Here we investigate the influence of solvation on the electronic excitations of thiophene oligomers, i.e., paradigm low gap systems. We take into account bulk solvation using a continuum solvation model and geometrical distortions from molecular dynamics. From our study, three main findings emerge. First, geometrical distortions increase absorption energies by about 0.5 eV for the longer thiophene oligomers. Second, combining optimal tuning of the range separation parameter with a continuum solvation method is not straightforward and has to be approached with great care. Third, optimally tuned range-separated hybrids without a short-range exchange component tend to inherit undesirable characteristics of semi-local functionals: with increasing system size the range separation parameter takes a smaller value, leading to a functional of effectively more semi-local nature and thus not accurately capturing, e.g., the saturation of the optical gap with increasing system size.

  7. Charge-transfer excitations in low-gap systems under the influence of solvation and conformational disorder: Exploring range-separation tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Thiago B. de; Kümmel, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Charge transfer excitations play a prominent role in the fields of molecular electronics and light harvesting. At the same time they have developed a reputation for being hard to predict with time-dependent density functional theory, which is the otherwise predominant method for calculating molecular structure and excitations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that range-separated hybrid functionals, in particular with an “optimally tuned” range separation parameter, describe charge-transfer excitations reliably for different molecules. Many of these studies focused on molecules in vacuum. Here we investigate the influence of solvation on the electronic excitations of thiophene oligomers, i.e., paradigm low gap systems. We take into account bulk solvation using a continuum solvation model and geometrical distortions from molecular dynamics. From our study, three main findings emerge. First, geometrical distortions increase absorption energies by about 0.5 eV for the longer thiophene oligomers. Second, combining optimal tuning of the range separation parameter with a continuum solvation method is not straightforward and has to be approached with great care. Third, optimally tuned range-separated hybrids without a short-range exchange component tend to inherit undesirable characteristics of semi-local functionals: with increasing system size the range separation parameter takes a smaller value, leading to a functional of effectively more semi-local nature and thus not accurately capturing, e.g., the saturation of the optical gap with increasing system size

  8. Charge Separation in Intermixed Polymer:PC70BM Photovoltaic Blends: Correlating Structural and Photophysical Length Scales as a Function of Blend Composition

    KAUST Repository

    Utzat, Hendrik

    2017-04-24

    A key challenge in achieving control over photocurrent generation by bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is understanding how the morphology of the active layer impacts charge separation and in particular the separation dynamics within molecularly intermixed donor-acceptor domains versus the dynamics between phase-segregated domains. This paper addresses this issue by studying blends and devices of the amorphous silicon-indacenodithiophene polymer SiIDT-DTBT and the acceptor PCBM. By changing the blend composition, we modulate the size and density of the pure and intermixed domains on the nanometer length scale. Laser spectroscopic studies show that these changes in morphology correlate quantitatively with the changes in charge separation dynamics on the nanosecond time scale and with device photocurrent densities. At low fullerene compositions, where only a single, molecularly intermixed polymer-fullerene phase is observed, photoexcitation results in a ∼ 30% charge loss from geminate polaron pair recombination, which is further studied via light intensity experiments showing that the radius of the polaron pairs in the intermixed phase is 3-5 nm. At high fullerene compositions (≥67%), where the intermixed domains are 1-3 nm and the pure fullerene phases reach ∼4 nm, the geminate recombination is suppressed by the reduction of the intermixed phase, making the fullerene domains accessible for electron escape.

  9. Investigating the Relationship Between Soil Water Mobility and Stable Isotope Composition with Implications for the Ecohydrologic Separation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, J.; McNamara, J. P.; Benner, S. G.; Kohn, M. J.; Evans, S.

    2017-12-01

    The ecohydrologic separation (ES) hypothesis states that streams and plants return different soil water compartments to the atmosphere and that these compartments bear distinct isotopic compositions that can be used to infer soil water mobility. Recent studies have found isotopic evidence for ES in a variety of ecosystems, though interpretations of these data vary. ES investigations frequently suffer from low sampling frequencies as well as incomplete or missing soil moisture and matric potential data to support assumptions of soil water mobility. We sampled bulk soil water every 2-3 weeks in the upper 1 m of a hillslope profile from May 2016 to July 2017 in a semi-arid watershed outside Boise, ID. Twig samples of three plant species were also collected concurrently. Plant and soil water samples extracted via cryogenic vacuum distillation were analyzed for δ2H and δ18O composition. Soil moisture and soil matric potential sensors were installed at five and four depths in the profile, respectively. Shallow bulk soil water was progressively enriched in both isotopes over the growing season and plotted along a soil evaporation line in a plot of δ2H versus δ18O. Plant water during the growing season plotted below both the Local Meteoric Water Line and soil evaporation line. Plant water isotopic composition could not be traced to any source sampled in this study. Additionally, soil moisture and matric potential data revealed that soils were well-drained and that mobile soil water was unavailable throughout most of the growing season at the depths sampled. Soil water isotopic composition alone failed to predict mobility as observed in soil moisture and matric potential data. These results underscore the need for standard hydrologic definitions for the mobile and immobile compartments of soil water in future studies of the ES hypothesis and ecohydrologic processes in general.

  10. From Recombination Dynamics to Device Performance: Quantifying the Efficiency of Exciton Dissociation, Charge Separation, and Extraction in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Fluorine-Substituted Polymer Donors

    KAUST Repository

    Gorenflot, Julien

    2017-09-28

    An original set of experimental and modeling tools is used to quantify the yield of each of the physical processes leading to photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, enabling evaluation of materials and processing condition beyond the trivial comparison of device performances. Transient absorption spectroscopy, “the” technique to monitor all intermediate states over the entire relevant timescale, is combined with time-delayed collection field experiments, transfer matrix simulations, spectral deconvolution, and parametrization of the charge carrier recombination by a two-pool model, allowing quantification of densities of excitons and charges and extrapolation of their kinetics to device-relevant conditions. Photon absorption, charge transfer, charge separation, and charge extraction are all quantified for two recently developed wide-bandgap donor polymers: poly(4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PBDT[2F]T) and its nonfluorinated counterpart poly(4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-3,4-thiophene) (PBDT[2H]T) combined with PC71BM in bulk heterojunctions. The product of these yields is shown to agree well with the devices\\' external quantum efficiency. This methodology elucidates in the specific case studied here the origin of improved photocurrents obtained when using PBDT[2F]T instead of PBDT[2H]T as well as upon using solvent additives. Furthermore, a higher charge transfer (CT)-state energy is shown to lead to significantly lower energy losses (resulting in higher VOC) during charge generation compared to P3HT:PCBM.

  11. High reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a poly(4-vinyl phenol) charge trapping layer based on a pn-heterojunction active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Lanyi; Ying, Jun; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Letian, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Wei, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this letter, we demonstrate a high reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based nonvolatile memory (NVM) with a polymer poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) as the charge trapping layer. In the unipolar OFETs, the inreversible shifts of the turn-on voltage (V{sub on}) and severe degradation of the memory window (ΔV{sub on}) at programming (P) and erasing (E) voltages, respectively, block their application in NVMs. The obstacle is overcome by using a pn-heterojunction as the active layer in the OFET memory, which supplied a holes and electrons accumulating channel at the supplied P and E voltages, respectively. Both holes and electrons transferring from the channels to PVP layer and overwriting the trapped charges with an opposite polarity result in the reliable bidirectional shifts of V{sub on} at P and E voltages, respectively. The heterojunction OFET exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory characteristics, with a large ΔV{sub on} of 8.5 V, desired reading (R) voltage at 0 V, reliable P/R/E/R dynamic endurance over 100 cycles and a long retention time over 10 years.

  12. Preliminary results from a microvolume, dynamically heated analytical column for preconcentration and separation of simple gases prior to stable isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Robert James; Seed, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stable isotope applications that call for preconcentration (i.e., greenhouse gas measurements, small carbonate samples, etc.) universally call for cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen, dry ice slurries, or expensive external recirculation chillers. This adds significant complexity, first and foremost in the requirements to store and handle such dangerous materials. A second layer of complexity is the instrument itself - with mechanisms to physically move either coolant around the trap, or move a trap in or out of the coolant. Not to mention design requirements for hardware that can safely isolate the fluid from other sensitive areas. In an effort to simplify the isotopic analysis of gases requiring preconcentration, we have developed a new separation technology, UltiTrapTM (patent pending), which leverage's the proprietary Advanced Purge & Trap (APT) Technology employed in elemental analysers from Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH products. UltiTrapTM has been specially developed as a micro volume, dynamically heated GC separation column. The introduction of solid-state cooling technology enables sub-zero temperatures without cryogenics or refrigerants, eliminates all moving parts, and increases analytical longevity due to no boiling losses of coolant . This new technology makes it possible for the system to be deployed as both a focussing device and as a gas separation device. Initial data on synthetic gas mixtures (CO2/CH4/N2O in air), and real-world applications including long-term room air and a comparison between carbonated waters of different origins show excellent agreement with previous technologies.

  13. Enhanced Charge Separation in Ternary P3HT/PCBM/CuInS2 Nanocrystals Hybrid Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrançois, Aurélie; Luszczynska, Beata; Pepin-Donat, Brigitte; Lombard, Christian; Bouthinon, Benjamin; Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Gromova, Marina; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pouget, Stéphanie; Chandezon, Frédéric; Sadki, Saïd; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Geminate recombination of bound polaron pairs at the donor/acceptor interface is one of the major loss mechanisms in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. One way to overcome Coulomb attraction between opposite charge carriers and to achieve their full dissociation is the introduction of high

  14. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Separation and Online Characterization of Intact Monoclonal Antibody Charge Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Lamp, Jared; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yingru

    2018-02-06

    We report a new online capillary isoelectric focusing-mass spectrometry (CIEF-MS) method for monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variant analysis using an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray ion source and a time-of-flight MS with pressure-assisted chemical mobilization. To develop a successful, reliable CIEF-MS method for mAb, we have selected and optimized many critical, interrelating reagents and parameters that include (1) MS-friendly anolyte and catholyte; (2) a glycerol enhanced sample mixture that reduced non-CIEF electrophoretic mobility and band broadening; (3) ampholyte selected for balancing resolution and MS sensitivity; (4) sheath liquid composition optimized for efficient focusing, mobilization, and electrospray ionization; (5) judiciously selected CIEF running parameters including injection amount, field strength, and applied pressure. The fundamental premise of CIEF was well maintained as verified by the linear correlation (R 2 = 0.99) between pI values and migration time using a mixture of pI markers. In addition, the charge variant profiles of trastuzumab, bevacizumab, infliximab, and cetuximab, obtained using this CIEF-MS method, were corroborated by imaged CIEF-UV (iCIEF-UV) analyses. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of absolute migration time of pI markers were all less than 5% (n = 4). Triplicate analyses of bevacizumab showed RSD less than 1% for relative migration time to an internal standard and RSD of 7% for absolute MS peak area. Moreover, the antibody charge variants were characterized using the online intact MS data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that direct online MS detection and characterization were achieved for mAb charge variants resolved by CIEF as indicated by a well-established linear pH gradient and correlated CIEF-UV charge variant profiles.

  15. Highly-efficient charge separation and polaron delocalization in polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunctions: a comparative multi-frequency EPR and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L; Banks, Brian P; Grooms, Gregory M; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G

    2013-06-28

    The ongoing depletion of fossil fuels has led to an intensive search for additional renewable energy sources. Solar-based technologies could provide sufficient energy to satisfy the global economic demands in the near future. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are the most promising man-made devices for direct solar energy utilization. Understanding the charge separation and charge transport in PV materials at a molecular level is crucial for improving the efficiency of the solar cells. Here, we use light-induced EPR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations to study the electronic structure of charge separated states in blends of polymers (P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7) and fullerene derivatives (C60-PCBM and C70-PCBM). Solar cells made with the same composites as active layers show power conversion efficiencies of 3.3% (P3HT), 6.1% (PCDTBT), and 7.3% (PTB7), respectively. Upon illumination of these composites, two paramagnetic species are formed due to photo-induced electron transfer between the conjugated polymer and the fullerene. They are the positive, P(+), and negative, P(-), polarons on the polymer backbone and fullerene cage, respectively, and correspond to radical cations and radical anions. Using the high spectral resolution of high-frequency EPR (130 GHz), the EPR spectra of these species were resolved and principal components of the g-tensors were assigned. Light-induced pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy allowed the determination of (1)H hyperfine coupling constants of photogenerated positive and negative polarons. The experimental results obtained for the different polymer-fullerene composites have been compared with DFT calculations, revealing that in all three systems the positive polaron is distributed over distances of 40-60 Å on the polymer chain. This corresponds to about 15 thiophene units for P3HT, approximately three units for PCDTBT, and about three to four units for PTB7. No spin density delocalization between neighboring fullerene molecules was detected by EPR

  16. Highly-Efficient Charge Separation and Polaron Delocalization in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunctions: A Comparative Multi-Frequency EPR & DFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L.; Banks, Brian P.; Grooms, Gregory M.; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing depletion of fossil fuels has led to an intensive search for additional renewable energy sources. Solar-based technologies could provide sufficient energy to satisfy the global economic demands in the near future. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are the most promising man-made devices for direct solar energy utilization. Understanding the charge separation and charge transport in PV materials at a molecular level is crucial for improving the efficiency of the solar cells. Here, we use light-induced EPR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations to study the electronic structure of charge separated states in blends of polymers (P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7) and fullerene derivatives (C60-PCBM and C70-PCBM). Solar cells made with the same composites as active layers show power conversion efficiencies of 3.3% (P3HT), 6.1% (PCDTBT), and 7.3% (PTB7), respectively. Under illumination of these composites, two paramagnetic species are formed due to photo-induced electron transfer between the conjugated polymer and the fullerene. They are the positive, P+, and negative, P-, polarons on the polymer backbone and fullerene cage, respectively, and correspond to radical cations and radical anions. Using the high spectral resolution of high-frequency EPR (130 GHz), the EPR spectra of these species were resolved and principal components of the g-tensors were assigned. Light-induced pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy allowed the determination of 1H hyperfine coupling constants of photogenerated positive and negative polarons. The experimental results obtained for the different polymer-fullerene composites have been compared with DFT calculations, revealing that in all three systems the positive polaron is distributed over distances of 40 - 60 Å on the polymer chain. This corresponds to about 15 thiophene units for P3HT, approximately three units PCDTBT, and about three to four units for PTB7. No spin density delocalization between neighboring fullerene molecules was detected by EPR. Strong

  17. Dynamical mechanism of charge separation by photoexcited generation of proton-electron pairs in organic molecular systems. A nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    In this perspective article, we review, along with presenting new results, a series of our theoretical analyses on the excited-state mechanism of charge separation (proton-electron pair creation) relevant to the photoinduced water-splitting reaction (2H2O → 4H+ + 4e- + O2) in organic and biological systems, which quite often includes Mn clusters in various molecular configurations. The present mechanism is conceived to be universal in the triggering process of the photoexcited water splitting dynamics. In other words, any Mn-based catalytic charge separation is quite likely to be initiated according to this mechanism. As computationally tractable yet realistic models, we examine a series of systems generally expressed as X-Mn-OH2⋯A, where X = (OH, Ca(OH)3) and A = (N-methylformamidine, guanidine, imidazole or ammonia cluster) in terms of the theory of nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics. We first find both an electron and a proton are simultaneously transferred to the acceptors through conical intersections upon photoexcitation. In this mechanism, the electron takes different pathways from that of the proton and reaches the densely lying Rydberg-like states of the acceptors in the end, thereby inducing charge separation. Therefore the presence of the Rydberg-like diffused unoccupied states as an electron acceptor is critical for this reaction to proceed. We also have found another crucial nonadiabatic process that deteriorates the efficiency of charge separation by rendering the created pair of proton and electron back to the originally donor site through the states of d-d band originated from Mn atom. Repetition of this process gradually annihilates the created pair of proton and electron in a way different from the usual charge recombination process. We address this dynamics by means of our proposed path-branching representation. The dynamical roles of a doped Ca atom are also uncovered, which are relevant to controlling the pathways of electron

  18. Efficient charge separation based on type-II g-C3N4/TiO2-B nanowire/tube heterostructure photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Xie, Yinghao; Sun, Xiaoqin; Lv, Meilin; Wu, Fangfang; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-08-07

    Separation of photo-generated charges has played a crucial role in controlling the actual performance of a photocatalytic system. Here we have successfully fabricated g-C3N4/TiO2-B nanowire/tube heterostructures through facile urea degradation reactions. Owing to the effective separation of photo-generated charges associated with the type-II band alignment and intimate interfacial contacts between g-C3N4 and TiO2-B nanowires/tubes, such heterostructures demonstrate an improved photocatalytic activity over individual moieties. Synthetic conditions such as hydrothermal temperatures for the preparation of TiO2-B and the weight ratio of TiO2-B to urea were systematically investigated. A high crystallinity of TiO2-B as well as the proper growth of g-C3N4 on its surface are critical factors for a better performance. Our simple synthetic method and the prolonged lifetime of photo-generated charges signify the importance of type-II heterostructures in the photocatalytic applications.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Ultrafine Hematite Nanowire Arrays in Mixed Water-Ethanol-Acetic Acid Solution for Enhanced Charge Transport and Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Menglong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Penghui; Su, Jinzhan; Guo, Liejin

    2018-04-03

    Nanostructure engineering is of great significance for semiconductor electrode to achieve high photoelectrochemical performance. Herein, we report a novel strategy to fabricate ultrafine hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanowire arrays in a mixed water-ethanol-acetic acid (WEA) solvent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on direct growth of ultrafine (∼10 nm) α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire arrays on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates through solution-based fabrication process. The effect of WEA ratio on the morphology of nanowires has been systematically studied to understand the formation mechanism. Photoelectrochemical measurements were conducted on both Ti-treated α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire and nanorod photoelectrodes. It reveals that α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire electrode has higher photocurrent and charge separation efficiencies than nanorod electrode if the carrier concentration and space-charge carrier width are in the same order of magnitude. Normalized by electrochemically active surface area, the Ti-treated α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire electrode obtains 6.4 times higher specific photocurrent density than nanorod electrode. This superiority of nanowires arises from the higher bulk and surface charge separation efficiencies, which could be partly attributed to reduced distance that holes must transfer to reach the semiconductor-liquid junction.

  20. Superconductivity Emerging from an Electronic Phase Separation in the Charge Ordered Phase of RbFe_{2}As_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, E; Moroni, M; Babij, M; Bukowski, Z; Carretta, P

    2016-11-18

    ^{75}As, ^{87}Rb, and ^{85}Rb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and ^{87}Rb nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in a RbFe_{2}As_{2} iron-based superconductor are presented. We observe a marked broadening of the ^{75}As NQR spectrum below T_{0}≃140  K which is associated with the onset of a charge order in the FeAs planes. Below T_{0} we observe a power-law decrease in the ^{75}As nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate down to T^{*}≃20  K. Below T^{*} the nuclei start to probe different dynamics owing to the different local electronic configurations induced by the charge order. A fraction of the nuclei probes spin dynamics associated with electrons approaching a localization while another fraction probes activated dynamics possibly associated with a pseudogap. These different trends are discussed in light of an orbital selective behavior expected for the electronic correlations.

  1. Phase separation, effects of magnetic field and high pressure on charge ordering in γ-Na0.5CoO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.X.; Shi, Y.G.; Nie, C.J.; Wu, D.; Yang, L.X.; Dong, C.; Yu, H.C.; Zhang, H.R.; Jin, C.Q.; Li, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal the presence of complex superstructures and remarkable phase separation in association with Na-ordering phenomenon in γ-Na 0.5 CoO 2 . Resistivity and magnetization measurements indicate that three phase transitions at the temperatures of 25, 53 and 90 K, respectively, appear commonly in γ-Na 0.5 CoO 2 samples. Under a high pressure up to 10 kbar, the low-temperature transport properties show certain changes below the charge order transition; under an applied magnetic field of 7 T, phase transitions at around 25 and 53 K, proposed fundamentally in connection with alternations of magnetic structure and charge ordering maintain almost unchanged

  2. Two terminal charge tunneling: Disentangling Majorana zero modes from partially separated Andreev bound states in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Christopher; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2017-01-01

    We show that a pair of overlapping Majorana bound states (MBSs) forming a partially-separated Andreev bound state (ps-ABS) represents a generic low-energy feature in spin-orbit coupled semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) hybrid nanowires in the presence of a Zeeman field. The ps-ABS interpolates continuously between the "garden variety" ABS, which consists of two MBSs sitting on top of each other, and the topologically protected Majorana zero modes (MZMs), which are separated by a distance g...

  3. Visible-light-driven TiO2/Ag3PO4/GO heterostructure photocatalyst with dual-channel for photo-generated charges separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingqing; Ma, Ni; Wang, Yaping; Qiu, Yiwei; Hu, Haihua; Zhao, Jiahuan; Liang, Dayu; Xu, Sheng; Li, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Zhiyan; Cui, Can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO was synthesized with a facile two-step method. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO has dual-channel for photo-generated charges separation. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO composite reduces the consumption of Ag. - Abstract: A novel triple-component TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /graphene oxide (TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO) photocatalyst with dual channels for photo-generated charges separation has been synthesized to improve the photocatalytic activity and stability of Ag 3 PO 4 under visible light. The synthesis involved in-situ growth of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles on GO sheets to form Ag 3 PO 4 /GO, and then deposited TiO 2 nanocrystals on the surface of Ag 3 PO 4 by hydrolysis of Ti(SO 4 ) 2 at low-temperature hydrothermal condition. The TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity and stability to bare Ag 3 PO 4 , TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /GO in degradation of Rhodamine B and phenol solutions under visible light. It is suggested that the photo-generated electrons in the conduction band of Ag 3 PO 4 can be quickly transferred to GO, while the holes in the valence band of Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to the valence band of TiO 2 . The dual transfer channels at the interfaces of TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO result in effective charges separation, leading to enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. Furthermore, the content of noble metal Ag significantly reduces from 77 wt% in bare Ag 3 PO 4 to 55 wt% in the nanocomposite. The concept of establishing dual channels for charges separation in a triple-component heterostructure provides a promising way to develop photocatalysts with high efficiency

  4. Electric Double Layer Composed of an Antagonistic Salt in an Aqueous Mixture: Local Charge Separation and Surface Phase Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira

    2017-09-15

    We examine an electric double layer containing an antagonistic salt in an aqueous mixture, where the cations are small and hydrophilic but the anions are large and hydrophobic. In this situation, a strong coupling arises between the charge density and the solvent composition. As a result, the anions are trapped in an oil-rich adsorption layer on a hydrophobic wall. We then vary the surface charge density σ on the wall. For σ>0 the anions remain accumulated, but for σ<0 the cations are attracted to the wall with increasing |σ|. Furthermore, the electric potential drop Ψ(σ) is nonmonotonic when the solvent interaction parameter χ(T) exceeds a critical value χ_{c} determined by the composition and the ion density in the bulk. This leads to a first-order phase transition between two kinds of electric double layers with different σ and common Ψ. In equilibrium such two-layer regions can coexist. The steric effect due to finite ion sizes is crucial in these phenomena.

  5. Ion distributions, exclusion coefficients, and separation factors of electrolytes in a charged cylindrical nanopore: a partially perturbative density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Yu, Yang-Xin

    2009-10-07

    The structural and thermodynamic properties for charge symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes as well as mixed electrolyte system inside a charged cylindrical nanopore are investigated using a partially perturbative density functional theory. The electrolytes are treated in the restricted primitive model and the internal surface of the cylindrical nanopore is considered to have a uniform charge density. The proposed theory is directly applicable to the arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution containing ions with the equal diameter and different valences. Large amount of simulation data for ion density distributions, separation factors, and exclusion coefficients are used to determine the range of validity of the partially perturbative density functional theory for monovalent and multivalent counterion systems. The proposed theory is found to be in good agreement with the simulations for both mono- and multivalent counterion systems. In contrast, the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation only provides reasonable descriptions of monovalent counterion system at low bulk density, and is qualitatively and quantitatively wrong in the prediction for the multivalent counterion systems due to its neglect of the strong interionic correlations in these systems. The proposed density functional theory has also been applied to an electrolyte absorbed into a pore that is a model of the filter of a physiological calcium channel.

  6. Improved solar light stimulated charge separation of g-C3N4 through self-altering acidic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Lim, Ping Feng; Sim, Lan Ching; Punia, Varun; Pichiah, Saravanan

    2018-02-01

    Herein, we report the use of acid treatment to treat g-C3N4 nanostructured by a direct and facile synthesis route. The adopted treatment enhanced photoactivity of g-C3N4 and reflected in the removal of recalcitrant organic pollutant, Bisphenol A under direct sunlight. A complete removal of Bisphenol A was attained in a short duration (225 min) as compared to pure g-C3N4. The analysis clearly substantiated the robustness of acid exfoliation that promoted a blue shift, extended the conjugated length of its respective conduction and valance band. It also drastically prolonged the recombination rate of charge carriers, by producing excess of unpaired electrons in the conduction band for active radicals' generation. Thus, this new findings could offer a new sight of self-alteration in improving the photoactivity of complex organic pollutants for sustainable environmental remediation.

  7. Enhanced Charge Separation through ALD-Modified Fe2 O3 /Fe2 TiO5 Nanorod Heterojunction for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengcheng; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Zhibin; Liu, Shanshan; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    Hematite suffers from poor charge transport and separation properties for solar water splitting. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a 3D Fe2 O3 /Fe2 TiO5 heterojunction photoanode with improved charge separation, via a facile hydrothermal method followed by atomic layer deposition and air annealing. A highly crystallized Fe2 TiO5 phase forms with a distinct interface with the underlying Fe2 O3 core, where a 4 nm Fe2 TiO5 overlayer leads to the best photoelectrochemical performance. The favorable band offset between Fe2 O3 and Fe2 TiO5 establishes a type-II heterojunction at the Fe2 O3 /Fe2 TiO5 interface, which drives electron-hole separation effectively. The Fe2 O3 /Fe2 TiO5 composite electrode exhibits a dramatically improved photocurrent of 1.63 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under simulated 1 sun illumination (100 mW cm(-2) ), which is 3.5 times that of the bare Fe2 O3 electrode. Decorating the Fe2 O3 /Fe2 TiO5 heterojunction photoanode with earth-abundant FeNiOx cocatalyst further expedites surface reaction kinetics, leading to an onset potential of 0.8 V versus RHE with a photocurrent of 2.7 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V and 4.6 mA cm(-2) at 1.6 V versus RHE. This sandwich photoanode shows an excellent stability for 5 h and achieves an overall Faradaic efficiency of 95% for O2 generation. This is the best performance ever reported for Fe2 O3 /Fe2 TiO5 photoanodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Influence of Blend Morphology and Energetics on Charge Separation and Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Incorporating a Nonfullerene Acceptor

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Hyojung

    2017-11-27

    Nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) in blends with highly crystalline donor polymers have been shown to yield particularly high device voltage outputs, but typically more modest quantum yields for photocurrent generation as well as often lower fill factors (FF). In this study, we employ transient optical and optoelectronic analysis to elucidate the factors determining device photocurrent and FF in blends of the highly crystalline donor polymer PffBT4T-2OD with the promising NFA FBR or the more widely studied fullerene acceptor PC71BM. Geminate recombination losses, as measured by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, are observed to be significantly higher for PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends. This is assigned to the smaller LUMO-LUMO offset of the PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends relative to PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, resulting in the lower photocurrent generation efficiency obtained with FBR. Employing time delayed charge extraction measurements, these geminate recombination losses are observed to be field dependent, resulting in the lower FF observed with PffBT4T-2OD:FBR devices. These data therefore provide a detailed understanding of the impact of acceptor design, and particularly acceptor energetics, on organic solar cell performance. Our study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for the design of NFAs in organic solar cells.

  9. Green technological approach to synthesis hydrophobic stable crystalline calcite particles with one-pot synthesis for oil-water separation during oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Nan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Li, Che-Feng; Lee, Chin-Rong; Hsu, Chun-Mei; Lee, Wen-Chien; Huang, Chung-Ho; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2017-10-15

    The process of separating oil and water from oil/water mixtures is an attractive strategy to answer the menace caused by industrial oil spills and oily wastewater. In addition, water coproduced during hydrocarbon exploitation, which can be an economic burden and risk for freshwater resources, can become an important freshwater source after suitable water-oil separation. For oil-water separation purposes, considerable attention has been paid to the preparation of hydrophobic-oleophilic materials with modified surface roughness. However, due to issues of thermodynamic instability, costly and complex methods as well as lack of ecofriendly compounds, most of hydrophobic surface modified particles are of limited practical application. The study presents a facile procedure, to synthesize crystalline particles of calcite, which is the most stable polymorph of CaCO 3 from industrial CaCO 3 using oleic acid as an additive in a one-pot synthesis method. The XRD results show that the synthesized particles were a well-crystallized form of calcite. The FTIR results reflect the appearance of the alkyl groups from the oleic acid in synthesized particles which promotes the production of calcite with 'rice shape' (1.64 μm) (aggregated by spherical nanoparticle of 19.56 nm) morphology with concomitant changes in its surface wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The synthesized particles exhibited near to super hydrophobicity with ∼99% active ratio and a contact angle of 143.8°. The synthesized hydrophobic calcite particles had an oleophilic nature where waste diesel oil adsorption capacity of synthesized calcium carbonate (HCF) showed a very high (>99%) and fast (7 s) oil removal from oil-water mixture. The functional group of long alkyl chain including of CO bounds may play critical roles for adsorption of diesel oils. Moreover, the thermodynamically stable crystalline polymorph calcite (compared to vaterite) exhibited excellent recyclability. The isothermal study

  10. Long-lived charge separation in novel axial donor-porphyrin-acceptor triads based on tetrathiafulvalene, aluminum(III) porphyrin and naphthalenediimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Zarrabi, Niloofar; Moiseev, Andrey G; Gumbau-Brisa, Roger; Vassiliev, Serguei; van der Est, Art

    2013-02-25

    Two self-assembled supramolecular donor-acceptor triads consisting of Al(III) porphyrin (AlPor) with axially bound naphthalenediimide (NDI) as an acceptor and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as a secondary donor are reported. In the triads, the NDI and TTF units are attached to Al(III) on opposite faces of the porphyrin, through covalent and coordination bonds, respectively. Fluorescence studies show that the lowest excited singlet state of the porphyrin is quenched through electron transfer to NDI and hole transfer to TTF. In dichloromethane hole transfer to TTF dominates, whereas in benzonitrile (BN) electron transfer to NDI is the main quenching pathway. In the nematic phase of the liquid crystalline solvent 4-(n-pentyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a spin-polarized transient EPR spectrum that is readily assigned to the weakly coupled radical pair TTF(.+)NDI(.-) is obtained. The initial polarization pattern indicates that the charge separation occurs through the singlet channel and that singlet-triplet mixing occurs in the primary radical pair. At later time the polarization pattern inverts as a result of depopulation of the states with singlet character by recombination to the ground state. The singlet lifetime of TTF(.+)NDI(.-) is estimated to be 200-300 ns, whereas the triplet lifetime in the approximately 350 mT magnetic field of the X-band EPR spectrometer is about 10 μs. In contrast, in dichloromethane and BN the lifetime of the charge separation is <10 ns. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Green and Facile Synthesis of Highly Stable Gold Nanoparticles via Hyperbranched Polymer In-Situ Reduction and Their Application in Ag+ Detection and Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunyong Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a green and facile strategy for synthesizing high stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs is still highly challenging. Additionally, the main problems regarding AuNPs based colorimetric sensors are their poor selectivity and low sensitivity, as well their tendency to aggregate during their synthesis and sensing process. Herein, we present an in-situ reduction strategy to synthesize thermoresponsive hyperbranched polymer (i.e., Hyperbranched polyethylenimine-terminal isobutyramide (HPEI-IBAm functionalized AuNPs. The HPEI-IBAm-AuNPs show excellent thermal stability up to 200 °C, high tolerance of a wide range of pH value (3–13, and high salt resistance. HPEI-IBAm acted as the template, the reducing agent, and the stabilizing agent for the preparation of AuNPs. The HPEI-IBAm-AuNPs can be used as colorimetric sensors for the detection of Ag+. In the detecting process, HPEI-IBAm serves as a trigger agent to cause an unusual color change from red to brown. This new non-aggregation-based colorimetric sensor showed high stability (maintaining the color lasting without fading, high selectivity, and high sensitivity with an extremely low detection limit of 7.22 nM and a good linear relationship in a wide concentration range of 0–2.0 mM (R2 = 0.9921. Significantly, based on the thermoresponsive property of the HPEI-IBAm, the AuNPs/Ag composites can be separated after sensing detection, which can avoid secondary pollutions. Therefore, the green preparation and the applications of the unusual colorimetric sensor truly embody the concepts of energy saving, environmental protection, and sustainable development.

  12. High resolution separations of charge variants and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates using ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, W Hampton; He, Yan; Mellors, J Scott; Batz, Nicholas G; Ramsey, J Michael; Jorgenson, James W

    2017-11-10

    Ultra-high voltage capillary electrophoresis with high electric field strength has been applied to the separation of the charge variants, drug conjugates, and disulfide isomers of monoclonal antibodies. Samples composed of many closely related species are difficult to resolve and quantify using traditional analytical instrumentation. High performance instrumentation can often save considerable time and effort otherwise spent on extensive method development. Ideally, the resolution obtained for a given CE buffer system scales with the square root of the applied voltage. Currently available commercial CE instrumentation is limited to an applied voltage of approximately 30kV and a maximum electric field strength of 1kV/cm due to design limitations. The instrumentation described here is capable of safely applying potentials of at least 120kV with electric field strengths over 2000V/cm, potentially doubling the resolution of the best conventional CE buffer/capillary systems while decreasing analysis time in some applications. Separations of these complex mixtures using this new instrumentation demonstrate the potential of ultra-high voltage CE to identify the presence of previously unresolved components and to reduce analysis time for complex mixtures of antibody variants and drug conjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Description of the Charge Transfer States at the Pentacene/C60 Interface: Combining Range-Separated Hybrid Functionals with the Polarizable Continuum Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2016-06-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) approaches based on range-separated hybrid functionals are currently methods of choice for the description of the charge-transfer (CT) states in organic donor/acceptor solar cells. However, these calculations are usually performed on small-size donor/acceptor complexes and as result do not account for electronic polarization effects. Here, using a pentacene/C60 complex as a model system, we discuss the ability of long-range corrected (LCR) hybrid functionals in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to determine the impact of the solid-state environment on the CT states. The CT energies are found to be insensitive to the interactions with the dielectric medium when a conventional time-dependent DFT/PCM (TDDFT/PCM) approach is used. However, a decrease in the energy of the CT state in the framework of LRC functionals can be obtained by using a smaller range-separated parameter when going from an isolated donor/acceptor complex to the solid-state case.

  14. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid-liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Katy; Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-23

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. , 2012, 27 , 449-459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl- N , N -di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri- n -butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO 3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO 3 ), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε 114/110 Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO 3 . Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol. , 2014, 374-375 , 128-140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid-liquid extraction with n -heptane

  15. A search for stable massive particles carrying electric charges in the range of 2e to 6e in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Simone

    2013-08-15

    This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb{sup -1}, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.

  16. Primary charge separation between P* and BA: Electron-transfer pathways in native and mutant GM203L bacterial reaction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, Andrey G.; Jones, Michael R.; Potter, Jane A.; Fyfe, Paul K.; Vasilieva, Lyudmila G.; Shkuropatov, Anatoli Ya.; Shuvalov, Vladimir A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherent components in the dynamics of decay of stimulated emission from the primary electron donor excited state P*, and of population of the product charge-separated states P + B A - and P + H A - , were studied in GM203L mutant reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides by measuring oscillations in the kinetics of absorbance changes at 940nm (P* stimulated emission region), 1020nm (B A - absorption region) and 760nm (H A bleaching region). Absorbance changes were induced by excitation of P (870nm) with 18fs pulses at 90K. In the GM203L mutant, replacement of Gly M203 by Leu results in exclusion of the crystallographically defined water molecule (HOH55) located close to the oxygen of the 13 1 -keto carbonyl group of B A and to His M202, which provides the axial ligand to the Mg of the P B bacteriochlorophyll. The results of femtosecond measurements were compared with those obtained with Rb. sphaeroides R-26 RCs containing an intact water HOH55. The main consequences of the GM203L mutation were found to be as follows: (i) a low-frequency oscillation at 32cm -1 , which is characteristic of the HOH55-containing RCs, disappears from the kinetics of absorbance changes at 1020 and 760nm in the mutant RC; (ii) electron transfer from P* to B A in the wild type RC was characterized by two time constants of 1.1ps (80%) and 4.3ps (20%), but in the GM203L mutant was characterized by a single time constant of 4.3ps, demonstrating a slowing of primary charge separation. The previously postulated rotation of water HOH55 with a fundamental frequency of 32cm -1 , triggered by electron transfer from P* to B A , was confirmed by observation of an isotopic shift of the 32cm -1 oscillation in the kinetics of P + B A - population in deuterated, pheophytin-modified RCs of Rb. sphaeroides R-26, by a factor of 1.6. These data are discussed in terms of the influence of water HOH55 on the energetics of the P*->P + B A - reaction, and protein dynamic events that occur on the

  17. A High-Energy Charge-Separated State of 1.70 eV from a High-Potential Donor-Acceptor Dyad: A Catalyst for Energy-Demanding Photochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gary N; Obondi, Christopher O; D'Souza, Francis

    2016-09-12

    A high potential donor-acceptor dyad composed of zinc porphyrin bearing three meso-pentafluorophenyl substituents covalently linked to C60 , as a novel dyad capable of generating charge-separated states of high energy (potential) has been developed. The calculated energy of the charge-separated state was found to be 1.70 eV, the highest reported for a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad. Intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge-separated states of appreciable lifetimes in polar and nonpolar solvents has been established from studies involving femto- to nanosecond transient absorption techniques. The high energy stored in the form of charge-separated states along with its persistence of about 50-60 ns makes this dyad a potential electron-transporting catalyst to carry out energy-demanding photochemical reactions. This type of high-energy harvesting dyad is expected to open new research in the areas of artificial photosynthesis especially producing energy (potential) demanding light-to-fuel products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Assembly of g-C3N4-based type II and Z-scheme heterojunction anodes with improved charge separation for photoelectrojunction water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-He; Qin, Dong-Dong; Shan, Duo-Liang; Gu, Jing; Yan, Yong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Qiu-Hong; He, Cai-Hua; Li, Yang; Quan, Jing-Jing; Lu, Xiao-Quan

    2017-02-08

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) has been widely studied as a metal-free photocatalyst, leading to some excellent results; however, the rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers substantially limits its performance. Here, we establish two types of g-C 3 N 4 -based heterojunction (type II and nonmediator assisted Z-scheme) photoanodes on a transparent conducting substrate via coupling with rod-like and nanoparticulate WO 3 , respectively. In these composites, g-C 3 N 4 film grown by electrophoretic deposition of exfoliated g-C 3 N 4 serves as the host or guest material. The optimized type II WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composite exhibits an enhanced photocurrent of 0.82 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and an incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 33% as compared with pure WO 3 nanorods (0.22 mA cm -2 for photocurrent and 15% for IPCE). Relative to pure g-C 3 N 4 film (with a photocurrent of several microampere and an IPCE of 2%), a largely improved photocurrent of 0.22 mA cm -2 and an IPCE of 20% were acquired for the Z-scheme g-C 3 N 4 /WO 3 composite. The enhancement can be attributed to accelerated charge separation in the heterointerface because of the suitably aligned band gap between WO 3 and g-C 3 N 4 , as confirmed by optical spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) analysis. The photocatalytic process and mechanism of the g-C 3 N 4 -based heterojunctions are proposed herein, which potentially explain the origin of the enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. This achievement and the fundamental information supplied here indicate the importance of rationally designing heterojunction photoelectrodes to improve the performance of semiconductors. This is particularly important for materials such as pure g-C 3 N 4 and WO 3 , as their photoactivities are strongly restricted by high recombination rates.

  19. Heterostructured WS2-MoS2Ultrathin Nanosheets Integrated on CdS Nanorods to Promote Charge Separation and Migration and Improve Solar-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D Amaranatha; Park, Hanbit; Ma, Rory; Kumar, D Praveen; Lim, Manho; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2017-04-10

    Solar-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is important to bring solar-energy-to-fuel energy-conversion processes to reality. However, there is a lack of highly efficient, stable, and non-precious photocatalysts, and catalysts not designed completely with expensive noble metals have remained elusive, which hampers their large-scale industrial application. Herein, for the first time, a highly efficient and stable noble-metal-free CdS/WS 2 -MoS 2 nanocomposite was designed through a facile hydrothermal approach. When assessed as a photocatalyst for water splitting, the CdS/WS 2 -MoS 2 nanostructures exhibited remarkable photocatalytic hydrogen-evolution performance and impressive durability. An excellent hydrogen evolution rate of 209.79 mmol g -1  h -1 was achieved under simulated sunlight irradiation, which is higher than the values for CdS/MoS 2 (123.31 mmol g -1  h -1 ) and CdS/WS 2 nanostructures (169.82 mmol g -1  h -1 ) and the expensive CdS/Pt benchmark catalyst (34.98 mmol g -1  h -1 ). The apparent quantum yield reached 51.4 % at λ=425 nm in 5 h. Furthermore, the obtained hydrogen evolution rate was better than those of several noble-metal-free catalysts reported previously. The observed high rate of hydrogen evolution and remarkable stability may be a result of the ultrafast separation of photogenerated charge carriers and transport between the CdS nanorods and the WS 2 -MoS 2 nanosheets, which thus increases the number of electrons involved in hydrogen production. The proposed designed strategy is believed to potentially open a door to the design of advanced noble-metal-free photocatalytic materials for efficient solar-driven hydrogen production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Improving the Photo-Oxidative Performance of Bi2MoO6 by Harnessing the Synergy between Spatial Charge Separation and Rational Co-Catalyst Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuelian; Hart, Judy N; Wen, Xiaoming; Wang, Liang; Du, Yi; Dou, Shi Xue; Ng, Yun Hau; Amal, Rose; Scott, Jason

    2018-03-21

    It has been reported that photogenerated electrons and holes can be directed toward specific crystal facets of a semiconductor particle, which is believed to arise from the differences in their surface electronic structures, suggesting that different facets can act as either photoreduction or photo-oxidation sites. This study examines the propensity for this effect to occur in faceted, plate-like bismuth molybdate (Bi 2 MoO 6 ), which is a useful photocatalyst for water oxidation. Photoexcited electrons and holes are shown to be spatially separated toward the {100} and {001}/{010} facets of Bi 2 MoO 6 , respectively, by facet-dependent photodeposition of noble metals (Pt, Au, and Ag) and metal oxides (PbO 2 , MnO x , and CoO x ). Theoretical calculations revealed that differences in energy levels between the conduction bands and valence bands of the {100} and {001}/{010} facets can contribute to electrons and holes being drawn to different surfaces of the plate-like Bi 2 MoO 6 . Utilizing this knowledge, the photo-oxidative capability of Bi 2 MoO 6 was improved by adding an efficient water oxidation co-catalyst, CoO x , to the system, whereby the extent of enhancement was shown to be governed by the co-catalyst location. A greater oxygen evolution occurred when CoO x was selectively deposited on the hole-rich {001}/{010} facets of Bi 2 MoO 6 compared to when CoO x was randomly located across all of the facets. The elevated performance exhibited for the selectively loaded CoO x /Bi 2 MoO 6 was ascribed to the greater opportunity for hole trapping by the co-catalyst being accentuated over other potentially detrimental effects, such as the co-catalyst acting as a recombination medium and/or covering reactive sites. The results indicate that harnessing the synergy between the spatial charge separation and the co-catalyst location on the appropriate facets of plate-like Bi 2 MoO 6 can promote its photocatalytic activity.

  1. Effective charge separation in the rutile TiO2 nanorod-coupled α-Fe2O3 with exceptionally high visible activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Peng; Xie, Mingzheng; Liu, Dening; Fu, Xuedong; Jing, Liqiang

    2014-08-26

    Herein, we have fabricated rutile TiO2 nanorod-coupled α-Fe2O3 by a wet-chemical process. It is demonstrated that the visible activities for photoelectrochemical water oxidation and for degrading pollutant of α-Fe2O3 are greatly enhanced after coupling a proper amount of rutile nanorods. The enhanced activity is attributed to the prolonged lifetime and improved separation of photogenerated charges mainly by the transient surface photovoltage responses. Interestingly, the observed EPR signals (with g⊥ = 1.963 and g|| = 1.948) of Ti(3+) in the fabricated TiO2-Fe2O3 nanocomposite at ultra low temperature (1.8 k) after visible laser excitation, along with the electrochemical impedance spectra and the normalized photocurrent action spectra, testify evidently that the spacial transfers of visible-excited high-energy electrons of α-Fe2O3 to TiO2 could happen. Moreover, it is confirmed that it is more favorable for the uncommon electron transfers of α-Fe2O3 to rutile than to anatase. This is responsible for the much obvious enhancement of visible activity of Fe2O3 after coupling with rutile TiO2, compared with anatase and phase-mixed P25 ones. This work would help us to deeply understand the uncommon photophysical processes, and also provide a feasible route to improve the photocatalytic performance of visible-response semiconductor photocatalyst for water splitting and pollutant degradation.

  2. Visible-light photocatalysis in Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets and charge separation between (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ning, Lichao; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Congjie; Yang, Heqing; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2015-05-28

    The search for active narrow band gap semiconductor photocatalysts that directly split water or degrade organic pollutants under solar irradiation remains an open issue. We synthesized Cu2Se nanowires with exposed {111} facets using ethanol and glycerol as morphology controlling agents. The {111} facets were found to be the active facets for decomposing organic contaminants in the entire solar spectrum. Based on the polar structure of the Cu2Se {111} facets, a charge separation model between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces is proposed. The internal electric field between polar (111) and (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) surfaces created by spontaneous polarization drives charge separation. The reduction and oxidation reactions occur on the positive (111) and negative (1[combining macron]1[combining macron]1[combining macron]) polar surfaces, respectively. This suggests the surface-engineering of narrow band gap semiconductors as a strategy to fabricate photocatalysts with high reactivity in the entire solar spectrum. The charge separation model can deepen the understanding of charge transfer in other semiconductor nanocrystals with high photocatalytic activities and offer guidance to design more effective photocatalysts as well as new types of solar cells, photoelectrodes and photoelectric devices.

  3. 22C charge radius prediction: Addendum and erratum to “Constraints on two-neutron separation energy in the Borromean 22C nucleus” [Phys. Lett. B 697 (1) (2011) 90-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M. T.; Marques de Carvalho, R. S.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2012-08-01

    Relevant to experimental investigations on the 22C properties, we are correcting numerical results presented in [M.T. Yamashita, R.S. Marques de Carvalho, T. Frederico, L. Tomio, Phys. Lett. B 697 (2011) 90], updating our estimate for the two-neutron separation energy, and adding the charge radius prediction for this halo nucleus with respect to 20C: √{ - } ≳ 0.9 fm.

  4. Separation and recombinatiuon of charge carriers in solar cells with a nanostructured ZnO electrode; Trennung und Rekombination von Ladungstraegern in Solarzellen mit nanostrukturierter ZnO-Elektrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, Julian

    2010-03-02

    The publication investigates electrodes consisting of ZnO nanorods deposited hydrothermally on conductive glass substrate (conductive glass). The electrodes are transparent to visible light and are sensitized for solar cell applications by a light-absorbing layer which in this case consists either of organometallic dye molecules (N3) or of an indium sulfide layer with a thickness of only a few nanometers. Electric contacts for the sensitized electrode are either made of a liquid electrolyte or of a perforated solid electrolyte. Methods of analysis were impedance spectroscopy, time-resolved photocurrent measurements, and time-resolved microwave photoconductivity. A high concentration of up to 10{sup 20} was found in the ZnO nanorods. The dye-sensitized solar cell showed exessively fast recombination with the oxydized dye molecules (sub-{mu}s) but a slow recombination rate with the oxydized redox ions of the electrolyte (ms). In the indium sulfide solar cells, the charges are separated at the contact with the ZnO nanorods while contact with the perforated CuSCN conductor is not charge-separating. Recombination takes place in indium sulfide, directly between the perforated conductor and ZnO, and also via the charge-separating contact with decreasing rates.

  5. A Moisture-Stable 3D Microporous CoII -Metal-Organic Framework with Potential for Highly Selective CO2 Separation under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Santanu; Pal, Arun; Das, Madhab C

    2018-02-13

    Selective adsorption and separation of CO 2 from flue gas and landfill gas mixtures have drawn great attention in industry. Porous MOF materials are promising alternatives to achieve such separations; however, the stability in the presence of moisture must be taken into consideration. Herein, we have constructed a microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) {[Co(OBA)(L) 0.5 ]⋅S} n (IITKGP-8), by employing a V-shaped organic linker with an azo-functionalized N,N' spacer forming a 3D network with mab topology and 1D rhombus-shaped channels along the crystallographic 'b' axis with a void volume of 34.2 %. The activated MOF reveals a moderate CO 2 uptake capacity of 55.4 and 26.5 cm 3  g -1 at 273 and 295 K/1 bar, respectively, whereas it takes up a significantly lower amount of CH 4 and N 2 under similar conditions and thus exhibits its potential for highly selective sorption of CO 2 with excellent IAST selectivity of CO 2 /N 2 (106 at 273 K and 43.7 at 295 K) and CO 2 /CH 4 (17.7 at 273 K and 17.1 at 295 K) under 1 bar. More importantly, this MOF exhibits excellent moisture stability as assessed through PXRD experiments coupled with surface area analysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Larger voids in mechanically stable, loose packings of 1.3μm frictional, cohesive particles: Their reconstruction, statistical analysis, and impact on separation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Arved E; Godinho, Justin M; Hormann, Kristof; Jorgenson, James W; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2016-03-04

    Lateral transcolumn heterogeneities and the presence of larger voids in a packing (comparable to the particle size) can limit the preparation of efficient chromatographic columns. Optimizing and understanding the packing process provides keys to better packing structures and column performance. Here, we investigate the slurry-packing process for a set of capillary columns packed with C18-modified, 1.3μm bridged-ethyl hybrid porous silica particles. The slurry concentration used for packing 75μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries was increased gradually from 5 to 50mg/mL. An intermediate concentration (20mg/mL) resulted in the best separation efficiency. Three capillaries from the set representing low, intermediate, and high slurry concentrations were further used for three-dimensional bed reconstruction by confocal laser scanning microscopy and morphological analysis of the bed structure. Previous studies suggest increased slurry concentrations will result in higher column efficiency due to the suppression of transcolumn bed heterogeneities, but only up to a critical concentration. Too concentrated slurries favour the formation of larger packing voids (reaching the size of the average particle diameter). Especially large voids, which can accommodate particles from>90% of the particle size distribution, are responsible for a decrease in column efficiency at high slurry concentrations. Our work illuminates the increasing difficulty of achieving high bed densities with small, frictional, cohesive particles. As particle size decreases interparticle forces become increasingly important and hinder the ease of particle sliding during column packing. While an optimal slurry concentration is identified with respect to bed morphology and separation efficiency under conditions in this work, our results suggest adjustments of this concentration are required with regard to particle size, surface roughness, column dimensions, slurry liquid, and external effects utilized during the

  7. Coupling of electric charge and magnetic field via electronic phase separation in (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-tunable non-volatile resistivity and ferromagnetism switching in the (La0.5Pr0.5)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 ferroelectric single-crystal substrates have been investigated. By combining the 180° ferroelectric domain switching and in situ X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements, we identify that this voltage control of order parameters stems from the domain switching-induced accumulation/depletion of charge carriers at the interface rather than induced lattice strain effect. In particular, the polarization-induced charge effect (i.e., ferroelectric field effect) is strongly dependent on the magnetic field. This, together with the charge-modulated magnetoresistance and magnetization, reveals the strong correlation between the electric charge and the magnetic field. Further, we found that this coupling is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation, the relative strength of which could be determined by recording charge-tunability of resistivity [ (Δρ/ρ)c h arg e ] under various magnetic fields. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating essential physics of perovskite manganites and delivering prototype electronic devices for non-volatile information storage.

  8. Stable and Efficient Organo-Metal Halide Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via π-Conjugated Lewis Base Polymer Induced Trap Passivation and Charge Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ping-Li; Yang, Guang; Ren, Zhi-Wei; Cheung, Sin Hang; So, Shu Kong; Chen, Li; Hao, Jianhua; Hou, Jianhui; Li, Gang

    2018-03-01

    High-quality pinhole-free perovskite film with optimal crystalline morphology is critical for achieving high-efficiency and high-stability perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this study, a p-type π-conjugated polymer poly[(2,6-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl) thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene))-alt-(5,5-(1',3'-di-2-thienyl-5',7'-bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzo[1',2'-c:4',5'-c'] dithiophene-4,8-dione))] (PBDB-T) is introduced into chlorobenzene to form a facile and effective template-agent during the anti-solvent process of perovskite film formation. The π-conjugated polymer PBDB-T is found to trigger a heterogeneous nucleation over the perovskite precursor film and passivate the trap states of the mixed perovskite film through the formation of Lewis adducts between lead and oxygen atom in PBDB-T. The p-type semiconducting and hydrophobic PBDB-T polymer fills in the perovskite grain boundaries to improve charge transfer for better conductivity and prevent moisture invasion into the perovskite active layers. Consequently, the PSCs with PBDB-T modified anti-solvent processing leads to a high-efficiency close to 20%, and the devices show excellent stability, retaining about 90% of the initial power conversion efficiency after 150 d storage in dry air. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 1D and 2D NMR Spectroscopy of Bonding Interactions within Stable and Phase-Separating Organic Electrolyte-Cellulose Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Matthew T; Farès, Christophe; Rinaldi, Roberto

    2017-09-11

    Organic electrolyte solutions (i.e. mixtures containing an ionic liquid and a polar, molecular co-solvent) are highly versatile solvents for cellulose. However, the underlying solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are not yet fully understood. Herein, mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, the co-solvent 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone, and cellulose are investigated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The use of a triply- 13 C-labelled ionic liquid enhances the signal-to-noise ratio for 13 C NMR spectroscopy, enabling changes in bonding interactions to be accurately pinpointed. Current observations reveal an additional degree of complexity regarding the distinct roles of cation, anion, and co-solvent toward maintaining cellulose solubility and phase stability. Unexpectedly, the interactions between the dialkylimidazolium ring C 2 -H substituent and cellulose become more pronounced at high temperatures, counteracted by a net weakening of acetate-cellulose interactions. Moreover, for mixtures that exhibit critical solution behavior, phase separation is accompanied by the apparent recombination of cation-anion pairs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A compact control system to achieve stable voltage and low jitter trigger for repetitive intense electron-beam accelerator based on resonant charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Qiu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A compact control system based on Delphi and Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA is developed for a repetitive intense electron-beam accelerator(IEBA, whose output power is 10GW and pulse duration is 160ns. The system uses both hardware and software solutions. It comprises a host computer, a communication module and a main control unit. A device independent applications programming interface, devised using Delphi, is installed on the host computer. Stability theory of voltage in repetitive mode is analyzed and a detailed overview of the hardware and software configuration is presented. High voltage experiment showed that the control system fulfilled the requests of remote operation and data-acquisition. The control system based on a time-sequence control method is used to keep constant of the voltage of the primary capacitor in every shot, which ensured the stable and reliable operation of the electron beam accelerator in the repetitive mode during the experiment. Compared with the former control system based on Labview and PIC micro-controller developed in our laboratory, the present one is more compact, and with higher precision in the time dimension. It is particularly useful for automatic control of IEBA in the high power microwave effects research experiments where pulse-to-pulse reproducibility is required.

  11. New insight in the structural features of haloadaptation in α-amylases from halophilic Archaea following homology modeling strategy: folded and stable conformation maintained through low hydrophobicity and highly negative charged surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Patron, Kevin; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2014-07-01

    Proteins from halophilic archaea, which live in extreme saline conditions, have evolved to remain folded, active and stable at very high ionic strengths. Understanding the mechanism of haloadaptation is the first step toward engineering of halostable biomolecules. Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Yet, no three-dimensional structure has been experimentally resolved for α-amylases from halophilic archaea. In this study, homology structure modeling of α-amylases from the halophilic archaea Haloarcula marismortui, Haloarcula hispanica, and Halalkalicoccus jeotgali were performed. The resulting models were subjected to energy minimization, evaluation, and structural analysis. Calculations of the amino acid composition, salt bridges and hydrophobic interactions were also performed and compared to a set of non-halophilic counterparts. It clearly appeared that haloarchaeal α-amylases exhibited lower propensities for helix formation and higher propensities for coil-forming regions. Furthermore, they could maintain a folded and stable conformation in high salt concentration through highly negative charged surface with over representation of acidic residues, especially Asp, and low hydrophobicity with increase of salt bridges and decrease in hydrophobic interactions on the protein surface. This study sheds some light on the stability of α-amylases from halophilic archaea and provides strong basis not only to understand haloadaptation mechanisms of proteins in microorganisms from hypersalines environments but also for biotechnological applications.

  12. Fabrication of Heterogeneous-Phase Solid-Solution Promoting Band Structure and Charge Separation for Enhancing Photocatalytic CO2Reduction: A Case of ZnXCa1-XIn2S4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao; Huang, Hongwei; Zhang, Tierui; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Yihe; Hu, Yingmo

    2017-08-23

    Photocatalytic CO 2 reduction into solar fuels illustrates huge charm for simultaneously settling energy and environmental issues. The photoreduction ability of a semiconductor is closely correlated to its conduction band (CB) position. A homogeneous-phase solid-solution with the same crystal system always has a monotonously changed CB position, and the high CB level has to be sacrificed to achieve a benign photoabsorption. Herein, we report the fabrication of heterogeneous-phase solid-solution Zn X Ca 1-X In 2 S 4 between trigonal ZnIn 2 S 4 and cubic CaIn 2 S 4 . The Zn X Ca 1-X In 2 S 4 solid solutions with orderly tuned photoresponsive range from 540 to 640 nm present a more negative CB level and highly enhanced charge-separation efficiency. Profiting from these merits, all of these Zn X Ca 1-X In 2 S 4 solid solutions exhibit remarkably strengthened photocatalytic CO 2 reduction performance under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. Zn 0.4 Ca 0.6 In 2 S 4 , bearing the most negative CB position and highest charge-separation efficiency, casts the optimal photocatalytic CH 4 and CO evolution rates, which reach 16.7 and 6.8 times higher than that of ZnIn 2 S 4 and 7.2 and 3.9 times higher than that of CaIn 2 S 4 , respectively. To verify the crucial role of the heterogeneous-phase solid solution in promoting the band structure and photocatalytic performance, another heterogeneous-phase solid-solution Zn X Cd 1-X In 2 S 4 has been synthesized. It also displays an upshifted CB level and promoted charge separation. This work may provide a new perspective into the development of an efficient visible-light driven photocatalyst for CO 2 reduction and other photoreduction reactions.

  13. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography of drugs varying in charge and hydrophobicity : I. Impact of parameters on separation performance evaluated by multiple regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harang, Valérie; Eriksson, Jessica; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari E.; Jacobsson, Sven P.; Westerlund, Douglas

    The separation of anionic, cationic and neutral drugs in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) was studied with a statistical experimental design. The concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant), 1-butanol (co-surfactant) and borate buffer and the factors Brij 35

  14. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  15. In situ fabrication of two-dimensional g-C3N4/Ba5Ta4O15nanosheet heterostructures with efficient charge separations and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Erbing; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Guan; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs plays a crucial role in determining the practical performance of semiconductor photocatalysts. Here we have successfully fabricated two dimensional g-C 3 N 4 /Ba 5 Ta 4 O 15 nanosheet heterostructures through an in situ urea degradation method. The so-formed nanosheet heterostructures demonstrate superior photocatalytic activities in H 2 evolution reactions over individual component. Further analysis using photoelectrochemical measurements suggests efficient charge separations at the interfaces of these heterostructures which contribute to a prolonged lifetime of photo-generated charges as well as the much enhanced photocatalytic activities. The in situ fabrication method adopted in this work ensures a firm anchorage of g-C 3 N 4 onto Ba 5 Ta 4 O 15 nanosheets and a face-to-face contact between these two semiconductors. Such a peculiar microstructure is critical to the high photocatalytic activity and apparently outweighs the conventional ones that involve only physical mixtures of two semiconductors and a point-to-point contact.

  16. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  17. Copper diffusion in In2S3 and charge separation at In2S3/CuSCN and TiO2/In2S3 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juma, Albert Owino

    2013-01-01

    The concept of inorganic nanostructured solar cells consists of a very thin absorber layer sandwiched between highly structured electron and hole conductors. When a TiO 2 /In 2 S 3 /CuSCN nanocomposite heterostructure is illuminated with light, photo-generated electrons in In 2 S 3 can be injected into the conduction band of TiO 2 and holes into the valence band of CuSCN. Charge transfer at the interfaces is limited by the deposition parameters, band alignment and diffusion of Cu from CuSCN into In 2 S 3 , which was the focus of this work. TiO 2 nanoparticles were screen printed onto SnO 2 :F (FTO)-coated glass substrates to give a layer of nanoporous (np) TiO 2 . In 2 S 3 layers were deposited by thermal evaporation or ion layer gas reaction (ILGAR) methods producing Cl-free (In(acac) 3 precursor) and Cl-containing (InCl 3 precursor) layers. A spray-spin method was developed for deposition of CuSCN onto In 2 S 3 . Diffusion of Cu into In 2 S 3 layers was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) while charge transport mechanisms were studied with surface photovoltage (SPV) technique in the fixed capacitor configuration. The activation energy (Ea) for Cu diffusion in thermally evaporated and Cl-free ILGAR In 2 S 3 layers was 0.30 and 0.24 eV, respectively but increased to between 0.72 and 0.78 eV for Cl-containing In 2 S 3 with residual Cl concentrations of 7.8 - 13.8 at.%. The diffusion prefactor (D 0 ) was six orders of magnitude higher for Cl-containing compared to Cl-free layers. The relationship between E a and D 0 was described by the Meyer-Neldel rule with a Meyer-Neldel energy of 40 meV. The presence of Cl has no significant influence on the structural properties of In 2 S 3 but resulted in a modified diffusion mechanism for Cu diffusion. The photovoltage of In 2 S 3 /CuSCN samples decreased after annealing for longer than 2 min at 200 C. A defect band was formed near the interface where holes accumulated and electrons tunneled through

  18. Evaluation of differences between dual salt-pH gradient elution and mono gradient elution using a thermodynamic model: Simultaneous separation of six monoclonal antibody charge and size variants on preparative-scale ion exchange chromatographic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Jöhnck, Matthias; Frech, Christian

    2018-02-21

    The efficiencies of mono gradient elution and dual salt-pH gradient elution for separation of six mAb charge and size variants on a preparative-scale ion exchange chromatographic resin are compared in this study. Results showed that opposite dual salt-pH gradient elution with increasing pH gradient and simultaneously decreasing salt gradient is best suited for the separation of these mAb charge and size variants on Eshmuno ® CPX. Besides giving high binding capacity, this type of opposite dual salt-pH gradient also provides better resolved mAb variant peaks and lower conductivity in the elution pools compared to single pH or salt gradients. To have a mechanistic understanding of the differences in mAb variants retention behaviors of mono pH gradient, parallel dual salt-pH gradient, and opposite dual salt-pH gradient, a linear gradient elution model was used. After determining the model parameters using the linear gradient elution model, 2D plots were used to show the pH and salt dependencies of the reciprocals of distribution coefficient, equilibrium constant, and effective ionic capacity of the mAb variants in these gradient elution systems. Comparison of the 2D plots indicated that the advantage of opposite dual salt-pH gradient system with increasing pH gradient and simultaneously decreasing salt gradient is the noncontinuous increased acceleration of protein migration. Furthermore, the fitted model parameters can be used for the prediction and optimization of mAb variants separation in dual salt-pH gradient and step elution. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2})/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors with varied Sb doping concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Ma, Wen-Hai [School of Physical Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Mao, Yan-Li, E-mail: ylmao1@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Computational Materials Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized with varied Sb doping concentration, and the Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors were prepared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. The separation efficiency of photoinduced charges was characterized with surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. Compared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} presents an enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges, and the SPV enhancements were estimated to be 1.40, 1.43, and 1.99 for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. To understand the enhancement, the band structure of Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the heterojunction semiconductor was determined, and the conduction band offsets (CBO) between Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} were estimated to be 0.56, 0.64, and 0.98 eV for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. These results indicate that the separation efficiency enhancement is resulting from the energy level matching, and the increase of enhancement is due to the rising of CBO.

  20. Improved photo-induced charge carriers separation through the addition of erbium on TiO2 nanoparticles and its effect on photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, J.; Celina Selvakumari, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2018-02-01

    ErxTi1 - xO2 nanocomposites was prepared by a simple sol-gel method with various proportion of erbium viz., x = 0.02, x = 0.04, x = 0.06, x = 0.08 and x = 0.10. The prepared nanocomposites were studied using XRD, UV-Vis DRS, Raman spectra, HR-SEM, EDS, TEM, PL and impedance spectroscopy. XRD revealed that modified TiO2 nanocomposites possessed only the anatase phase with crystallite sizes of about 8.1 to 12.7 nm and which is well consistent with TEM analysis. It is seen that erbium ion exist in the nanocomposites based on the analysis of EDS. HR-SEM analysis revealed that the ErxTi1 - xO2 nanocomposites are spherical in shape with size between 10 and 20 nm. The amount of erbium remarkably affects the structural, optical and electrical properties. Loading erbium could produce 4f energy levels between valence and conduction bands thus narrowing optical band gap and generates visible absorption peaks. It was found that erbium modified TiO2 nanocomposites induced a shift in Raman. The enhancement of life time of charge carriers was observed on erbium inclusion.

  1. MoS2 quantum dots@TiO2 nanotube composites with enhanced photoexcited charge separation and high-efficiency visible-light driven photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fenfen; Rong, Yuefei; Wan, Junmin; Hu, Zhiwen; Peng, Zhiqin; Wang, Bing

    2018-03-01

    MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) that are 5 nm in size were deposited on the surface of ultrathin TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) with 5 nm wall thickness by using an improved hydrothermal method to form a MoS2 QDs@TNT visible-light photocatalyst. The ultrathin TNTs with high percentage of photocatalytic reactive facets were fabricated by the commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) through an improved hydrothermal method, and the MoS2 QDs were acquired by using a surfactant-assisted technique. The novel MoS2 QDs@TNT photocatalysts showed excellent photocatalytic activity with a decolorization rate of 92% or approximately 3.5 times more than that of pure TNTs for the high initial concentration of methylene blue solution (20 mg l-1) within 40 min under visible-light irradiation. MoS2 as the co-catalysts favored the broadening of TNTs into the visible-light absorption scope. The quantum confinement and edge effects of the MoS2 QDs and the heterojunction formed between the MoS2 QDs and TNTs efficiently extended the lifetime of photoinduced charges, impeded the recombination of photoexcited electron-hole pairs, and improved the visible-light-driven high-efficiency photocatalysis.

  2. Concurrent formation of blocking-oxide and charge-trap layers by selective oxidation and phase separation of a SiGeO layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongwoo; Jang, Seunghun; Kim, Hyunseung; Han, Moonsup

    2011-01-01

    Ge nanocrystals have recently been studied to improve next-generation nonvolatile memories (NVMs) by substituting Si or ZnO nanocrystals because of their higher dielectric constants, smaller band gap energies, and stronger size effects in the nanometer range. We propose a new method to fabricate a metal-electrode/oxide/insulator/oxide/semiconductor (MOIOS) structure. We deposited a SiGeO compound on an early-made-tunnel-oxide surface and attempted an appropriate post-thermal oxidation to produce simultaneously a blocking-oxide layer (BOL) and a charge-trap layer (CTL). We point out the crucial points for good memory behavior in the MOIOS structure investigated in this work. Based on the high-quality Ge nanocrystals observed in the CTL with a high-resolution transmission microscope (HRTEM) and the prominent behavior of the memory window opening in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics, we propose a fabrication process that fulfills those crucial points. Furthermore, the process forms concurrently both a high-quality BOL and a high-quality CTL easily in a single step. We expect the method to lead to cost savings and to improve product efficiency in the fabrication of next-generation NVM structures.

  3. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ognibene, Theodore Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of 31Cl, 27P and 28P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas ΔE-gas ΔE-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in 31Cl and 27P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of 31Cl were shown to be from the decay of 25Si. In 27P, two proton groups at 459 ± 14 keV and 610 ± 11 keV, with intensities of 7 ± 3% and 92 ± 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the β-decay of 28P, at 1,444 ± 12 keV with a 1.7 ± 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, 17Ne and 33Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 ± 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of 17Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from 17Ne and 33Ar were resolved.

  4. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognibene, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of 31 Cl, 27 P and 28 P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas ΔE-gas ΔE-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in 31 Cl and 27 P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of 31 Cl were shown to be from the decay of 25 Si. In 27 P, two proton groups at 459 ± 14 keV and 610 ± 11 keV, with intensities of 7 ± 3% and 92 ± 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the β-decay of 28 P, at 1,444 ± 12 keV with a 1.7 ± 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, 17 Ne and 33 Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 ± 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of 17 Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from 17 Ne and 33 Ar were resolved

  5. New insight from noble gas and stable isotopes of geothermal/hydrothermal fluids at Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex: Boiling steam separation and water-rock interaction at shallow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Tardani, Daniele; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Vinet, Nicolas; Bravo, Francisco; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan

    2016-12-01

    We measured noble gas and stable isotopes of the geothermal and hydrothermal fluids of the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC), one of the most important geothermal systems in Argentina/Chile, in order to provide new insights into fluid circulation and origin. With the exception of Anfiteatro and Chancho-co geothermal systems, mantle-derived helium dominates in the CCVC fluids, with measured 3He/4He ratios up to 7.86Ra in 2015. Their positive δ15N is an evidence for subducted sediment-derived nitrogen, which is commonly observed in subduction settings. Both He-N2-Ar composition and positive correlation between δD-H2O and δ18O-H2O suggest that the fluids from Anfiteatro and Chancho-co (and partly from Pucon-Mahuida as well, on the southern flank of Copahue volcano) represent a meteoric water composition with a minor magmatic contribution. The Ne, Kr and Xe isotopic compositions are entirely of atmospheric origin, but processes of boiling and steam separation have led to fractionation of their elemental abundances. We modeled the CCVC fluid evolution using Rayleigh distillation curves, considering an initial air saturated geothermal water (ASGW) end-member at 250 and 300 °C, followed by boiling and steam separation at lower temperatures (from 200 °C to 150 °C). Between 2014 and 2015, the CCVC hydrogen and oxygen isotopes shifted from local meteoric water-dominated to andesitic water-dominated signature. This shift is associated with an increase of δ13C values and Stotal, HCl and He contents. These characteristics are consistent with a change in the gas ascent pathway between 2014 and 2015, which in turn induced higher magmatic-hydrothermal contribution in the fluid signature. The composition of the magmatic source of the CCVC fluids is: 3He/4He = 7.7Ra, δ15N = + 6‰, and δ13C = - 6.5‰. Mixing models between air-corrected He and N suggest the involvement of 0.5% to 5% of subducted sediments in the magmatic source. The magmatic sulfur isotopic

  6. A strong steric hindrance effect on ground state, excited state, and charge separated state properties of a CuI-diimine complex captured by X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.; Mara, M.W.; Stickrath, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Photophysical and structural properties of a CuI diimine complex with very strong steric hindrance, [CuI(dppS)2]+ (dppS = 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonic acid disodium salt), are investigated by optical and X-ray transient absorption (OTA and XTA) spectroscopy. The bulky phenylsulfonic...... dynamics and structures as well as those of the charge separated state resulting from the interfacial electron injection from the MLCT state to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The OTA results show the absence of the sub-picosecond component previously assigned as the time constant for flattening, while the two...... of metal complex/semiconductor NP hybrids but also provide guidance for designing efficient CuI diimine complexes with optimized structures for application in solar-to-electricity conversion. This journal is...

  7. Fabrication of novel g-C3N4 nanocrystals decorated Ag3PO4 hybrids: Enhanced charge separation and excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Zeng, Qi; Zhao, Xia; Shao, Yu; Ji, Pengge; Wang, Changqian; Yan, Tao; Du, Bin

    2017-10-05

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanocrystals (NCs) decorated Ag 3 PO 4 hybrids were synthesized by a facile method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The SEM and TEM images showed that the as-prepared Ag 3 PO 4 were composed of particles with diameters of 200-500nm, while the obtained nanocrystalline g-C 3 N 4 were composed of smaller particles with average diameter of 10nm. For nanocrystalline g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 hybrids, the particle surfaces of Ag 3 PO 4 were decorated with numerous g-C 3 N 4 NCs, result in a larger contact area between g-C 3 N 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 . The photocatalytic performances were evaluated by decomposing MO, phenol, bisphenol A, and RhB under visible light. Compared with Ag 3 PO 4 and g-C 3 N 4 , the g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid (mass ratio=1:4) exhibited the best activity, which was much higher than that of bulk-g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 composite under the same conditions. The enhanced activities should be mainly ascribed to the enhanced separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers, which was proved by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurement. Controlled experiments proved that O 2 - and h + played the chief role in the degradation process. A possible Z-scheme degradation mechanism of organic contaminant over g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 hybrid was proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. In-depth understanding of core-shell nanoarchitecture evolution of g-C3N4@C, N co-doped anatase/rutile: Efficient charge separation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Jaafar, Juhana; M. Zain, M. F.; Minggu, Lorna Jeffery; Kassim, Mohammad B.; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Mohamad Nor, Nor Azureen; W. Salleh, W. N.; Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we demonstrated the simultaneous formation of multi-component heterojunction consisting graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and C, N co-doped anatase/rutile mixed phase by using facile sol-gel assisted heat treatment. The evolution of core-shell nanostructures heterojunction formation was elucidated by varying the temperature of heat treatment from 300 °C to 600 °C. Homogeneous heterojunction formation between g-C3N4 and anatase/rutile mixed phase was observed in gT400 with C and N doping into TiO2 lattice by O substitution. The core-shell nanoarchitectures between g-C3N4 as shell, and anatase/rutile mixed phase as core with C and N atoms are doped at the interstitial positions of TiO2 lattice was observed in gT500. The result indicated that core-shell nanoarchitectures photocatalyst (gT500) prepared at 500 ◦C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the possible mechanisms of charge generation, migration, action species and reaction that probably occur at the gT500 sample were also proposed. The photodegradation results of gT500 correlated completely with the results of the PEC and photoluminescence analysis, which directly evidenced improved charge separation and migration as the crucial parameters governing photocatalysis. It is worthy to note that, the simultaneous formation of multicomponent heterojunction with core-shell structure provided an enormous impact in designing highly active photocatalyst with superior interfacial charge transfer.

  9. Kinetics of photocurrent generation and an efficient charge separation of a dye-sensitized n-Cu2O/p-CuSCN junction photoelectrode in a solid-state photovoltaic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, C A N; Kumara, N T R N; Gamage, T N

    2010-01-01

    A Cu/n-Cu 2 O/dye/p-CuSCN junction photoelectrode is fabricated to produce a solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell. Samples are characterized by XRD, SEM and surface resistivity measurements. Photocurrent generation is found due to light absorption of n-Cu 2 O thin film and dye sensitization between p-CuSCN and the dye. Kinetics of the photocurrent generation of the dye sensitization is studied solving the rate equations by the iteration method obtaining a relationship for the photocurrent quantum efficiency (Φ) depending on the surface concentration (D o ) of the dye and the rate constants of the reactions with connection to the dye sensitization process. The solution obtained in the steady state by iteration is found to be of the form Φ = AD o −BD o 2 (A and B are constants related to the reaction rates of the photocurrent generation process and the concentration of the n-Cu 2 O film). The variation of the n-Cu 2 O concentration with photocurrent is presented. A photocurrent enhancement is observed for the Cu/n-Cu 2 O/dye/p-CuSCN photovoltaic cell compared to that of Cu/n-Cu 2 O, Cu/p-CuSCN/dye and Cu/n-Cu 2 O/p-CuSCN photovoltaic cells. Good rectification characteristics are observed for the Cu/n-Cu 2 O/p-CuSCN photoelectrode compared to that of Cu/n-Cu 2 O and Cu/p-CuSCN photoelectrodes. Photocurrent enhancement is found due to the efficient charge separation process at the n–p junction. Energy band structures of the n–p junction are proposed according to the onset potentials which are used to discuss the mechanism of the efficient charge separation suppressing the recombination process

  10. Fabrication of a Co(OH)2/ZnCr LDH "p-n" Heterojunction Photocatalyst with Enhanced Separation of Charge Carriers for Efficient Visible-Light-Driven H2 and O2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipti Prava; Nayak, Susanginee; Reddy, K Hemalata; Martha, Satyabadi; Parida, Kulamani

    2018-04-02

    Photocatalytic generation of H 2 and O 2 by water splitting remains a great challenge for clean and sustainable energy. Taking into the consideration promising heterojunction photocatalysts, analogous energy issues have been mitigated to a meaningful extent. Herein, we have architectured a highly efficient bifunctional heterojunction material, i.e., p-type Co(OH) 2 platelets with an n-type ZnCr layered double hydroxide (LDH) by an ultrasonication method. Primarily, the Mott-Schottky measurements confirmed the n- and p-type semiconductive properties of LDH and CH material, respectively, with the construction of a p-n heterojunction. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy results suggest that surface modification of ZnCr LDH by Co(OH) 2 hexagonal platelets could form a fabulous p-n interfacial region that significantly decreases the energy barrier for O 2 and H 2 production by effectively separating and transporting photoinduced charge carriers, leading to enhanced photoreactivity. A deep investigation into the mechanism shows that a 30 wt % Co(OH) 2 -modified ZnCr LDH sample liberates maximum H 2 and O 2 production in 2 h, i.e., 1115 and 560 μmol, with apparent conversion efficiencies of H 2 and O 2 evolution of 13.12% and 6.25%, respectively. Remarkable photocatalytic activity with energetic charge pair transfer capability was illustrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and photoluminescence spectra. The present study clearly suggests that low-cost Co(OH) 2 platelets are the most crucial semiconductors to provide a new p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for photocatalytic H 2 and O 2 production on the platform of ZnCr LDH.

  11. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  12. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  13. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  14. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  15. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  17. The ReA electron-beam ion trap charge breeder for reacceleration of rare isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Fogleman, J.; Krause, S.; Nash, S.; Rencsok, R.; Tobos, L.; Perdikakis, G.; Portillo, M.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Wittmer, W.; Wu, X.; Bollen, G.; Leitner, D.; Syphers, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Collaboration: ReA Team

    2013-04-19

    ReA is a post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. ReA is designed to reaccelerate rare isotopes to energies of a few MeV/u following production by projectile fragmentation and thermalization in a gas cell. The facility consists of four main components: an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder, an achromatic charge-over-mass (Q/A) separator, a radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator, and a superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator. The EBIT charge breeder was specifically designed to efficiently capture continuous beams of singly charged ions injected at low energy (<60 keV), charge breed in less than 50 ms, and extract highly charged ions to the Q/A separator for charge-state selection and reacceleration through the accelerator structures. The use of highly charged ions to reach high beam energies is a key aspect that makes ReA a compact and cost-efficient post-accelerator. The EBIT is characterized by a high-current electron gun, a long multi-electrode trap structure and a dual magnet to provide both the high electron-beam current density necessary for fast charge breeding of short-lived isotopes as well as the high capture probability of injected beams. This paper presents an overview and the status of the ReA EBIT, which has extracted for reacceleration tests stable {sup 20}Ne{sup 8+} ion beams produced from injected gas and more recently {sup 39}K{sup 16+} beams by injecting stable {sup 39,41}K{sup +} ions from an external ion source.

  18. Interaction between heterogeneously charged surfaces: surface patches and charge modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2013-02-01

    When solid surfaces are immersed in aqueous solutions, some of their charges can dissociate and leave behind charged patches on the surface. Although the charges are distributed heterogeneously on the surface, most of the theoretical models treat them as homogeneous. For overall non-neutral surfaces, the assumption of surface charge homogeneity is rather reasonable since the leading terms of two such interacting surfaces depend on the nonzero average charge. However, for overall neutral surfaces the nature of the surface charge distribution is crucial in determining the intersurface interaction. In the present work we study the interaction between two charged surfaces across an aqueous solution for several charge distributions. The analysis is preformed within the framework of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For periodic charge distributions the interaction is found to be repulsive at small separations, unless the two surface distributions are completely out-of-phase with respect to each other. For quenched random charge distributions we find that due to the presence of the ionic solution in between the surfaces, the intersurface repulsion dominates over the attraction in the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The effect of quenched charge heterogeneity is found to be particularly substantial in the case of large charged domains.

  19. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravoire, Jean

    1978-11-01

    Separation of isotopes is treated in a general way, with special reference to the production of enriched uranium. Uses of separated isotopes are presented quickly. Then basic definitions and theoretical concepts are explained: isotopic effects, non statistical and statistical processes, reversible and irreversible processes, separation factor, enrichment, cascades, isotopic separative work, thermodynamics. Afterwards the main processes and productions are reviewed. Finally the economical and industrial aspects of uranium enrichment are resumed [fr

  20. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  1. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  2. Analyses médico-économiques de la prise en charge de la maladie coronarienne stable : méta-analyse en réseau et modélisation

    OpenAIRE

    Caruba, Thibaut

    2013-01-01

    Stable coronary artery disease is a chronic disease for which many treatment strategies are available, treatment with drugs alone and invasive treatment by stenting or coronary artery bypass graft. With the results of several meta-analyzes showing a mortality rate comparable between treatments, we decided to conduct a research comparing costs. In the first part of my work, we compared, after a period of one year and of 3 years of patient follow-up, clinical and economic data for five treatmen...

  3. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  4. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  6. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  7. Electromagnetic separator of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, V.V.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Poklepach, G.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The progress in the widespread utilization of the PVD methods is determined in many respects by the plasma quality and, therefore, the necessity of an application of plasma separators, in particular magnetic separators. One needs to note that traditional magnetic separators have a number of problems their using, namely their unwieldiness, the presence of the isolated cameras and so on. We have proposed, manufactured and investigated the simple separator of plasma that doesn't require using additional cameras. As a source of metallic plasma the standard cathode vaporizer in the installation 'BULAT 6' was in use. Plasma stream from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral solenoid. The solenoid input (from the cathode side) was under floating potential. The solenoid output was connected to the autonomous power supply system. The solenoid was prepared with stride winding and 90 degree turn. The solenoid current was 20-90 A and the solenoid voltage with respect to the vessel (earth) was +15 V. In this case drifting charged particles could freely fly out from the interior solenoid region to its boundary. The glow of the turned flow of plasma was observed during the supplying of the cathode and the solenoid. Plasma flow was separated from the coils and extended along the axis of solenoid. One can assume that this device ensures radial electric with respect to the bulk of plasma (the diameter of the bulk of plasma is comparable with the cathode diameter), the toroidal magnetic field, produced by solenoid, was of an order of 20 Oe. Magnetic field strength was sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it was rather small for magnetizing the ions and charged micro-droplets. The experiments carried out with aluminum cathode on the deposition of coatings at the stainless steel substrate have shown the high effectiveness of this separator operation. Coatings without droplets were obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement

  8. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  9. Separated Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments might ... the ligaments that hold your collarbone to your shoulder blade. Risk factors Participating in contact sports, such as ...

  10. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  11. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  12. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  13. Product separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, R.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted, nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present

  14. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  15. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  16. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  17. Ewald Electrostatics for Mixtures of Point and Continuous Line Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Tassel, Paul R Van; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Many charged macro- or supramolecular systems, such as DNA, are approximately rod-shaped and, to the lowest order, may be treated as continuous line charges. However, the standard method used to calculate electrostatics in molecular simulation, the Ewald summation, is designed to treat systems of point charges. We extend the Ewald concept to a hybrid system containing both point charges and continuous line charges. We find the calculated force between a point charge and (i) a continuous line charge and (ii) a discrete line charge consisting of uniformly spaced point charges to be numerically equivalent when the separation greatly exceeds the discretization length. At shorter separations, discretization induces deviations in the force and energy, and point charge-point charge correlation effects. Because significant computational savings are also possible, the continuous line charge Ewald method presented here offers the possibility of accurate and efficient electrostatic calculations.

  18. Preparation of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers containing only the polarization charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qin; Yao, Yongyi; Guo, Xiaoming; Zhou, Tao; Xiang, Ruili

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we report a simple method to separate immobile charges into polarization charges and trapped charges and successfully prepare electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers only containing polarization charge. The amount of surface polarization charges and trapped charges were +5.34 nC/g and -2.98 nC/g, respectively. We also tried to explain the mechanism of formation and location of immobile charges by using a model of a parallel plate capacitor, and to track the route and location of charges. Additionally, we investigated the influence of residual solvent, a water bath and the temperature of the water bath on the immobile charges.

  19. Search for stable stau production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaschube, Kolja

    2011-10-15

    In this thesis, a search for heavy stable charge particle production, in particular a quasistable supersymmetric tau lepton (''stau'') arising in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) models, is presented. This stable stau would cross detectors without decaying, resembling a muon, and produce signatures of high momentum or high ionization energy loss. The energy loss measurement represents a direct handle on the particle mass via the Bethe-Bloch formula. Proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy produced by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded by the CMS detector are investigated. Low-momentum collision data tracks are used to predict the background of highly ionizing tracks at high momenta. A high signal-to-background ratio is achieved by separating the search into channels with differing muon or stau multiplicities and by using the transverse momentum and energy loss measurement as the discriminating variables. Using 35.8 pb{sup -1} of data recorded in the 2010 LHC run, no excess is observed with respect to the expected Standard Model background. As a result, upper limits on the mass of stable status are derived within the context of the investigated GMSB models. (orig.)

  20. Search for stable stau production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschube, Kolja

    2011-10-01

    In this thesis, a search for heavy stable charge particle production, in particular a quasistable supersymmetric tau lepton (''stau'') arising in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) models, is presented. This stable stau would cross detectors without decaying, resembling a muon, and produce signatures of high momentum or high ionization energy loss. The energy loss measurement represents a direct handle on the particle mass via the Bethe-Bloch formula. Proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy produced by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded by the CMS detector are investigated. Low-momentum collision data tracks are used to predict the background of highly ionizing tracks at high momenta. A high signal-to-background ratio is achieved by separating the search into channels with differing muon or stau multiplicities and by using the transverse momentum and energy loss measurement as the discriminating variables. Using 35.8 pb -1 of data recorded in the 2010 LHC run, no excess is observed with respect to the expected Standard Model background. As a result, upper limits on the mass of stable status are derived within the context of the investigated GMSB models. (orig.)

  1. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  2. Kinetic isoforms of intramembrane charge in intact amphibian striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C L

    1996-04-01

    The effects of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists ryanodine and daunorubicin on the kinetic and steady-state properties of intramembrane charge were investigated in intact voltage-clamped frog skeletal muscle fibers under conditions that minimized time-dependent ionic currents. A hypothesis that RyR gating is allosterically coupled to configurational changes in dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) would predict that such interactions are reciprocal and that RyR modification should influence intramembrane charge. Both agents indeed modified the time course of charging transients at 100-200-microM concentrations. They independently abolished the delayed charging phases shown by q gamma currents, even in fibers held at fully polarized, -90-mV holding potentials; such waveforms are especially prominent in extracellular solutions containing gluconate. Charge movements consistently became exponential decays to stable baselines in the absence of intervening inward or other time-dependent currents. The steady-state charge transfers nevertheless remained equal through the ON and the OFF parts of test voltage steps. The charge-voltage function, Q(VT), shifted by approximately +10 mV, particularly through those test potentials at which delayed q gamma currents normally took place but retained steepness factors (k approximately 8.0 to 10.6 mV) that indicated persistent, steeply voltage-dependent q gamma contributions. Furthermore, both RyR antagonists preserved the total charge, and its variation with holding potential, Qmax (VH), which also retained similarly high voltage sensitivities (k approximately 7.0 to 9.0 mV). RyR antagonists also preserved the separate identities of q gamma and q beta species, whether defined by their steady-state voltage dependence or inactivation or pharmacological properties. Thus, tetracaine (2 mM) reduced the available steady-state charge movement and gave shallow Q(VT) (k approximately 14 to 16 mV) and Qmax (VH) (k approximately 14 to 17 m

  3. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  4. Bosonic instability of charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  6. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating isotopes in an isotopic mixture of atoms or molecules by increasing the mass differential among isotopic species. The mixture containing a particular isotope is selectively irradiated so as to selectively excite the isotope. This preferentially excited species is then reacted rapidly with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product containing the specific isotope, but having a mass different than the original species initially containing the particular isotope. The product and the remaining balance of the mixture is then caused to flow through a device which separates the product from the mixture based upon the increased mass differential

  7. Multistage Electrophoretic Separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan; Doyle, John F.; Kurk, Andy; Vellinger, John C.; Todd, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A multistage electrophoresis apparatus has been invented for use in the separation of cells, protein molecules, and other particles and solutes in concentrated aqueous solutions and suspensions. The design exploits free electrophoresis but overcomes the deficiencies of prior free-electrophoretic separators by incorporating a combination of published advances in mathematical modeling of convection, sedimentation, electro-osmotic flow, and the sedimentation and aggregation of droplets. In comparison with other electrophoretic separators, these apparatuses are easier to use and are better suited to separation in relatively large quantities characterized in the art as preparative (in contradistinction to smaller quantities characterized in the art as analytical). In a multistage electrophoretic separator according to the invention, an applied vertical steady electric field draws the electrically charged particles of interest from within a cuvette to within a collection cavity that has been moved into position of the cuvette. There are multiple collection cavities arranged in a circle; each is aligned with the cuvette for a prescribed short time. The multistage, short-migration-path character of the invention solves, possibly for the first time, the fluid-instability problems associated with free electrophoresis. The figure shows a prototype multistage electrophoretic separator that includes four sample stations and five collection stages per sample. At each sample station, an aqueous solution or suspension containing charged species to be separated is loaded into a cuvette, which is machined into a top plate. The apparatus includes a lower plate, into which 20 collection cavities have been milled. Each cavity is filled with an electrophoresis buffer solution. For the collection of an electrophoretic fraction, the lower plate is rotated to move a designated collection cavity into alignment with the opening of the cuvette. An electric field is then applied between a non

  8. Design for simultaneous acceleration of stable and unstable beams in a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator for RISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwon; Son, Hyock-Jun; Park, Young-Ho

    2017-11-01

    The post-accelerator of isotope separation on-line (ISOL) system for rare isotope science project (RISP) is a superconducting linear accelerator (SC-linac) with a DC equivalent voltage of around 160 MV. An isotope beam extracted from the ISOL is in a charge state of 1+ and its charge state is increased to n+ by charge breeding with an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The charge breeding takes tens of ms and the pulse width of extracted beam from the EBIS is tens of μs, which operates at up to 30 Hz. Consequently a large portion of radio frequency (rf) time of the post SC-linac is unused. The post-linac is equipped also with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for stable ion acceleration. Thanks to the large phase acceptance of SC-linac, it is possible to accelerate simultaneously both stable and radioisotope ions with a similar charge to mass ratio by sharing rf time. This operation scheme is implemented for RISP with the addition of an electric chopper and magnetic kickers. The facility will be capable of providing the users of the ISOL and in-flight fragmentation (IF) systems with different beams simultaneously, which would help nuclear science users in obtaining a beam time as high-precision measurements often need long hours.

  9. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  10. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.H.; Bett, R.; Cuninghame, J.G.; Sims, H.

    1982-01-01

    In the separation of short-lived isotopes for medical usage, a solution containing sup(195m)Hg is contacted with vicinal dithiol cellulose which adsorbs and retains the sup(195m)Hg. sup(195m)Au is eluted from the vicinal dithiol cellulose by using a suitable elutant. The sup(195m)Au arises from the radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The preferred elutant is a solution containing CN - ion. (author)

  11. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  12. Comparison of modification strategies towards enhanced charge carrier separation and photocatalytic degradation activity of metal oxide semiconductors (TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and ZnO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. Girish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, 560012 Karnataka (India); Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering and Technology, CMR University, Bengaluru, 562149, Karnataka (India); Rao, K.S.R. Koteswara, E-mail: raoksrk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, 560012 Karnataka (India)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Semiconductor metal oxides: Modifications, charge carrier dynamics and photocatalysis. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and ZnO based photocatalysis is reviewed. • Advances to improve the efficiency are emphasized. • Differences and similarities in the modifications are highlighted. • Charge carrier dynamics for each strategy are discussed. - Abstract: Metal oxide semiconductors (TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and ZnO) finds unparalleled opportunity in wastewater purification under UV/visible light, largely encouraged by their divergent admirable features like stability, non-toxicity, ease of preparation, suitable band edge positions and facile generation of active oxygen species in the aqueous medium. However, the perennial failings of these photocatalysts emanates from the stumbling blocks like rapid charge carrier recombination and meager visible light response. In this review, tailoring the surface-bulk electronic structure through the calibrated and veritable approaches such as impurity doping, deposition with noble metals, sensitizing with other compounds (dyes, polymers, inorganic complexes and simple chelating ligands), hydrogenation process (annealing under hydrogen atmosphere), electronic integration with other semiconductors, modifying with carbon nanostructures, designing with exposed facets and tailoring with hierarchical morphologies to overcome their critical drawbacks are summarized. Taking into account the materials intrinsic properties, the pros and cons together with similarities and striking differences for each strategy in specific to TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} & ZnO are highlighted. These subtlety enunciates the primacy for improving the structure-electronic properties of metal oxides and credence to its fore in the practical applications. Future research must focus on comparing the performances of ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} in parallel to get insight into their photocatalytic behaviors. Such comparisons not only reveal

  13. Particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Solid particles are separated from a liquid which also contains ferric hydroxide by subjecting the liquid to ultrasonic agitation from a transducer in order to break up the flocs so that they will pass with the liquid through a filter belt. The belt thus retains the solid particles without interference from the flocs. As shown the woven nylon belt collects rare radioactive solid particles from liquid and carries them under sensors. The belt is washed clean, with further ultrasonic agitation in a trough on its return run. (author)

  14. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  15. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  16. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.H.; Marks, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for separating uranium isotopes is described which includes: preparing a volatile compound U-T, in which U is a mixture of uranium isotopes and T is a chemical moiety containing at least one organic or deuterated borohydride group, and which exhibits for at least one isotopic species thereof a fundamental, overtone or combination vibrational absorption excitation energy level at a frequency between 900 and 1100 cm -1 ; and irradiating the compound in the vapour phase with energy emitted by a radiation source at a frequency between 900 and 1100 cm -1 (e.g. a CO 2 laser). (author)

  17. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  18. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado Linan, Isabel, E-mail: isabel@gfz-potsdam.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Gutierrez, Emilia, E-mail: emgutierrez@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Helle, Gerhard, E-mail: ghelle@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Heinrich, Ingo, E-mail: heinrich@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Andreu-Hayles, Laia, E-mail: laiandreu@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades NY (United States); Planells, Octavi, E-mail: leocarpus@hotmail.com [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Leuenberger, Markus, E-mail: leuenberger@climate.unibe.ch [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Zaehringerstrasse 25, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Buerger, Carmen, E-mail: buerger@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Schleser, Gerhard, E-mail: schleser@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-05-01

    {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the {delta}{sup 13}C and the {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing {delta}{sup 18}O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pooled {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies are expected to be similar to the mean. {yields} Empirical pooled chronologies {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O and the mean show a high synchronicity. {yields} Pooled chronologies differ especially when comparing {delta}{sup 18}O for decadal variation. {yields} Imprecision in sample preparation as cellulose inhomogeneity may introduce a bias.

  19. Heavy stable isotope separation by ion cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Larousse, B.; Patris, M.

    1994-01-01

    The scientific feasibility of the ion cyclotron resonance process (ICR), as well as the technical one, has been investigated carefully for light metallic elements, whose masses lies between 40 and 100/1,2/. The present work deals mainly with the same demonstration for heavier elements such as ytterbium, gadolinium and barium. Recent results, as well as future prospects, are considered here. (authors)

  20. Vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge applied to stable isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.

    1989-09-01

    This work describes the results of a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge experiment. A plasma centrifuge is an apparatus where a plasma column is produced due to the interaction of an electric current with an externally applied magnetic field, sup(→)J x sup(→)B. Among the applications of a rotating plasma, this work deals particularly with its utilization in an isotope enrichment device. The main characteristics of the plasma produced in this experiment are presented, with special attention to the plasma column rotation and the isotope enrichment. The analysis of the results is performed using a fluid model for a completely ionized rigid body rotating plasma column in steady state equilibrium. The main results are: a) rotation frequency of the plasma column in the range 2 x 10 sup(4) to 3 x 10 sup(5) rad/s; b) enrichment of 10 to 30% for the magnesium isotopes, and of 290 to 490% for the carbon 13 isotope; c) rigid body rotation of the plasma column only for radii smaller than the characteristic radius of the plasma column. re; d) linear dependence of the rotation frequency upon the magnetic field strength only for r < re; e) existence of an optimum value of the magnetic field for maximum enrichment; and f) dependence of the rotation frequency upon the inverse of the atomic mass. (author)

  1. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, R.; Sims, H.E.; Cuninghame, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    sup(195m)Au is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg, wherein sup(195m)Au is generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg, by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb the sup(195m)Hg as Hg ++ ions followed by elution of sup(195m)Au arising from said radioactive decay. The adsorbing agent is 3-thio-2-hydroxypropyl-ether-Sepharose (R.T.M.); sup(195m)Au may be prepared in this way in a medical isotope generator and is suitable for use in gamma-scan studies of heart action. (author)

  2. Electrospun polyimide-composite separator for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayapat, Jaritphun; Chung, Ok Hee; Park, Jun Seo

    2015-01-01

    Non-woven mats of thermally stable polyimide (PI) composites were fabricated as a separator of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by first electrospinning a mixture of the pre-polymer, poly(amic acid) ammonium salt (PAAS), and inorganic nanoparticles of SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 and then imidizing the electrospun nanofibers of the PAAS composites at 350 °C. The microstructures of the electrospun PI nanofibers, electrospun PI–SiO 2 -composite nanofibers, electrospun PI–Al 2 O 3 -composite nanofibers, and the commercial separator SV718 were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Test results of the thermal properties of the PI nanofibers, PI-composite nanofibers, and SV718, obtained with a thermal gravimetric analyzer and a differential scanning calorimeter, indicate the superior thermal stability of PI and PI composites, which showed no melting peak and no decomposition at 600 °C, while SV718 had a melting peak at 137 °C and decomposed at 300 °C. The thermal stability of the separators, evaluated in a hot-oven test, showed no shrinkage of PI and PI composites at 200 °C, while SV718 started to shrink at above 100 °C. Using a drop of liquid electrolyte on the surface of each separator, the electrolyte contact angle on PI and PI composites was around 10° and that on SV718 was 54°, indicating that PI and PI composites had better wettability than SV718. The porosity and liquid-electrolyte uptake of the PI composites were over 90% and 790%, respectively, while the corresponding values for SV718 were 40% and 101%, respectively, implying that the separators consisting of the non-woven mats of PI–SiO 2 -composite nanofibers and PI–Al 2 O 3 -composite nanofibers had lower interfacial resistance than the commercial SV718 separator. The electrochemical performance of the PI-composite separator assembled between the LiCoO 2 cathode and the Li anode of an LIB exhibited more stable cycle performance, higher discharge

  3. Rational and scalable fabrication of high-quality WO3/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays for photoanodes toward enhanced charge separation and transport under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijin; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Wenjun; Xu, Qinfeng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-12-07

    High-quality one-dimensional WO3/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays used as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells were for the first time prepared via a rational, two-step chemical vapor deposition process. The narrow band-gap CdS shell was homogeneously coated on the entire surface of as-grown WO3 core nanowire arrays, forming coaxial heterostructures. The one-dimensional core/shell heterostructure facilitates the photogenerated electron-hole pair separation and the electron transfer from CdS to WO3 nanowires under visible light illumination. Moreover, the core nanowire arrays provide a direct pathway for the electron transport. The present results imply that the WO3/CdS core/shell heterostructure nanowire arrays may be useful in the design of nanostructure photoanodes toward highly efficient PEC cells.

  4. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  5. Charged boson stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Rueda H., Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2013-07-01

    We study time-independent, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating systems minimally coupled to a scalar field with U(1) gauge symmetry: charged boson stars. We find numerical solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations coupled to the relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is shown that bound stable configurations exist only for values of the coupling constant less than or equal to a certain critical value. The metric coefficients and the relevant physical quantities, such as the total mass and charge, turn out to be, in general, bound functions of the radial coordinate, reaching their maximum values at a critical value of the scalar field at the origin. We discuss the stability problem from both the quantitative and qualitative point of view. We take into account the electromagnetic contribution to the total mass and investigate the stability issue considering the binding energy per particle. We verify the existence of configurations with positive binding energy in which objects that are apparently bound can be unstable against small perturbations, in full analogy with the effect observed in the mass-radius relation of neutron stars.

  6. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  7. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-01-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs

  8. 77 FR 30915 - Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... for Unauthorized Charges (``Cramming''); Consumer Information and Disclosure; Truth-in-Billing Format... unauthorized charges on their telephone bills, an unlawful and fraudulent practice commonly referred to as... charges and place third-party charges in a separate bill section from all telephone company charges. The...

  9. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  10. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  11. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  12. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  13. Modeling the Electric Potential and Surface Charge Density Near Charged Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Matthew Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Thundercloud charge separation, or the process by which the bottom portion of a cloud gathers charge and the top portion of the cloud gathers the opposite charge, is still not thoroughly understood. Whatever the mechanism, though, a charge separation definitely exists and can lead to electrostatic discharge via cloud-to-cloud lightning and cloud-to-ground lightning. We wish to examine the latter form, in which upward leaders from Earth connect with downward leaders from the cloud to form a plasma channel and produce lightning. Much of the literature indicates that the lower part of a thundercloud becomes negatively charged while the upper part becomes positively charged via convective charging, although the opposite polarity can certainly exist along with various, complex intra-cloud currents. It is estimated that >90% of cloud-to-ground lightning is "negative lightning," or the flow of charges from the bottom of the cloud, while the remaining the flow of charges from the top of the cloud. We wish to understand the electric potential surrounding charged thunderclouds as well as the resulting charge density on the surface of Earth below them. In this paper we construct a simple and adaptable model that captures the very basic features of the cloud/ground system and that exhibits conditions favorable for both forms of lightning. In this way, we provide a practical application of electrostatic dipole physics as well as the method of images that can serve as a starting point for further modeling and analysis by students.

  14. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  15. Characterization and correction of charge-induced pixel shifts in DECam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D.; Bernstein, G. M.; Jarvis, M.; Rowe, B.; Vikram, V.; Plazas, A. A.; Seitz, S.

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of charges in CCDs with the already accumulated charge distribution causes both a flux dependence of the point-spread function (an increase of observed size with flux, also known as the brighter/fatter effect) and pixel-to-pixel correlations of the {Poissonian} noise in flat fields. We describe these effects in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) with charge dependent shifts of effective pixel borders, i.e. the Antilogus et al. (2014) model, which we fit to measurements of flat-field {Poissonian} noise correlations. The latter fall off approximately as a power-law r(-)(2.5) with pixel separation r, are isotropic except for an asymmetry in the direct neighbors along rows and columns, are stable in time, and are weakly dependent on wavelength. They show variations from chip to chip at the 20% level that correlate with the silicon resistivity. The charge shifts predicted by the model cause biased shape measurements, primarily due to their effect on bright stars, at levels exceeding weak lensing science requirements. We measure the flux dependence of star images and show that the effect can be mitigated by applying the reverse charge shifts at the pixel level during image processing. Differences in stellar size, however, remain significant due to residuals at larger distance from the centroid.

  16. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, P.; Dr Soubbaramayer [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Lasers et de la Physico-Chimie, DESICP/DLPC/SPP, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noe, P

    1989-07-01

    The Proceedings of the 1989 Workshop are presented in two volumes: volume 1 contains 4 papers on plasma processes and 7 papers on centrifugation. The papers on plasma processes deal with two main methods: ion cyclotron resonance and rotating plasmas. A survey lecture reviews extensively the physics of the two processes, the published experimental results and includes an abundant bibliography of about 200 references. The 3 other papers communicate original and recent experiments carried out by the authors. The plasma process remains as a possible technology to separate stable isotopes and isotopes of metals located in the middle of the Mendeleev Table. Regarding the stable isotopes, the ion cyclotron resonance might be an alternative to the Calutron process. The sessions on centrifugation include 2 review papers by URENCO authors and 5 specialized communications. The review papers take stock of the centrifuge research and gives the current status of the centrifuge technology in URENCO. The authors say that the centrifugation is presently an established industrial and commercial process ready to enter in competition for any new construction of enrichment capacity. Volume 2 contains the papers on 3 topics: basic studies (11 papers), chemical process (2 papers) and laser processes (7 papers). The papers on basic studies include investigations on rotating flows. A special attention is given to studies on convection flows, driven by acceleration field or (and) capillary forces. The interest of convection is obvious, as it has applications in important fields: the hydrodynamics of liquid uranium in the evaporation crucible of AVLIS Process, the crystal growth experiments on earth or under microgravity conditions (future experiments planned in space-labs) and the welding by electron or photon beams. Two papers are presented on the chemical process and both of them are by French authors. The French CEA has, in the past, developed with success the CHEMEX process. The

  17. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Dr Soubbaramayer; Noe, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 1989 Workshop are presented in two volumes: volume 1 contains 4 papers on plasma processes and 7 papers on centrifugation. The papers on plasma processes deal with two main methods: ion cyclotron resonance and rotating plasmas. A survey lecture reviews extensively the physics of the two processes, the published experimental results and includes an abundant bibliography of about 200 references. The 3 other papers communicate original and recent experiments carried out by the authors. The plasma process remains as a possible technology to separate stable isotopes and isotopes of metals located in the middle of the Mendeleev Table. Regarding the stable isotopes, the ion cyclotron resonance might be an alternative to the Calutron process. The sessions on centrifugation include 2 review papers by URENCO authors and 5 specialized communications. The review papers take stock of the centrifuge research and gives the current status of the centrifuge technology in URENCO. The authors say that the centrifugation is presently an established industrial and commercial process ready to enter in competition for any new construction of enrichment capacity. Volume 2 contains the papers on 3 topics: basic studies (11 papers), chemical process (2 papers) and laser processes (7 papers). The papers on basic studies include investigations on rotating flows. A special attention is given to studies on convection flows, driven by acceleration field or (and) capillary forces. The interest of convection is obvious, as it has applications in important fields: the hydrodynamics of liquid uranium in the evaporation crucible of AVLIS Process, the crystal growth experiments on earth or under microgravity conditions (future experiments planned in space-labs) and the welding by electron or photon beams. Two papers are presented on the chemical process and both of them are by French authors. The French CEA has, in the past, developed with success the CHEMEX process. The

  18. Development of an automatic scanning system for the detection of charged particles in Opera and pion/muon separation at low energies; Developpement d'un systeme de scan automatique pour la detection des particules chargees dans OPERA et separation des {pi}/{mu} de basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royole-Degieux, P

    2005-07-15

    The OPERA experiment (Oscillation Project with Emulsion t-Racking Apparatus) aims to check Super-Kamiokande results, searching for tau neutrinos apparition in an originally pure muon neutrino beam, by the direct observation of the tau decay topology. The OPERA target is made of walls of bricks, whose structure consists in a sandwich of lead plates and emulsion plates. The emulsions are very precise trajectographs ({approx} 1 micron) which will be used in a huge quantity during the experiment. Therefore, their analysis requires an automatic and dedicated acquisition system. First, this thesis aimed to tune and to develop the first French scanning system. The performances presented showed that the precision of the system respects the OPERA requirements and its speed is expected to increase in a few months. Then, the pion/muon separation at low energies was studies and test beams, designed to answer this problem, were performed. The firs results, showing the possibility of a separation, were presented. Finally, a reconstruction program dedicated to these stopping particles and taking into account the scanning efficiencies has been developed and tested. (author)

  19. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  20. Ion mass separation modeling inside a plasma separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikov, A. V.; Sidorov, V. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Tarakanov, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The results have been obtained in a continuation of the work for ion trajectories calculation in crossed electric and magnetic fields and also in a close alignment with the plasma separation study development. The main task was to calculate trajectories of ions of the substance imitating spent nuclear fuel in order to find a feasible plasma separator configuration. The three-dimensional modeling has been made with KARAT code in a single-particle approximation. The calculations have been performed under the following conditions. Magnetic field is produced by 2 coils of wire, the characteristic field strength in a uniform area is 1.4 kG. Electric field is produced by several electrodes (axial ones, anode shell and capacitor sheets) with electric potential up to 500 V. The characteristic linear size of the cylindrical separator area is ∼ 100 cm. The characteristic size of injection region is ∼ 1 cm. Spatial position of the injection region is inside the separator. The injection direction is along magnetic lines. Injected particles are single-charged ions with energies from 0 to 20 eV with atomic masses A = 150 and 240. Wide spreading angle range was investigated. As a result of simulation a feasible separator configuration was found. This configuration allows to achieve more than 10 cm spatial division distance for the separated ions and is fully compliant with and supplementary to the vacuum arc-based ion source research.

  1. Effects of the Inductive Charging on the Electrification and Lightning Discharges in Thunderstorms

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Shi; Hui-Qiang Tang; Yong-Bo Tan

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud model with electrification and lightning processes is used to investigate the role of inductive charge separation in thunderstorm clouds. For the same dynamic and microphysical evolution, four cases that the same non-inductive charging parameterization is combined with different inductive charging process are compared. Non-inductive charge separation alone is found to be sufficient to produce a dipolar charge structure. Intracloud (IC) and positive cloud-to-ground (+CG...

  2. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  3. Charge Transport in Electrostatic Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallone, B. Gino

    A new analytical hyperbolic expression is presented to describe the full saturation curve of parallel-plate ionization chambers filled with air or with high atomic number gases at elevated pressures. It is shown that all parameters of the saturation curve expression can be calculated from one single measurement of ionization current at a given electric field and air gap thickness. Isothermal charge deposition on polymers to form stable foil electrets by using an apparatus resembling parallel-plate ionization chambers is reported. Charge carriers produced by irradiation of the sensitive air volume drift in the externally applied electric field and get trapped on the polymer surface to form electrets. The time dependence of the polarization and depolarization current densities, the effective electric field in the electret chamber, and the electret surface charge densities are presented for the radiation-induced foil electret and an excellent agreement is obtained with the measured electret data. The theory of linear systems is used to derive the electric field and potential in distance space in the electret chamber. The charging characteristics of ionographi latent images are discussed in terms of saturation characteristics of ionographic chambers. The minimum applied electric field needed for an optimized charge collection in the ionographic chamber is presented in terms of both the electret characteristic polarization time and the electret relaxation time. The feasibility of radiographic image subtraction based on electrostatic imaging techniques is demonstrated. Latent image charging at one polarity corresponding to the production of the primary image, and latent image discharging with the opposite chamber polarity, are used to create the final image representing the region of interest.

  4. Motions in the relativistic fields of a charged dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da.

    1980-04-01

    The general relativistic motion of arbitrarily charged test particles is investigated, in the spherically symmetric fields of a charged, static, incoherent matter with T 0 0 = const. The condition for existence of stable circular orbits is established, inside and outside the diffused source. The null geodesics are also investigated, as a limiting case. (Author) [pt

  5. Ammonia separation in novel bio filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hahne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently used bio filters are suited for odor reduction in livestock keeping but not for ammonia separation. Therefore it was the objective to develop a novel bio filter system which was able to ensure a high and long-lasting ammonia separation. This novel bio filter, which is equipped with a pH control in a water swamp beneath the filter layer and a conductivity control for water discharge, was investigated in terms of ammonia separation and nitrogen disposition over several months under practical conditions. The results show a stable ammonia separation of more than 88 % if certain consecutively described operating conditions are kept.

  6. a Search for Fractionally Charged Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Richard Gerard

    An ion-source and a charge spectrometer have been built which make it possible to search in solid stable matter for particles with non-integral charge. The ion -source uses a beam of magnetically analyzed 30 keV Ar('+) ions to sputter the sample in an ultra high vacuum environment. The charge spectrometer comprises a 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator followed by a 0.2% resolution electrostatic analysis system and a (DELTA)E-E detector system. The entire apparatus has been constructed to be independent of mass over a mass range of 0.2 GeV/c('2) to 250 GeV/c('2). It is assumed that the fractionally charged particle is able to bind an electron. A search has been carried out in samples of niobium and tungsten for fractionally charged particles (FCP) with fractional charge modulo 1/3. In particular, we have looked for Z = N + 1/3 ; N = 0,1... and Z = N + 2/3; N = 0,1. Upper limits have been obtained for the FCP concentration per target atom. These upper limits vary between 1 x 10(' -16) and 3 x 10('--9) depending on the material searched and the charge state examined. Some interesting events have been seen. These are FCP candidates, but they can also be explained as improbable integrally charged events.

  7. Laser-induced charge separation in organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Behn, Dino; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    -assemble into crystalline nanofibers by vapor deposition onto muscovite mica substrates, and we have recently shown that such nanofibers can be transferred to different substrates by roll-printing and used as the active material in e.g. organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs...

  8. Laser-induced charge separation in organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Behn, Dino; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications, which combined with their low price and straight-forward processing over large areas make them interesting materials for future devices. Certain oligomers can self-assemble into c...

  9. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  10. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO 4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF 6 . While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material. (paper)

  11. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  12. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO 3 over SrTiO 3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  13. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Artacho, Emilio, E-mail: ncb30@cam.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-02

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO{sub 3} over SrTiO{sub 3} in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  14. Amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for removal of oil droplets from produced water and accelerated magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Saebom; Kim, Eun Song; Park, Siman; Daigle, Hugh; Milner, Thomas E.; Huh, Chun; Bennetzen, Martin V.; Geremia, Giuliano A.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with surface coatings designed for water treatment, in particular for targeted removal of contaminants from produced water in oil fields, have drawn considerable attention due to their environmental merit. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of removing very stable, micron-scale oil droplets dispersed in oilfield produced water. We synthesized MNPs in the laboratory with a prescribed surface coating. The MNPs were superparamagnetic magnetite, and the hydrodynamic size of amine functionalized MNPs ranges from 21 to 255 nm with an average size of 66 nm. The initial oil content of 0.25 wt.% was reduced by as much as 99.9% in separated water. The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged oil-in-water emulsions and positively charged MNPs controls, the attachment of MNPs to the droplet surface, and the subsequent aggregation of the electrically neutral oil droplets with attached MNPs (MNPs-oils) play a critical role in accelerated and efficient magnetic separation. The total magnetic separation time was dramatically reduced to as short as 1 s after MNPs, and oil droplets were mixed, in contrast with the case of free, individual MNPs with which separation took about 36˜72 h, depending on the MNP concentrations. Model calculations of magnetic separation velocity, accounting for the MNP magnetization and viscous drag, show that the total magnetic separation time will be approximately 5 min or less, when the size of the MNPs-oils is greater than 360 nm, which can be used as an optimum operating condition.

  15. Amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for removal of oil droplets from produced water and accelerated magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Saebom, E-mail: saebomko@austin.utexas.edu [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Kim, Eun Song [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Park, Siman [University of Texas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (United States); Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Milner, Thomas E. [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Huh, Chun [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Bennetzen, Martin V. [Maersk Oil Corporate (Denmark); Geremia, Giuliano A. [Maersk Oil Research and Technology Centre (Qatar)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with surface coatings designed for water treatment, in particular for targeted removal of contaminants from produced water in oil fields, have drawn considerable attention due to their environmental merit. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of removing very stable, micron-scale oil droplets dispersed in oilfield produced water. We synthesized MNPs in the laboratory with a prescribed surface coating. The MNPs were superparamagnetic magnetite, and the hydrodynamic size of amine functionalized MNPs ranges from 21 to 255 nm with an average size of 66 nm. The initial oil content of 0.25 wt.% was reduced by as much as 99.9% in separated water. The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged oil-in-water emulsions and positively charged MNPs controls, the attachment of MNPs to the droplet surface, and the subsequent aggregation of the electrically neutral oil droplets with attached MNPs (MNPs-oils) play a critical role in accelerated and efficient magnetic separation. The total magnetic separation time was dramatically reduced to as short as 1 s after MNPs, and oil droplets were mixed, in contrast with the case of free, individual MNPs with which separation took about 36∼72 h, depending on the MNP concentrations. Model calculations of magnetic separation velocity, accounting for the MNP magnetization and viscous drag, show that the total magnetic separation time will be approximately 5 min or less, when the size of the MNPs-oils is greater than 360 nm, which can be used as an optimum operating condition.

  16. JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Quantum mechanics of charged particle beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Theory of charged particle beam optics is basic to the design and working of charged particle beam devices from electron microscopes to accelerator machines. Traditionally, the optical elements of the devices are designed and operated based on classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism, and only certain specific quantum mechanical aspects are dealt with separately using quantum theory. This book provides a systematic approach to quantum theory of charged particle beam optics, particularly in the high energy cases such as accelerators or high energy electron microscopy.

  18. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions....... The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content. (C) 2004 Elsevier B. V. All rights...

  19. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Annaka, Masahiko; Hino, Masahiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Vigild, Martin E.; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content

  20. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Annaka, Masahiko; Hino, Masahiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; E. Vigild, Martin; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2004-07-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content.

  1. Investigation on the use of graphene oxide as novel surfactant to stabilize weakly charged graphene nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Salim Newaz; Badarudin, Ahmad; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd; Ming, Huang Nay; Misran, Misni; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Mehrali, Mohammad; Syuhada, Nur Ily

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a unique synergistic behavior between a graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelet (GnP) composite in an aqueous medium. The results showed that GO stabilized GnP colloid near its isoelectric point and prevented rapid agglomeration and sedimentation. It was considered that a rarely encountered charge-dependent electrostatic interaction between the highly charged GO and weakly charged GnP particles kept GnP suspended at its rapid coagulation and phase separation pH. Sedimentation and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrograph images revealed the evidence of highly stable colloidal mixtures while zeta potential measurement provided semi-quantitative explanation on the mechanism of stabilization. GnP suspension was confirmed via UV-vis spectral data while contact angle measurement elucidated the close resemblance to an aqueous solution indicating the ability of GO to mediate the flocculation prone GnP colloids. About a tenfold increase in viscosity was recorded at a low shear rate in comparison to an individual GO solution due to a strong interaction manifested between participating colloids. An optimum level of mixing ratio between the two constituents was also obtained. These new findings related to an interaction between charge-based graphitic carbon materials would open new avenues for further exploration on the enhancement of both GO and GnP functionalities particularly in mechanical and electrical domains.

  2. Formation of High Charge State Heavy Ion Beams with intense Space Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    High charge-state heavy-ion beams are of interest and used for a number of accelerator applications. Some accelerators produce the beams downstream of the ion source by stripping bound electrons from the ions as they pass through a foil or gas. Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF) would benefit from low-emittance, high current ion beams with charge state >1. For these accelerators, the desired dimensionless perveance upon extraction from the emitter is ∼10 -3 , and the electrical current of the beam pulse is ∼1 A. For accelerator applications where high charge state and very high current are desired, space charge effects present unique challenges. For example, in a stripper, the separation of charge states creates significant nonlinear space-charge forces that impact the beam brightness. We will report on the particle-in-cell simulation of the formation of such beams for HIF, using a thin stripper at low energy.

  3. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  4. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  5. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  7. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  8. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  9. Laser Ablation Plume Expansion In The Presence Of Charged Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebli, M.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion of plasma created by laser ablation is investigated using the fluid model. At the first stage of the expansion, electrons are considered in thermal equilibrium. The presence of highly charged impurities is considered through Poisson's equation. The set of nonlinear differential equations is solved using a moving boundary and taken into account the charge separation effect. The uniformly distributed impurities can accelerate or decelerate the ion motion depending on their charge and concentration. It is also found that the separation of the charge is valid for a specific time which depends on the impurities parameters.

  10. Stability of Circular Orbits around a Tidal Charged Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Kousar, L.

    2018-01-01

    We study the effects of the tidal charge on the equatorial circular motion of neutral test particles near a tidal charged black hole. This analysis investigates stable as well as unstable circular orbits in all possible configurations of nonextremal and extremal cases. It is found that a negative tidal charge will increase the energy and angular momentum of a neutral test particle moving around a black hole. We obtain a continuous region of stability for both extremal and nonextremal cases. We conclude that the region of stability as well as radius of last stable circular orbit shows increasing behavior for Q < 0.

  11. The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review

  12. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  13. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  14. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  15. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...... overlap. We demonstrate, via a range of examples, how fictional separation logic can be used to reason locally and modularly about mutable abstract data types, possibly implemented using sophisticated sharing. Fictional separation logic is defined on top of standard separation logic, and both the meta...

  16. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  17. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  18. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  19. Weak polyelectrolyte complexation driven by associative charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Zervoudakis, Aristotle J.; Sidky, Hythem; Sikora, Benjamin J.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.

    2018-03-01

    Weak polyelectrolytes are relevant for a wide range of fields; in particular, they have been investigated as "smart" materials for chemical separations and drug delivery. The charges on weak polyelectrolytes are dynamic, causing polymer chains to adopt different equilibrium conformations even with relatively small changes to the surrounding environment. Currently, there exists no comprehensive picture of this behavior, particularly where polymer-polymer interactions have the potential to affect charging properties significantly. In this study, we elucidate the novel interplay between weak polyelectrolyte charging and complexation behavior through coupled molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Specifically, we investigate a model of two equal-length and oppositely charging polymer chains in an implicit salt solution represented through Debye-Hückel interactions. The charging tendency of each chain, along with the salt concentration, is varied to determine the existence and extent of cooperativity in charging and complexation. Strong cooperation in the charging of these chains is observed at large Debye lengths, corresponding to low salt concentrations, while at lower Debye lengths (higher salt concentrations), the chains behave in apparent isolation. When the electrostatic coupling is long-ranged, we find that a highly charged chain strongly promotes the charging of its partner chain, even if the environment is unfavorable for an isolated version of that partner chain. Evidence of this phenomenon is supported by a drop in the potential energy of the system, which does not occur at the lower Debye lengths where both potential energies and charge fractions converge for all partner chain charging tendencies. The discovery of this cooperation will be helpful in developing "smart" drug delivery mechanisms by allowing for better predictions for the dissociation point of delivery complexes.

  20. Nash Stability in Additively Separable Hedonic Games and Community Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2009-01-01

      We prove that the problem of deciding whether a Nash stable   partition exists in an Additively Separable Hedonic Game is   NP-complete. We also show that the problem of deciding whether a   non trivial Nash stable partition exists in an   Additively Separable Hedonic Game with   non......-negative and symmetric   preferences is NP-complete. We motivate our study of the   computational complexity by linking Nash stable partitions in   Additively Separable Hedonic Games to community structures in   networks. Our results formally justify that computing community   structures in general is hard....

  1. Effects of the Inductive Charging on the Electrification and Lightning Discharges in Thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional cloud model with electrification and lightning processes is used to investigate the role of inductive charge separation in thunderstorm clouds. For the same dynamic and microphysical evolution, four cases that the same non-inductive charging parameterization is combined with different inductive charging process are compared. Non-inductive charge separation alone is found to be sufficient to produce a dipolar charge structure. Intracloud (IC and positive cloud-to-ground (+CG flashes are initiated between a main negative charge region and an upper positive charge region. The inductive charging process between graupel and cloud droplets exhibits a normal tripole charge structure, consisting of a lower positive charge region under the main negative charge region. In the simulated tripole structure, negative cloud-to-ground (-CG flashes are initiated between the main negative and lower positive charge regions. In addition, inductive charge separation between the graupel and ice crystal is found to be capable of producing strong charge separation in a dipole charge structure. Tests with inductive graupel-ice crystals process produce more flashes than that in the other cases.

  2. Superradiantly stable non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jia-Hui [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Zhan-Feng [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    The superradiant stability is investigated for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. We use an algebraic method to demonstrate that all non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes are superradiantly stable against a charged massive scalar perturbation. This improves the results obtained before for non-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. (orig.)

  3. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  4. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  5. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  6. Hydrodynamics and Elasticity of Charged Black Branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gath, Jakob

    We consider long-wavelength perturbations of charged black branes to first order in a uidelastic derivative expansion. At first order the perturbations decouple and we treat the hydrodynamic and elastic perturbations separately. To put the results in a broader perspective, we present the rst...

  7. Stable sheath formation in expanding magnetic field to divertor plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Takayama, A.; Takamaru, H.; Sato, T.

    2002-01-01

    The stable sheath formation and the effects of charge exchange collisions of ions with cold neutrals for the stable presheath formation in an expanding magnetic field towards a divertor plate is studied by a one-dimensional analysis. The requirement for flow velocity of ions at a plasma-sheath boundary is more restricted than that of the uniform magnetic field, which should be greater than the ion sound speed. The difference, however, between both cases is an order of the Debye length to plasma radius, which is negligibly small. The requirement for ion flow velocity inside a quasi-neutral plasma is investigated by taking into account the effects of the charge exchange collisions. Without neutrals in the quasi-neutral plasma, the ion flow velocity at an injection point should be much greater than the ion sound speed. The unisotropic velocity distribution of injected ions with coupling the expanding magnetic field and the charge exchange collisions might mitigate this requirement. (orig.)

  8. ATLAS collision event from the first LHC fill with stable beam on 17th April 2018

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Event display (run 348197, event 562578) from the first stable beam proton-proton collision run of 2018, recorded on April 17. Curved white lines show the trajectories of charged particles in the tracking systems.

  9. Proceedings of the LAMPF workshop on pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.; Leitch, M.J.

    1985-09-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of double-analog, nonanalog, and continuum pion double charge exchange in the 50- to 310-MeV energy range are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 22 papers in these proceedings

  10. Charge collection in an external proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wookey, C.W.; Somswasdi, B.; Rouse, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Results from the measurement of the stability of charge collected from the target and exit foil, or as alternatives, the γ-ray or backscattered proton counts from the exit foil and the Ar X-ray counts from the air path in an external proton beam are presented. These results show that comparative analysis of material mounted in air is reliable, using either the collected charge or the γ-ray counts as the normalizing factor, if there are no earthed objects in close geometry. The backscattered proton counts can also be used, but not the Ar X-ray counts, unless the current is stabilized. The electrical or thermal conductivity of the target and the target to exit foil separation do not affect the proportionality of the collected charge and the γ-ray counts to the charge incident on the target

  11. Charged superstring attached two different D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Banijamali, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we generalized the charged open string attached both ends to the same branes to the case where charged open superstring is stretched between two different D-branes. These branes involve constant background two-dimensions magnetic field. We focus our attention to type II superstring and consider the interaction between branes. We obtain relation between string charge and the separation of two D-branes. Further more we find the modified normal ordering constant and mode expansions of superstring

  12. Vapor-liquid coexistence in fluids of charged hard dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzenmüller, Georg; Camp, Philip J

    2007-05-21

    Vapor-liquid coexistence in fluids of charged hard dumbbells, each made up of two oppositely charged hard spheres with diameters sigma and separation d, has been studied using grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit d/sigma-->0, and with the temperature scaled accordingly, the system corresponds to dipolar hard spheres. For separations in the range 0.30 yield estimates of the apparent critical parameters for dipolar hard spheres.

  13. Analysis of electrostatic powder charging for fractionation of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Wit, de M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic separation based on different tribo-electric charging behaviours of components has emerged as a novel, sustainable dry fractionation process. This study aims to characterise charging behaviour of single-component particles in nitrogen gas flowing through aluminium tubes. Experiments

  14. Heliumlike and lithiumlike ionic sequences: Critical charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, N. L.; Turbiner, A. V. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics we study the Coulomb systems of infinitely massive center of charge Z and two-three electrons: (Z,e,e) and (Z,e,e,e). It is shown that in both cases the total energy curve in Z is smooth, without any visible irregularities. Thus, for both systems the physical integer charges Z=1, 2,... do not play a distinguished role as would be associated with charge quantization. By definition, a critical charge Z{sub cr} is a charge which separates a domain of the existence of bound states from a domain of unbound ones (continuum). For both systems the critical charges are found, Z{sub cr,2e}=0.910850 and Z{sub cr,3e}=2.0090, respectively. Based on numerical analysis, the Puiseux expansion in fractional powers of (Z-Z{sub cr}) is constructed for both systems. Our results indicate the existence of a square-root branch point singularity at Z{sub cr} with exponent 3/2. A connection between the critical charge and the radius of convergence of 1/Z expansion is briefly discussed.

  15. Charge Transfer in Multiple Site Chemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    films via sulfonamide , sulfonester, or *: sulfonanhydride linkages, respectively. The p-chlorosulfonateo polystyrene films can be cast onto virtually any...an ammine cmplex of ruthenium, organics, a nickel macrocycle and a nickel porphyrin. 7he modified films based on sulfonamide links were the most stable...spatially segregated films; 3) Selectivity and directed charge transfer effects involving redox couples in the external solution; 4) Hydrolysis of the

  16. Charges and Electromagnetic Radiation as Topological Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfried Faber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a model with stable topological solitons in Minkowski space with only three degrees of freedom, the rotational angles of a spatial Dreibein. This model has four types of solitons differing in two topological quantum numbers which we identify with electric charge and spin. The vacuum has a two-dimensional degeneracy leading to two types of massless excitations, characterised by a topological quantum number which could have a physical equivalent in the photon number.

  17. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  18. The possibility of separation of electronic waste by means of their electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowron Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric field has a lot of applications in technology. One of them is electrodynamic separation: electric field influences selectively granular solids of different moments or charges. A mathematical model of the separation process in high voltage drum separator is presented in the paper. Particles are charged both by induction and corona phenomena: next, they are separated by effects of the field forces. Some computational and experimental results are given and analyses.

  19. Contractor Software Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... Examples of computer software costs that contractors charge through indirect rates are material management systems, security systems, labor accounting systems, and computer-aided design and manufacturing...

  20. Abelian scalar theory at large global charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukas, Orestis [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-09-15

    We elaborate on Abelian complex scalar models, which are dictated by natural actions (all couplings are of order one), at fixed and large global U(1) charge in an arbitrary number of dimensions. The ground state vertical stroke v right angle is coherently constructed by the zero modes and the appearance of a centrifugal potential is quantum mechanically verified. Using the path integral formulation we systematically analyze the quantum fluctuations around vertical stroke v right angle in order to derive an effective action for the Goldstone mode, which becomes perturbatively meaningful when the charge is large. In this regime we explicitly show, by computing the first few loop corrections, that the whole construction is stable against quantum effects, in the sense that any higher derivative couplings to Goldstone's tree-level action are suppressed by appropriate powers of the large charge. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... to test their independence. To get over separation anxiety, children need to: Feel safe in their home. Trust ...

  2. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  3. Separators for electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2018-01-16

    Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

  4. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  5. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  6. Development of Omniphobic Desalination Membranes Using a Charged Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongho; Boo, Chanhee; Ryu, Won-Hee; Taylor, André D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-04

    In this study, we present a facile and scalable approach to fabricate omniphobic nanofiber membranes by constructing multilevel re-entrant structures with low surface energy. We first prepared positively charged nanofiber mats by electrospinning a blend polymer-surfactant solution of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and cationic surfactant (benzyltriethylammonium). Negatively charged silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were grafted on the positively charged electrospun nanofibers via dip-coating to achieve multilevel re-entrant structures. Grafted SiNPs were then coated with fluoroalkylsilane to lower the surface energy of the membrane. The fabricated membrane showed excellent omniphobicity, as demonstrated by its wetting resistance to various low surface tension liquids, including ethanol with a surface tension of 22.1 mN/m. As a promising application, the prepared omniphobic membrane was tested in direct contact membrane distillation to extract water from highly saline feed solutions containing low surface tension substances, mimicking emerging industrial wastewaters (e.g., from shale gas production). While a control hydrophobic PVDF-HFP nanofiber membrane failed in the desalination/separation process due to low wetting resistance, our fabricated omniphobic membrane exhibited a stable desalination performance for 8 h of operation, successfully demonstrating clean water production from the low surface tension feedwater.

  7. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  8. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  9. Charge Screening in a Charged Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a highly dense system of helium-4 nuclei and electrons in which the helium-4 nuclei have condensed. We present the condensation mechanism in the framework of low energy effective field theory and discuss the screening of electric charge in the condensate.

  10. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  11. Unilateral CHARGE association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J; van Stuijvenberg, M; Dikkers, FG; Pijnenburg, MWH

    A case with a predominantly unilateral CHARGE association is reported. The CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations. This boy had left-sided anomalies consisting of choanal atresia. coloboma and peripheral facial palsy. The infant had a frontal encephalocele. an anomaly

  12. Battery performances and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber-based nonwoven separators for Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tae-Hyung; Tanase, Shigeo; Sakai, Tetsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kansai, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Masanao; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuka; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroaki [Japan Vilene Co., Ltd., 7 Kita-Tone, Koga, Ibaraki 306-0213 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nonwoven separators have been developed by using electrospun nano-fibers with homogeneous diameter of 380 and 250 nm. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN nonwovens were characterized. The PAN nonwovens possessed homogeneous pore size distribution with similar pore size to the conventional microporous membrane separator. Moreover, the PAN nonwovens showed higher porosities, lower gurley values and better wettabilities than the conventional polyolefin microporous separator. Cells with the PAN nonwovens showed better cycle lives and higher rate capabilities than that of a cell with conventional one. Any internal short circuit was not observed for the cells with the PAN nonwovens during charge-discharge test. Hot oven tests for the charged cells up to 4.2 V have revealed that the PAN nonwoven was thermally stable at 120 C, but showed shrinkage of about 26% isotropically after the test at 150 C for 1 h. The Celgard membrane showed uniaxial shrinkage of about 30% along the machine direction at 150 C for 1 h. (author)

  13. Battery performances and thermal stability of polyacrylonitrile nano-fiber-based nonwoven separators for Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae-Hyung; Tanaka, Masanao; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuka; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroaki; Tanase, Shigeo; Sakai, Tetsuo

    The microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nonwoven separators have been developed by using electrospun nano-fibers with homogeneous diameter of 380 and 250 nm. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN nonwovens were characterized. The PAN nonwovens possessed homogeneous pore size distribution with similar pore size to the conventional microporous membrane separator. Moreover, the PAN nonwovens showed higher porosities, lower gurley values and better wettabilities than the conventional polyolefin microporous separator. Cells with the PAN nonwovens showed better cycle lives and higher rate capabilities than that of a cell with conventional one. Any internal short circuit was not observed for the cells with the PAN nonwovens during charge-discharge test. Hot oven tests for the charged cells up to 4.2 V have revealed that the PAN nonwoven was thermally stable at 120 °C, but showed shrinkage of about 26% isotropically after the test at 150 °C for 1 h. The Celgard membrane showed uniaxial shrinkage of about 30% along the machine direction at 150 °C for 1 h.

  14. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  15. Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-02

    A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e+e- colliders at an Ecm above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c2. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.

  16. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le You

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of stable isotopes in metabolomics have facilitated the study of cell metabolisms. Stable isotope-assisted metabolomics requires: (1 properly designed tracer experiments; (2 stringent sampling and quenching protocols to minimize isotopic alternations; (3 efficient metabolite separations; (4 high resolution mass spectrometry to resolve overlapping peaks and background noises; and (5 data analysis methods and databases to decipher isotopic clusters over a broad m/z range (mass-to-charge ratio. This paper overviews mass spectrometry based techniques for precise determination of metabolites and their isotopologues. It also discusses applications of isotopic approaches to track substrate utilization, identify unknown metabolites and their chemical formulas, measure metabolite concentrations, determine putative metabolic pathways, and investigate microbial community populations and their carbon assimilation patterns. In addition, 13C-metabolite fingerprinting and metabolic models can be integrated to quantify carbon fluxes (enzyme reaction rates. The fluxome, in combination with other “omics” analyses, may give systems-level insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying gene functions. More importantly, 13C-tracer experiments significantly improve the potential of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for broad-scope metabolism studies. We foresee the isotope-assisted metabolomics to be an indispensable tool in industrial biotechnology, environmental microbiology, and medical research.

  17. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Le; Zhang, Baichen; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2014-01-01

    The applications of stable isotopes in metabolomics have facilitated the study of cell metabolisms. Stable isotope-assisted metabolomics requires: (1) properly designed tracer experiments; (2) stringent sampling and quenching protocols to minimize isotopic alternations; (3) efficient metabolite separations; (4) high resolution mass spectrometry to resolve overlapping peaks and background noises; and (5) data analysis methods and databases to decipher isotopic clusters over a broad m/z range (mass-to-charge ratio). This paper overviews mass spectrometry based techniques for precise determination of metabolites and their isotopologues. It also discusses applications of isotopic approaches to track substrate utilization, identify unknown metabolites and their chemical formulas, measure metabolite concentrations, determine putative metabolic pathways, and investigate microbial community populations and their carbon assimilation patterns. In addition, 13C-metabolite fingerprinting and metabolic models can be integrated to quantify carbon fluxes (enzyme reaction rates). The fluxome, in combination with other “omics” analyses, may give systems-level insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying gene functions. More importantly, 13C-tracer experiments significantly improve the potential of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for broad-scope metabolism studies. We foresee the isotope-assisted metabolomics to be an indispensable tool in industrial biotechnology, environmental microbiology, and medical research. PMID:24957020

  18. Aspects of No Endorsement of Annulment Provided Without Granting the Union Stable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Franco Fulgencio Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of the endorsement in corporate economic activities, the study has the scope to analysis of change brought about by the Civil Code of 2002, which caused expressed spousal authorization requirement to validate guarantee provided by the other, except for cases of separation regime total assets. Innovation led an intense doctrinal discussion, given that the norm has brought significant changes to the guarantor and institute such a levy was not provided for in the Civil Code of 1916. It is a critical analysis of art. 1647, III of the Civil Code on the context of the general theory of debt securities and its principles, calling for the dynamism and simplicity of credit flowing. Clarify to the approval of the consequences provided without granting the marriage scope and stable, as well as the applicability or inapplicability of such a charge against the securities. The study underpins that, besides being unnecessary to grant the guarantee provided by the cohabitant in a stable relationship, even if it were necessary, would not occur invalidity of endorsement (as stipulated by the Civil Code of 2002, but the ineffectiveness have no effect before one who did not attend the act.

  19. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  20. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  1. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  2. Electromagnetic Separator of a Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilin, Vladimir V.; Nezovibat'ko, Yuriy N.; Poklipach, Grigoriy S.; Shvets, Oleg M.; Taran, Valeriy S.; Tereshin, Vladimir I.

    2006-01-01

    Simple freestanding 90 deg. filter is used for obtaining the metallic vacuum coatings. As the source of metallic plasma adapted standard cathode vaporizer on the installation ''Bulat 6''. Plasma flow from the cathode flowed through the not protected by isolation spiral (solenoid). The solenoid outlet from the side of cathode find under the floating potential. The second solenoid outlet was connected to the autonomous power supply. Solenoid was prepared with the wide interval of the coil winding and with the turning to 90 degrees. Therefore, drifting charged of particle can freely depart from the interior of solenoid outside. The glow of the turned flow of plasma is observed during the supplying to the cathode and the solenoid. Flow is separation from the coils and is extended along the axis of solenoid. In this case over the solenoid flow the current 20-90 A, the voltage of solenoid relative to vessel (earth) + 15 V. We assume, that this device ensures radial electric field relative to the basic nucleus of the plasma (diameter of the nucleus of plasma column it is commensurate with the diameter of cathode) and the current of solenoid creates the longitudinal magnetic field (estimated order 20 oersted). Magnetic field strength is sufficient for the magnetization of electrons, but it is very small for the ions and the charged microdroplets. The carried out experiments on the application of coatings on the dielectric substrate with the use of aluminum and titanium cathodes showed the effectiveness of the work of this separator. Coatings without the drops are obtained also on the glass substrate with HF- displacement. The reflective properties of the metallic films (Ti,Al) on the glass samples were measured

  3. Characterization of charging ability of the silicate minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Jose

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To separate granular material it is important to knowi its charging ability. In this contribution the method of charge determination of particles due to the triboelectric charging is described. Three different materials are applied for the transport of powders. They are: metal (iron, polyvinylchloride (PVC and rubber.The classification of used silicate minerals was carried out based on the theory of electrical double layer. The results are presented in the form of current-time curves which characterize the amount of charge in the vessel with exactly defined specific capacity.

  4. Clustering of continuous distributions of charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D. M.; Rickayzen, G.

    2014-05-01

    An investigation is carried out of the association and clustering of equimolar mixtures of oppositely charged Gaussian charge distributions (CDs) of the form ∼ exp ( - r2 /2α2), where r is the separation between the centres of charge and α governs the extent of charge spreading (α→0 is the point charge limit). The results of molecular dynamics (MD) and Ornstein-Zernike integral equation with the mean spherical approximation (MSA) and hypernetted-chain (HNC) closures are compared for these systems. The MD and HNC radial distribution functions, g(r), agree very well for not too small α. The MD and MSA, g(r), also agree well for α ≈ 1 and greater. The potential energy per particle for the three methods also agrees well over a wider range of α values, better than might be expected from inspection of the radial distribution functions, because the dominant contributions to U come predominantly from intermediate and long distance ranges where there is good agreement between the g(r) from the MSD and HNC closures. The nature of the association and clustering of the charges as a function of α is explored through the mean nearest neighbour distance for unlike and like species and the mean and root-mean-square force. The velocity and force autocorrelation functions are also calculated; they show increasingly oscillatory behaviour in the small α limit, originating in vibrations of a pair of CDs of opposite sign.

  5. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators As Related to Spacecraft Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, JR; Frederickson, A. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna

    2003-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and h...

  6. Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.

  7. Solvent-resistant organic transistors and thermally stable organic photovoltaics based on cross-linkable conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyeongjun

    2012-01-10

    Conjugated polymers, in general, are unstable when exposed to air, solvent, or thermal treatment, and these challenges limit their practical applications. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new materials or methodologies that can enable organic electronics with air stability, solvent resistance, and thermal stability. Herein, we have developed a simple but powerful approach to achieve solvent-resistant and thermally stable organic electronic devices with a remarkably improved air stability, by introducing an azide cross-linkable group into a conjugated polymer. To demonstrate this concept, we have synthesized polythiophene with azide groups attached to end of the alkyl chain (P3HT-azide). Photo-cross-linking of P3HT-azide copolymers dramatically improves the solvent resistance of the active layer without disrupting the molecular ordering and charge transport. This is the first demonstration of solvent-resistant organic transistors. Furthermore, the bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics (BHJ OPVs) containing P3HT-azide copolymers show an average efficiency higher than 3.3% after 40 h annealing at an elevated temperature of 150 °C, which represents one of the most thermally stable OPV devices reported to date. This enhanced stability is due to an in situ compatibilizer that forms at the P3HT/PCBM interface and suppresses macrophase separation. Our approach paves a way toward organic electronics with robust and stable operations. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. EMM-23: a stable high-silica multidimensional zeolite with extra-large trilobe-shaped channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhammar, Tom; Burton, Allen W; Yun, Yifeng; Sun, Junliang; Afeworki, Mobae; Strohmaier, Karl G; Vroman, Hilda; Zou, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Stable, multidimensional, and extra-large pore zeolites are desirable by industry for catalysis and separation of bulky molecules. Here we report EMM-23, the first stable, three-dimensional extra-large pore aluminosilicate zeolite. The structure of EMM-23 was determined from submicron-sized crystals by combining electron crystallography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and powder X-ray diffraction. The framework contains highly unusual trilobe-shaped pores that are bound by 21-24 tetrahedral atoms. These extra-large pores are intersected perpendicularly by a two-dimensional 10-ring channel system. Unlike most ideal zeolite frameworks that have tetrahedral sites with four next-nearest tetrahedral neighbors (Q(4) species), this unusual zeolite possesses a high density of Q(2) and Q(3) silicon species. It is the first zeolite prepared directly with Q(2) species that are intrinsic to the framework. EMM-23 is stable after calcination at 540 °C. The formation of this highly interrupted structure is facilitated by the high density of extra framework positive charge introduced by the dicationic structure directing agent.

  9. Thermally stable surfactants and compositions and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J [Woodridge, IL

    2008-09-02

    There are provided novel thermally stable surfactants for use with fillers in the preparation of polymer composites and nanocomposites. Typically, surfactants of the invention are urethanes, ureas or esters of thiocarbamic acid having a hydrocarbyl group of from 10 to 50 carbons and optionally including an ionizable or charged group (e.g., carboxyl group or quaternary amine). Thus, there are provided surfactants having Formula I: ##STR00001## wherein the variables are as defined herein. Further provided are methods of making thermally stable surfactants and compositions, including composites and nanocomposites, using fillers coated with the surfactants.

  10. Charge gradient microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2018-02-06

    A method for rapid imaging of a material specimen includes positioning a tip to contact the material specimen, and applying a force to a surface of the material specimen via the tip. In addition, the method includes moving the tip across the surface of the material specimen while removing electrical charge therefrom, generating a signal produced by contact between the tip and the surface, and detecting, based on the data, the removed electrical charge induced through the tip during movement of the tip across the surface. The method further includes measuring the detected electrical charge.

  11. Characterizing asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes with abundant stable gauge field hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Ben L; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the 'no-hair' conjecture, we revisit stable black holes in su(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant Λ. These black holes are endowed with copious amounts of gauge field hair, and we address the question of whether these black holes can be uniquely characterized by their mass and a set of global non-Abelian charges defined far from the black hole. For the su(3) case, we present numerical evidence that stable black hole configurations are fixed by their mass and two non-Abelian charges. For general N, we argue that the mass and N - 1 non-Abelian charges are sufficient to characterize large stable black holes, in keeping with the spirit of the 'no-hair' conjecture, at least in the limit of very large |Λ| and for a subspace containing stable black holes (and possibly some unstable ones as well). (paper)

  12. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  13. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  14. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  15. On halo formation from space-charge dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagniel, Jean-Michel

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, as in J.S. O'Connell, T.P. Wangler, R.S. Mills and K.R. Crandall, Beam halo formation from space-charge dominated beams in uniform focusing channels, PAC Washington, 1993, the interaction of particles with a zero-emittance, uniform-density beam core is described. When this core is mismatched in a uniform linear focusing channel, its envelope oscillates, just like a matched beam in an alternating gradient channel. As is usual for this kind of channel, the particle evolution in the transverse phase plane has been followed period by period. For a strong core modulation, this analysis clearly shows i) how the particles nearest to the core move to the halo, ii) two stable areas separated from the core, and iii) how trajectories develop along the ''lattice''. Also the halo formation problem is compared with similar phenomena from stellar dynamics in order to demonstrate that it is the mechanism of resonance overlap which leads to the formation of a halo area where the particle trajectories are stochastic. The chaotic behaviour of the particle trajectories in this area is subsequently discussed. ((orig.))

  16. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  17. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  18. Electric charge quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Lew, H.; Volkas, R.R.

    1992-06-01

    Experimentally it has been known for a long time that the electric charges of the observed particles appear to be quantized. An approach to understanding electric charge quantization that can be used for gauge theories with explicit U(1) factors - such as the standard model and its variants - is pedagogically reviewed and discussed in this article. This approach used the allowed invariances of the Lagrangian and their associated anomaly cancellation equations. It is demonstrated that charge may be de-quantized in the three-generation standard model with massless neutrinos, because differences in family-lepton-numbers are anomaly-free. The relevant experimental limits are also reviewed. This approach to charge quantization suggests that the minimal standard model should be extended so that family-lepton-number differences are explicitly broken. Some candidate extensions such as the minimal standard model augmented by Majorana right-handed neutrinos are also briefly discussed. 30 refs

  19. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  20. Charged scalar perturbations around Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yong Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the stability of the Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger (GHS black hole under charged scalar perturbations. Employing the appropriate numerical methods, we show that the GHS black hole is always stable against charged scalar perturbations. This is different from the results obtained in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter black holes. Furthermore, we argue that in the GHS black hole background there is no amplification of the incident charged scalar wave to cause the superradiance, so that the superradiant instability cannot exist in this spacetime.

  1. Testbed for High-Acuity Imaging and Stable Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James

    This proposal from MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) accompanies the NASA/APRA proposal enti-tled THAI-SPICE: Testbed for High-Acuity Imaging - Stable Photometry and Image-Motion Compensa-tion Experiment (submitted by Eliot Young, Southwest Research Institute). The goal of the THAI-SPICE project is to demonstrate three technologies that will help low-cost balloon-borne telescopes achieve diffraction-limited imaging: stable pointing, passive thermal stabilization and in-flight monitoring of the wave front error. This MIT LL proposal supplies a key element of the pointing stabilization component of THAI-SPICE: an electronic camera based on an orthogonaltransfer charge-coupled device (OTCCD). OTCCD cameras have been demonstrated with charge-transfer efficiencies >0.99999, noise of 90%. In addition to supplying a camera with an OTCCD detector, MIT LL will help with integration and testing of the OTCCD with the THAI-SPICE payload’s guide camera.

  2. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in an Elastic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Style

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living and engineered systems rely on the stable coexistence of two interspersed liquid phases. Yet, surface tension drives their complete separation. Here, we show that stable droplets of uniform and tunable size can be produced through arrested phase separation in an elastic matrix. Starting with a cross-linked, elastic polymer network swollen by a solvent mixture, we change the temperature or composition to drive demixing. Droplets nucleate and grow to a stable size that is tunable by the network cross-linking density, the cooling rate, and the composition of the solvent mixture. We discuss thermodynamic and mechanical constraints on the process. In particular, we show that the threshold for macroscopic phase separation is altered by the elasticity of the polymer network, and we highlight the role of correlations between nuclei positions in determining the droplet size and polydispersity. This phenomenon has potential applications ranging from colloid synthesis and structural color to phase separation in biological cells.

  3. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in an Elastic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Sai, Tianqi; Fanelli, Nicoló; Ijavi, Mahdiye; Smith-Mannschott, Katrina; Xu, Qin; Wilen, Lawrence A.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2018-01-01

    Living and engineered systems rely on the stable coexistence of two interspersed liquid phases. Yet, surface tension drives their complete separation. Here, we show that stable droplets of uniform and tunable size can be produced through arrested phase separation in an elastic matrix. Starting with a cross-linked, elastic polymer network swollen by a solvent mixture, we change the temperature or composition to drive demixing. Droplets nucleate and grow to a stable size that is tunable by the network cross-linking density, the cooling rate, and the composition of the solvent mixture. We discuss thermodynamic and mechanical constraints on the process. In particular, we show that the threshold for macroscopic phase separation is altered by the elasticity of the polymer network, and we highlight the role of correlations between nuclei positions in determining the droplet size and polydispersity. This phenomenon has potential applications ranging from colloid synthesis and structural color to phase separation in biological cells.

  4. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  5. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  6. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  7. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  8. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  9. THE SEPARATION GAME

    OpenAIRE

    TRISTAN CAZENAVE

    2006-01-01

    The separation game is different from the connection game, but has some similarities. In the game of Go, it is often useful because it helps to enclose groups and areas. An evaluation function, moves generation functions and a search algorithm for the separation game are described in this paper.

  10. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  11. Acromioclavicular joint separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Pandya, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department as a trauma activation after a motorcycle accident. The patient was the helmeted rider of a motorcycle traveling at an unknown speed when he lost control and was thrown off his vehicle. He denied loss of consciousness, nausea, or vomiting. The patient’s vital signs were stable and his only complaint was pain around his left shoulder. On exam, the patient had a prominent left clavicle without skin compromise. He had adequate range of motion in the left shoulder with moderate pain, and his left upper extremity was neurovascularly intact. Significant findings: Plain films of the left shoulder showed elevation of the left clavicle above the acromion. There was an increase in the acromioclavicular (AC and coracoclavicular (CC distances (increased joint distances marked with red and blue arrows, respectively. A normal AC joint measures 1-3 mm whereas a normal CC distance measures 11-13 mm.1 The injury was classified as a Rockwood type III AC joint separation. Discussion: The AC joint is a synovial joint between an oval facet on the acromion and a similar facet on the distal end of the clavicle. Horizontal stability is provided by the AC joint while axial stability is provided by the CC joint.2,3 AC joint injuries account for about 9%-12% of shoulder girdle injuries, and the most common mechanism is direct trauma.4,5 Initial evaluation with imaging includes plain films with three views: the anterior-posterior (AP view with the shoulder in internal and external rotation as well as an axillary, or scapula-Y view (sensitivity 40%, specificity 90% for all films.6,7 AC joint injuries are classified by the Rockwood system.8 Type I involves a sprain or incomplete tear of the AC ligaments with an intact CC ligament. The AC joint appears normal on X-ray, but can become widened with stress, achieved by having the patient hold a 10-15 pound weight from each

  12. A Study of Electrostatic Charge on Insulating Film by Electrostatic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikunaga, K; Toosaka, K; Kamohara, T; Sakai, K; Nonaka, K

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic charge properties on polypropylene film have been characterized by atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy. The measurements have been carried out after the polypropylene film was electrified by contact and separation process in an atmosphere of controlled humidity. The negative and positive charge in concave surface has been observed. The correlation between concave surface and charge position suggests that the electrostatic charges could be caused by localized contact. On the other hand, positive charge on a flat surface has been observed. The absence of a relationship between surface profile and charge position suggests that the electrostatic charge should be caused by discharge during the separation process. The spatial migration of other positive charges through surface roughness has been observed. The results suggest that there could be some electron traps on the surface roughness and some potentials on the polypropylene film.

  13. Stable isotopes in plant nutrition, soil fertility and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The individual contributions in these proceedings are indexed separately. Main topics covered include the measurement of biological nitrogen fixation, studies of soil organic matter, investigations of nutrient uptake and use by plants, studies of plant metabolism and new methodologies in the analysis of stable isotopes. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of charged three-dimensional black holes in the scalar-tensor gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-02-01

    Making use of the suitable transformation relations, the action of three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory has been obtained from that of scalar-tensor modified gravity theory coupled to the Maxwell's electrodynamics as the matter field. Two new classes of the static three-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational field equations, have been obtained in the Einstein frame. Also, it has been found that the scalar potential can be written in the form of a generalized Liouville-type potential. The conserved black hole charge and masses as well as the black entropy, temperature, and electric potential have been calculated from the geometrical and thermodynamical approaches, separately. Through comparison of the results arisen from these two alternative approaches, the validity of the thermodynamical first law has been proved for both of the new black hole solutions in the Einstein frame. Making use of the canonical ensemble method, a black hole stability or phase transition analysis has been performed. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, with the black hole charge as a constant, the points of type-1 and type-2 phase transitions have been determined. Also, the ranges of the black hole horizon radius at which the Einstein black holes are thermally stable have been obtained for both of the new black hole solutions. Then making use of the inverse transformation relations, two new classes of the string black hole solutions have been obtained from their Einstein counterpart. The thermodynamics and thermal stability of the new string black hole solutions have been investigated. It has been found that thermodynamic properties of the new charged black holes are identical in the Einstein and Jordan frames.

  16. Point charge embedding for ONIOM excited states calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Alessandro; Barnes, Jeremy; Caricato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid quantum mechanical methods can assist in the interpretation and prediction of the electronic spectra of large molecular structures. In this work, we study the performance of the ONIOM (Our own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital molecular Mechanics) hybrid method for the calculation of transition energies and oscillator strengths by embedding the core region in a field of fixed point charges. These charges introduce polarization effects from the substituent groups to the core region. We test various charge definitions, with particular attention to the issue of overpolarization near the boundary between layers. To minimize this issue, we fit the charges on the electrostatic potential of the entire structure in the presence of the link atoms used to cap dangling bonds. We propose two constrained fitting strategies: one that produces an average set of charges common to both model system calculations, EE(L1), and one that produces two separate sets of embedding charges, EE(L2). The results from our tests show that indeed electronic embedding with constrained-fitted charges tends to improve the performance of ONIOM compared to non-embedded calculations. However, the EE(L2) charges work best for transition energies, and the EE(L1) charges work best for oscillator strengths. This may be an indication that fixed point charges do not have enough flexibility to adapt to each system, and other effects (e.g., polarization of the embedding field) may be necessary.

  17. Experimental studies of stable confined electron clouds using Gabor lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Meusel, O.; Glaeser, B.; Schulte, K.

    2013-04-22

    Based on the idea of D. Gabor [1] space charge lenses are under investigation to be a powerful focussing device for intense ion beams. A stable confined electron column is used to provide strong radially symmetric electrostatic focussing, e.g. for positively charged ion beams. The advantages of Gabor lenses are a mass independent focussing strength, space charge compensation of the ion beam and reduced magnetic or electric fields compared to conventional focussing devices. Collective phenomena of the electron cloud result in aberrations and emittance growth of the ion beam. The knowledge of the behaviour of the electron cloud prevents a decrease of the beam brilliance. Numerical models developed to describe the electron confinement and dynamics within a Gabor lens help to understand the interaction of the ion beam with the electron column and show the causes of non-neutral plasma instabilities. The diagnosis of the electron cloud properties helps to evaluate the numerical models and to investigate the influen...

  18. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  19. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  20. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  1. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu/sub 5/ type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo/sub 4/ and CaNi/sub 5/, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen cn produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  2. Isotope separation using lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guers, K.

    1976-01-01

    In laser isotope separation atoms or molecules of a specific isotopic species are selectively excited in a gaseous mixture by means of laser light and then separated from the mixture by physical or chemical methods. The methods of excitation and separation are described and compared in terms of their effectiveness. The use of molecules is investigated by analysing the possibility of the selective excitation of UF 6 . Finally, developments in this field are discussed together with the cost of research incurred in the United States and the economic benefit expected from this research. (author)

  3. Effective Electrostatic Interactions Between Two Overall Neutral Surfaces with Quenched Charge Heterogeneity Over Atomic Length Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.

    2017-12-01

    Using Monte Carlo results as a reference, a classical density functional theory ( CDFT) is shown to reliably predict the forces between two heterogeneously charged surfaces immersed in an electrolyte solution, whereas the Poisson-Boltzmann ( PB) theory is demonstrated to deteriorate obviously for the same system even if the system parameters considered fall within the validity range of the PB theory in the homogeneously charged surfaces. By applying the tested CDFT, we study the effective electrostatic potential of mean force ( EPMF) between two face-face planar and hard surfaces of zero net charge on which positive and negative charges are separated and considered to present as discontinuous spots on the inside edges of the two surfaces. Main conclusions are summarized as follows: (i) strength of the EPMF in the surface charge separation case is very sensitively and positively correlated with the surface charge separation level and valency of the salt ion. Particularly, the charge separation level and the salt ion valency have a synergistic effect, which makes high limit of the EPMF strength in the surface charge separation case significantly go beyond that of the ideal homogeneously charged surface counterpart at average surface charge density similar to the average surface positive or negative charge density in the charge separation case. (ii) The surface charge distribution patterns mainly influence sign of the EPMF: symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns induce repulsive and attractive (at small distances) EPMF, respectively; but with low valency salt ions and low charge separation level the opposite may be the case. With simultaneous presence of both higher valency cation and anion, the EPMF can be repulsive at intermediate distances for asymmetrical patterns. (iii) Salt ion size has a significant impact, which makes the EPMF tend to become more and more repulsive with the ion diameter regardless of the surface charge distribution patterns and the valency of

  4. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ŠOCH; JANA ŠŤASTNÁ; V. PÁLKA; B VOSTOUPAL; P. NOVÁK; J. BROUČEK; B. ČERMÁK

    2009-01-01

    The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a sma...

  5. Separation by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  6. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  7. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  8. Superradiant instability of the charged scalar field in stringy black hole mirror system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that the mass of a charged scalar field in the background of a charged stringy black hole is never able to generate a potential well outside the event horizon to trap the superradiant modes. This is to say that the charged stringy black hole is stable against massive charged scalar perturbations. In this paper we will study the superradiant instability of the massless scalar field in the background of charged stringy black hole due to a mirror-like boundary condition. The an...

  9. Polyaniline/Carbon Nitride Nanosheets Composite Hydrogel: A Separation-Free and High-Efficient Photocatalyst with 3D Hierarchical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjun; Luo, Wenjiao; Zong, Ruilong; Yao, Wenqing; Li, Zhanping; Zhu, Yongfa

    2016-08-01

    A polyaniline (PANI)/carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNS) composite hydrogel with 3D hierarchical nanostructure is synthesized via in situ polymerization. The 3D hierarchical structure is robust and stable, making the composite hydrogel separation-free and easy to recycling. It is highly excellent in removing organic pollutant for PANI/CNNS composite hydrogel on account of the cooperation of adsorptive preconcentration and the following photocatalytic oxidation. Pollutants are first adsorbed and concentrated into the 3D hierarchical nanostructure of the composite hydrogel. Then the pollutants are in situ oxidized via photocatalysis. The promoted photocatalytic performance can be mainly ascribed to the outstanding interfacial charge separation and photoelectrochemical performance. A new idea of the construction of 3D hierarchical photocatalysts is presented, which can be applied in the sustainability field. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  11. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to th