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Sample records for stable calcium salts

  1. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  2. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  3. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate...

  4. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl ...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device. 888.3045 Section 888.3045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is...

  6. Calcium and phosphorus metabolism in stable renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Hamid T; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Azar, Sima Abedi; Tubbs, R Shane; Safa, Javid; Etemadi, Jalal; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2007-12-01

    This study sought to elucidate the status of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in patients following kidney transplant. In this cross-sectional study, 20 renal transplant recipients were evaluated. For each patient, age, sex, time since transplant, and body weight were recorded. Inclusion criteria were age > 14 years and good allograft function defined as a serum creatinine level urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, and uric acid, as well as concentrations of hemoglobin, serum creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus were measured. To obtain a mean value of serum intact parathyroid hormone in transplant recipients at our center, serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were additionally quantitated in another group of 30 renal transplant recipients. The mean hemoglobin level was 135.6 +/- 17.7 g/L, the mean serum creatinine level was 105.0 +/- 15.3 micromol/L, and the mean serum calcium and phosphorus levels were 2.25 +/- 0.17 mmol/L (normal range, 2.02-2.60 mmol/L) and 1.28 +/- 0.24 mmol/L (normal range, 0.81-1.61 mmol/L), respectively. The mean serum intact parathyroid hormone level was 33.17 +/- 14.67 ng/L (normal range, 10-60 ng/L). Mean 24-hour urine calcium and phosphorus values were 2.32 +/- 1.68 mmol/day (normal, 2.49-6.24 mmol/day) and 19.77 +/- 8.31 mmol/day (normal, 12.91-41.98 mmol/day), respectively. A positive correlation was found between serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels (r = +0.71, P = .006). Hemoglobin level was negatively correlated with serum phosphorus level (r = -0.65, P = .003) and sex (r = -0.57, P = .003) and positively correlated with urine creatinine levels (r = +0.69, P = .001). Renal transplant recipients with stable allograft function may have normal serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone levels. However, presence of hypocalciuria and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels might imply impaired calcium metabolism in these patients.

  7. Variations of dietary salt and fluid modulate calcium and magnesium transport in the renal distal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Lien, Yeong-Hau H; Lai, Li-Wen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The renal distal tubule fine-tunes renal epithelial calcium transport. Dietary intake of salt and fluid varies day-to-day and the kidney adapts accordingly to maintain homeostasis. The alternations in salt and fluid balance affect calcium and magnesium transport in the distal tubule, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into high-salt, low-salt and dehydration treatment. Daily intake, water consumption and urine output were recorded. At the end of the experiment, blood and urine samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical tests. Genetic analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence studies were then performed to assess the alterations of calcium and magnesium transport-related molecules. High-salt treatment increased urinary sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion. Low-salt treatment and dehydration were associated with decreased urinary excretion of all electrolytes. High-salt treatment was associated with increased intact parathyroid hormone levels. A significant increase in gene expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k and TRPM6 was found during high-salt treatment, while low salt and dehydration diminished expression. These findings were confirmed with immunofluorescence studies. High-salt and low-salt intake or dehydration did not cause any significant changes in WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4. Alternations in salt and water intake affect renal calcium and magnesium handling. High-salt intake increases the distal delivery of the divalent cations which upregulates distal tubule calcium and magnesium transport molecules, while the opposite effects are associated with low-salt intake or dehydration. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Variations of Dietary Salt and Fluid Modulate Calcium and Magnesium Transport in Renal Distal Tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Lien, Yeong-Hau H; Lai, Li-Wen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The renal distal tubule serves as the fine tuning of renal epithelial calcium transport. Dietary intake of salt and fluid varies day to day and the kidney adapts accordingly to maintain the homeostasis. The alternations in salt and fluid balance affect calcium and magnesium transport in the distal tubule, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into high salt, low salt and dehydration treatment. Daily intake, water consumption and urine output were recorded. At the end of experiment, blood and urine samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical testes. Genetic analysis, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence studies were then performed to assess the alterations of calcium and magnesium transport-related molecules. Results High salt treatment increased urinary sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion. Low salt treatment and dehydration were associated with decreased urinary excretion of all electrolytes. High salt treatment was associated with increased intact parathyroid hormone levels. Significant increase in gene expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k and TRPM6 was found during high salt treatment while low salt and dehydration diminished the expression. These findings were confirmed with immunofluorescence studies. High salt and low salt intake or dehydration did not cause any significant changes in WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4. Conclusions Alternations in salt and water intake affect renal calcium and magnesium handling. High salt intake increases distal delivery of the divalent cations which upregulates distal tubule calcium and magnesium transport molecules, while the opposite effects are associated with low salt intake or dehydration. PMID:23774784

  9. Fractional absorption of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa) and calcium carbonate measured by a dual stable-isotope method

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In ...

  10. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  11. Characterization and bioactivity of novel calcium antagonists - N-methoxy-benzyl haloperidol quaternary ammonium salt

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhu, Wei; Zhong, Shu-Ping; Zheng, Fu-Chun; Gao, Fen-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Han; Zheng, Yan-Shan; Shi, Gang-Gang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Calcium antagonists play an important role in clinical practice. However, most of them have serious side effects. We have synthesized a series of novel calcium antagonists, quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of haloperidol with N-p-methoxybenzyl (X1), N-m-methoxybenzyl (X2) and N-o-methoxybenzyl (X3) groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of these novel calcium antagonists, especially the vasodilation activity and cardiac side-effects. ...

  12. Detection of irradiation history for health foods. Calcium salt of organic acid and its basic ingredient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Seiko; Yunoki, Shunji; Ohyabu, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbonate and calcium salt of organic acid are well-known food additives used for the improvement of the shelf life and eating quality of health food. Calcium carbonate is a precursor in the synthesis of calcium salts of organic acid. Certain calcium carbonates made of natural limestone mined from very old stratum have silicate minerals exposed to a low level of natural radiation over a long period of time and food additives derived from calcium carbonates contained of such silicate minerals are possible to classify as irradiated foods by PSL and TL analysis in spite of non-irradiation. The study of calcium carbonates and calcium salts of organic acid obtained from different producers were allow to provided appropriate decisions by using the information of both the TL response (Glow1 peak temperature and TL ratio) and PSL ratio. ESR measurements of radicals in such food additives caused by gamma- irradiation were effective tool for correctly determining for irradiation history of those because the measurements were not affected by silicate minerals contained in those. (author)

  13. Lignocellulose-responsive bacteria in a southern California salt marsh identified by stable isotope probing

    OpenAIRE

    Darjany, Lindsay E.; Whitcraft, Christine R.; Dillon, Jesse G.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon cycling by microbes has been recognized as the main mechanism of organic matter decomposition and export in coastal wetlands, yet very little is known about the functional diversity of specific groups of decomposers (e.g., bacteria) in salt marsh benthic trophic structure. Indeed, salt marsh sediment bacteria remain largely in a black box in terms of their diversity and functional roles within salt marsh benthic food web pathways. We used DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) utilizing 13C-...

  14. Determination of calcium salt solubility with changes in pH and P(CO(2)), simulating varying gastrointestinal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Sandra L; Lemons, Karen A; Kerstetter, Jane E; Bogner, Robin H

    2007-11-01

    The amount of calcium available for absorption is dependent, in part, on its sustained solubility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Many calcium salts, which are the calcium sources in supplements and food, have pH-dependent solubility and may have limited availability in the small intestine, the major site of absorption. The equilibrium solubility of four calcium salts (calcium oxalate hydrate, calcium citrate tetrahydrate, calcium phosphate, calcium glycerophosphate) were determined at controlled pH values (7.5, 6.0, 4.5 and solubility of calcium carbonate was also measured at pH 7.5, 6.0 and 4.5 with two CO(2) environments (0.3 and 152 mmHg) above the solution. The precipitation profile of CaCO(3) was calculated using in-vivo data for bicarbonate and pH from literature and equilibrium calculations. As pH increased, the solubility of each calcium salt increased. However, in distilled water each salt produced a different pH, affecting its solubility value. Although calcium citrate does have a higher solubility than CaCO(3) in water, there is little difference when the pH is controlled at pH 7.5. The partial pressure of CO(2) also played a role in calcium carbonate solubility, depressing the solubility at pH 7.5. The calculations of soluble calcium resulted in profiles of available calcium, which agreed with previously published in-vivo data on absorbed calcium. The experimental data illustrate the impact of pH and CO(2) on the solubility of many calcium salts in the presence of bicarbonate secretions in the intestine. Calculated profiles using in-vivo calcium and bicarbonate concentrations demonstrate that large calcium doses may not further increase intestinal calcium absorption once the calcium carbonate solubility product has been reached.

  15. Separation of calcium isotopes by counter-current electromigration in molten salts (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.

    1962-01-01

    The method of counter-current electromigration in molten salts has been applied to calcium bromide with an alkali metal bromide added to the cathode compartment. Enrichments on calcium-46 greater than a factor of two were obtained at the anode. The mass effect was found to be about 0.06. An estimation of the cost of energy for a process based on this method has been made. (authors) [fr

  16. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall

  17. Augmenting laboratory rearing of stable fly (diptera: muscidae) larvae with ammoniacal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well a...

  18. Sodium pump activity and calcium relaxation in vascular smooth muscle of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltis, E.E.; Field, F.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Na + -K + pump activity was determined in femoral arterial smooth muscle from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats using potassium relaxation and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake as indices. The membrane-stabilizing effect of calcium and its relation to Na + -K + pump activity also were examined. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats exhibited a greater relaxation in response to potassium addition after contraction with norepinephrine in a low potassium (0.6 mM) Krebs solution. The concentration of potassium required to produce a 50% relaxation was significantly less in DOCA-salt rats. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was significantly greater at 3, 10, and 20 minutes of 86 Rb incubation in femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the uptake of 86 Rb and time of incubation in both control and DOCA-salt rats. A significant difference in the slopes of the regression lines showed that the rate of uptake was greater in DOCA-salt rats. No difference was observed in ouabain-insensitive 86 Rb uptake. A dose-dependent relaxation in response to increasing concentrations of calcium following contraction to norepinephrine was observed in femoral arteries from control and DOCA-salt rats. The relaxation was directly dependent on the level of extracellular potassium and was blocked by ouabain. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats relaxed to a significantly greater extent in response to calcium at each level of potassium when compared with controls. These results provide further evidence for an increase in Na + -K + pump activity in vascular smooth muscle from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

  19. Calcium-Magnesium salt of saponins from bird's foot trefoil seeds (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium-magnesium salt of saponins was isolated from bird's foot trefoil seeds with a yield of 0.04%. The salt contained: 1.37% - Ca and 0.04% - Mg. The saponin salts were deionized on IR-120 Amberlite and free crystalline saponin was obtained. In both cases the presence of one major component and of three trace ones was found, using TLC. In acid hydrolysates of the saponin salts and of the free saponin the following sugars were identified: rhamaose, xylose, glucose, galactose, glucuronic acid. From among aglycones soyasapogenols B, C, traces of E, and of one unidentified in both cases were found. The Ca-Mg salt obtained seems to be a natural form of saponins in bird's foot trefoil seeds.

  20. Effects of calcium salts of acidic monomers on mineral induction of phosphoprotein immobilized to agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Motai, Fumiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Saito, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the mineralizing potential of acidic monomers and their calcium salts for mineralization, using an in vitro mineral induction model. Phosvitin (PV) was used as a model phosphoprotein in this study. PV was immobilized on agarose beads with divinyl sulfone. Five aliquots of agarose-immobilized PV, acidic monomers, and their calcium salts were incubated in mineralizing solution at various concentrations. The PV beads and acidic monomers were incubated at 37°C. Samples were taken at several time points during the incubation. Then, the agarose beads were analyzed for bound calcium by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral formed on the agarose beads was identified as an apatite by microarea X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineral induction time decreased with increasing solution saturation. 4-METCa salt [calcium salt of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate (CMET)] significantly reduced the mineral induction time. Using these data, the interfacial tension for mineral induction of PV and CMET was determined to be 90.1 and 92.7 ergs/cm(2), respectively. The mineral induced in each specimen after incubation for 24 h was identified by its X-ray diffraction pattern as apatite. SEM observation showed that lath-shaped crystals were formed on the surfaces of the CMET. We conclude that CMET could play a role in dentin remineralization. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A comparative study of de-icing salts (sodium chloride and calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse study was conducted on four roadside plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Trifolium repens) to determine the effect of two de-icing salts {Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and calcium magnesium acetate, (CMA)} on their growth. Plants were grown in pots and supplied with solution of ...

  2. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products.

  3. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide (LiBr) salt additives in a common liquid electrolyte (i.e. propylene carbonate (PC)) on the stability of lithium electrodeposition. From galvanostatic cycling measurements, we find that the presence of LiBr in PC provides more than 20-fold enhancement in cell lifetime over the control LiTFSI/PC electrolyte. Batteries containing 30 mol% LiBr additive in the electrolytes are able to cycle stably for at least 1.8 months with no observations of cell failure. From galvanostatic polarization measurements, an electrolyte containing 30 mol% LiBr shows a maximum improvement in lifetime. The formation of uneven lithium electrodeposits is significantly suppressed by the Br-containing SEI layers, evidenced by impedance spectra, post-mortem SEM and XPS analyses. The study also concludes that good solubility of halogenated salts is not necessary for achieving the observed improvements in cell lifetime.

  4. Modified calcium oxide as stable solid base catalyst for Aldol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of several reaction parameters, such as temperature, catalyst loading, was investigated. The humidity test over modified CaO reveals that the basic centres of modified CaO are stable for CO2 and moisture. From the results of Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and Thermogravity analysis (TG) characterization, ...

  5. Modified calcium oxide as stable solid base catalyst for Aldol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly efficient and stable solid-base catalyst for Aldol condensation was prepared by modifying commercial CaO with benzyl bromide in a simple way. It was found that modified CaO can effectively catalyse the Aldol condensation of cyclohexanone and benzaldehyde, as well as various benzaldehydes, to produce ...

  6. Disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin in the presence of acidic excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka; Cornett, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Of the excipients investigated, citric acid and polyacrylic acid were found to induce disproportionation. Moreover, it was also observed that exposure to high relative humidity, elevated temperatures, and milling all promoted disproportionation. The results suggest that disproportionation of drug salts in powders......The aim of the present study was to combine vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for investigating excipient-induced disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin into the corresponding free acid form in environments relevant to manufacturing and storage of solid dosage formulations...

  7. Lignocellulose-responsive bacteria in a southern California salt marsh identified by stable isotope probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay eDarjany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon cycling by microbes has been recognized as the main mechanism of organic matter decomposition and export in coastal wetlands, yet very little is known about the functional diversity of specific groups of decomposers (e.g., bacteria in salt marsh benthic trophic structure. Indeed, salt marsh sediment bacteria remain largely in a black box in terms of their diversity and functional roles within salt marsh benthic food web pathways. We used DNA stable isotope probing (SIP utilizing 13C-labeled lignocellulose as a proxy to evaluate the fate of macrophyte-derived carbon in benthic salt marsh bacterial communities. Overall, 146 bacterial species were detected using SIP, of which only 12 lineages were shared between enriched and non-enriched communities. Abundant groups from the 13C-labeled community included Desulfosarcina, Spirochaeta, and Kangiella. This study is the first to use heavy-labeled lignocellulose to identify bacteria responsible for macrophyte carbon utilization in salt marsh sediments and will allow future studies to target specific lineages to elucidate their role in salt marsh carbon cycling and ultimately aid our understanding of the potential of salt marshes to store carbon.

  8. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium on the germinating soybean response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongqi; Yang, Runqiang; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2015-01-15

    Calcium enhances salt stress tolerance of soybeans. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of calcium's involvement in resistance to salt stress is unclear. A comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate protein profiles in germinating soybeans under NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-LaCl3 treatments. A total of 80 proteins affected by calcium in 4-day-old germinating soybean cotyledons and 71 in embryos were confidently identified. The clustering analysis showed proteins were subdivided into 5 and 6 clusters in cotyledon and embryo, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in signal transduction and energy pathways, in transportation, and in protein biosynthesis were largely enriched while those involved in proteolysis were decreased. Abundance of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and three antioxidant enzymes were visibly increased by calcium. Accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and polyamines was also detected after application of exogenous calcium. This was consistent with proteomic results, which showed that proteins involved in the glutamate and methionine metabolism were mediated by calcium. Calcium could increase the salt stress tolerance of germinating soybeans via enriching signal transduction, energy pathway and transportation, promoting protein biosynthesis, inhibiting proteolysis, redistributing storage proteins, regulating protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, enriching antioxidant enzymes and activating their activities, accumulating secondary metabolites and osmolytes, and other adaptive responses. Biological significance Soybean (Glycine max L.), as a traditional edible legume, is being targeted for designing functional foods. During soybean germination under stressful conditions especially salt stress, newly discovered functional components such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are rapidly accumulated. However, soybean plants are relatively salt-sensitive and the growth, development and biomass of germinating soybeans are significantly

  9. Technical Note: Calcium and carbon stable isotope ratios as paleodietary indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Crowley, Brooke E; Brown, Shaun T; Wheatley, Patrick V; Moritz, Gillian L; Yit Yu, Fred Tuh; Bernard, Henry; DePaolo, Donald J; Jacobson, Andrew D; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-08-01

    Calcium stable isotope ratios are hypothesized to vary as a function of trophic level. This premise raises the possibility of using calcium stable isotope ratios to study the dietary behaviors of fossil taxa and to test competing hypotheses on the adaptive origins of euprimates. To explore this concept, we measured the stable isotope composition of contemporary mammals in northern Borneo and northwestern Costa Rica, two communities with functional or phylogenetic relevance to primate origins. We found that bone collagen δ(13) C and δ(15) N values could differentiate trophic levels in each assemblage, a result that justifies the use of these systems to test the predicted inverse relationship between bioapatite δ(13) C and δ(44) Ca values. As expected, taxonomic carnivores (felids) showed a combination of high δ(13) C and low δ(44) Ca values; however, the δ(44) Ca values of other faunivores were indistinguishable from those of primary consumers. We suggest that the trophic insensitivity of most bioapatite δ(44) Ca values is attributable to the negligible calcium content of arthropod prey. Although the present results are inconclusive, the tandem analysis of δ(44) Ca and δ(13) C values in fossils continues to hold promise for informing paleodietary studies and we highlight this potential by drawing attention to the stable isotope composition of the Early Eocene primate Cantius. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A nuclear calcium-sensing pathway is critical for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingmei; Wu, Jianmin; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhu, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    Salt stress is an important environmental factor that significantly limits crop productivity worldwide. Studies on responses of plants to salt stress in recent years have identified novel signaling pathways and have been at the forefront of plant stress biology and plant biology in general. Thus far, research on salt stress in plants has been focused on cytoplasmic signaling pathways. In this study, we discovered a nuclear calcium-sensing and signaling pathway that is critical for salt stress tolerance in the reference plant Arabidopsis. Through a forward genetic screen, we found a nuclear-localized calcium-binding protein, RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1), which is required for salt tolerance, and identified its interacting partner, RITF1, a bHLH transcription factor. We show that RSA1 and RITF1 regulate the transcription of several genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated by salt stress and that they also regulate the SOS1 gene that encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter essential for salt tolerance. Together, our results suggest the existence of a novel nuclear calcium-sensing and -signaling pathway that is important for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance.

  11. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

  12. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  13. Organometallics and quaternary ammonium salts affect calcium ion desorption from lecithin liposome membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, T.E.; Kuczera, J.; Przestalski, S. [Dept. of Physics and Biophysics, Agricultural Univ., Wroclaw (Poland)

    2001-06-01

    The objective of the present work was to compare the effects of groups of tin and lead organometallic compounds and their mixtures with amphiphilic quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) on the process of calcium ion desorption from lecithin liposome membranes, as dependent on the properties of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of QAS. In the investigations the method of radioactive labels was applied. Synergism and antagonism in the action of both groups of compounds were found. The effectiveness of the cooperation depended more on chain length of QAS compounds than on the size and polarity of their hydrophobic parts. The most effective of all compounds studied was a the mixture of benzyldimethylammonium chloride in a mixture with tripropyltin. Since the rate of calcium desorption proved to be a good measure of efficacy of biologically active surfactants, it seems that the conclusions reached in this paper may be useful for choosing compounds which are able to decontaminate the environment polluted with heavy metals. (orig.)

  14. Disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin in the presence of acidic excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka; Cornett, Claus; Taylor, Lynne S

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to combine vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for investigating excipient-induced disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin into the corresponding free acid form in environments relevant to manufacturing and storage of solid dosage formulations. Of the excipients investigated, citric acid and polyacrylic acid were found to induce disproportionation. Moreover, it was also observed that exposure to high relative humidity, elevated temperatures, and milling all promoted disproportionation. The results suggest that disproportionation of drug salts in powders happens via a solution-mediated mechanism and that the choice of excipient has a considerable impact on the extent of disproportionation observed. Thus, careful attention must be paid to excipient selection during pharmaceutical development and exposure to stresses such as high humidity and mechanical activation should be minimized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of calcium and magnesium salts on acid soil chemistry and calcium nutrition of apple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, M.A.; Bingham, F.T.; Peryea, F.J.

    Field experiments were conducted in two Brazilian orchards to examine the effects of soil applications of calcitic lime (Ca-lime), phosphogypsum, CaCl/sub 2/, and magnesite (Mg-lime) on soil chemistry and Ca nutrition of apple (Malus domestica Borkh, cv. Gala/MM 106). One orchard was on a low Ca, high Al Inceptisol; the second orchard was on a low Ca, low Al Oxisol. The resulting soil chemical changes were strongly influenced by the initial soil chemistry and the composition of the soil amendments. The effects of Ca-lime, added at a rate calculated to neutralize the topsoil exchange acidity, were restricted primarily to the upper 20 cm of the soil, where it increased pH, increased total dissolved and exchangeable Ca, eliminated dissolved Al, and reduced exchangeable Al. Phosphogypsum, added at Ca rates equivalent to the Ca-lime treatment, slightly reduced soil pH in the Inceptisol and slightly increased soil pH in the Oxisol. Phosphogypsum did not appreciably affect dissolved Al in the topsoil; however, it did reduce exchangeable Al but to a lesser degree than did Ca-lime or Mg-lime. Phosphogypsum increased exchangeable Ca and decreased exchangeable Al in the subsoil to a depth of 40 to 60 cm. Calcium chloride, added at Ca rates equivalent to the Ca-lime treatment, produced dissolved and exchangeable Ca increases similar to the phosphogypsum treatment; however, soluble and exchangeable Al were increased and pH slightly decreased through out the soil profiles.

  16. Citrate salts for preventing and treating calcium containing kidney stones in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rebecca; Hanchanale, Vishwanath S; Myatt, Andy; Somani, Bhaskar; Nabi, Ghulam; Biyani, C Shekhar

    2015-10-06

    Kidney stones affect people worldwide and have a high rate of recurrence even with treatment. Recurrences are particularly prevalent in people with low urinary citrate levels. These people have a higher incidence of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate stones. Oral citrate therapy increases the urinary citrate levels, which in turn binds with calcium and inhibits the crystallisation thus reduces stone formation. Despite the widespread use of oral citrate therapy for prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stones, the evidence to support its clinical efficacy remains uncertain. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy and adverse events associated with citrate salts for the treatment and prevention of calcium containing kidney stones. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 29 July 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy and adverse events associated with citrate salts for the treatment and prevention of calcium containing kidney stones in adults treated for a minimum of six months. Two authors assessed studies for inclusion in this review. Data were extracted according to predetermined criteria. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We included seven studies that included a total of 477 participants, most of whom had oxalate stones. Of these, three studies (247 participants) compared potassium citrate with placebo or no intervention; three (166 participants) compared potassium-sodium citrate with no intervention; and one (64 participants) compared potassium-magnesium citrate with placebo. Overall, quality of the reporting of the included studies was considered moderate to

  17. Intestinal calcium and bile salts facilitate germination of Clostridium difficile spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Kochan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear. Here we describe a signaling role for Ca2+ during C. difficile spore germination and provide direct evidence that intestinal Ca2+ coordinates with bile salts to stimulate germination. Endogenous Ca2+ (released from within the spore and a putative AAA+ ATPase, encoded by Cd630_32980, are both essential for taurocholate-glycine induced germination in the absence of exogenous Ca2+. However, environmental Ca2+ replaces glycine as a co-germinant and circumvents the need for endogenous Ca2+ fluxes. Cd630_32980 is dispensable for colonization in a murine model of C. difficile infection and ex vivo germination in mouse ileal contents. Calcium-depletion of the ileal contents prevented mutant spore germination and reduced WT spore germination by 90%, indicating that Ca2+ present within the gastrointestinal tract plays a critical role in C. difficile germination, colonization, and pathogenesis. These data provide a biological mechanism that may explain why individuals with inefficient intestinal calcium absorption (e.g., vitamin D deficiency, proton pump inhibitor use are more prone to CDI and suggest that modulating free intestinal calcium is a potential strategy to curb the incidence of CDI.

  18. Rapid insight into heating-induced phase transformations in the solid state of the calcium salt of atorvastatin using multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Kwok, Kaho

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin.......To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin....

  19. A calcium-dependent plasticity rule for HCN channels maintains activity homeostasis and stable synaptic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    for experimentally observed plasticity in HCN channels accompanying synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons, and uncover potential links between HCN-channel plasticity and calcium influx, dynamic gain control and stable synaptic learning.

  20. A calcium-dependent plasticity rule for HCN channels maintains activity homeostasis and stable synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Honnuraiah

    physiological roles for experimentally observed plasticity in HCN channels accompanying synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons, and uncover potential links between HCN-channel plasticity and calcium influx, dynamic gain control and stable synaptic learning.

  1. A Calcium-Dependent Plasticity Rule for HCN Channels Maintains Activity Homeostasis and Stable Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    for experimentally observed plasticity in HCN channels accompanying synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons, and uncover potential links between HCN-channel plasticity and calcium influx, dynamic gain control and stable synaptic learning. PMID:23390543

  2. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  3. Self-assembling of calcium salt of the new DNA base 5-carboxylcytosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrera, Simona [Department of Chemistry, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Grodon Street, WC1H0AJ London (United Kingdom); Ruiz-Hernandez, Sergio E. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University Main Building, Park Place, CF103AT Cardiff (United Kingdom); Reggente, Melania [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Passeri, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.passeri@uniroma1.it [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Natali, Marco [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Gala, Fabrizio [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Department of Medical-Surgical, Techno-Biomedical Sciences and Translational Medicine of SAPIENZA University of Rome, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Zollo, Giuseppe [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Research Center for Nanotechnology applied to Engineering of SAPIENZA University of Rome (CNIS), Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Portalone, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.portalone@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Ca salt of 5-carboxylcytosine has been deposited on HOPG substrate. • Molecules self-assembled in monolayers and filaments. • Height of the features were measured by atomic force microscopy. • Ab-initio calculations confirmed the AFM results. - Abstract: Supramolecular architectures involving DNA bases can have a strong impact in several fields such as nanomedicine and nanodevice manufacturing. To date, in addition to the four canonical nucleobases (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine), four other forms of cytosine modified at the 5 position have been identified in DNA. Among these four new cytosine derivatives, 5-carboxylcytosine has been recently discovered in mammalian stem cell DNA, and proposed as the final product of the oxidative epigenetic demethylation pathway on the 5 position of cytosine. In this work, a calcium salt of 5-carboxylcytosine has been synthesized and deposited on graphite surface, where it forms self-assembled features as long range monolayers and up to one micron long filaments. These structures have been analyzed in details combining different theoretical and experimental approaches: X-ray single-crystal diffraction data were used to simulate the molecule-graphite interaction, first using molecular dynamics and then refining the results using density functional theory (DFT); finally, data obtained with DFT were used to rationalize atomic force microscopy (AFM) results.

  4. High Pressure Processing Treatment of Fresh-Cut Carrots: Effect of Presoaking in Calcium Salts on Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of high pressure (HP treatment (200–600 MPa; 0–20 min on quality of fresh-cut carrot slices was evaluated after presoaking in selected calcium salt solutions (1% calcium chloride, 1% calcium lactate, 1% calcium gluconate, and distilled water as control for one hour. Results showed that calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution pretreatment was most effective for preserving the hardness of carrot slices at 400 and 600 MPa and this treatment also resulted in the least amount of color change in carrots, followed by calcium lactate, gluconate, and control pretreatments. The average sensory evaluation scores during 9 days of refrigerated storage at 4°C in control, CaCl2, calcium lactate, and calcium gluconate presoaking treatments followed by HP treatment were 6.4 ± 0.5, 8.0 ± 0.5, 7.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.3, respectively, on a zero to 9 scale for quality.

  5. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  6. New glyme-cyclic imide lithium salt complexes as thermally stable electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takashi; Hachida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    New glyme-Li salt complexes were prepared by mixing equimolar amounts of a novel cyclic imide lithium salt LiN(C 2F 4S 2O 4) (LiCTFSI) and a glyme (triglyme (G3) or tetraglyme (G4)). The glyme-Li salt complexes, [Li(G3)][CTFSI] and [Li(G4)][CTFSI], are solid and liquid, respectively, at room temperature. The thermal stability of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is much higher than that of pure G4, and the vapor pressure of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is negligible at temperatures lower than 100 °C. Although the viscosity of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is high (132.0 mPa s at 30 °C), because of its high molar concentration (ca. 3 mol dm -3), its ionic conductivity at 30 °C is relatively high, i.e., 0.8 mS cm -1, which is slightly lower than that of a conventional organic electrolyte solution (1 mol dm -3 LiTFSI dissolved in propylene carbonate). The self-diffusion coefficients of a Li + cation, a CTFSI - anion, and a glyme molecule were measured by the pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR method (PGSE-NMR). The ionicity (dissociativity) of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] at 30 °C is ca. 0.5, as estimated from the PGSE-NMR diffusivity measurements and the ionic conductivity measurements. Results of linear sweep voltammetry revealed that [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is electrochemically stable in an electrode potential range of 0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li +. The reversible deposition-stripping behavior of lithium was observed by cyclic voltammetry. The [LiCoO 2|[Li(G4)][CTFSI]|Li metal] cell showed a stable charge-discharge cycling behavior during 50 cycles, indicating that the [Li(G4)][CTFSI] complex is applicable to a 4 V class lithium secondary battery.

  7. Augmenting Laboratory Rearing of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae With Ammoniacal Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis R; Zhu, Jerry J; Taylor, David B

    2017-01-01

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media. Ammonium bicarbonate had no effect on pH and marginally increased ammonium while increasing survival twofold. The optimal level of ammonium bicarbonate was 50 g (0.63 mol) per pan. Larval survival decreased when pH was outside the range of 8.5 to 9.0. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Magnesium retention from metabolic-balance studies in female adolescents: impact of race, dietary salt, and calcium123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Wigertz, Karin; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Pratt, J Howard; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth. Objective: We studied racial differences in magnesium metabolism in response to dietary sodium and calcium during rapid bone growth. Design: Twenty-seven white and 40 black girls (11–15 y old) were studied for 3 wk while they consumed low-sodium (1.3 g/d) and high-sodium (3.8 g/d) diets by using a randomized-order, crossover metabolic study with 3 dietary calcium intakes; the magnesium dietary intake was fixed at 230 mg/d. Urine and feces were collected during each 3-wk period in 24-h pools and analyzed for magnesium. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of race and dietary sodium with calcium intake as a covariate. Results: Salt loading or calcium intake had no significant effect on urinary magnesium excretion. Blacks excreted significantly less urinary magnesium (mean ± SD: 83.8 ± 25.6 mg/d) than did whites (94.9 ± 27.3 mg/d; P magnesium excretion. Magnesium retention was higher with the low-sodium diet (50.1 ± 44.0 mg/d) than with the high-sodium diet (39.3 ± 49.8 mg/d) (P magnesium than did whites. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. Kinetic studies are needed to fully explain magnesium homeostasis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01564238. PMID:23553157

  9. Magnesium retention from metabolic-balance studies in female adolescents: impact of race, dietary salt, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Wigertz, Karin; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Pratt, J Howard; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth. We studied racial differences in magnesium metabolism in response to dietary sodium and calcium during rapid bone growth. Twenty-seven white and 40 black girls (11-15 y old) were studied for 3 wk while they consumed low-sodium (1.3 g/d) and high-sodium (3.8 g/d) diets by using a randomized-order, crossover metabolic study with 3 dietary calcium intakes; the magnesium dietary intake was fixed at 230 mg/d. Urine and feces were collected during each 3-wk period in 24-h pools and analyzed for magnesium. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of race and dietary sodium with calcium intake as a covariate. Salt loading or calcium intake had no significant effect on urinary magnesium excretion. Blacks excreted significantly less urinary magnesium (mean ± SD: 83.8 ± 25.6 mg/d) than did whites (94.9 ± 27.3 mg/d; P magnesium excretion. Magnesium retention was higher with the low-sodium diet (50.1 ± 44.0 mg/d) than with the high-sodium diet (39.3 ± 49.8 mg/d) (P magnesium than did whites. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. Kinetic studies are needed to fully explain magnesium homeostasis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01564238.

  10. Regression of glomerular and tubulointerstitial injuries by dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Rafiq

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB plus calcium channel blocker (CCB reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl, NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day, NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day, NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day. Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an ARB plus CCB restores glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in DSS rats.

  11. Self-assembling of calcium salt of the new DNA base 5-carboxylcytosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrera, Simona; Ruiz-Hernandez, Sergio E.; Reggente, Melania; Passeri, Daniele; Natali, Marco; Gala, Fabrizio; Zollo, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marco; Portalone, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    Supramolecular architectures involving DNA bases can have a strong impact in several fields such as nanomedicine and nanodevice manufacturing. To date, in addition to the four canonical nucleobases (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine), four other forms of cytosine modified at the 5 position have been identified in DNA. Among these four new cytosine derivatives, 5-carboxylcytosine has been recently discovered in mammalian stem cell DNA, and proposed as the final product of the oxidative epigenetic demethylation pathway on the 5 position of cytosine. In this work, a calcium salt of 5-carboxylcytosine has been synthesized and deposited on graphite surface, where it forms self-assembled features as long range monolayers and up to one micron long filaments. These structures have been analyzed in details combining different theoretical and experimental approaches: X-ray single-crystal diffraction data were used to simulate the molecule-graphite interaction, first using molecular dynamics and then refining the results using density functional theory (DFT); finally, data obtained with DFT were used to rationalize atomic force microscopy (AFM) results.

  12. Enhanced enamel benefits from a novel toothpaste and dual phase gel containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Kate; Ricketts, Stephen R; Philpotts, Carole J; Joiner, Andrew; Schemehorn, Bruce; Willson, Richard

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the enamel health benefits of a novel toothpaste and a dual phase gel containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate and fluoride. Enamel demineralisation was assessed using two pH cycling protocols with either lactic acid or citric acid as the acid challenge. Remineralisation of lactic acid softened and citric acid softened enamel was assessed using a number of protocols. All demineralisation and remineralisation evaluation was by surface microhardness measurements. The novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride toothpaste inhibited enamel demineralisation to a significantly (pcalcium silicate/phosphate fluoride toothpaste also showed significant (pcalcium silicate/phosphate fluoride dual phase gel provided enhanced remineralisation of citric acid softened enamel compared to fluoride and non-fluoride controls. These studies show that formulations containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate salts and fluoride provide enhanced enamel demineralisation and remineralisation in vitro benefits. The novel oral care formulations containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate salts and fluoride is a new approach to the protection of enamel from acid attacks and the repair of demineralised enamel, leading to increased dental hard tissue benefits. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calcium application mitigates salt stress in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.( offshoots cultivars of Berhi and Sayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. JASIM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exogenous application of calcium in ameliorating the adverse effects of salt stress (15.9 dS m-1 on date palm offshoots (Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars of Berhi and Sayer was investigated. Ca-fertilisers Polixal and Rexene were applied either as soil amendments or foliar spray. The results showed that Polixal at 30 ml offshoot-1 significantly increased plant height, leaf area, total chlorophyll content, RWC, proline concentration, peroxidase activity, IAA content, K+ and K+/Na+ ratio in leaves of Berhi cultivar, whereas catalase activity, ABA and Cl-  content were decreased. Also Berhi cultivar responded to soil amendments more than to foliar spray. However, Ca-fertilisers mitigated salt stress in the two cultivars and Berhi cultivar was more salt stress tolerant than Sayer cultivar by maintaining the high ratio of K+/Na+ and regulating levels of IAA to ABA, in silty clay loam soil. These results suggest that calcium application can improve the defense system under salt stress conditions.

  14. Alginate-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization: effect of the amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Weerapol, Yossanun; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-05-01

    Pellets containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), a model drug (theophylline) and a range of levels of sodium alginate (i.e., 10-50% w/w) were prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Two types of sodium alginate were evaluated with and without the addition of either calcium acetate or calcium carbonate (0, 0.3, 3 and 10% w/w). The effects of amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts on pellet properties, e.g., size, shape, morphology and drug release behavior, were investigated. Most pellet formulations resulted in pellets of a sufficient quality with respect to size, size distribution and shape. The results showed that the amounts of sodium alginate and calcium salts influenced the size and shape of the obtained pellets. However, different types of sodium alginate and calcium salt responded to modifications to a different extent. A cavity was observed in the pellet structure, as seen in the scanning electron micrographs, resulting from the forces involved in the spheronization process. Most of pellet formulations released about 75-85% drug within 60 min. Incorporation of calcium salts in the pellet formulations altered the drug release, depending on the solubility of the calcium salts used. The drug release data showed a good fit into both Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations.

  15. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Bernard W. [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Bagchi, Manashi [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V. [Laila Impex Research Center, Vijayawada (India); Shara, Michael A. [Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States); Preuss, Harry G. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Bagchi, Debasis [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States) and Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States)]. E-mail: debsis@creighton.edu

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca{sup 2+}/K{sup +} bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca{sup 2+} (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K{sup +} (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca{sup 2+} ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K{sup +}, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

  16. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoocher Soleimani

    Full Text Available Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2 in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absorb calcium as well. Sufficient calcium intake from food, and supplements if needed, can slow the rate of bone loss. Women of childbearing ... calcium absorption. People who eat a variety of foods don't have to consider ... include consumption of alcohol- and caffeine-containing beverages as well ...

  18. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  19. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of the precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt.

  20. Vitamin D-mediated calcium absorption in patients with clinically stable Crohn's disease: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D is the critical hormone for intestinal absorption of calcium. Optimal calcium absorption is important for proper mineralization of bone in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other important functions. Diseases associated with gut inflammation, such as Crohn's ...

  1. Determination of molecular species of calcium salts of MDP produced through decalcification of enamel and dentin by MDP-based one-step adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yoko; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Enamel and dentin particles were added to an experimental 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based one-step adhesive to react for 30 s. After enamel and dentin reactants were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) techniques, curve-fitting analysis was performed on the (31)P NMR spectra of enamel and dentin reactants. By varying the molar ratio of calcium chloride to MDP, a series of three types of MDP-Ca salts were synthesized. The molecular species of calcium salts of MDP (MDP-Ca salts) produced by decalcification of enamel or dentin were determined based on the XRD and (31)P NMR analysis results of these three types of synthesized MDP-Ca salts. Curve-fitting analysis showed that enamel and dentin developed several types of MDP-Ca salts and amorphous dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) during decalcification. The molecular species of MDP-Ca salts produced by enamel and dentin were mono-calcium salts of MDP monomer and MDP dimer. In addition, dentin produced a di-calcium of MDP dimer.

  2. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  3. Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase AtCPK1 plays a positive role in salt/drought-stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Peng, Lu; Liu, Yingying; Yao, Rundong; Liu, Zhibin; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jianmei

    2018-03-25

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play vital roles in plant response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we investigated the function of Arabidopsis AtCPK1 in response to salt and drought stress. The loss-of-function cpk1 mutant displayed hypersensitive to salt and drought stress, whereas overexpressing AtCPK1 in Arabidopsis plants significantly enhanced the resistance to salt or drought stress. The reduced or elevated tolerance of cpk1 mutant and AtCPK1-overexpressing lines was confirmed by the changes of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H 2 O 2 . Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of several stress-inducible genes (RD29A, COR15A, ZAT10, APX2) down-regulated in cpk1 mutant and up-regulated in AtCPK1-overexpressing plants. These results are likely to indicate that AtCPK1 positively regulates salt and drought stress in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modification of calcium phosphate cement with poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt for kyphoplasty application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxia; Liu, Huiling; Luo, Zong-Ping; Sajilafu; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    To meet the requirements of minimally invasive surgical treatments for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, various strategies have been proposed to enhance the properties of calcium phosphate cement (CPC). Here, a new strategy was developed by incorporating poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and its strontium salt into the formulation of alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)-based CPC. Effects of γ-PGA on the injectability, cohesion, setting times, mechanical compressive strengths and cytocompatibility were systematically studied. Results showed that the injectability, cohesion and setting times were considerably improved by introducing γ-PGA into the CPC. Moreover, after setting for 7days, the compressive strengths increased from 14.6±1.4MPa for pure CPC to 35.3±1.7MPa for CPC with 8.9wt% γ-PGA and further to 61.2±5.4MPa for CPC with 8.9wt% γ-PGA combined with its strontium salt. In vitro osteoblast proliferation tests showed that the group of CPC modified by γ-PGA and its strontium salt had better cytocompatibility than the pure CPC group. All results suggest that optimal properties were obtained for the cement with 8.9wt% γ-PGA added to its solid phases and using strontium salt as the reactive liquid phase, making it as a promising candidate for application in kyphoplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caetano, Miguel [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research - IPIMAR, Av. Brasilia 1449-006, Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, Nuno [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research - IPIMAR, Av. Brasilia 1449-006, Lisbon (Portugal); Cesario Carlos Vale, Rute [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research - IPIMAR, Av. Brasilia 1449-006, Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: cvale@ipimar.pt

    2007-07-15

    Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb showed a decrease towards the surface ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.172 {+-} 0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 {mu}g g{sup -1} in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 {mu}g g{sup -1} in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth

  6. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  7. Phosphorylation of SOS3-LIKE CALCIUM BINDING PROTEIN8 by SOS2 protein kinase stabilizes their protein complex and regulates salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huixin; Yang, Yongqing; Quan, Ruidang; Mendoza, Imelda; Wu, Yisheng; Du, Wenming; Zhao, Shuangshuang; Schumaker, Karen S; Pardo, José M; Guo, Yan

    2009-05-01

    The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway plays an important role in the regulation of Na+/K+ ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, we reported that the calcium binding proteins SOS3 and SOS3-LIKE CALCIUM BINDING PROTEIN8 (SCaBP8) nonredundantly activate the protein kinase SOS2. Here, we show that SOS2 phosphorylates SCaBP8 at its C terminus but does not phosphorylate SOS3. In vitro, SOS2 phosphorylation of SCaBP8 was enhanced by the bimolecular interaction of SOS2 and SCaBP8 and did not require calcium ions. In vivo, this phosphorylation was induced by salt stress, occurred at the membrane, stabilized the SCaBP8-SOS2 interaction, and enhanced plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchange activity. When a Ser at position 237 in the SCaBP8 protein (the SOS2 phosphorylation target) was mutated to Ala, SCaBP8 was no longer phosphorylated by SOS2 and the mutant protein could not fully rescue the salt-sensitive phenotype of the scabp8 mutant. By contrast, when Ser-237 was mutated to Asp to mimic the charge of a phosphorylated Ser residue, the mutant protein rescued the scabp8 salt sensitivity. These data demonstrate that calcium sensor phosphorylation is a critical component of SOS pathway regulation of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  8. Enrichment of natural calcium with 48 Ca by electromigration in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, G.; Bimbot, R.; Legoux, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A method for producing calcium enriched with 48 Ca by means of electromigration technique is presented. The aim of the study is the production of the calcium isotope for utilization in ion sources. The scheme of the electrolytic cell system and the operating parameters are presented. The reliability of the equipment and the experiments designed to evaluate the functional optimization of the system are examined. The obtention of calcium, with a factor of enrichment of approximately 10, from 225 g of Ca Br2 in 8 months is possible [fr

  9. Enhancing the solubility of calcium phosphate ceramics by calcium salt infiltration for the purpose of hematopoietic stem cell culturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghao

    The hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been unquestionably important to therapies that involve blood and immune system replacement. However, the in-vitro culture and the expansion of HSCs inhibit their application. This work aims to develop a composite biodegradable 3D scaffold that would simulate key aspects of the in-vivo microenvironment (niche) in which expansion of the hematopoietic stem cells takes place in human bone marrow. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been chosen as a scaffold material because of its biocompatibility and the ability to create an osteogenic scaffold and thereby simulate trabecular bone that is known to be important to the HSC niche in bone marrow. It is hypothesized that the use of a Ca-rich HA scaffold will create a three dimensional, protective environment for HSCs and further promote their in-vitro expansion by releasing Ca ions into the culture medium. The first part of this study examined the processing of Ca-rich HA and the release of calcium ions into saline over time. The Ca-rich phase was introduced into the HA by an infiltration process and has been shown to release calcium into the culture medium over 42 days. The second part of this study examined the effect of the scaffold material on the fate of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS), a well-known endothelial progenitor model. The results showed, for the first time, that at least some HUVEC cells have hematopoietic potential and that the scaffold promoted differentiation down the hematopoietic cell lineage. This is thought to be due to hemangioblast character in the HUVEC cells which is also shared by HSCs. Finally the effects of the scaffold on the in-vitro co-culture of an osteoblast cell line and primary human bone marrow derived HSCs was studied. The infiltrated scaffolds were shown to stimulate the HSC population to differentiate down the hematopoietic lineage and also showed greater potential to differentiate down the HSC lineage in consequent CFU assays.

  10. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))

    1991-05-01

    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  11. Stable respiratory activity requires both P/Q-type and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Henner; Zanella, Sebastien; Elsen, Gina E; Smith, Lincoln; Doi, Atsushi; Garcia, Alfredo J; Wei, Aguan D; Xun, Randy; Kirsch, Sarah; Gomez, Christopher M; Hevner, Robert F; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-02-20

    P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(v)2.1) play critical presynaptic and postsynaptic roles throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. Here we report that mice with a genetic ablation of the Ca(v)2.1 pore-forming α(1A) subunit (α(1A)⁻/⁻) encoded by CACNA1a (Jun et al., 1999) suffer during postnatal development from increasing breathing disturbances that lead ultimately to death. Breathing abnormalities include decreased minute ventilation and a specific loss of sighs, which was associated with lung atelectasis. Similar respiratory alterations were preserved in the isolated in vitro brainstem slice preparation containing the pre-Bötzinger complex. The loss of Ca(v)2.1 was associated with an alteration in the functional dependency on N-type calcium channels (Ca(v)2.2). Blocking N-type calcium channels with conotoxin GVIA had only minor effects on respiratory activity in slices from control (CT) littermates, but abolished respiratory activity in all slices from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice. The amplitude of evoked EPSPs was smaller in inspiratory neurons from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice compared with CTs. Conotoxin GVIA abolished all EPSPs in inspiratory neurons from α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice, while the EPSP amplitude was reduced by only 30% in CT mice. Moreover, neuromodulation was significantly altered as muscarine abolished respiratory network activity in α(1A)⁻/⁻ mice but not in CT mice. We conclude that excitatory synaptic transmission dependent on N-type and P/Q-type calcium channels is required for stable breathing and sighing. In the absence of P/Q-type calcium channels, breathing, sighing, and neuromodulation are severely compromised, leading to early mortality.

  12. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of stable isotopes to the study of pharmacokinetics of magnesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benech, H.

    1999-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes as labels is becoming an attractive tool for the study of magnesium behavior in humans. It has been used two stable isotopes of magnesium, 25 Mg and 26 Mg, to measure the absolute bioavailability of a pharmaceutical form of magnesium. (N.C.)

  14. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-02-12

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  15. Salt-modulated structure formation in a dense calcium caseinate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowska, K.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    A 30 wt% calcium caseinate dispersion can be transformed in an anisotropic and fibrous structure by applying well-defined flow and enzymatic gelation. The formation of an anisotropic structure is thought to be due to the micellar structure of the caseinate and the mild adhesion between the micelles

  16. OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION KINETICS OF GUAVAS IN MALTOSE SOLUTIONS WITH CALCIUM SALT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DI S. MASTRANTONIO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The osmotic dehydration kinetics of guavas in maltose solutions at 40 and 60ºBrix, with addition of 0, 0.6 and 1.2% of calcium lactate was studied in this paper and the final product quality was evaluated. The experiments were carried out up to 60 hours and samples were taken for analysis at different times to evaluate guavas weight reduction, water loss and sugar gain and to characterize the product according to its texture and color. After 24 hours of process the mass transfer of water and sugar between the osmotic solution and the fruit was negligible, showing that process equilibrium was reached. The increase of sugar concentration in the osmotic solution showed strong influence on the dehydration process, increasing the water loss and reducing sugar gain. The presence of calcium ions in the osmotic solution also influenced the kinetics of mass transfer and showed a strong influence on fruit texture. Higher values of stress and strain at failure were obtained when calcium lactate was employed. The effect of the different osmotic treatments on the color parameters was also investigated and significant changes were observed in the values of chroma C* and hue H* due to sugar concentration and calcium addition.

    KEYWORDS: Osmotic dehydration; kinetics; guava; maltose; calcium lactate.

  17. A new cold-adapted, alkali-stable and highly salt-tolerant esterase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijia; Xu, Hui; Wu, Yingqiang; Zeng, Jie; Guo, Ziwei; Wang, Lu; Shen, Cheng; Qiao, Dairong; Cao, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Bacterial esterases and lipases, especially extremozymes attract increasing attention due to various advantages both in good properties and wide applications. In the present study, a cold-adapted, alkali-stable and highly salt-tolerant esterase (Est700) was cloned from Bacillus licheniformis, expressed and purified with a molecular mass of 25 kDa. The optimal temperature of Est700 was 30 °C, with 35% maximal activity retaining at 0 °C. Its optimal pH was 8.0 and showed high stability at pH 5.0-11.0. Noticeably, Est700 was highly activated by 3.5 M NaCl and the extent of this activation is much stronger than that of currently reported halophilic ones. It was also stable in 5 M NaCl with no activity loss. High salt concentrations changed the secondary structure and folding properties of Est700 with formation of more α-helix and less β-sheet domains. With salt incubation, its melting temperature was estimated to be 57.2 °C, which is 12.8 °C higher than that of native one. Interestingly, Est700 lacks the acidic surface that is considered essential for enzyme stability at high salinity. However, it has a mainly positive surface electrostatic potential, which is probably different from most reported halotolerant esterases. These multiple properties make Est700 a valuable candidate in both basic research and industrial applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Physico-Chemical Study of the Separation of Calcium Isotopes by Chemical Exchange Between Amalgam and Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duie, P.; Dirian, G.

    1962-01-01

    In a preliminary study of the isotopic exchange between Ca amalgam and aqueous or organic solutions of Ca salts, the main parameters governing the feasibility of a separation process based on these systems such as separation factor, exchange kinetics, rate of decomposition of the amalgam were investigated. The separation factor between 40 Ca and 46 Ca was found to be of the order of 1.02. The rate of the exchange reaction is rather low for aqueous solutions, extremely low for organic solutions. The amalgam seems not to be attacked by dimethyl-formamide solutions; but it is rapidly decomposed by aqueous solutions of Ca halides. This decomposition is slow in the case of aqueous solutions of calcium formate and still slower for Ca(OH) 2 ; however, except in particular conditions, the observed rate is often much higher, owing to interfering reactions between amalgam and water vapor contained in H 2 bubbles. (authors) [fr

  19. Calcium channel blockers, more than diuretics, enhance vascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers in salt-loaded hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The combination therapy of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB with a calcium channel blocker (CCB or with a diuretic is favorably recommended for the treatment of hypertension. However, the difference between these two combination therapies is unclear. The present work was undertaken to examine the possible difference between the two combination therapies in vascular protection. Salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP were divided into 6 groups, and they were orally administered (1 vehicle, (2 olmesartan, an ARB, (3 azelnidipine, a CCB, (4 hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, (5 olmesartan combined with azelnidipine, or (6 olmesartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide. Olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling in SHRSP more than did monotherapy with either agent. However, despite a comparable blood pressure lowering effect between the two treatments, azelnidipine enhanced the amelioration of vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling by olmesartan to a greater extent than did hydrochlorothiazide in salt-loaded SHRSP. The increased enhancement by azelnidipine of olmesartan-induced vascular protection than by hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a greater amelioration of vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activation, superoxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and with a greater activation of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS pathway. These results provided the first evidence that a CCB potentiates the vascular protective effects of an ARB in salt-sensitive hypertension, compared with a diuretic, and provided a novel rationale explaining the benefit of the combination therapy with an ARB and a CCB.

  20. Experimental and computer modelling speciation studies of the effect of pH and phosphate on the precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darn, Simon M; Sodi, Ravinder; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Roberts, Norman B; Duffield, John R

    2006-01-01

    pH and phosphate concentration are the major determinants of precipitation in urine of the salts of calcium and magnesium. This study aims to model the process of salt precipitation and establish whether the acidification of urine samples is necessary for the accurate measurement of calcium and magnesium in a clinical laboratory setting. Urine samples were collected from 21 patients, aliquots were taken from each patient sample and the pH was adjusted to cover the range 2.0-10.0. The analytical and biological variation for each analyte was established and used to calculate percentage changes and critical differences. The critical difference was used to assess whether there was a significant difference between acidified and un-acidified samples. The JESS (Joint Expert Speciation System) thermodynamic computer-modelling program was used to predict the distribution of salt species formed with varying pH values and phosphate levels in simulated urine. The results showed that at a pH greater than 6.5, measured calcium, magnesium and phosphate significantly decreased as a result of precipitation (pmagnesium phosphates. Overall, calcium phosphate precipitation tends to predominate at lower phosphate concentrations and at pH values below about 6.5, while both calcium and magnesium phosphate precipitation occur at higher phosphate concentrations and pH values greater than 6.5. For accurate analysis of these analytes in urine, the pH should be routinely measured and acidification should be undertaken prior to analysis if the pH is greater than 6.5. Based on the findings of this study, acidification or the lack of it does not result in a clinically significant change in calcium, magnesium and phosphate measured in urine. This study also predicted the likely salt species formed at varying urinary pH values and phosphate concentrations.

  1. Electrophysiological Features of Single Store-Operated Calcium Channels in HEK S4 Cell Line with Stable STIM1 Protein Knockdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygin, A V; Vigont, V A; Glushankova, L N; Zimina, O A; Kolesnikov, D O; Skopin, A Yu; Kaznacheeva, E V

    2017-07-01

    An important role in intracellular calcium signaling is played by store-operated channels activated by STIM proteins, calcium sensors of the endoplasmic reticulum. In stable STIM1 knockdown HEK S4 cells, single channels activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores were detected by cell-attached patch-clamp technique and their electrophysiological parameters were described. Comparison of the properties of single channels in HEK293 and HEK S4 cells revealed no significant differences in their current-voltage curves, while regulation of store-operated calcium channels in these cell lines depended on the level of STIM1 expression. We can conclude that electrophysiological peculiarities of store-regulated calcium entry observed in different cells can be explained by differences in STIM1 expression.

  2. A practical optimization on salt/high-methoxyl pectin interaction to design a stable formulation for Doogh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudaki, Hassan; Mousavi, Mohammad; Safari, Mohammad; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2013-09-12

    Doogh is a traditional Iranian fermented drink. Response surface methodology-central composite design (RSM-CCD) was used to determine optimum formulation for the production of Doogh stabilized by high methoxyl pectin (HMP). The effects of HMP (0.28-0.42% wt) and salt (0.4-1.1% wt) concentrations on the stability, viscosity, volume-weighted (D₄₃) and surface-weighted (D₃₂) mean diameters and Span were investigated. Graphical response surface plots were applied to locate the optimum point. The optimum composition for stable Doogh production was found to contain (% wt) HMP 0.4 and salt 0.62. These optimum conditions yielded the stability of 96.34%, viscosity of 2.05 mPas, D₄₃ of 11.922 μm, D₃₂ of 0.966 μm and Span value of 2.140. There was no significant difference between the physical, rheological and sensory attributes of Dooghs produced under optimum conditions and commercial samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. OsCCD1, a novel small calcium-binding protein with one EF-hand motif, positively regulates osmotic and salt tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Pei; Zou, Juanzi; Kong, Lin; Hu, Shiqi; Wang, Biying; Yang, Jun; Xie, Guosheng

    2016-06-01

    Calcium-binding proteins play key roles in the signal transduction in the growth and stress response in eukaryotes. However, a subfamily of proteins with one EF-hand motif has not been fully studied in higher plants. Here, a novel small calcium-binding protein with a C-terminal centrin-like domain (CCD1) in rice, OsCCD1, was characterized to show high similarity with a TaCCD1 in wheat. As a result, OsCCD1 can bind Ca(2+) in the in vitro EMSA and the fluorescence staining calcium-binding assays. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged OsCCD1 in rice protoplasts showed that OsCCD1 was localized in the nucleus and cytosol of rice cells. OsCCD1 transcript levels were transiently induced by osmotic stress and salt stress through the calcium-mediated ABA signal. The rice seedlings of T-DNA mutant lines showed significantly less tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses than wild type plants (psalt stresses than wild type plants (psalt stresses. In sum, OsCCD1 gene probably affects the DREB2B and its downstream genes to positively regulate osmotic and salt tolerance in rice seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trophic Interactions in Louisiana Salt Marshes: Combining Stomach Content, Stable Isotope, and Fatty Acid Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duarte, P. C.; Able, K.; Fodrie, J.; McCann, M. J.; Melara, S.; Noji, C.; Olin, J.; Pincin, J.; Plank, K.; Polito, M. J.; Jensen, O.

    2016-02-01

    Multiple studies conducted over five years since the 2010 Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico indicate that oil impacts vary widely among taxonomic groups. For instance, fishes inhabiting the marsh surface show no clear differences in either community composition or population characteristics between oiled and unoiled sites, despite clear evidence of physiological impacts on individual fish. In contrast, marsh insects and spiders are sensitive to the effects of hydrocarbons. Both insects and spiders are components of the marsh food web and represent an important trophic link between marsh plants and higher trophic levels. Because differences in oil impacts throughout the marsh food web have the potential to significantly alter food webs and energy flow pathways and reduce food web resilience, our goal is to quantify differences in marsh food webs between oiled and unoiled sites to test the hypothesis that oiling has resulted in simpler and less resilient food webs. Diets and food web connections were quantified through a combination of stomach content, stable isotope, and fatty acid analysis. The combination of these three techniques provides a more robust approach to quantifying trophic relationships than any of these methods alone. Stomach content analysis provides a detailed snapshot of diets, while fatty acid and stable isotopes reflect diets averaged over weeks to months. Initial results focus on samples collected in May 2015 from a range of terrestrial and aquatic consumer species, including insects, mollusks, crustaceans, and piscivorous fishes.

  5. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  6. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  7. Effect of lithium nitrate and calcium nitrate composition on the thermal properties of quaternary molten salts mixture for heat transfer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nuratikah Nadhirah Binti; Yunos, Nursyafiqah Binti; Muhammad, Wan Nur Azrina Binti Wan; Mohamad, Md Nor Anuar Bin; Yusof, Farazila Binti

    2017-10-01

    Mixed molten salt is considered as a promising medium for both heat transfer and energy storage in thermal power because of its many advantages such as low the melting point, large heat capacity, good thermal stability and low cost. In order to determine the thermal properties of the molten salt, the nitrate quaternary mixture of the molten salt are prepared based on the different composition of the lithium nitrate and calcium nitrate. The other salts in the mixture are potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate. Mixture of molten salts were heated in furnace at 150°C for 4 hours and increased the temperature to 400°C for 8 hours for homogenize the salt mixture. Then, decreased the temperature to 115°C for an hour. The melting point and thermal stability of the mixture was determined by using thermogravimetric analysis [TGA] while the heat capacity was determined by using differential scanning calorimetry [DSC]. The lowest melting point using different composition of lithium nitrate, 10wt%NaNO3, 4Owt%KNO3, 20wt%Ca[NO3]2, 30wt%LiNO3 which is 97.1°C while the heat capacity is 6.33 J/g°C. For the experiment using various composition of calcium nitrate, the lowest melting point is from 14wt% NaNO3 + 48wt% KNO3 + 13wt% LiNO3 + 25wt% Ca[NO3]2 which is 111.7°C and the heat capacity is 2.06 J/g °C. From the result, the addition of lithium nitrate in the quaternary molten salts give more effect to the reduction of melting point value but higher heat capacity.

  8. The contribution of macrophyte-derived organic matter to microbial biomass in salt-marsh sediments: Stable carbon isotope analysis of microbial biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; de Brouwer, J.F.C.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of bacterial biomarkers were determined to infer sources of organic carbon used by bacteria in the sediments of three salt marshes. Biomarkers studied were polar lipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA), mainly bacteria- specific, methyl-branched i15:0 and a15:0. Experiments

  9. Rapid insight into heating-induced phase transformations in the solid state of the calcium salt of atorvastatin using multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Kwok, Kaho; Taylor, Lynne S; Bond, Andrew D; Rades, Thomas; Rantanen, Jukka; Cornett, Claus

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was used to decompose a variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (VT-XRPD) data matrix into diffraction patterns and concentration profiles of pure drug phases. By means of the MCR-estimated diffraction patterns and concentration profiles, the trihydrate phase of the drug salt was found to dehydrate sequentially into two partially dehydrated hydrate structures upon heating from 25 to 110°C, with no associated breakage of the original crystal lattice. During heating from 110 to 140°C, the remaining water was lost from the solid drug salt, which instantly collapsed into a liquid crystalline phase. An isotropic melt was formed above 155°C. Thermogravimetric analysis, hot-stage polarized light microscopy, and hot-stage Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was shown to provide consistent results. This study demonstrates that MCR combined with VT-XRPD is a powerful tool for rapid interpretation of complex dehydration behavior of drug hydrates, and it is also the first report on a liquid crystalline phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin.

  10. Absorption of calcium from milk and tempeh consumed by postmenopausal Malay women using the dual stable isotope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Hasnah; Shahar, Suzana; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Ismail, Amin; Kamaruddin, Norazmi; Rahman, Suriah Abdul

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of calcium bioavailability from non-dairy foods containing moderate amounts of calcium is especially important in populations that have habitually low dairy consumption. Absorption of calcium from milk and tempeh (a traditional fermented soy product) was compared in a sample of Malay subjects. A randomized, crossover design was utilized to assess calcium absorption in 20 postmenopausal women from either a glass of milk (114 g) or from a meal of tempeh (206 g); each containing 130 mg calcium. At each study of Phase 1 (mid-July) and Phase 2 (mid-August), intravenous (42)Ca and oral (44)Ca were administered and calcium absorption was measured in 24-h urine collections post-dosing; with a 1-month washout period between phases. Absorption of calcium from tempeh did not differ significantly from milk (36.9 +/- 10.6% vs. 34.3 +/- 8.6%, respectively). Due to differences in the calcium content of tempeh, four servings of this product would be needed to get the same amount of absorbed calcium as that obtained from a 4-ounce glass of milk. Tempeh may provide readily available calcium for this population of women at risk for low bone mass.

  11. Accurate measurement of stable isotopes 46Ca and 48Ca in human feces, plasma, and urine in relation to human nutrition of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghorbani, M.; Sundaresan, A.; Young, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method based on Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is described which allows simultaneous measurement of two stable isotopes of calcium, 46 Ca and 48 Ca, in human feces, plasma, and urine for the purpose of studying human nutrition and metabolism of calcium. It is shown that these measurements can be made with relative analytical precision of 1-5% depending on the particulars of a given experiment. The method has been applied in humans and data are given showing that kinetics of plasma appearance of 46 Ca administered orally with food can be readily investigated. This method allows investigation of a number of important nutritional and metabolic issues in all human population groups without regard to radioisotope safety considerations, and should prove especially helpful in relation to studies of calcium bioavailability from different foods in a variety of population groups for whom use of radiocalcium is not warranted. (Auth.)

  12. Calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins in response to ABA signaling and salt stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chang, Shu; Chu, Zhilin; Wang, Hanmeng; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2017-12-02

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a class of plant-specific kinase that directly bind Ca 2+ and mediate the calcium-signaling pathways to play important physiological roles in growth and development. The rice genome contains 31 CDPK genes, one of which, OsCPK21, is known to modulate the abscisic acid (ABA) and salt stress responses in this crop; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are largely unknown. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the interaction between OsCPK21 and one of its putative targets, Os14-3-3 (OsGF14e). We used an in vitro kinase assay and site-directed mutagenesis to verify that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e at Tyr-138. We used real-time PCR to reveal that several ABA and salt inducible genes were more highly expressed in the OsCPK21-OE and OsGF14e WT-OE plants than in the mutant OsGF14e Y138A-OE and wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e to facilitate the response to ABA and salt stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of stable isotopes to the study of pharmacokinetics of magnesium salts; Apport des isotopes stables a l'etude de la pharmacocinetique de sels de magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benech, H

    1999-05-28

    The use of stable isotopes as labels is becoming an attractive tool for the study of magnesium behavior in humans. It has been used two stable isotopes of magnesium, {sup 25}Mg and {sup 26}Mg, to measure the absolute bioavailability of a pharmaceutical form of magnesium. (N.C.)

  14. Calcium and strontium salts of (glycinato-κ(2)N,O)oxidobis(peroxido-κ(2)O,O')vanadate(V) tetrahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Uchida, Ayana; Hashimoto, Masato

    2013-12-15

    The title salts calcium (glycinato-κ(2)N,O)oxidobis(peroxido-κ(2)O,O')vanadate(V) tetrahydrate, Ca[VO(O2)2(NH2CH2COO)]·4H2O, and strontium (glycinato-κ(2)N,O)oxidobis(peroxido-κ(2)O,O')vanadate(V) tetrahydrate, Sr[VO(O2)2(NH2CH2COO)]·4H2O, crystallized at pH ca 7.4 with similar lattice parameters. The glycinate anion acts as a bidentate N,O-chelating ligand, and the V atom has a pentagonal bipyramidal geometry, with two η(2)-peroxo groups and the glycinate N atom in the equatorial plane, and one terminal oxo and a glycinate O atom at the axial positions. The H atoms of three of the four water molecules in the strontium salt exhibited disorder over three positions for each molecule.

  15. A calcium-sensing receptor mutation causing hypocalcemia disrupts a transmembrane salt bridge to activate β-arrestin-biased signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorvin, Caroline M.; Babinsky, Valerie N.; Malinauskas, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    SR mutation selectively enhanced β-arrestin signaling by disrupting a salt bridge formed between Arg680 and Glu767, which are located in CaSR transmembrane domain 3 and extracellular loop 2, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate CaSR signaling through β-arrestin and the importance of the Arg680-Glu767...... salt bridge in mediating signaling bias....

  16. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Basal and Activated Calcium Sensitization Mediated by RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway in Rats with Genetic and Salt Hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behuliak, Michal; Bencze, Michal; Vaněčková, Ivana; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, January (2017), č. článku 8029728. ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16225P; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25396A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : calcium sensitization * RhoA/Rho kinase * fasudil * calcium influx * nifedipine * BAY K8644 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  18. Stable calcium isotope composition of a pedogenic carbonate in forested ecosystem: the case of the needle fibre calcite (NFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliere, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Gussone, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    Calcium (Ca), carbon (C) and oxygen (O) are important elements in terrestrial environment, as their biogeochemical cycles are directly related to the storage of atmospheric carbon. Nevertheless, contrarily to C and O, Ca isotope composition has been only poorly studied in the terrestrial carbonates. Needle Fibre Calcite (NFC) is one of the most common pedogenic carbonates, unless its origin is still under debate. Recent studies explain its formation by precipitation inside fungal hyphae. Due to this possible biogenic origin, NFC can be considered as a potential bridge between the biochemistry (precipitation inside organic structure) and geochemistry (pedogenic carbonate related to soil conditions) of the Ca. Thus, the study of the Ca isotope composition of NFC seem to be of first interest in order to shed light on the behaviour of Ca in terrestrial environment, especially when precipitation of secondary carbonates is involved. The sampling site is situated in the Swiss Jura Mountains and has been chosen due to a previous complete study of the C and O isotope composition of NFC in relation to the ecosystem, which represent a good precondition for the understanding of the NFC Ca isotope signatures in this context. In this study, the implication of the fungi in the origin of NFC is investigated, by comparing the Ca isotope composition of NFC and a purely physicochemical calcite cement (LCC), both precipitated in the same environment. The δ44Ca signature of NFC and LCC crystals were used to determine possible differences of the precipitation rate during their formation. NFC and LCC have similar δ18O composition and are supposed to precipitate at the same temperature (Milliere et al., 2011a). Thus the study of Ca isotope composition of NFC seems to demonstrate that the elongated shape of the calcite needle can be explained by different precipitation processes than the rhombohedric calcite crystals precipitated in the same environment; and more precisely, the specific

  19. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  20. Insights on the Effects of Heat Pretreatment, pH, and Calcium Salts on Isolation of RareActinobacteriafrom Karstic Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bao-Zhu; Salam, Nimaichand; Han, Ming-Xian; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Juan; Wei, Da-Qiao; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria is one of the most ubiquitously present bacterial lineages on Earth. In the present study, we try to explore the diversity of cultivable rare Actinobacteria in Sigangli Cave, Yunnan, China by utilizing a combination of different sample pretreatments and under different culture conditions. Pretreating the samples under different conditions of heat, setting the isolation condition at different pHs, and supplementation of media with different calcium salts were found to be effective for isolation of diverse rare Actinobacteria . During our study, a total of 204 isolates affiliated to 30 genera of phylum Actinobacteria were cultured. Besides the dominant Streptomyces , rare Actinobacteria of the genera Actinocorallia , Actinomadura , Agromyces , Alloactinosynnema , Amycolatopsis , Beutenbergia , Cellulosimicrobium , Gordonia , Isoptericola , Jiangella , Knoellia , Kocuria , Krasilnikoviella , Kribbella , Microbacterium , Micromonospora , Mumia , Mycobacterium , Nocardia , Nocardioides , Nocardiopsis , Nonomuraea , Oerskovia , Pseudokineococcus , Pseudonocardia , Rhodococcus , Saccharothrix , Streptosporangium, and Tsukamurella were isolated from these cave samples.

  1. Insights on the Effects of Heat Pretreatment, pH, and Calcium Salts on Isolation of Rare Actinobacteria from Karstic Caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Zhu Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Actinobacteria is one of the most ubiquitously present bacterial lineages on Earth. In the present study, we try to explore the diversity of cultivable rare Actinobacteria in Sigangli Cave, Yunnan, China by utilizing a combination of different sample pretreatments and under different culture conditions. Pretreating the samples under different conditions of heat, setting the isolation condition at different pHs, and supplementation of media with different calcium salts were found to be effective for isolation of diverse rare Actinobacteria. During our study, a total of 204 isolates affiliated to 30 genera of phylum Actinobacteria were cultured. Besides the dominant Streptomyces, rare Actinobacteria of the genera Actinocorallia, Actinomadura, Agromyces, Alloactinosynnema, Amycolatopsis, Beutenbergia, Cellulosimicrobium, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Jiangella, Knoellia, Kocuria, Krasilnikoviella, Kribbella, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Mumia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Nonomuraea, Oerskovia, Pseudokineococcus, Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, and Tsukamurella were isolated from these cave samples.

  2. Effects of whole flaxseed, raw soybeans, and calcium salts of fatty acids on measures of cellular immune function of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Barletta, R V; Mingoti, R D; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Oliveira, L J; Takiya, C S; Kfoury, J R; Wiltbank, M C; Renno, F P

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) sources on cellular immune function of transition dairy cows. Animals were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (n-3 FA source; n=11), 60 and 80g/kg of whole flaxseed [diet dry matter (DM) basis] during pre- and postpartum, respectively; whole raw soybeans (n-6 FA source; n=10), 120 and 160g/kg of whole raw soybeans (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated FA (Megalac-E, n-6 FA source; n=10), 24 and 32g/kg of calcium salts of unsaturated FA (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively. Supplemental FA did not alter DM intake and milk yield but increased energy balance during the postpartum period. Diets containing n-3 and n-6 FA sources increased phagocytosis capacity of leukocytes and monocytes and phagocytosis activity of monocytes. Furthermore, n-3 FA source increased phagocytic capacity of leukocytes and neutrophils and increased phagocytic activity in monocytes and neutrophils when compared with n-6 FA sources. Supplemental FA effects on adaptive immune system included increased percentage of T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, cells that expressed IL-2 receptors, and CD62 adhesion molecules. The results of this study suggest that unsaturated FA can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immunity and trigger a proinflammatory response. The n-3 FA seems to have a greater effect on phagocytic capacity and activity of leukocytes when compared with n-6 FA. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    -saccharate becomes spontaneously supersaturated with both d-gluconate and d-saccharate calcium salts, from which only calcium d-saccharate slowly precipitates. Calcium d-saccharate is suggested to act as a stabilizer of supersaturated solutions of other calcium hydroxycarboxylates with endothermic complex formation......Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc...

  4. Mode of action studies on the formation of enamel minerals from a novel toothpaste containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuekui; Li, Xiaoke; Deng, Yan; Sun, Jianing N; Tao, DanYing; Chen, Hui; Hu, Qinghong; Liu, Renjiang; Liu, Weining; Feng, Xiping; Wang, Jinfang; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    To investigate in vitro and in situ the deposition and formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) on enamel surfaces following brushing with a novel toothpaste containing calcium silicate (CaSi), sodium phosphate salts and fluoride. Polished enamel blocks were brushed in vitro with a slurry of the CaSi toothpaste. After one brush and four weeks simulated brushing the enamel surfaces were analysed. In an in situ protocol, enamel blocks were attached to first or second molar teeth of healthy subjects, exposed to 4 weeks twice per day brushing with the CaSi toothpaste and then analysed. The surface deposits were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). In addition, the CaSi toothpaste was slurried in simulated oral fluid (SOF) over a 3 hour period and the solids were isolated and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR study demonstrated that calcium phosphate phases had formed and these became increasingly crystalline over 3 hours. CaSi was deposited onto enamel surfaces following one brushing with the toothpaste in vitro.The deposited particles showed evidence of HAP crystalline phases associated with the CaSi. Following 4 weeks brushing in vitro, the deposition increased and analyses showed that the deposited material was HAP. These results were confirmed by the in situ study. Calcium silicate can be deposited onto enamel surfaces from a novel toothpaste formulation where it can form the enamel mineral HAP. A novel toothpaste formulation containing CaSi can form HAP on enamel surfaces. The potential of this technology is for a novel approach to the repair of demineralised enamel and the protection of enamel during acid exposure. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure: The International Study Of Macro- And Micro-nutrients And Blood Pressure and The International Cooperative Study On Salt, Other Factors, And Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Dyer, Alan R; Unwin, Robert J; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest that altered calcium homoeostasis, as exhibited by increased calcium excretion, is associated with higher BP levels.

  6. Electrochemical studies of calcium-lithium alloys in thionyl chloride electrolyte systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V. K.; Fritts, D. H.

    The corrosion of the calcium anode in the calcium thionyl chloride cell has been a persistent problem, which has kept this otherwise attractive couple from use. Investigations of cells with anodes made from calcium/calcium-lithium alloys are reported. These anodes were chosen in hopes of obtaining synergistic results, namely a stable anode surface film vs. pure calcium, and a higher melting point than lithium anodes. Results indicate that some degree of synergism does exist, but that the surface film is not sufficiently stable to protect the anode from continuous corrosion. It is concluded that the stability problem is one of a mechanical shedding of the film which occurs independent of lithium content. Also, a change in the electrolyte salt is the most promising approach to the calcium corrosion problem.

  7. Radial ooids from Great Salt Lake (Utah) as paleoenvironmental archives: Insights from radiocarbon chronology and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, O. P.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bardsley, A.; Hammond, D. E.; Xu, X.; Walker, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Ooids (laminated, carbonate coated grains) are ubiquitous in the geologic record in marine and lacustrine settings, and thus remain a common target for geochemical analysis to understand modern and ancient aqueous environments. However, the processes governing ooid formation remain unclear. Recently, radiocarbon dating has revealed that modern marine ooids grow slowly (Beaupre et al. 2015), and laboratory experiments have highlighted the importance of sediment transport and abrasion on net growth rates and ooid size (Trower et al. 2017). Ooid cortex structure includes micritic, tangential and/or radially oriented fabrics. Most modern marine ooids have tangential or micritic cortices, whereas many ancient ooids have radial cortices—thus, there is a need to understand how radial ooids in ancient rocks might inform us about their depositional environment. The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, provides a unique environment to assess the growth rate of primary radial aragonitic ooids. Ooids collected near Antelope Island in the south arm of GSL were sieved, the 355-500 µm fraction was sequentially leached, and 14C of the evolved gas was analyzed to provide a time series of growth. The oldest inorganic carbon of this size fraction has an apparent 14C age of 6600 yr BP, with subsequent growth spanning over 6,000 years. Closed-basin lakes are particularly susceptible to a "reservoir effect" which results in anomalously old apparent radiocarbon ages. The 14C age of the modern dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the south arm was measured to be 295 yr BP, a reservoir age comparable to estimates from lacustrine cave carbonates (McGee et al. 2012). Net growth rate of south arm ooids ranges between 0.01-0.025 µm per year. The δ13C of the outermost cortex suggests that the ooids resemble the modern DIC in the south arm water, suggesting ooids precipitate in equilibrium with lake water. Finer-scale structure in the δ13C of the ooid cortex through time suggests lake level changed

  8. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    Full Text Available Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+ content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses.

  9. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Liu, Ailin; Jia, Bowei; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs) encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+) content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses.

  10. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent.

  11. Does slice thickness affect diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography in stable and unstable angina patients with a positive calcium score?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Vos, Alexander M. de; Cramer, Maarten J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Vries, Jan J.J. de; Rutten, Annemarieke; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Prokop, Mathias (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)), e-mail: m.meijs@umcutrecht.nl; Meijboom, W. Bob; Feyter, Pim J. de (Dept. of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Coronary calcification can lead to over-estimation of the degree of coronary stenosis. Purpose: To evaluate whether thinner reconstruction thickness improves the diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in angina patients with a positive calcium score. Material and Methods: We selected 20 scans from a clinical study comparing CTCA to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in stable and unstable angina patients based on a low number of motion artifacts and a positive calcium score. All images were acquired at 64 x 0.625 mm and each CTCA scan was reconstructed at slice thickness/increment 0.67 mm/0.33 mm, 0.9 mm/0.45 mm, and 1.4 mm/0.7 mm. Two reviewers blinded for CCA results independently evaluated the scans for the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in three randomly composed series, with =2 weeks in between series. The diagnostic performance of CTCA was compared for the different slice thicknesses using a pooled analysis of both reviewers. Significant CAD was defined as >50% diameter narrowing on quantitative CCA. Image noise (standard deviation of CT numbers) was measured in all scans. Inter-observer variability was assessed with kappa. Results: Significant CAD was present in 8% of 304 available segments. Median total Agatston calcium score was 181.8 (interquartile range 34.9-815.6). Sensitivity at 0.67 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.4 mm slice thickness was 70% (95% confidence interval 57-83%), 74% (62-86%), and 70% (57-83%), respectively. Specificity was 85% (82-88%), 84% (81-87%), and 84% (81-87%), respectively. The positive predictive value was 30 (21-38%), 29 (21-37%), and 28 (20-36%), respectively. The negative predictive value was 97% (95-98%), 97% (96-99%), and 97% (96-99%), respectively. Kappa for inter-observer agreement was 0.56, 0.58, and 0.59. Noise decreased from 32.9 HU at 0.67 mm, to 23.2 HU at 1.4 mm (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diagnostic performance of CTCA in angina patients with a positive calcium score

  12. Promotion of iron-group catalysts by a calcium salt in hydrogasification of carbons at elevated pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, T.; Nishiyama, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of Ca salt on hydrogasification of carbon, catalyzed by Fe, Co, or Ni, was studied as a function of pressure to 30 atm at 775-850 0 C, using a pitch coke as the main substrate. It was found that the Ca additive was an excellent promoter for all the Fe-group catalysts. Elevated pressures of hydrogen resulted in very high conversions of the carbon. The Ca promoter modified the activity patterns of the Fe-group catalysts, from an inductive character to an instantaneous one. For comparison, reactivities of activated carbon with a Ni-Ca catalyst and with Pt or Rh catalysts were examined. A similarity in the reaction patterns of the Ni-Ca catalyst and the Pt or Rh catalysts is indicated

  13. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  14. Deterioration of the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements with Poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt after in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting; Gao, Chun-Xia; Yang, Lei; Saijilafu; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-11-01

    The mechanical reliability of calcium phosphate cements has restricted their clinical application in load-bearing locations. Although their mechanical strength can be improved using a variety of strategies, their fatigue properties are still unclear, especially after degradation. The evolutions of uniaxial compressive properties and the fatigue behavior of calcium phosphate cements incorporating poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt after different in vitro degradation times were investigated in the present study. Compressive strength decreased from the 61.2±5.4MPa of the original specimen, to 51.1±4.4, 42.2±3.8, 36.8±2.4 and 28.9±3.2MPa following degradation for one, two, three and four weeks, respectively. Fatigue life under same loading condition also decreased with increasing degradation time. The original specimens remained intact for one million cycles (run-out) under a maximum stress of 30MPa. After degradation for one to four weeks, the specimens were able to withstand maximum stress of 20, 15, 10 and 10MPa, respectively until run-out. Defect volume fraction within the specimens increased from 0.19±0.021% of the original specimen to 0.60±0.19%, 1.09±0.04%, 2.68±0.64% and 7.18±0.34% at degradation time of one, two, three and four weeks, respectively. Therefore, we can infer that the primary cause of the deterioration of the mechanical properties was an increasing in micro defects induced by degradation, which promoted crack initiation and propagation, accelerating the final mechanical failure of the bone cement. This study provided the data required for enhancing the mechanical reliability of the calcium phosphate cements after different degradation times, which will be significant for the modification of load-bearing biodegradable bone cements to match clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of potassium salts loading on calcium oxide on the hydrogen production from pyrolysis-gasification of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiping; Wang, Daqian; Li, Bin; Zeng, Zhiwei; Qu, Lei; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2018-02-01

    The effects of potassium (K) salts loading on CaO on the H 2 production from pyrolysis-gasification of wheat straw were investigated. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl could significantly enhance the CO 2 absorption capability of CaO. The CO 2 concentration in the product gas decreased sharply from 20.83 to 11.70 vol%, and the H 2 concentration increased from 48.2 to 55.5 vol%. While the loading of 0.25 wt% K 2 CO 3 /K 2 SO 4 inhibited the enhancing effect of CaO. Further increasing the loading of KCl on CaO, the CO 2 absorption of CaO declined, but the catalytic effect of KCl on the gasification process was promoted. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl on CaO significantly improved the cyclic performance of CaO during the pyrolysis-gasification process. Higher H 2 concentration and more CO 2 absorbed by CaO were obtained with the loading of 0.25 wt% KCl even after 5 cycles compared with those of pure CaO in the first cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Andrzej

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans.

  17. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  18. Effects of calcium salts of soybean oil on factors that influence pregnancy establishment in Bos indicus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Depner, C M; Lytle, K A; Jump, D B; Bohnert, D W; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare fatty acid (FA) concentrations in plasma and reproductive tissues as well as hormones and expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) beginning after timed AI. Ninety nonlactating multiparous Nelore (Bos indicus) cows were timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment and divided into 18 groups of 5 cows/group. Groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of a protein-mineral mix plus 100 g of ground corn per cow daily in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO (n = 9) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; n = 9). All groups were maintained in a single Brachiaria brizanta pasture (24 ha) with ad libitum access to forage and water. However, groups were segregated daily and offered treatments individually at the working facility during the experimental period (d 0 to 18). Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and estimate corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 18 of the experiment. On d 19, 36 cows (18 cows/treatment; 2 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm(3) in volume on d 7 and 18 were slaughtered for collection of conceptus, uterine luminal flushing, and tissue samples from the CL and endometrium. Cows receiving CSSO had greater concentrations of linoleic and other ω-6 FA in plasma (P establishment in endometrial, CL, and conceptus samples (P ≥ 0.12). In summary, supplementing beef cows with 100 g of CSSO beginning after AI favored incorporation of ω-6 FA into their circulation, reproductive tissues, and conceptus, without impacting expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment on d 19 of gestation.

  19. Post-artificial insemination supplementation with calcium salts of soybean oil influences pregnancy establishment factors in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, A D; Silva, L G T; Bohnert, D W; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M; Pires, A V; Cerri, R L A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare hormonal, uterine, and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) for 21 d beginning after timed AI. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows were allocated to 20 groups of 5 cows/group and timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment. After AI, groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of protein-mineral mix + 100 g of ground corn per cow per day, in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO ( = 10) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; = 10). Groups were maintained in 4 pastures (5 groups from the same treatment within each pasture) with ad libitum access to forage. Groups were segregated daily and individually offered treatments from d 0 to 21. Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 15. After ultrasonography on d 15, 60 cows (30 cows/treatment and 3 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm3 in volume on d 7 and 15 were assigned to conceptus collection via transcervical flushing with PBS followed by endometrial biopsy in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL. Additional blood samples were collected for whole-blood RNA extraction (d 20), and pregnancy status was verified by transrectal ultrasonography (d 30) in cows not assigned to conceptus collection. Cows receiving CSSO had greater ( ≤ 0.04) mean plasma linoleic acid concentration, plasma linoleic:linolenic acid ratio, plasma progesterone (P4) concentration, and CL volume during the experiment compared with CON cows. Moreover, CSSO supplementation increased ( ≤ 0.04) length and mRNA expression of and by the conceptus as well as blood mRNA expression of interferon-stimulated genes on d 20 in gestating cows. No treatment differences were detected

  20. Stable isotopic composition of soil calcite (O, C) and gypsum (S) overlying Cu deposits in the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for mineral exploration, salt sources, and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Cameron, Eion M.; Reich, Martin; Palacios, Carlos; Faure, Kevin; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    groundwater and atmospheric CO 2 . At the Spence deposit, soils only rarely contain sufficient SO 4 for S isotope analysis; the SO 4 -bearing soils occur only above the fracture zones in the gravel. Results are uniform (3.7–4.9‰ δ 34 S CDT ), which is near the middle of the range for SO 4 in groundwater (0.9–7.3‰). Sulfur in soils at the Gaby Sur deposit (3.8–6.1‰ δ 34 S CDT ) is dominated by gypsum, which primarily occurs on the flanks and tops of hills, suggesting deposition from SO 4 -rich fogs. Sulfate in Gaby Sur deposit gypsum is possibly derived by condensation of airborne SO 4 from volcanic SO 2 from the nearby Andes. At the Gaby Sur deposit and Tamarugal anomaly, pedogenic stable isotopes cannot distinguish between S from porphyry or redeposited SO 4 from interior salars. The three sites studied have had different histories of salt accumulation and display variable influence of groundwater, which is interpreted to have been forced to the surface during earthquakes. The clear accumulation of salts associated with fractures at the Spence deposit, and shifts in the isotopic composition of carbonate and sulfate in the fractures despite clear evidence of relatively recent removal of salts indicates that transfer from groundwater is an ongoing process. The interpretation that groundwaters can influence the isotopic composition of pedogenic calcrete and gypsum has important implications for previous studies that have not considered this mechanism

  1. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  2. Calcium biogeochemical cycle at the beech tree-soil solution interface from the Strengbach CZO (NE France): insights from stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Gangloff, Sophie; Labolle, François; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Calcium (Ca) is the fourth most abundant element in mineral nutrition and plays key physiological and structural roles in plant metabolism. At the soil-water-plant scale, stable Ca isotopes are a powerful tool for the identification of plant-mineral interactions and recycling via vegetation. Radiogenic Sr isotopes are often used as tracers of Ca sources and mixtures of different reservoirs. In this study, stable Ca and radiogenic Sr are combined and analysed in several organs from two beech trees that were collected in June and September in the Strengbach critical zone observatory (CZO) (NE France) and in corresponding soil solutions. At the beech-tree scale, this study confirms the field Ca adsorption (i.e., physico-chemical mechanism and not vital effects) on carboxyl acid groups of pectin in the apoplasm of small roots. The analysis of the xylem sap and corresponding organs shows that although the Strengbach CZO is nutrient-poor, Ca seems to be non-limiting for tree-growth. Different viscosities of xylem sap between the stemwood and branches or leaves can explain δ44/40Ca values in different tree-organs. The bark and phloem 40Ca-enrichments could be due to Ca-oxalate precipitation in the bark tissues and in the phloem. The results from this study regarding the combination of these two isotopic systems show that the isotopic signatures of the roots are dominated by Ca fractionation mechanisms and Sr, and thus Ca, source variations. In contrast, translocation mechanisms are only governed by Ca fractionation processes. This study showed that at the root-soil solution interface, litter degradation was not the main source of Ca and Sr and that the soil solutions are not the complement of uptake by roots for samples from the 2011/2013 period. The opposite is observed for older samples. These observations indicate the decreasing contribution of low radiogenic Sr fluxes, such as recycling, alimenting the soil solutions. Such reduced importance of nutrient uptake and

  3. Factors to consider in the selection of a calcium supplement.

    OpenAIRE

    Shangraw, R F

    1989-01-01

    Calcium supplements are widely used, yet many questions remain as to the absorption of various calcium salts. Because the solubility of many calcium salts is dependent upon pH, the type of salt used, the condition of the patient, and the time of administration should be considered. Studies show that many calcium supplements on the market today do not meet standards of quality established in the "U.S. Pharmacopeia" (USP). Consumers must be discerning about the products they purchase. Calcium s...

  4. Calcium, An Overview-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercinski, Floyd J

    1989-06-01

    An overview of calcium is presented including introduction, pre-history, chronology of the research recorded in the literature, discussion, summary, recent references, literature cited, acknowledgments, and appendix. Elemental calcium began with the Earth's formation. Calcium was used for utilitarian purposes in B.C. times. In the 12th and 13th centuries A.D., calcium oxide was formed by roasting limestone to form calcium carbonate. A test for calcium was found in the 17th century, and "stones" were observed in humans (see appendix). In the 19th century, calcium was isolated and chemically identified by electrolysis, and later in that century calcium was found to be needed in a physiological solution similar to the ionic content of blood. In the 20th century it was found that, in the absence of calcium, living cells pulled away from one another. Anesthesia was produced by massive injection of magnesium salts into a mammal-conciousness could be restored by the addition of calcium, which neutralized the magnesium. Finally, calcium out of control in necrosis has an invasive action. Calcium antagonists and their mode of action were described in 1986.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  6. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...... to be formed. In addition the low amount of micellar calcium caused a more compact gel structure with many protein aggregates. The results of this study highlighted the importance of calcium for the formation of acid, calcium and rennet gels. The content and the interactions of calcium with proteins during...

  7. Determination of food sources for benthic invertebrates in a salt marsh (Aiguillon Bay, France) by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes: importance of locally produced sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riera, P.; Stal, L.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Richard, P.; Blanchard, G.F.; Gentil, F.

    1999-01-01

    delta(13)C and delta(15)N were measured in benthic invertebrates and food sources collected in the salt marsh of the Aiguillon Bay, France. The results showed that, although Spartina anglica was dominant, this marine phanerogame did not contribute significantly to the carbon and nitrogen

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  9. Endothelin A receptor blocker atrasentan lowers blood pressure by the reduction of nifedipine-sensitive calcium influx in Ren-2 transgenic rats fed a high-salt diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněčková, Ivana; Dobešová, Zdenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vernerová, Z.; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2015), s. 161-169 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : endothelin * high-salt intake * hypertension * Ren-2 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.062, year: 2015

  10. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon

  11. Variability in the combustion-derived fraction of urban humidity in Salt Lake City winter estimated from stable water vapor isotopes and its relationship to atmospheric stability and inversion structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, R.; Bares, R.; Lin, J. C.; Strong, C.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water released from the combustion of fossil fuels, while a negligible part of the global hydrological cycle, may be a significant contributor to urban humidity as fossil fuel emissions are strongly concentrated in space and time. The fraction of urban humidity comprised of combustion-derived vapor (CDV) cannot be observed through humidity measurements alone. However, the distinct stable isotopic composition of CDV, which arises from the reaction of 18O-enriched atmospheric O2 with 2H-depleted organic molecules, represents a promising method to apportion observed humidity between CDV and advected vapor. We apply stable water vapor isotopes to investigate variability in CDV amount and its relationship to atmospheric conditions in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Salt Lake Valley experiences several periods of atmospheric stratification during winter known as cold air pools, during which concentrations of CDV and pollutants can be markedly elevated due to reduced atmospheric mixing. Therefore, the SLV during winter is an ideal place to investigate variability in CDV fraction across a spectrum of boundary layer conditions, ranging from well-mixed to very stable. We present water vapor isotope data from four winters (2013-2017) from the top of a 30 m building on the University of Utah (U of U) Campus. Additionally, we present water vapor isotope data from the summit of Hidden Peak from the 2016-2017 winter, 25 km SE and 2000 m above the U of U site. The Hidden Peak site is consistently above the cold air pool emplaced in the SLV during stable events. We find the expression of the CDV signal in the valley is related to the atmospheric structure of the cold air pools in the SLV, and that the fraction of CDV inferred in the valley is likely related to the mixing height within the cold air pool. Furthermore, we find that patterns between the Hidden Peak and U of U sites during inversion events may record the large-scale atmospheric dynamics promoting emplacement of the cold air

  12. Mucins and calcium phosphate precipitates additively stimulate cholesterol crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A. A.; van Buul, J. D.; Tytgat, G. N.; Groen, A. K.; Ostrow, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Human biliary mucin and calcium binding protein (CBP) influence formation of both calcium salt precipitates and cholesterol crystals and colocalize in the center of cholesterol gallstones. We investigated how physiological concentrations of these proteins regulate cholesterol crystallization in

  13. Renal arteriolar injury by salt intake contributes to salt memory for the development of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Hideyo; Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Kazunobu; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Hayashi, Kaori; Nakamura, Mari; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Oya, Mototsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    The role of salt intake in the development of hypertension is prominent, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to examine the effect of transient salt intake during the prehypertensive period in hypertensive model animals. Dahl salt-sensitive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with low-salt (0.12% NaCl), normal-salt (0.8% NaCl), high-salt (7% NaCl), or high-sodium/normal-chloride diet and returned to normal-salt diet for 3 months. Rats in the high-salt group saw elevations in blood pressure (BP) not only during the treatment period but also for the 3 months after returning to normal-salt diet. We named this phenomenon salt memory. Renal arteriolar injury was found in the high-salt group at the end of experiment. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with high-salt diet with angiotensin receptor blocker, vasodilator, calcium channel blocker, and calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker and returned to normal-salt diet. Although BP was suppressed to control levels by vasodilator or calcium channel blocker, elevated renal angiotensin II and renal arteriolar injury were observed, and salt memory did not disappear because of sustained renal arteriolar injury. Calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker suppressed renal arteriolar injury, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. Cross-transplantation of kidneys from Dahl salt-sensitive rats on high salt to control rats caused increase of BP, whereas control kidneys caused reduction in BP of hypertensive rats, inducing the central role of the kidney. These results suggest that renal arteriolar injury through BP and renal angiotensin II elevation plays important roles in the development of salt memory for hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  15. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  16. [Calcium--essential for everybody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Calcium regulates majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet.

  17. Iodine stability in salt double-fortified with iron and iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, L L; Alberti, J O; Ramcharan, K; Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2002-06-01

    Deficiencies in small quantities of micronutrients, especially iodine and iron, severely affect more than a third of the world's population, resulting in serious public health consequences, especially for women and young children. Salt is an ideal carrier of micronutrients. The double fortification of salt with both iodine and iron is an attractive approach to the reduction of both anemia and iodine-deficiency disorders. Because iodine is unstable under the storage conditions found during the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of salt in most developing countries, the effects of packaging materials and environmental conditions on the stability of salt double-fortified with iron and iodine were investigated. Salt was double-fortified with potassium iodide or potassium iodate and with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The effects of stabilizers on the stability of iodine and iron were followed by storing the salt under three conditions that represent the extremes of normal distribution and sale for salt in developing countries: room temperature (25 degrees C) with 50%-70% relative humidity, 40 degrees C with 60% relative humidity, and 40 degrees C with 100% relative humidity. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, and dextrose were investigated. None of the combinations of iron and iodine compounds was stable at elevated temperatures. Essentially all of the iodine was lost over a period of six months. SHMP effectively slowed down the iodine loss, whereas magnesium chloride, a typical hygroscopic impurity, greatly accelerated this process. Calcium carbonate did not have a sparing effect on iodine, despite contrary indications in the literature. Ferrous sulfate-fortified salts generally turned yellow and developed an unpleasant rusty flavor. Salt fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium, iodide was reasonably stable and maintained its organoleptic properties, making it more likely to be

  18. Evaluation of Pulp and Paper Properties obtained from Maple Juvenile Wood through Organosolv Alcohol Method Catalyzed by Calcium and Magnesium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Naghdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The properties of catalyzed organosolv pulp obtained from maple juvenile wood were studied. The physical properties of fiber (e.g. length, width, and cell membrane thickness and chemical composition of maple juvenile wood (e.g. average cellulose, lignin, extractives, and ash content were determined. The variables were cooking temperature (190 and 200 ºC and time (40, 60, and 80 minutes. Chemical charge ( 280 ml methanol, 70 ml water, and 0.025 mols of Calcium Chloride and Magnesium Nitrate was kept constant. Pulp screen yields (54.9 to 60.91% and Kappa No. (15.5 to 18.4 were measured. Pulp freeness was reduced to 350 ml CSF in PFI mill, and ten 60 g/m2 handsheets were made from the selected pulps. The strength properties of catalyzed organosolv handsheets including tear length (3.83 to 4.25 km, tear index (10.22 to 12.81 mN.m2/g, and burst index (1.74 to 2.15 kPa.m2/g were compared with those of the conventional Kraft handsheets of maple juvenile wood. The least allowed values of the mentioned properties in the Indian (IS and Japanese international standards (JIS reveal that while the tear length value is slightly below that of the standards, the values of tear and burst indices are well beyond the given standards, and the environmentally-friendly catalyzed organosolv pulping process (higher yield and lower Kappa No. compared to Kraft can be recommended to produce paper pulp from maple juvenile wood.

  19. Corn grain-processing method interacts with calcium salts of palm fatty acids supplementation on milk production and energy balance of early-lactation cows grazing tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-07-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the associative effects of feeding Ca salts of palm fatty acids (FA) and corn grain-processing method on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early-lactation dairy cows grazing a tropical pasture. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum L. Cameroon) and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. Treatments were flint corn grain-processing method either as fine ground (FGC) or steam-flaked (SFC) associated with Ca salts of palm FA supplementation either not supplemented or supplemented (CSPO). From 17 to 40 wk postpartum (carryover period) all cows received a common diet fed as total mixed ration. During the treatment period, a tendency for an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method were observed for milk yield, milk fat yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM), as CSPO caused them to increased to a greater extent in the FGC diet compared with the SFC diet. Furthermore, a tendency for an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method was observed for body weight change, because CSPO increased body weight loss in the FGC diet but not in the SFC diet. The CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, ECM, and cumulative milk yield compared with not supplemented. Also, CSPO increased energy intake, milk energy output, and energy partitioning toward milk, whereas reduced energy was allocated to body reserves. The SFC increased milk yield, ECM, milk protein yield, milk casein yield, and cumulative milk yield, and decreased milk urea N compared with FGC. The SFC compared with FGC also increased body condition score and body weight change, and increased energy partitioning toward body reserves. During the carryover period, an interaction between CSPO and corn grain-processing method was observed for milk yield, which occurred because

  20. Inhibition of Heat-Stable Toxin-Induced Intestinal Salt and Water Secretion by a Novel Class of Guanylyl Cyclase C Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvelds, Marcel J C; Loos, Michaela; Bronsveld, Inez; Hellemans, Ann; Bongartz, Jean-Pierre; Ver Donck, Luc; Cox, Eric; de Jonge, Hugo R; Schuurkes, Jan A J; De Maeyer, Joris H

    2015-12-01

    Many enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains produce the heat-stable toxin, STa, which, by activation of the intestinal receptor-enzyme guanylyl cyclase (GC) C, triggers an acute, watery diarrhea. We set out to identify GCC inhibitors that may be of benefit for the treatment of infectious diarrheal disease. Compounds that inhibit STa-induced cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) production were selected by performing cyclase assays on cells and membranes containing GCC, or the related GCA. The effect of leads on STa/GCC-dependent activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator anion channel was investigated in T84 cells, and in porcine and human intestinal tissue. Their effect on STa-provoked fluid transport was assessed in ligated intestinal loops in piglets. Four N-2-(propylamino)-6-phenylpyrimidin-4-one-substituted piperidines were shown to inhibit GCC-mediated cellular cGMP production. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations were ≤ 5 × 10(-7) mol/L, whereas they were >10 times higher for GCA. In T84 monolayers, these leads blocked STa/GCC-dependent, but not forskolin/adenylyl cyclase-dependent, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activity. GCC inhibition reduced STa-provoked anion secretion in pig jejunal tissue, and fluid retention and cGMP levels in STa-exposed loops. These GCC inhibitors blocked STa-provoked anion secretion in rectal biopsy specimens. We have identified a novel class of GCC inhibitors that may form the basis for development of future therapeutics for (infectious) diarrheal disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Interaction between Salt-inducible Kinase 2 and Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulates the Activity of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase I and Protein Phosphatase Methylesterase-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Wei; Yang, Fu-Chia; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Chou, Hanyi; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Lee, Sheng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is the only AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) family member known to interact with protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). However, the functional aspects of this complex are largely unknown. Here we report that the SIK2·PP2A complex preserves both kinase and phosphatase activities. In this capacity, SIK2 attenuates the association of the PP2A repressor, the protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), thus preserving the methylation status of the PP2A catalytic subunit. Furthermore, the SIK2·PP2A holoenzyme complex dephosphorylates and inactivates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI), an upstream kinase for phosphorylating PME-1/Ser15. The functionally antagonistic SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks thus constitute a negative feedback loop that modulates the phosphatase activity of PP2A. Depletion of SIK2 led to disruption of the SIK2·PP2A complex, activation of CaMKI, and downstream effects, including phosphorylation of HDAC5/Ser259, sequestration of HDAC5 in the cytoplasm, and activation of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C)-mediated gene expression. These results suggest that the SIK2·PP2A complex functions in the regulation of MEF2C-dependent transcription. Furthermore, this study suggests that the tightly linked regulatory loop comprised of the SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks may function in fine-tuning cell proliferation and stress response. PMID:24841198

  2. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... additive is the calcium salt of lactobionic acid (4-(β,D-galactosido)-D-gluconic acid) produced by the...

  3. Physico-chemical analysis of traditional vegetal salts obtained from three provinces of Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janarthanan Gopalakrishnan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the chemical constituents of the traditional vegetal salts and find out if they are safe to consume. Methods: Seven different salts have been obtained from three provinces, of which five belong to Morobe Province. The cations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and anions using titrimetry, gravimetry and spectrophotometry. Others like solubility, electrical conductivity, pH, antimicrobial, Fourier transform infrared spectral and volatility studies have been carried out for these salts. Results: While few salts were found to be stable, others were deliquescent; and the colour varies from white to black through yellow and brown. It was found that the potassium ion was dominant while others including sodium and calcium were found in lower concentrations. For the first time, certain d-block metal concentrations were measured though most of them were found to be present at very low levels. Other parameters like volatility, solubility, electrical conductivity, antimicrobial and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies were carried out for the first time for these vegetal salts in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions: The salt’s deliquescence could be correlated to the presence of anions like carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide which strongly contribute towards it. Similarly, solubility and conductivity of the salts could be correlated well. The salts were found to be harmless for consumption, but for the high potassium content.

  4. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-09-01

    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  6. Calcium-tolerant anionic surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    One of the problems of applying anionic surfactants in, for example, laundry detergents is the precipitation of calcium salts. Much effort has been directed towards avoiding precipitation. There are at least three ways for tackling the problem. The first involves the use of a large quantity of

  7. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  8. An improved kilogram-scale preparation of atorvastatin calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Novozhilov, Yuri V; Dorogov, Mikhail V; Blumina, Maria V; Smirnov, Alexey V; Krasavin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Background If literature protocols are followed, conversion of an advanced ketal ester intermediate (available in kilogram quantities via a published Paal-Knorr synthesis) to cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin calcium is hampered by several process issues, particularly at the final stage where the hemi-calcium salt is obtained. Results We developed a high-yielding synthesis of atorvastatin calcium salt on 7?kg scale that affords >99.5% product purities by introducing the following key imp...

  9. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the following...

  10. Calcium fortification of breakfast cereal enhances calcium absorption in children without affecting iron absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, S A; Griffin, I J; Davila, P; Liang, L

    2001-10-01

    Provision of calcium-fortified foods may represent an important component of improving the calcium intake of children. We sought to determine whether the addition of calcium to cereal would have a net positive effect on calcium absorption without decreasing iron absorption. Twenty-seven children, 6 to 9 years of age, were provided two servings per day (30 g of cereal per serving) of either a low (39 mg/serving) or fortified (156 mg/serving) calcium-containing cereal product for 14 days. Calcium absorption was measured by using stable isotopes added to milk (extrinsically labeled) and to the calcium-fortified cereal (intrinsically labeled). Fractional calcium absorption from the fortified cereal was virtually identical to that from milk. Fractional absorption of calcium from milk did not differ significantly when given with enriched or low-calcium-containing cereal. Total calcium absorption increased from 215 +/- 45 mg/d to 269 +/- 45 mg/d with the addition of the calcium-fortified cereal (P Iron absorption was similar when children received the calcium-fortified cereal or unfortified cereal. The addition of a moderate amount of calcium to a cereal product was beneficial to calcium absorption and did not interfere with iron absorption. Use of calcium-fortified food products may be considered a practical approach to increasing the calcium intake of children.

  11. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  12. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  13. Níveis de concentrado e sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos para novilhos terminados em confinamento Concentrate levels and calcium salts of fatty acids for feedlot finished steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Cardoso Margarido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do nível de concentrado e dos sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos (SCAG sobre o desempenho e qualidade da carne de novilhos terminados em confinamento. Sessenta novilhos Nelore e cruza Nelore foram divididos em quatro grupos e confinados por um período de 85 dias com as seguintes dietas: (BC 46,7% de concentrado; (BC-SCAG dieta BC acrescida de 3% de SCAG; (AC dieta contendo 76,6% de concentrado e (AC-SCAG dieta AC com 3% de SCAG. O nível de concentrado não influenciou o ganho médio diário, a espessura de gordura subcutânea e a área de olho de lombo, mas as dietas AC aumentaram o peso (P=0,0011 e o rendimento (PThe objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of concentrate level and calcium salts of fatty acids (SCAG on performance and meat quality of feedlot finished steers. Sixty Nellore and Nellore crossbred steers were distributed in four groups and fed for 85 days with one of the following diets: BC diet containing 46.7% of concentrate; (BC-SCAG LC diet plus 3% of SCAG; (AC diet containing 76.6% of concentrate and (AC- SCAG HC diet plus 3% of SCAG. Concentrate level did not affected average daily gain, subcutaneous fat thickness and ribeye area, but AC diets increased carcass weight (P=0.0011, dressing percentage (P<0.0001 and shear force (P=0.0438. SCAG increased average daily gain in AC (P=0.0311 but not in BC diets. Animals fed with SCAG diets showed greater carcass weight (P=0.0133 and dressing percentage (P=0.0160 with no differences on fat thickness, ribeye area and shear force. High concentrate diets and SCAG improved quantitative carcass traits (weight and dressing percentage of finishing cattle and can be used as alternative to improve the efficiency of the production system.

  14. An evaluation of the importance of gastric acid secretion in the absorption of dietary calcium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Linn, G W; Davis, G R; Buddrus, D J; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C; Fordtran, J S

    1984-01-01

    Since calcium solubility is a prerequisite to calcium absorption, and since solubility of calcium is highly pH-dependent, it has been generally assumed that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity play an important role in the intestinal absorption of calcium from ingested food or calcium salts such as CaCO3. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a method wherein net gastrointestinal absorption of calcium can be measured after ingestion of a single meal. A large dose of cimetidine, whi...

  15. DC Calcium lactate, a new filler-binder for direct compaction of tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, GK; Eissens, AC; Zoestbergen, E

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a directly compressible form of calcium lactate is introduced as a filler-binder for direct compaction of tablets. Calcium lactate is one of the most important calcium sources and has, in comparison with other organic calcium salts, a good solubility and bioavailability. Two different

  16. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, and certain meats. Phosphates found in dairy products ... People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HAMBURGERS ENRICHED WITH CALCIUM STUDY OF THE IN VITRO BIOAVAILABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dolores Selgas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamburgers were supplemented with three calcium salts (calcium gluconate CG, calcium lactate CL and calcium citrate-malate CCM. They were added in sufficient amount to that 100 g of hamburger gives 20 or 30% of the Ca RDA (1000 mg. Their technological and sensory properties were studied. CG 30% gave the worst sensory properties and it was discarded. Bioavailability of calcium depends on the type of salt used and the highest value was obtained with CCM (14.5%.For that, this salt is proposed as the most adequate for the enrichment of fresh meat products.

  18. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  19. Investigation into the role of NaOH and calcium ions in the synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yeo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (CaP nanoshells were prepared using negatively charged liposomes (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate sodium salt (DOPA as a template by base titration synthesis at various concentrations of NaOH and calcium ions. The elemental composition, morphology, particle size, particle size distribution and zeta potential of the products were determined via various characterisation techniques, such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS, laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The best results showed that stable spherical CaP nanoshells with a mean particle size of 197.5 ± 5.8 nm and a zeta potential of -34.5 ± 0.6 mV were successfully formed when 0.100 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH and 0.100 M calcium ions were used. Moreover, an optimal pH of 10.52 and a final Ca/P molar ratio of 0.97 were achieved under these conditions.

  20. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  1. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    ), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p...-malignant as well as normal. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, calcium electroporation seems to be more effective in inducing cell death in cancer cell spheroids than in a normal fibroblast spheroid, even though intracellular ATP level is depleted in all spheroid types after treatment. These results may indicate......BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...

  2. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  3. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of porous calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.; Bonifacio M, J.

    2007-01-01

    The porous calcium phosphate was prepared by the continuous precipitation method using Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 salts. The synthesized material was structurally and superficially characterized using the XRD, BET, IR TGA and SEM techniques. The obtained inorganic material was identified as calcium phosphate that presents a great specific area for what can be efficiently used as adsorbent material for adsorption studies in the radioactive wastes treatment present in aqueous solution. (Author)

  5. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    enriched dairy products. Calcium gels can be produced by addition of a calcium salt and heat treatment at temperatures higher than 70 oC for several minutes. The combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values between 6.6 and 5.6, will produce calcium milk gels with unique...... and dense gel structure and with little seperation of whey due to participation of calcium to the final gel structure. On the other hand, the combination of heat treatment and calcium addition to milk with pH values lower than 5.6 will still produce gel structures which are dominated by the decrease of p...... to be formed. In addition the low amount of micellar calcium caused a more compact gel structure with many protein aggregates. The results of this study highlighted the importance of calcium for the formation of acid, calcium and rennet gels. The content and the interactions of calcium with proteins during...

  6. Chemical characterisation of unrefined rock salt deposits of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.U.; Din, A.N.U.; Muhsen, S.; Ali, S.

    2016-01-01

    Different salt samples from mining sites of Bahadur Khel, Warcha and Jatta salt mines were collected during a survey to evaluate their parameters of purity like water insoluble matter, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and potassium contents.Trace elements such as iron, zinc, copper, mangansese, chromium, lead and cadmium were determined by using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer.Obtained results have shown that of all the three salt deposits, Bahadur Khel salt deposits have a of low purity of 97% set by codex alimentarius commission. Trace element contents of all the salt deposits were within the legal limits of human consumption and RDA specification. (author)

  7. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and over: 1,200 mg/day The body needs vitamin D to help absorb calcium. You can get ... from your diet. Ask your provider whether you need to take a vitamin D supplement. SIDE EFFECTS AND SAFETY DO NOT ...

  8. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the same high, and feel withdrawal symptoms when they stop. People who abuse bath salts may feel driven to do whatever they can to keep getting high, including taking risks. Users can also develop what is called "excited delirium." When this happens, people get dehydrated , their muscle ...

  9. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although silicon improves the salt tolerance in grasses, the mechanism involved is still ambiguous. Moreover in wheat, classified as Si-accumulator, silicon can alleviate the salt stress. Hence in this study, the effects of silicon using calcium silicate (150 mg/L) on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry of wheat ...

  10. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  11. Recovery of calcium from the effluent of direct oxide reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, P.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Moore, J.J.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the production of plutonium by Direct Oxide Reduction [DOR] process using calcium generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated slat mix [CaCl 2 + 15 wt. pct. CaO] is being carried out to election calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR rector along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in an combined DOR and electrowinning process. The technology will resolve a major contaminated waste disposal problem, besides improving the cost and process efficiency in radioactive metal production. The process is being optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Scattered information is available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the present of calcium oxide. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material. A porous ceramic sheath is being used around the anode to prevent the dissolution of electrowon calcium as oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon. The electrode reactions are affected by the electrolyte composition and its viscosity which varies with time in this process and, therefore, electrochemical impedance is being measured to understand this time-dependent mechanisms

  12. Physicochemical characterization of calcium-supplemented skim milk

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe , Marine; Gaucheron , Frédéric; Le Graet , Yvon; Michel , Françoise; Garem , Anita

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Addition of CaCl$_2$ to skim milk, from 0 to 13.5 mmol$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$, leads to significant physicochemical changes in milk salts equilibrium. Indeed, acidification, insolubilizations of calcium, inorganic phosphate and citrate are observed. Calculation of ion equilibria in the resulting milk ultrafiltrates indicates that the observed ion migrations, controlled by solubilities of calcium-phosphate and calcium-citrate, do not cause change in ion activity products of di...

  13. Characterization of an extremely salt-tolerant and thermostable phytase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Ines; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Blibech, Monia; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-09-01

    The extracellular phytase produced by the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 strain, isolated from geothermal soil located in Southern Tunisia was purified and characterized. This calcium-dependent and bile-stable enzyme (PHY US573) was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 70 °C. It showed a good stability at pH ranging from 4 to 10, and especially, an exceptional thermostability as it recovered 50 and 62% of activity after heating for 10 min at 100 and 90 °C, respectively. In addition, PHY US573 was found to be extremely salt-tolerant since it preserved 80 and 95% of activity in the presence of 20 g/l of NaCl and LiCl, respectively. The gene corresponding to PHY US573 was cloned. It encodes a 383 amino acids polypeptide exhibiting 99% identity with the highly thermostable phytases from Bacillus sp. MD2 and B. amyloliquefaciens DS11 (3 and 5 residues difference, respectively), suggesting the existence of common molecular determinants responsible for their remarkable heat stability. Overall, our findings illustrated that in addition to its high potential for application in feed industry, the salt tolerance of the PHY US573 phytase, may represent an exciting new avenue for improvement of phosphorus-use efficiency of salt-tolerant plants in soils with high salt and phytate content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Salt composition of groundwater and reclaimed solonetzes in the Baraba Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semendyaeva, N. V.; Elizarov, N. V.

    2017-10-01

    Solonetzes of experimental trials established in 1981 and 1986 in the Baraba Lowland were examined. It was found that gypsum-based ameliorants improve the soil and lead to a decrease in the content of soluble salts in the soil profile. Exchange processes between cations of the soil adsorption complex and calcium of gypsum were particularly intensive in the first years after gypsum application. This resulted in a sharp rise in the content of soluble salts that migrated down the soil profile to the groundwater. In the following years, the reclaimed solonetzes were desalinized under the conditions of relatively stable groundwater level. On the 30th year after single gypsum application, the groundwater level sharply rose (to 50 cm), and the soil was subjected to the secondary salinization; the contents of bicarbonates, carbonates, and sodium in the soils increased. Spring leaching caused some desalinization, but the content of soluble salts in the upper soil meter increased again in the fall. A close correlation between the salt compositions of the groundwater and the reclaimed solonetzes was revealed.

  15. Effect of Ultrasound on Calcium Carbonate Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagterveld, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling comprises the formation of hard mineral deposits on process or membrane equipment and calcium carbonate is the most common scaling salt. Especially in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems, scale formation has always been a serious limitation, causing flux decline, membrane degradation, loss

  16. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  17. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  18. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  19. Drying of residue and separation of nitrate salts in the sludge waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the dissolution process by water and the drying property of residue after separating nitrates in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97% at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue These were decomposed over 600 .deg. C and calcium carbonate, which was consisted mainly of residue, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 .deg. C. The residue have to be decomposed over 800 .deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six value into the stable U 3 O 8 of four value. As a result of removing the nitrates at the water adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 .deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80%

  20. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  1. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  2. Salt consumption and the effect of salt on mineral metabolism in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Parker, M T; Daniluk, P D; Pagan, K I; Williams, J; Soderholm, L V; Hintz, H F

    1987-04-01

    The voluntary salt consumption of mature unexercised horses was measured weekly for up to 45 weeks. Voluntary intake among horses was quite variable ranging from 19 to 143 g of salt per day and was inversely related to total salt intake (salt in feeds plus voluntary intake). Mean daily voluntary salt consumption was 53 g. Season of the year did not influence voluntary intake. In preference tests which evaluated every two choice combination of 0.2% and 4% NaCl in test diets fed daily for four days, ponies generally preferred diets containing the lower amount of salt. In similar preference studies which used NaHCO3 as a sodium source, ponies always preferred the diet containing the lower level of NaHCO3. Metabolism studies employing diets containing 1, 3 or 5% NaCl showed that urinary excretion was the major excretory pathway for sodium and chloride. Fecal excretion, intestinal absorption and retention of sodium were not affected by level of salt intake. Urinary calcium excretion was unaffected by salt intake but calcium and phosphorus absorption and retention were enhanced when ponies were fed diets containing 3 or 5% sodium chloride. Magnesium and copper metabolism were unaffected by salt intake. Horses voluntarily consume relatively large amounts of sodium chloride but it is likely that not all voluntary consumption is related to the salt requirement of the horse. Habit and taste preference could also be involved. Salt consumption at the levels used in these studies does not appear to be detrimental to the metabolism of other minerals in the horse.

  3. Use of a D-optimal design with constrains to quantify the effects of the mixture of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride salts on the growth parameters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Chiesa, A; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2008-08-01

    The combined effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) on the water activity (a (w)) and the growth parameters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by means of a D-optimal mixture design with constrains (total salt concentrations CaCl(2) > KCl > MgCl(2), regardless of the reference concentrations used (total absence of salts or 5% NaCl). The equations that expressed the maximum specific growth (mu (max)), lag phase duration (lambda), and maximum population reached (N (max)) showed that the values of these parameters depended on linear effects and two-way interactions of the studied chloride salts. The mu (max) decreased as NaCl and CaCl(2) increased (regardless of the presence or not of previous NaCl); however, in the presence of a 5% NaCl, a further addition of KCl and MgCl(2) markedly increased mu (max). The lambda was mainly affected by MgCl(2) and the interactions NaCl x CaCl(2) and CaCl(2) x MgCl(2). The further addition of NaCl and CaCl(2) to a 5% NaCl medium increased the lag phase while KCl and MgCl(2) had negligible or slightly negative effect, respectively. N (max) was mainly affected by MgCl(2) and its interactions with NaCl, KCl, and CaCl(2); MgCl(2) stimulated N (max) in the presence of 5% NaCl while KCl, NaCl, and CaCl(2) had a progressive decreasing effect. These results can be of interest for the fermentation and preservation of vegetable products, and foods in general, in which this yeast could be present.

  4. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  5. Influence of the calcium concentration in the presence of organic phosphorus on the physicochemical compatibility and stability of all-in-one admixtures for neonatal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm infants need high amounts of calcium and phosphorus for bone mineralization, which is difficult to obtain with parenteral feeding due to the low solubility of these salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical compatibility of high concentrations of calcium associated with organic phosphate and its influence on the stability of AIO admixtures for neonatal use. Methods Three TPN admixture formulas were prepared in multilayered bags. The calcium content of the admixtures was adjusted to 0, 46.5 or 93 mg/100 ml in the presence of a fixed organic phosphate concentration as well as lipids, amino acids, inorganic salts, glucose, vitamins and oligoelements at pH 5.5. Each admixture was stored at 4°C, 25°C or 37°C and evaluated over a period of 7 days. The physicochemical stability parameters evaluated were visual aspect, pH, sterility, osmolality, peroxide formation, precipitation, and the size of lipid globules. Results Color alterations occurred from the first day on, and reversible lipid film formation from the third day of study for the admixtures stored at 25°C and 37°C. According to the parameters evaluated, the admixtures were stable at 4°C; and none of them presented precipitated particles due to calcium/phosphate incompatibility or lipid globules larger than 5 μm, which is the main parameter currently used to evaluate lipid emulsion stability. The admixtures maintained low peroxide levels and osmolarity was appropriate for parenteral administration. Conclusion The total calcium and calcium/phosphorus ratios studied appeared not to influence the physicochemical compatibility and stability of AIO admixtures.

  6. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  7. Ingestion of guar gum hydrolysate, a soluble fiber, increases calcium absorption in totally gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Suzuki, T; Kasai, T; Aoyama, Y; Ohta, A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrectomy induces osteopenia. We examined the effects of feeding a diet containing soluble dietary fiber, guar gum hydrolysate (GGH, 50 g/kg diet), on intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineralization in totally gastrectomized (Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy) rats by comparing them with those in two control groups (laparotomized and bypassed rats). In the bypassed rats, chyme bypassed the duodenum and upper jejunum without gastrectomy. In a second separate experiment, we compared calcium absorption and bone mineralization in the gastrectomized rats fed diets containing soluble and insoluble calcium salts and in bypassed rats fed insoluble calcium. In Experiment 1, apparent absorption of calcium supplied as a water-insoluble salt was more than 50% lower in gastrectomized rats than in the intact (laparotomized) or bypassed rats 3 wk after the start of feeding the test diets (P Calcium absorption was higher (P Experiment 2, absorption of soluble calcium in the gastrectomized rats did not differ from the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate by bypassed rats. The soluble calcium pool in the cecal contents was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1) than in intact or bypassed control rats, and was higher (P calcium absorption correlated most closely (r = 0.787, P calcium content was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats fed insoluble calcium than in bypassed rats fed the same diet, but was partially restored in the rats fed soluble calcium (Experiment 2). Bone calcium was not increased by feeding GGH in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1). We conclude that the severely diminished calcium absorption following total gastrectomy is totally due to a decrease in calcium solubilization, and feeding GGH partially restores calcium absorption. The decrease in bone calcium that occurs as a result of gastrectomy is mainly due to diminished intestinal calcium absorption.

  8. An improved kilogram-scale preparation of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Yuri V; Dorogov, Mikhail V; Blumina, Maria V; Smirnov, Alexey V; Krasavin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    If literature protocols are followed, conversion of an advanced ketal ester intermediate (available in kilogram quantities via a published Paal-Knorr synthesis) to cholesterol-lowering drug atorvastatin calcium is hampered by several process issues, particularly at the final stage where the hemi-calcium salt is obtained. We developed a high-yielding synthesis of atorvastatin calcium salt on 7 kg scale that affords >99.5% product purities by introducing the following key improvements: i. isolating the pure product of the ketal deprotection step as crystalline solid, and ii. using a convenient ethyl acetate extraction procedure to isolate the pure atorvastatin calcium at the ester hydrolysis and counter-ion exchange step. The convenient and operationally simple conversion of an advanced intermediate of atorvastatin to the clinically used hemi-calcium salt form of the drug that is superior to the methods obtainable from the literature is now available to facilitate the production of atorvastatin calcium on industrial scale. Graphical abstractStepwise ketal and tert-butyl ester group hydrolysis and a modified work-up protocol lead to a more convenient preparation of API-grade atorvastatin calcium.

  9. Calcium absorption from corn tortilla is relatively high and is dependent upon calcium content and liming in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Díaz, Margarita; Rosas, Angélica; Griffit, Ian; García, Olga P

    2005-11-01

    Corn tortillas are the staple food of Mexico. During their preparation, calcium is added to the tortillas; therefore, tortillas are the main source of calcium for a large proportion of the population. The bioavailability of calcium from lime-treated tortillas in humans is not known. The objectives of the present study were to determine calcium absorption from corn tortilla, to determine the effect of lime treatment on calcium absorption from corn tortilla, and to compare calcium absorption from tortilla prepared with a commercial corn flour and tortillas prepared with the traditional lime treatment at home. Nonpregnant, nonlactating women (n = 9) were administered 3 different treatments: 1) 180 g of corn tortilla prepared from corn flour with no lime treatment (CF), 2) 180 g of corn tortilla prepared from lime-treated commercial corn flour (LTCCF), or 3) 180 g of corn tortillas prepared from lime-treated home-prepared corn flour (LTHCF). Calcium absorption was measured using an established dual-tracer stable isotope technique. Calcium absorption of CF, LTCCF, and LTHCF was (mean +/- SD): 44 +/- 3.2, 32 +/- 4.4, and 30 +/- 2.4%, respectively; the fractional calcium absorption from CF differed from that of either LTCCF or LTHCF (P corn tortillas is high and dependent on calcium concentration. The addition of calcium during lime treatment increases calcium concentration and total calcium absorption.

  10. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  12. CNS safety at 48-week of switching to ATV/r plus 3TC or two nucleos(t)ides in HIV-suppressed patients on stable ART: the SALT neurocognitive sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Ignacio Pérez; Pasquau, Juan; Rubio, Rafael; Ribero, Antonio; Santos, Jose; Sanz, Jesus; Mariño, Ana; Crespo, Manel; Hernandez, Jose; Iribarren, Jose Antonio; Gutierrez, Felix; Terron, Alberto; Esteban, Herminia; Pérez-Molina, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to their low CNS penetrance, there are concerns about the capacity of non-conventional PI-based ART (monotherapy and dual therapies) to preserve neurocognitive performance (NP). We evaluated the NP change of aviremic participants of the SALT clinical trial (1) switching therapy to dual therapy (DT: ATV/r+3TC) or triple therapy (TT: ATV/r+2NRTI) who agreed to perform an NP assessment (NPZ-5) at baseline and W48. Neurocognitive impairment and NP were assessed using AAN-2007 criteria (2) and global deficit scores (GDS) (3). Neurocognitive change (GDS change: W48 - baseline) and the effect of DT on NP evolution crude and adjusted by significant confounders were determined using ANCOVA. A total of 158 patients were included (Table 1). They had shorter times because HIV diagnosis, ART initiation and HIV-suppression and their virologic outcome at W48 by snapshot was higher (79.1% vs 72.7%; p=0.04) compared to the 128 patients not included in the sub-study. By AAN-2007 criteria, 51 patients in each ART group (68% vs 63%) were neurocognitively impaired at baseline (p=0.61). Forty-seven patients were not reassessed at W48: 30 lost of follow-up (16 DT-14 TT) and 17 had non-evaluable data (6 DT-11 TT). Patients retested were more likely to be men (78.9% vs 61.4%) and had neurological cofounders (9.6% vs 0%) than patients non-retested. At W48, 3 out of 16 (5.7%) patients on DT and 6 out of 21 (10.5%) on TT who were non-impaired at baseline became impaired (p=0.49) while 10 out of 37 (18.9%) on DT and 7 out of 36 (12.3%) on TT who were neurocognitively impaired at baseline became non-impaired (p=0.44). Mean GDS changes (95% CI) were: Overall -0.2 (-0.3 to -0.04): DT -0.26 (-0.4 to -0.07) and TT -0.08 (-0.2 to 0.07). NP was similar between DT and TT (0.15). This absence of differences was also observed in all cognitive tests. Effect of DT: -0.16 [-0.38 to 0.06]) (r(2)=0.16) on NP evolution was similar to TT (reference), even after adjusting (DT: -0.11 [-0.33 to 0.1], TT

  13. Salt Efflorescence Effects on Soil Surface Erodibility and Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salts resulting from weathering of geological materials often form surface crusts or efflorescences in areas with shallow saline groundwater. In many cases, the affected areas are susceptible to wind erosion due to their lack of protective vegetation and their flat topography. Fugitive dusts containing soluble salts affect the biogeochemistry of deposition regions and may result in respiratory irritation during transport. We created efflorescent crusts on soil trays by surface evaporation of single salt solutions and bombarded the resultant efflorescences with quartz abrader sand in a laboratory wind tunnel. Four replicate trays containing a Torrifluvent soil affected by one of nine salts commonly found in arid and semiarid streams were tested and the emissions were captured by an aspirated multi-stage deposition and filtering system. We found that in most cases the efflorescent crust reduced the soil surface erodibility but also resulted in the emission of salt rich dust. Two of the salts, sodium thiosulfate and calcium chloride, resulted in increased soil volume and erodibility. However, one of the calcium chloride replicates was tested after an outbreak of humid air caused hygroscopic wetting of the soil and it became indurated upon drying greatly decreasing the erodibility. Although saline affected soils are not used for agricultural production and degradation is not a great concern, the release of salt rich dust is an area of environmental concern and steps to control the dust emissions from affected soils should be developed. Future testing will utilize suites of salts found in streams of arid and semiarid regions.

  14. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  15. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  16. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  17. Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Various types of grafts have been traditionally used to restore damaged bones. In the late 1960s, a strong interest was raised in studying ceramics as potential bone grafts due to their biomechanical properties. A bit later, such synthetic biomaterials were called bioceramics. In principle, bioceramics can be prepared from diverse materials but this review is limited to calcium orthophosphate-based formulations only, which possess the specific advantages due to the chemical similarity to mammalian bones and teeth. During the past 40 years, there have been a number of important achievements in this field. Namely, after the initial development of bioceramics that was just tolerated in the physiological environment, an emphasis was shifted towards the formulations able to form direct chemical bonds with the adjacent bones. Afterwards, by the structural and compositional controls, it became possible to choose whether the calcium orthophosphate-based implants remain biologically stable once incorporated into the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of regenerative bioceramics was developed and such formulations became an integrated part of the tissue engineering approach. Now calcium orthophosphate scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous and harbor different biomolecules and/or cells. Therefore, current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include bone augmentations, artificial bone grafts, maxillofacial reconstruction, spinal fusion, periodontal disease repairs and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Perspective future applications comprise drug delivery and tissue engineering purposes because calcium orthophosphates appear to be promising carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and various types of cells.

  18. Influence of whole-body irradiation on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pento, J.T.; Kenny, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Previous irradiation studies have revealed marked alterations in calcium metabolism. Moreover, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with parathyroid hormone or calcium salts has been reported to reduce radiation lethality. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the influence of irradiation on calcium homeostasis in the rat. Nine hundred rad of whole-body irradiation produced a significant depression of both plasma calcium and phosphate at 4 days postirradiation. This effect of irradiation was observed to be dose-dependent over a range of 600 to 1200 rad, and possibly related to irradiation-induced anorexia. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed

  19. Spectroscopic Characterization of Omeprazole and Its Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vrbanec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, it is important to have a suitable crystalline form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Mostly, the basic options originate in the form of free base, acid, or salt. Substances that are stable only within a certain pH range are a challenge for the formulation. For the prazoles, which are known to be sensitive to degradation in an acid environment, the formulation is stabilized with alkaline additives or with the application of API formulated as basic salts. Therefore, preparation and characterization of basic salts are needed to monitor any possible salinization of free molecules. We synthesized salts of omeprazole from the group of alkali metals (Li, Na, and K and alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca. The purpose of the presented work is to demonstrate the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between the OMP and OMP-salt molecules. For this reason, the physicochemical properties of 5 salts were probed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, TG, DSC, and theoretical calculation of vibrational frequencies. We found out that vibrational spectroscopy serves as an applicable spectroscopic tool which enables an accurate, quick, and nondestructive way to determine the characteristic of OMP and its salts.

  20. Solasalt technology in Ghana–A case study of small scale salt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brine and salt samples from the various stages of the traditional process were analysed for calcium, sulphate, magnesium and chloride contents in order to propose a method to improve the quality of output. The brine samples contained low levels of calcium (ranging from 0.14% to 0.01% ), and high levels of magnesium ...

  1. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For people of African heritage and older people, calcium channel blockers might ... high-blood-pressure/in-depth/calcium-channel-blockers/ART-20047605 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  2. Synthesis of carbides of refractory metals in salt melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushchenko, N.G.; Anfinogenov, A.I.; Chebykin, V.V.; Chernov, Ya.B.; Shurov, N.I.; Ryaposov, Yu.A.; Dobrynin, A.I.; Gorshkov, A.V.; Chub, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The ion-electron melts, obtained through dissolving the alkali and alkali-earth metals in the molten chlorides above the chloride melting temperature, were used for manufacturing the high-melting metal carbides as the transport melt. The lithium, calcium and magnesium chlorides and the mixture of the lithium chloride with the potassium or calcium chloride were used from the alkali or alkali-earth metals. The metallic lithium, calcium, magnesium or the calcium-magnesium mixtures were used as the alkali or alkali-earth metals. The carbon black or sugar was used as carbon. It is shown, that lithium, magnesium or calcium in the molten salts transfer the carbon on the niobium, tantalum, titanium, forming the carbides of the above metals. The high-melting metal carbides are obtained both from the metal pure powders and from the oxides and chlorides [ru

  3. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  4. Toward a stable solid-electrolyte-interfaces on nickel-rich cathodes: LiPO2F2 salt-type additive and its working mechanism for LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weimin; Zheng, Guorui; Lin, Min; Zhao, Wengao; Li, Dongjiang; Guan, Xiaoyun; Ji, Yajuan; Ortiz, Gregorio F.; Yang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Although the LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 holds the merits of high theoretical capacities and a relatively high operating voltage, the battery performance suffers from the severe cycling decay due to the unstable solid electrolyte interface on the cathode. Herein, we present LiPO2F2 as a salt-type electrolyte additive to enhance the cycling stability of large-size crystallite LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 cathodes. Results demonstrate that 1 wt% LiPO2F2 can significantly improve not only the initial coulombic efficiency by 3%, but also the cycling stability and rate capability at 25 °C. Furthermore, the discharge capacity of LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 cathodes still maintain 156 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles even when the temperature increases to 55 °C. In-depth experimental characterization and theoretical calculation indicate that a new stable and thin (e.g. 15-20 nm) film formed on the surface of the cathodes, with composition of LiPO2F2, LiF, etc., which significantly reduces charge transfer impedance of the electrodes, and therefore significantly improves the cycling and rate performance of LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2.

  5. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  6. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  7. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  8. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in

  9. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  10. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is designated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155...

  11. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  12. Impact of source and level of calcium fortification on the heat stability of reconstituted skim milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, H K; Tong, P S

    2004-05-01

    Calcium enrichment of food and dairy products has gained interest with the increased awareness about the importance of higher calcium intake. Calcium plays many important roles in the human body. Dairy products are an excellent source of dietary calcium, which can be further fortified with calcium salts to achieve higher calcium intake per serving. However, the addition of calcium salts can destabilize food systems unless conditions are carefully controlled. The effect of calcium fortification on the heat stability of reconstituted skim milk was evaluated, using reconstituted skim milks with 2 protein levels: 1.75 and 3.5% (wt/wt) prepared using low and high heat powders. Calcium carbonate, phosphate, lactate, and citrate were used for fortification at 0.15, 0.18, and 0.24% (wt/wt). Each sample was analyzed for solubility, heat stability, and pH. The addition of phosphate and lactate salts lowered the pH of milk, citrate did not have any major effect, and carbonate for the 1.75% protein samples increased the pH. In general, changes in solubility and heat stability were associated with changes in pH. Calcium addition decreased the solubility and heat stability. However, interestingly, the presence of carbonate salt greatly increased the heat stability for 1.75% protein samples. This is due to the neutralizing effect of calcium carbonate when it goes into solution. The results suggested that the heat stability of milk can be affected by the type of calcium salt used. This may be applied to the development of milk-based calcium enriched beverages.

  13. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

  14. Stable isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter, F.; Molinari, Ph.; Dirian, G.

    1964-01-01

    circulates. Studies are going forward to increase the separation factor of the cascade by using an auxiliary gas. Isotopic Exchange: A series of experiments has been performed to determine the isotopic separation factor between a lithium amalgam and an organic solvent containing a lithium salt. The various parameters which may enter into this exchange were studied: the influence of the type of solvent (the two solvents used were dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofurane), of the temperature, of the concentration and of the nature of the associated halogen. Solutions of Li metal and liquid NH 3 were studied also. A number of tests were carried out to see whether there was a difference between the isotopic compositions of the Li present in the two liquid layers obtained by the dissolution of Li metal in ammonia. No difference was observed between the Li isotopic ratios in the two phases. This was also true in the case of a layer of of Li in liquid NH 3 and a layer of Li I in a similar solvent. Electromigration: The method of counter current electro Migration in fused salts is a powerful isotopic enrichment technique. It can be used successfully to separate the isotopes of elements with strongly metallic character. In the case of alkalis, small quantities of isotopically pure 7 Li have been obtained, while the enrichment factors obtained for potassium are of the order of 10. With regard to the alkaline earths, it has been possible to produce small quantities of calcium enriched 5 times in 46 Ca. However considerable technological difficulties rise up in the way of production on a semi-industrial scale. (authors) [fr

  15. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  16. Not Salt Taste Perception but Self-Reported Salt Eating Habit Predicts Actual Salt Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a s...

  17. Modified calcium oxide as stable solid base catalyst for Aldol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rated and washed with methanol to remove excess modi- fier, and the modified CaO was obtained after a vacuum drying process. In order to increase the reproducibili- ty, the particles were sieved before use. Particles of. 100–160 mesh size were selected for all experiments. 2.2 Humidity test. Amount of commercial CaO ...

  18. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  19. Crystal Crosslinked Gels for the Deposition of Inorganic Salts with Polyhedral Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Mochizuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomineralization has been given a great deal of attention by materials chemists because of its low environmental load and sustainability. With the goal of synthesizing such processes, various methods have been developed, especially for inorganic salts of calcium. In this report, we focused on the deposition of inorganic salts, such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate using crystal crosslinked gels (CCG, which are prepared by crystal crosslinking of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs. Due to the crystalline nature of MOFs, CCGs intrinsically possess polyhedral shapes derived from the original MOF crystals. As the result of deposition, the obtained inorganic salts also exhibited a polyhedral shape derived from the CCG. The deposition mainly occurred near the surface of the CCG, and the amorphous nature of the deposited inorganic salts was also confirmed.

  20. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  1. Application of molten salts in pyrochemical processing of reactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Various mixes of chloride and fluoride salts are used as the media for conducting pyrochemical processes in the production and purification of reactive metals. These processes generate a significant amount of contaminated waste that has to be treated for recycling or disposal. Molten calcium chloride based salt systems have been used in this work to electrolytically regenerate calcium metal from calcium oxide for the in situ reduction of reactive metal oxides. The recovery of calcium is characterized by the process efficiency to overcome back reactions in the electrowinning cell. A thermodynamic analysis, based on fundamental rate theory, has been performed to understand the process parameters controlling the metal deposition, rate, behavior of the ceramic anode-sheath and influence of the back-reactions. It has been observed that the deposition of calcium is dependent on the ionic diffusion through the sheath. It has also been evidenced that the recovered calcium is completely lost through the back-reactions in the absence of a sheath. A practical scenario has also been presented where the electrowon metal can be used in situ as a reductant to reduce another reactive metal oxide

  2. Relation of Urinary Calcium and Magnesium Excretion to Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteloot†, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J.; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Dyer, Alan R.; Unwin, Robert J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40–59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20–59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest that altered calcium homoeostasis, as exhibited by increased calcium excretion, is associated with higher BP levels. PMID:21624957

  3. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  4. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  5. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that treated MgCO3, CaCO3, MgO and CaO with dodecyl benzene sulphonic can sorb oil by 0.95, 1.25, 78, 0.56 times its weight respectively; untreated materials can sorb oil by 0.49, 0.76, 0.44, 0.32 its weight. Characteristics of crude oil and the used materials were investigated by FTIR, X - Ray ...

  6. Dengue and Calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan C; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is potentially fatal unless managed appropriately. No specific treatment is available and the mainstay of treatment is fluid management with careful monitoring, organ support, and correction of metabolic derangement. Evidence with regards to the role of calcium homeostasis in dengue is limited. Low blood calcium levels have been demonstrated in dengue infection and hypocalcemia maybe more pronounced in more severe forms. The cause of hypocalcemia is likely to be multifactorial. Calcium...

  7. Solubility and bioavailability of stabilized amorphous calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Oren E; Bar-David, Elad; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Shechter, Assaf; Stepensky, David; Berman, Amir; Sagi, Amir

    2011-02-01

    Since its role in the prevention of osteoporosis in humans was proven some 30 years ago, calcium bioavailability has been the subject of numerous scientific studies. Recent technology allowing the production of a stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) now enables a bioavailability analysis of this unique form of calcium. This study thus compares the solubility and fractional absorption of ACC, ACC with chitosan (ACC-C), and crystalline calcium carbonate (CCC). Solubility was evaluated by dissolving these preparations in dilute phosphoric acid. The results demonstrated that both ACC and ACC-C are more soluble than CCC. Fractional absorption was evaluated by intrinsically labeling calcium carbonate preparations with (45)Ca, orally administrated to rats using gelatin capsules. Fractional absorption was determined by evaluating the percentage of the administrated radioactive dose per milliliter that was measured in the serum, calcium absorption in the femur, and whole-body retention over a 34-hour period. Calcium serum analysis revealed that calcium absorption from ACC and ACC-C preparations was up to 40% higher than from CCC, whereas retention of ACC and ACC-C was up to 26.5% higher than CCC. Absorbed calcium in the femurs of ACC-administrated rats was 30% higher than in CCC-treated animals, whereas 15% more calcium was absorbed following ACC-C treatment than following CCC treatment. This study demonstrates the enhanced solubility and bioavailability of ACC over CCC. The use of stable ACC as a highly bioavailable dietary source for calcium is proposed based on the findings of this study. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  9. Impact evaluation of iron & iodine fortified salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K M; Brahmam, G N; Ranganathan, S; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sivakumar, B; Krishnaswamy, K

    1998-11-01

    As a novel approach to tackle the problems of iron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which often coexist, the National Institute of Nutrition has developed iron and iodine fortified common salt (double fortified salt-DFS) as a public health measure. This salt has undergone a battery of laboratory and field tests to evaluate its feasibility for use in a national programme. The DFS is designed to provide 1 mg of iron and 15 micrograms of iodine per gram of common salt. This was made possible by the inclusion of a polyphosphate stabilizer, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) at 1 per cent level. The stability of iron and iodine was found to be good up to 6 months. However, the stability of iodine depended upon the quality of the salt used for fortification. The biological effects of long-term consumption of DFS were evaluated in experimental rats and in field trials. Both iron and iodine from the salt were found to be biologically available in regenerating haemoglobin and in increasing excretion of iodine in urine. When this salt was tested in tribal villages endemic for goitre and iron deficiency anaemia, the bioresponse was good with regard to the iodine status but was not uniform in all segments with regard to iron, probably due to confounding variables. In a study carried out in residential school children where such variables did not exist, DFS was found to have significant impact on haemoglobin status in anaemic children and improved their urinary iodine excretion. The consumption of DFS for 2 yr did not have any adverse effects in school children as well as in the tribal population. Parameters related to calcium homeostasis were not altered in children receiving DFS. Histopathological examination of tissues and radiological examination of bone did not reveal any abnormality in DFS fed rats. Similarly serum and urinary parameters related to calcium and phosphorus were not altered in DFS fed rats. Therefore, DFS is presented as a feasible and

  10. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  11. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  12. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, T.

    1985-12-01

    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  13. Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition. An in vitro study using a gelatin matrix model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, N S; Mandel, G S; Carroll, D J; Halverson, P B

    1984-07-01

    Deposition of crystalline triclinic (t) and monoclinic (m) calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) in fibrocartilage and articular cartilage is the hallmark of chondrocalcinosis. Using biologic grade gelatin to model this crystal growth process, t-CPPD, m-CPPD, amorphous calcium pyrophosphate, orthorhombic calcium pyrophosphate tetrahydrate (o-CPPT), and 3 mixed calcium/sodium pyrophosphate salts were grown at physiologic pH. Amorphous and o-CPPT appeared to be kinetic precursor crystals in the formation of t-CPPD and m-CPPD. Optimal concentration ranges for the different crystals were determined.

  14. A mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics derived from single transmembrane protein properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dorothee Schmeitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fate decision processes of T lymphocytes are crucial for health and disease. Whether a T lymphocyte is activated, divides, gets anergic or initiates apoptosis depends on extracellular triggers and intracellular signalling. Free cytosolic calcium dynamics plays an important role in this context. The relative contributions of store-derived calcium entry and calcium entry from extracellular space to T lymphocyte activation are still a matter of debate. Here we develop a quantitative mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics in order to establish a tool which allows to disentangle cause-effect relationships between ion fluxes and observed calcium time courses. The model is based on single transmembrane protein characteristics which have been determined in independent experiments. This reduces the number of unknown parameters in the model to a minimum and ensures the predictive power of the model. Simulation results are subsequently used for an analysis of whole cell calcium dynamics measured under various experimental conditions. The model accounts for a variety of these conditions, which supports the suitability of the modelling approach. The simulation results suggest a model in which calcium dynamics dominantly relies on the opening of channels in calcium stores while calcium entry through calcium-release activated channels (CRAC is more associated with the maintenance of the T lymphocyte calcium levels and prevents the cell from calcium depletion. Our findings indicate that CRAC guarantees a long-term stable calcium level which is required for cell survival and sustained calcium enhancement.

  15. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  16. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  17. Quantification of Dialytic Removal and Extracellular Calcium Mass Balance during a Weekly Cycle of Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Waniewski

    Full Text Available The removal of calcium during hemodialysis with low calcium concentration in dialysis fluid is generally slow, and the net absorption of calcium from dialysis fluid is often reported. The details of the calcium transport process during dialysis and calcium mass balance in the extracellular fluid, however, have not been fully studied.Weekly cycle of three dialysis sessions with interdialytic breaks of 2-2-3 days was monitored in 25 stable patients on maintenance hemodialysis with calcium concentration in dialysis fluid of 1.35 mmol/L. Total and ionic calcium were frequently measured in blood and dialysate. The volume of fluid compartments was measured by bioimpedance.Weekly dialytic removal of 12.79 ± 8.71 mmol calcium was found in 17 patients, whereas 9.48 ± 8.07 mmol calcium was absorbed per week from dialysis fluid in 8 patients. Ionic calcium was generally absorbed from dialysis fluid, whereas complexed calcium (the difference of total and ionic calcium in dialysis fluid was removed from the body. The concentration of total calcium in plasma increased slightly during dialysis. The mass of total and ionic calcium in extracellular fluid decreased during dialysis in patients with the dialytic removal of calcium from the body and did not change in patients with the absorption of calcium from dialysis fluid.We conclude that about one third of patients on dialysis with calcium 1.35 mmol/L in dialysis fluid may absorb calcium from dialysis fluid and therefore individual prescriptions of calcium concentration in dialysis fluid should be considered for such patients.

  18. Salt stripping: a pyrochemical approach to the recovery of plutonium electrorefining salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-10-01

    A pyrochemical process has been developed to take the salt residue from the plutonium electrorefining process and strip the plutonium from it. The process, called salt stripping, uses calcium as a reducing/coalescing agent. In a one-day operation, greater than 95% of the plutonium can be recovered as a metallic button. As much as 88% of the residue is either reused as metal or discarded as a clean salt. A thin layer of black salts, which makes up the bulk of the unrecovered Pu, is a by-product of the initial reductions. A number of black salts can be collected together and re-reduced in a second step. Greater than 88% of this plutonium can be successfully recovered in this second stage with the resulting residues being discardable. The processing time, number of processor hours, and the volume of secondary residues are greatly reduced over the classical aqueous recovery methods. In addition, the product metal is of sufficient quality to be fed directly to the electrorefining process for purification. 8 figures, 7 tables

  19. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  20. DIHYDROPYRIDINE CALCIUM- CHANNELBLOCKERSFOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and degenerative dementias the calcium-channel blocker nimodipine, compared with placebo, slightly improved the. MMSE scores." Thus, an additional or alternative explanation, albeit still unproven, could involve specific neuroprotection conferred by calcium-channel blockade.~Indeed, the ageing brain loses its ability to ...

  1. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this ... vary. However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel antagonist. It helps decrease the heart's pumping strength, which ...

  2. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  3. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  4. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  5. Azoniaspiro salts: towards bridging the gap between room-temperature ionic liquids and molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Matthew T; Geyer, Karolin; Hunt, Patricia A; McIntosh, Alastair J S; Rowe, Rebecca; Welton, Tom; White, Andrew J P

    2016-01-28

    In a continued effort to improve the suitability of ionic liquids in applications operating at raised temperatures, novel spirocyclic 'azoniaspiro' salts (with cations derived from five-, six-, seven- and eight-membered rings) are prepared and characterised. The structural and thermal properties of these salts are compared against those of established analogues. The stable geometries and ion pairing behaviour of these species are investigated via a combined experimental/computational approach, employing X-ray crystallography and Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. Subsequently, the thermal stabilities of these organic salts are characterised and compared using a broad range of techniques. Hyphenated Thermogravimetry-Mass Spectrometry investigations enable complex mechanisms underlying thermal decomposition to be elucidated. Lastly, transition state structures are optimised, corresponding to plausible decomposition mechanisms of the azoniaspiro salt, 6-azoniaspiro[6.5]dodecanium chloride, and one prototypical monocyclic species 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium chloride, using DFT. The observed improved thermal stabilities of the azoniaspiro salts, and their potential higher-temperature stable-liquid ranges, render them promising candidates for future ionic liquid applications.

  6. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  7. c Effec control prim cts of c lling sh mocan calcium hoot n ne-fruit m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    kfield Road, B opagation. T n shoot necr ane-fruiting r. S) medium co xplant brow corbic acid, ugh culture ation of 'Allg edium conta g and shoot ead faster promoting ea ... chloride or other calcium salts to increase calcium levels in the medium ... Ten-centimeter long actively growing apical shoots with removal of leaves ...

  8. [Salt and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  9. Effect of mixed vs single brine composition on salt weathering in porous carbonate building stones for different environmental conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, B.; Petráňová, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 210, August (2016), s. 124-139 ISSN 0013-7952 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : salt weathering * limestone * environmental conditions * sodium chloride * sodium sulphate * calcium sulphate * salt mixture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.569, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013795216301879

  10. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  11. Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at

  12. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  13. Polytetrafluorethylene film-based liquid-three phase micro extraction coupled with differential pulse voltammetry for the determination of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Khoddami, Elaheh; Rezaei, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new combination method based on polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) film-based liquid three-phase micro extraction coupled with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for the micro extraction and quantification of atorvastatin calcium (ATC) at the ultra-trace level. Different factors affecting the liquid-three phases micro extraction of atorvastatin calcium, including organic solvent, pH of the donor and acceptor phases, concentration of salt, extraction time, stirring rate and electrochemical factors, were investigated, and the optimal extraction conditions were established. The final stable signal was achieved after a 50 min extraction time, which was used for analytical applications. An enrichment factor of 21 was achieved, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was 4.5% (n = 4). Differential pulse voltammetry exhibited two wide linear dynamic ranges of 20.0-1000.0 pmol L(-1) and 0.001-11.0 µmol L(-1) of ATC. The detection limit was found to be 8.1 pmol L(-1) ATC. Finally, the proposed method was used as a new combination method for the determination of atorvastatin calcium in real samples, such as human urine and plasma.

  14. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance.

  15. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and physicochemical characterization of pyridine derivative salts of anti-inflammatory drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechipadappu, Sunil Kumar; Trivedi, Darshak R.

    2017-08-01

    Salts of common anti-inflammatory drugs mefenamic acid (MFA), tolfenamic acid (TFA) and naproxen (NPX) with various pyridine derivatives (4-amino pyridine (4AP), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 2-amino pyridine (2AP)) were synthesized by crystal engineering approach based on the pKa values of API's and the salt former. All the salts were characterized systematically by various spectroscopic methods including FT-IR and 1H NMR and the crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques (SCXRD). DMAP salt of NPX and 2AP salts of MFA and TFA were not obtained in the salt screening experiments. All the molecular salts exhibited 1:1 molecular stoichiometry in the asymmetric unit and except NPX-2AP salt, all the molecular salts included a water molecule in the crystal lattice. Physicochemical and structural properties between drug-drug molecular salts of MFA-4AP, TFA-4AP and NPX-4AP have been evaluated and it was found that these molecular salts were found to be stable for a time period of six months at ambient condition and further hydration of molecular salts were not observed even at accelerated humid conditions (∼75% RH). It was found that 4AP salts of MFA and TFA and DMAP salts of MFA and TFA are isostructural.

  17. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses......, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations...

  18. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (k(max)) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants' vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of k(max) are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of k(max) are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that k(max) declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in k(max) under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of k(max) were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining k(max) values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and

  19. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  20. Transient myocardial ischemia after abrupt withdrawal of antianginal therapy in chronic stable angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1988-01-01

    In 47 patients with chronic stable angina and proven coronary artery disease, abrupt withdrawal of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents either as monotherapy or in combination with calcium antagonists (group 1, n = 25) was compared with abrupt withdrawal of calcium antagonist monotherapy (group 2, n...

  1. Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Fini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

  2. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  3. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by supporting muscles needed to avoid falls. Children need vitamin D to build strong bones, and adults need ... be taken at one time. While your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium, you do not need ...

  4. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, ...

  5. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many others) Many hair relaxers and straighteners Slaked lime This list may not include all sources of ...

  6. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) and Drug Use Real Questions from Real ...

  7. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  8. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  9. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  10. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  11. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  12. On salting in effect of the second group metal rhodanides on aqueous-amine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupatkin, I.L.; Ostrovskaya, E.M.; Vorob'eva, L.D.; Kamyshnikova, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    The ''salting in'' effect of rhodanides of Group 2 metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium) on aqueous-amine solutions (water-aniline, and water-o-toluidine systems) is studied. The solubility in these systems has been determined by the isothermal method at 25 deg C. Compositions of the co-existing liquid phases have been determined by refractometry. The phase diagrams of water-aniline-rhodanide of magnesium, calcium and strontium systems have the same qualitative view. These rhodanides ''salt in'' the water-aniline system so strongly that the systems are completely homogenized. According to the decreasing homogenization effect on the water-aniline and water-o-toluidine systems the salts may be arranged into the following series Mg(NCS) 2 >Ca(NCS) 2 >Sr(NCS) 2 >Ba(NCS) 2 . The ''salting in'. effect is weaker in the water-o-toluidine system rather than in the water-aniline one

  13. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  14. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment 233U conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the 233 U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019

  15. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  16. Impact of post-dialysis calcium level on ex vivo rat aortic wall calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiazu, Daniel; González-Parra, Emilio; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a frequent complication in chronic haemodialysis patients and is associated with adverse outcomes. Serum calcium and phosphate levels and imbalances in calcification regulators are thought to contribute to the process. In this regard, the dialysate calcium concentration is a modifiable tool for modulating the risk of vascular calcification. We explored pre- and post-dialysis phosphate and calcium concentrations in stable chronic haemodialysis patients treated by dialysis with the KDIGO-suggested 1.5 mmol/L calcium dialysate to investigate the effects on ex vivo calcification of rat aortic rings. At the end of haemodialysis, mean serum calcium levels were increased in 88% of paired pre-/post-dialysis samples, while mean serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels were decreased. Rat aortic ring cultures grown at the same calcium and phosphate concentrations revealed that pre- and post-dialysis resulted in a similar degree of calcification. By contrast, haemodialysis with unchanged serum calcium resulted in a 5-fold reduction in calcium deposition. Dialysis with the widely prescribed 1.5 mmol/L calcium dose results in persistent high serum calcification potential in a sizable proportion of patients, driven by increased post-dialysis calcium concentration. This could potentially be mitigated by individualising dialysate calcium dosage based on pre-dialysis serum calcium levels.

  17. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  18. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  19. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  20. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  1. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in ...

  2. In vitro study on biomineralization of biphasic calcium phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we report the preparation of a bone graft material, having cylindrical shape, containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), gelatin (G), chitosan (C) and Terminalia chebula (TC) extract. TC extract was used as a crosslinker that gives stability to bone graft when it is placed in SBF. The graft was stable in the SBF ...

  3. Electrokinetic removal of Ca(NO3)2 from bricks to avoid salt induced decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Salt-induced decay of masonry is a serious threat to our cultural heritage. In buildings near agricultural land or stables the masonry may suffer seriously from salt-induced decay from nitrates. It was investigated in laboratory scale with a single brick if Ca(NO$-3$/) $-2$/ could be removed...

  4. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  5. Rapid reduction of titanium dioxide nano-particles by reduction with a calcium reductant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masumi; Matsuura, Shiki; Natsui, Shungo; Tsuji, Etsuji; Habazaki, Hiroki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-09-01

    Micro-, submicron-, and nano-scale titanium dioxide particles were reduced by reduction with a metallic calcium reductant in calcium chloride molten salt at 1173 K, and the reduction mechanism of the oxides by the calcium reductant was explored. These oxide particles, metallic calcium as a reducing agent, and calcium chloride as a molten salt were placed in a titanium crucible and heated under an argon atmosphere. Titanium dioxide was reduced to metallic titanium through a calcium titanate and lower titanium oxide, and the materials were sintered together to form a micro-porous titanium structure in molten salt at high temperature. The reduction rate of titanium dioxide was observed to increase with decreasing particle size; accordingly, the residual oxygen content in the reduced titanium decreases. The obtained micro-porous titanium appeared dark gray in color because of its low surface reflection. Micro-porous metallic titanium with a low oxygen content (0.42 wt%) and a large surface area (1.794 m2 g-1) can be successfully obtained by reduction under optimal conditions.

  6. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  7. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  8. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  9. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  10. Americium extraction by alkylpyrocatechin from alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalova, Z.K.; Rodionova, L.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of iron, aluminium, calcium, and sodium nitrates on americium extraction by 0.1 mol/l DOP solution [4-(α-α dioctylethyl) pyrocatechin] in toluene from a mixture of 2 mol/l NaOH with 0.1 mol/l EDTA has been investigated. It has been shown that americium extraction does not change essen-- tially in the presence of salts that permits to use DOP for Am extraction from alkaline solutions in the presence of outside salts. Verification of the above method of extraction of radioactive isotopes has been carried out. According to the data obtained double extraction provides a preparation of alkaline solutions practically free from radioactive isotopes. DOP application for Am extraction from alkaline salt solutions allows one to carry out repeated Am concentration and separation from accompanying elements. Conditions, under which Fe(3)-Am(3) pair separation coefficient achieves nx10 2 -10 4 , have been found out

  11. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    , and this report also describes more recently developed technologies such as dry gas seals. This report also provides a high-level, parametric evaluation of LSHT loop performance to allow general intercomparisons between heat-transport fluid options as well as provide an overview of the properties and requirements for a representative loop. A compilation of relevant thermophysical properties of useful fluoride salts is also included for salt heat transport systems. Fluoride salts can be highly corrosive depending on the container materials selected, the salt chemistry, and the operating procedures used. The report includes an overview of the state-of-the-art in reduction-oxidation chemistry control methodologies employed to minimize corrosion issues. Salt chemistry control technology, however, remains at too low a level of understanding for widespread industrial usage. Loop operational issues such as start-up procedures and system freeze-up vulnerability are also discussed. Liquid fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat transport medium for high-temperature applications. This report provides an overview of the current status of liquid salt heat transport technology. The report includes a high-level, parametric evaluation of liquid fluoride salt heat transport loop performance to allow intercomparisons between heat-transport fluid options as well as providing an overview of the properties and requirements for a representative loop. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier molten salt reactor program and a significant advantage of fluoride salts, as high temperature heat transport media is their consequent relative technological maturity. The report also includes a compilation of relevant thermophysical properties of useful heat transport fluoride salts. Fluoride salts are both thermally stable and with proper chemistry control can be relatively chemically inert. Fluoride salts can, however, be highly corrosive depending on the container

  12. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reactor was found to be stable and self-regulating. 4.2 Molten-salt reactor experiment (MSRE) [6]. As ARE had .... Continuous monitoring of the atmo- sphere was carried out by Health Physics Group of ... (4) Breeding ratio should be such that a self-sustaining operation of the reactor is achieved after accounting for losses in ...

  13. Salts and Co-crystals of Theobromine and their phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chlorosalicylic acid were found to be stable for more than 24 h in the aqueous slurry conditions, except malonic co-crystal which transformed to theobrominewithin 1 h.Water mediated phase transformation of theobromine salts and co-crystalmay be ...

  14. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  15. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  16. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  17. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  18. Anodic and cathodic reactions in molten calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fray, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Calcium chloride is a very interesting electrolyte in that it is available, virtually free, in high purity form as a waste product from the chemical industry. It has a very large solubility for oxide ions, far greater than many alkali halides and other divalent halides and has the same toxicity as sodium chloride and also a very high solubility in water. Intuitively, on the passage of current, it is expected that calcium would be deposited at the cathode and chlorine would evolve at the anode. However, if calcium oxide is added to the melt, it is possible to deposit calcium and evolve oxygen containing gases at the anode, making the process far less polluting than when chlorine is evolved. This process is discussed in terms of the addition of calcium to molten lead. Furthermore, these reactions can be altered dramatically depending upon the electrode materials and the other ions dissolved in the calcium chloride. As calcium is only deposited at very negative cathodic potentials, there are several interesting cathodic reactions that can occur and these include the decomposition of the carbonate ion and the ionization of oxygen, sulphur, selenium and tellurium. For example, if an oxide is used as the cathode in molten calcium chloride, the favoured reaction is shown to be the ionization of oxygen O + 2e - → O 2- rather than Ca 2+ + 2 e- → Ca. The oxygen ions dissolve in the salt leaving the metal behind, and this leads to the interesting hypothesis that metal oxides can be reduced directly to the metal purely by the use of electrons. Examples are given for the reduction of titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, chromium oxide and niobium oxide and by mixing oxide powders together and reducing the mixed compact, alloys and intermetallic compounds are formed. Preliminary calculations indicate that this new process should be much cheaper than conventional metallothermic reduction for these elements. (author)

  19. Calcium channel blockers in cardiovascular pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfraind, Theophile

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the pharmacological properties of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), their established therapeutic uses for cardiovascular disorders and the current improvement of their clinical effects through drug combinations. Their identification resulted from study of small molecules including coronary dilators, which were named calcium antagonists. Further experiments showed that they reduced contraction of arteries by inhibiting calcium entry and by interacting with binding sites identified on voltage-dependent calcium channels. This led to the denomination calcium channel blockers. In short-term studies, by decreasing total peripheral resistance, CCBs lower arterial pressure. By unloading the heart and increasing coronary blood flow, CCBs improve myocardial oxygenation. In long-term treatment, the decrease in blood pressure is more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive patients. A controversy on the safety of CCBs ended after a large antihypertensive trial (ALLHAT) sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. There are two main types of CCBs: dihydopyridine and non-dihydropyridine; the first type is vascular selective. Dihydropyrines are indicated for hypertension, chronic, stable and vasospastic angina. Non-dihydropyridines have the same indications plus antiarrythmic effects in atrial fibrillation or flutter and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. In addition, CCBs reduced newly formed coronary lesions in atherosclerosis. In order to reach recommended blood pressure goals, there is a recent therapeutic move by combination of CCBs with other antihypertensive agents particularly with inhibitors acting at the level of the renin-angiotensin system. They are also combined with statins. Prevention of dementia has been reported in hypertensive patients treated with nitrendipine, opening a way for further studies on CCBs' beneficial effect in cognitive deterioration associated with aging. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Salt Hydrates as Porous Material using Calorimetric (DSC) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Fopah Lele, Armand; Korhammer, Kathrin; Wegscheider, Nina; Rammelberg, Holger; Schmidt, Thomas; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The effective thermal conductivity of calcium chloride was measured and its value was increased by two and around three times when impregnating Expanded Vermiculite and Silica Gel with calcium chloride with standard uncertainty ±0.004%. The porous matrix was fabricated by taking Silica Gel / Expanded Vermiculite that had been soaked in a bath of calcium chloride solution with a salt concentration of 40 wt% and then heat-treated at 200 °C. The properties of the porous materials were measured u...

  1. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  2. Anions for Near-Infrared Selective Organic Salt Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Christopher J; Young, Margaret; Suddard-Bangsund, John; Patrick, Tyler; Bates, Matthew; Chen, Pei; Wingate, Brian; Lunt, Sophia Y; Anctil, Annick; Lunt, Richard R

    2017-11-27

    Organic molecular salts are an emerging and highly tunable class of materials for organic and transparent photovoltaics. In this work, we demonstrate novel phenyl borate and carborane-based anions paired with a near-infrared (NIR)-selective heptamethine cation. We further explore the effects of anion structures and functional groups on both device performance and physical properties. Changing the functional groups on the anion significantly alters the open circuit voltage and yields a clear dependence on electron withdrawing groups. Anion exchange is also shown to selectively alter the solubility and film surface energy of the resulting molecular salt, enabling the potential fabrication of solution-deposited cascade or multi-junction devices from orthogonal solvents. This study further expands the catalog and properties of organic salts for inexpensive, and stable NIR-selective molecular salt photovoltaics.

  3. Stability and localization of 14-3-3 proteins are involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tinghong; Cai, Jingqing; Zhan, Erbao; Yang, Yongqing; Zhao, Jinfeng; Guo, Yan; Zhou, Huapeng

    2016-10-01

    Salt stress induces the degradation of 14-3-3 proteins, and affects the localization of 14-3-3 λ. Both the modulation of 14-3-3 protein stability and the subcellular localization of these proteins are involved in salt tolerance in plants. Salt tolerance in plants is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, including the salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway, of which the SOS2 protein is a key component. SOS2 is activated under salt stress to enhance salt tolerance in plants. We previously identified 14-3-3 λ and κ as important regulators of salt tolerance. Both proteins interact with SOS2 to inhibit its kinase activity under normal growth conditions. In response to salt stress, 14-3-3 proteins dissociate from SOS2, releasing its activity and activating the SOS pathway to confer salt tolerance (Zhou et al. Plant Cell 26:1166-1182, 2014). Here we report that salt stress promotes the degradation of 14-3-3 λ and κ, at least in part via the actions of SOS3-like calcium binding protein 8/calcineurin-B-like10, and also decreases the plasma membrane (PM) localization of 14-3-3 λ. Salt stress also partially represses the interaction of SOS2 and 14-3-3 λ at the PM, but activates PM-localized SOS2. Together, these results suggest that, in plants, both the modulation of 14-3-3 stability and the subcellular localization of these proteins in response to salt stress are important for SOS2 activation and salt tolerance. These data provide new insights into the biological roles of 14-3-3 proteins in modulating salt tolerance.

  4. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  5. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  6. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.

    1969-01-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr 2 - (CaBr 2 + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for 48 Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr 2 - CeBr 3 . A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [fr

  7. Spectral identification and quantification of salts in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Claire, M. W.

    2016-10-01

    Salt minerals are an important natural resource. The ability to quickly and remotely identify and quantify salt deposits and salt contaminated soils and sands is therefore a priority goal for the various industries and agencies that utilise salts. The advent of global hyperspectral imagery from instruments such as Hyperion on NASA's Earth-Observing 1 satellite has opened up a new source of data that can potentially be used for just this task. This study aims to assess the ability of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify salt minerals through the use of spectral mixture analysis. The surface and near-surface soils of the Atacama Desert in Chile contain a variety of well-studied salts, which together with low cloud coverage, and high aridity, makes this region an ideal testbed for this technique. Two forms of spectral data ranging 0.35 - 2.5 μm were collected: laboratory spectra acquired using an ASD FieldSpec Pro instrument on samples from four locations in the Atacama desert known to have surface concentrations of sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and perchlorates; and images from the EO-1 satellite's Hyperion instrument taken over the same four locations. Mineral identifications and abundances were confirmed using quantitative XRD of the physical samples. Spectral endmembers were extracted from within the laboratory and Hyperion spectral datasets and together with additional spectral library endmembers fed into a linear mixture model. The resulting identification and abundances from both dataset types were verified against the sample XRD values. Issues of spectral scale, SNR and how different mineral spectra interact are considered, and the utility of VNIR spectroscopy and Hyperion in particular for mapping specific salt concentrations in desert environments is established. Overall, SMA was successful at estimating abundances of sulfate minerals, particularly calcium sulfate, from both hyperspectral image and laboratory sample spectra

  8. Stable transfection of Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J; Henney, H R

    1997-03-01

    The promoter activity of an Acanthamoeba polyubiquitin gene was analyzed in its homologous system. A modified calcium phosphate transfection method using a neomycin marker vector was developed to achieve highly efficient transfection of the Acanthamoeba polyubiquitin gene into Acanthamoeba cells. In this transfection procedure, the calcium phosphate-DNA complex was formed gradually in the medium during incubation with cells and precipitated on the cells. The crucial factors for obtaining efficient transfection were the pH (6.95) of the transfection buffer used for the calcium phosphate precipitation and the amount (25 micrograms/96-well tissue culture plate) and form (circular) of transfecting DNA. Under these conditions, Acanthamoeba isolate 1B6 was transfected at an efficiency of about 40% with the constructed vector pOPSBU, a pOP13CAT-based polyubiquitin gene incorporated neomycin resistance vector. Acanthamoeba polyphaga was transfected at an efficiency of about 10% with this vector. Transfection of both Acanthamoeba strains appeared to result in low copy plasmid integration (about two copies per cell are suggested). The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays showed that the promoter of the Acanthamoeba polyubiquitin gene in the constructed vector was especially strong in A. polyphaga, thus the pOPSBU-Acanthamoeba system may be useful for the construction of cDNA expression libraries, as well as for the expression of cloned genes.

  9. Bone Density and High Salt Diets in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Navidi, M.; Liang, M. T. C.; Wolinsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    High salt diets accelerate bone loss with aging in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis except when calcium supplementation is provided. We have observed that the decrease in mineral content of growing femurs in juvenile rats, exposed to a space flight model which unloads the hind limbs , is substantially less in animals fed excess salt. To determine whether excess dietary salt has the same effect on the skeleton of the mature animal whose response to unloading is increased resorption and bone loss rather than impaired growth, we carried out a metabolic study in mature rats with hindlimbs unloaded by tailsuspension.

  10. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  11. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  12. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  13. Calcium in aardappel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velvis, H.

    2001-01-01

    Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de literatuur m.b.t. het element calcium in aardappel. Daarbij wordt gekeken naar de functie in de plant, de opname en het interne transport, en de gevolgen van tekorten voor de opbrengst en de vatbaarheid voor pathogenen

  14. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling...

  15. Layering mechanism of MDP-Ca salt produced in demineralization of enamel and dentin apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Takehiro

    2017-01-01

    The 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) (EX adhesives)-based one-step self-etch adhesives have become widely utilized due to their simplified application procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the type of the molecular species of calcium salts of MDP (MDP-Ca salts) that form a layered structure and to understand the layering mechanism of MDP-Ca salts. The EX adhesives were prepared by varying the amounts of MDP (25.6, 49.9, 80.5 and 116.1mg) added in 1g of the EX adhesive. Enamel and dentin reactant residues were obtained after the reaction of each EX adhesive to enamel or dentin particles for 30s. The chemical analyses of both reactant residues were then performed. The molecular species of MDP-Ca salts that form a layered structure were determined as mono-calcium salt (MCS-MD) and di-calcium salts of the MDP dimer (DCS-MD). The dentin sample showed two types of characteristic XRD peaks assigned to the layer structure, since the dentin produced DCS-MD along with MCS-MD in contrast to the enamel sample. A mono-calcium salt of the MDP monomer (MCS-MM), a predominant molecular species, was not contributed to a layered-structure formation, since the intensities of characteristic XRD peaks are limited by the production of DCS-MD and MCS-MD. The self-assembled layering of MCS-MD and DCS-MD is associated by a hydrophobic bond between two 10-methylene groups in MCS-MD and DCS-MD. The MCS-MD may form a more tightly-packed layered structure than DCS-MD by the hydrogen bonded interaction between hydroxy groups bonded to each phosphorous atom. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydroxyapatite and Other Calcium Phosphates for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoni, Enrico

    2018-04-04

    The present paper reviews the methods and the performance of in situ formation of calcium phosphates (CaP) for the conservation of materials belonging to cultural heritage. The core idea is to form CaP (ideally hydroxyapatite, HAP, the most stable CaP at pH > 4) by reaction between the substrate and an aqueous solution of a phosphate salt. Initially proposed for the conservation of marble and limestone, the treatment has been explored for a variety of different substrates, including sandstones, sulphated stones, gypsum stuccoes, concrete, wall paintings, archaeological bones and paper. First, the studies aimed at identifying the best treatment conditions (e.g., nature and concentration of the phosphate precursor, solution pH, treatment duration, ionic and organic additions to the phosphate solution, mineralogical composition of the new CaP phases) are summarized. Then, the treatment performance on marble and limestone is reviewed, in terms of protective and consolidating effectiveness, compatibility (aesthetic, microstructural and physical) and durability. Some pilot applications in real case studies are also reported. Recent research aimed at extending the phosphate treatment to other substrates is then illustrated. Finally, the strengths of the phosphate treatment are summarized, in comparison with alternative products, and some aspects needing future research are outlined.

  17. Hydroxyapatite and Other Calcium Phosphates for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sassoni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the methods and the performance of in situ formation of calcium phosphates (CaP for the conservation of materials belonging to cultural heritage. The core idea is to form CaP (ideally hydroxyapatite, HAP, the most stable CaP at pH > 4 by reaction between the substrate and an aqueous solution of a phosphate salt. Initially proposed for the conservation of marble and limestone, the treatment has been explored for a variety of different substrates, including sandstones, sulphated stones, gypsum stuccoes, concrete, wall paintings, archaeological bones and paper. First, the studies aimed at identifying the best treatment conditions (e.g., nature and concentration of the phosphate precursor, solution pH, treatment duration, ionic and organic additions to the phosphate solution, mineralogical composition of the new CaP phases are summarized. Then, the treatment performance on marble and limestone is reviewed, in terms of protective and consolidating effectiveness, compatibility (aesthetic, microstructural and physical and durability. Some pilot applications in real case studies are also reported. Recent research aimed at extending the phosphate treatment to other substrates is then illustrated. Finally, the strengths of the phosphate treatment are summarized, in comparison with alternative products, and some aspects needing future research are outlined.

  18. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  19. Crossing the Salt Barrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fry. RIVER. To cross the salt barrier is, therefore, an obligatory part of every amphihaline fish cycle. Figure 2a. Life Cycle of. Salmon. Adult salmon migrate from sea towards the river. After reaching their hatching ground, the eggs are laid in the gravel. The spawned fishes are called kelts. Alevin is a stage from hatching to fry.

  20. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  1. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Viden om forbrugernes holdning til og købsintention for saltreducerede fødevarer er central, i forhold til industriens udvikling af nye produkter og...... af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt...

  2. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  3. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  4. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  5. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  6. Metals removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  7. Actinide removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  8. Dietary salt and gastric ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, A

    1986-01-01

    Statistically significant linear correlations between geographic variations in salt consumption and mortality from gastric, but not duodenal ulcer, are reported. It is suggested that dietary consumption of salt is a risk factor in mortality from gastric ulcer.

  9. Should we eat less salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, François

    2013-05-01

    High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. There is overwhelming evidence that high salt consumption is a major cause of increased blood pressure. There is also a link between high salt consumption and risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, obesity, renal stones and stomach cancer. Reducing salt consumption leads to a decrease in blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. There are no deleterious effects associated with reducing salt consumption and it is also very cost-effective. Many organizations and state governments have issued recommendations regarding the suitable amount of salt consumption. In France, the objective is a salt consumptionsalt comes from manufactured products in developed countries, reduction of salt consumption requires the participation of the food industry. The other tool is consumer information and education. Salt consumption has already decreased in France in recent years, but efforts must continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  11. Investigation of alkylation and Wittig rearrangement of alkalimetal salts of 9-phenoxyfluorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'yanov, A.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.; Reutov, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The stability of alkai metal (Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + ) salts of 9 phenoxyfluorene to intramolecular transformation in 1.2 dimethoxiethane (DME) is studied, as well as the kinetics of alkylation of these salts by 1-butylbromide. Potassium- and cesium salts are shown to be are stable at 25 deg C. The dissociation constant of a solvate-separated ion par phenoxifluorenylcesium is equal to 4x10 -7 M. The alkylation rate constant free 9-phenoxifluorene carbonione and its cesium salts by 1-butylbromide is 2.9 and 0.057 M -1 xs -1 , respectively

  12. Determination of calcium content in mechanically separated meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, A.; Kureljušić, J.; Nešić, K.; Rokvić, N.; Vićentijević, M.; Radović, M.; Pisinov, B.

    2017-09-01

    One of the most important control parameters for mechanically separated meat (MSM) is the calcium content, which indicates the presence of bone. The aim of this study was to examine the calcium content in three types of locally-produced MSM from differing animal species. Calcium was quantified in the examined samples of MSM, using indirect titration, and three differing napthol indicators (eriochrome black T, hydroxy naphthol blue and hydroxy naphthol blue disodium salt) were used to track the end point of titration. Each of the three different indicators showed a recovery of more than 90% when examining a certified reference material, and so all three could be successfully used to determine the amount of calcium in MSM. The calcium levels in the MSM samples examined were in the range of 0.050 to 0.100%, with that of beef MSM being the highest. Using a previously published binary logistic regression model for classifying meats as MSM, this corresponded to probabilities of between 0.69 and 0.94, confirming that the three types of MSM examined could indeed be properly classified as MSM.

  13. Analysis of local salts using x-ray spectrometric techniques | Umar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local salts namely: Mangul, Kantu and Manda have been analysed using x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence techniques. X-ray diffraction has shown that Mangul and Kantu consist of mainly sodium chloride while Manda consists of mainly calcium potassium silicate. The major elements determined using x-ray ...

  14. In vitro Effects of Three Metallic Salts and Carbon Black (Soot) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal effects of zinc chloride (Zn Cl2) calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) as well as soot collected from a local kitchen were tested on five isolated species of the dermatophytes from cases of human dermatophytoses. Of these three metallic salts, ZnCl2 showed the highest inhibitory effect on the ...

  15. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    which ultimately spreads to the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) producing a fall in VSM intracellular calcium leading to vasodilatation (Amberg et al.,. 2003; Haddy, Vanhoutte and Feletou, 2006) and a fall in blood pressure. The higher heart rate of salt loaded rats compared to control rats (Fig. 3) is suggestive of sympathetic.

  16. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  17. Additional disinfection with a modified salt solution in a root canal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; Oonk, C.A.M.; Nieman, S.H.; Wesselink, P.R.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the disinfecting properties of a modified salt solution (MSS) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in a non-direct-contact ex-vivo model. Methods Seventy-four single-canal roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite

  18. Constellation of arterial hypertension and stable angina pectoris, influence of adipokines and inflammation, the place of amlodipine

    OpenAIRE

    Tashchuk, V.K.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of C-reactive protein and leptin indices in patients with arterial hypertension and stable angina pectoris were studied in thus article in comparison with the effects of calcium antagonists.

  19. The SALT HRS Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Luke Martin Graham

    2012-05-01

    SALT HRS (Southern African Large Telescope High Resolution Échelle Spectrograph) is a high-resolution, high-efficiency spectrograph for the 11m SALT telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. The initial optical design work was performed at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Revisions to the concept, the mechanical design, manufacture, assembly and testing have been handled by the Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, at Durham University in the United Kingdom. SALT HRS is a fibre-fed échelle grating spectrograph with four operational modes: low-, medium- and high-resolution and high-stability modes, having spectral resolutions of R≈16000, 37000, 67000 and 67000 respectively over a wavelength range of 370-890nm. The instrument is of a dual channel, 'white pupil' design, in which the primary mirror acts to collimate light onto a single R4 échelle grating, and also to focus dispersed light to an intermediate focus. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the dispersed light into two separate spectral channels. Spherical pupil mirrors transfer the separated beams via a fold mirror to two wavelength-specific volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) used as cross-dispersers. Cross-dispersed spectra are then imaged by two fully dioptric camera systems onto optimized CCD detectors. This thesis presents the results of the laboratory testing and specification of several critical sub-systems of SALT HRS, as well as the development of key software tools for the design verification and operation at the telescope. In Chapter 1 we first review the technical development of high-resolution spectroscopy and its specific implementation in SALT HRS. In Chapter 2 we develop a comprehensive throughput model of the entire system based on a combination of as-built performance and specific throughput measurements in the laboratory. This is used to make some specific predictions for the on-sky performance of SALT HRS and the magnitude limits for science targets. We also present a

  20. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  1. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... calcium or sodium salts of a fatty acid mixture that is predominately stearic acid. Associated fatty acids, including palmitic acid and minor amounts of lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, margaric, arachidic, and other fatty acids may be contained in the mixture, but such associated fatty acids in aggregate do not exceed...

  2. Ion Association versus Ion Interaction Models in Examining Electrolyte Solutions: Application to Calcium Hydroxide Solubility Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, M. Isabel; Borge, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous equilibrium of the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is used to predict both its solubility product from solubility and solubility values from solubility product when inert salts, in any concentration, are present. Accepting the necessity of including activity coefficients to treat the saturated solution of calcium…

  3. [Features of calcium crystals and calcium components in 54 plant species in salinized habitats of Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Jing; Ci, Hua-Cong; He, Xing-Dong; Xue, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Xue-Lai; Guo, Jian-Tan; Gao, Yu-Bao

    2012-05-01

    Plant calcium (Ca) is composed of dissociated Ca2+ and easily soluble, slightly soluble, and hard soluble combined Ca salts. The hard soluble Ca salts can often engender Ca crystals. To understand the Ca status in different growth form plants in salinized habitats, 54 plant species were sampled from the salinized habitats in Tianjin, with the Ca crystals examined by microscope and the Ca components determined by sequential fractionation procedure. More Ca crystals were found in 38 of the 54 plant species. In 37 of the 38 plant species, drusy and prismatic Ca oxalate crystals dominated, whereas the cystolith of Ca carbonate crystal only appeared in the leaves of Ficus carica of Moraceae. The statistics according to growth form suggested that deciduous arbors and shrubs had more Ca oxalate crystal, liana had lesser Ca oxalate crystal, and herbs and evergreen arbors had no Ca oxalate crystal. From arbor, shrub, liana to herb, the concentration of HCl-soluble Ca decreased gradually, while that of water soluble Ca was in adverse. The concentration of water soluble Ca in herbs was significantly higher than that in arbors and shrubs. This study showed that in salinized habitats, plant Ca crystals and Ca components differed with plant growth form, and the Ca oxalate in deciduous arbors and shrubs played an important role in withstanding salt stress.

  4. Long-term sealing of openings in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Stockmann, N.; Yaramanci, U.; Laurens, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in those potential pathways to prevent radioactive release to the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made of compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built from salt bricks will be ductile. The permeability of the salt bricks is assumed to be in the order of 2*10 -15 m 2 . Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. The permeability of the mortar decreases with its salt content to approx. 2*10 -14 m 2 . Moistened saliferous clay may show temporary swelling. Sealing experiments will be carried out in the Asse salt mine. Long-term seals will be built into holes of 1 m diameter. The contact and merging of the brick-wall with the surrounding rock salt will be investigated in long-term tests. Within the in situ sealing program a number of geophysical methods are applied. Acoustic emission measurements are used to study the effects of high pressure gas injection and a geoelectrical observation program is aiming to estimate the permeability in and around the long-term seal. High frequency electromagnetic methods contribute to the knowledge of the petrophysical rock properties. 11 refs., 12 figs

  5. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta, Verónica; Casadesús, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections. PMID:29043249

  6. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Urdaneta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections.

  7. Arabidopsis AINTEGUMENTA mediates salt tolerance by trans-repressing SCABP8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Bo; Yao, Shun-Qiao; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-08-01

    The Arabidopsis AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) gene, which encodes an APETALA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, controls plant organ cell number and organ size throughout shoot development. ANT is thus a key factor in the development of plant shoots. Here, we have found that ANT plays an essential role in conferring salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. ant-knockout mutants presented a salt-tolerant phenotype, whereas transgenic plants expressing ANT under the 35S promoter (35S:ANT) exhibited more sensitive phenotypes under high salt stress. Further analysis indicated that ANT functions mainly in the shoot response to salt toxicity. Target gene analysis revealed that ANT bound to the promoter of SOS3-LIKE CALCIUM BINDING PROTEIN 8 (SCABP8), which encodes a putative Ca(2+) sensor, thereby inhibiting expression of SCABP8 (also known as CBL10). It has been reported that the salt sensitivity of scabp8 is more prominent in shoot tissues. Genetic experiments indicated that the mutation of SCABP8 suppresses the ant-knockout salt-tolerant phenotype, implying that ANT functions as a negative transcriptional regulator of SCABP8 upon salt stress. Taken together, the above results reveal that ANT is a novel regulator of salt stress and that ANT binds to the SCABP8 promoter, mediating salt tolerance. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Calcium phosphate precipitation in nitrified wastewater from the potato-processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monballiu, A; Ghyselbrecht, K; Crabeels, X; Meesschaert, B

    2018-02-22

    Increasing environmental concerns and the awareness of the finite nature of natural resources make the valorization of waste materials to become a real challenge. The objective of the current research is to investigate the possibility of phosphate recovery as calcium phosphate salts from the wastewater from the potato-processing industry. Batch tests demonstrated that at high pH, struvite and calcium carbonate precipitations are competitive processes and that bicarbonate inhibits the precipitation of calcium phosphate salts. A biological nitrification of the wastewater removed the buffering capacity, the competitive formation of struvite and paved the way for phosphate precipitation as calcium phosphate salts as it also led to the simultaneous removal of (bi)carbonates. It is demonstrated that 75% of the phosphate precipitated as calcium phosphate at a [Ca 2+ ]/[P] ratio of 2.5 at pH 8.5 and as such it provides a convenient alternative for the currently applied struvite processes in the agro-industrial industry.

  9. Calcium phosphate bioceramics prepared from wet chemically precipitated powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Salma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work calcium phosphates were synthesized by modified wet chemical precipitation route. Contrary to the conventional chemical precipitation route calcium hydroxide was homogenized with planetary mill. Milling calcium oxide and water in planetary ball mill as a first step of synthesis provides a highly dispersed calcium hydroxide suspension. The aim of this work was to study the influence of main processing parameters of wet chemical precipitation synthesis product and to control the morphology, phase and functional group composition and, consequently, thermal stability and microstructure of calcium phosphate bioceramics after thermal treatment. The results showed that it is possible to obtain calcium phosphates with different and reproducible phase compositions after thermal processing (hydroxyapatite [HAp], β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP] and HAp/β-TCP by modified wet-chemical precipitation route. The β-TCP phase content in sintered bioceramics samples is found to be highly dependent on the changes in technological parameters and it can be controlled with ending pH, synthesis temperature and thermal treatment. Pure, crystalline and highly thermally stable (up to 1300°C HAp bioceramics with homogenous grainy microstructure, grain size up to 200–250 nm and high open porosity can be successfully obtained by powder synthesized at elevated synthesis temperature of 70°C and stabilizing ending pH at 9.

  10. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  11. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  12. Lead content of calcium supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E A; Szabo, N J; Tebbett, I R

    2000-09-20

    Substantial quantities of lead have been reported in some over-the-counter calcium supplement preparations, including not only bone-meal and dolomite, but also over-the-counter natural and refined calcium carbonate formulations. Examination of this issue is warranted given recent increases in physician recommendations for calcium supplements for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. To determine the lead content of calcium supplements and to quantify the lead exposure from popular brands of calcium in dosages used for childhood recommended daily allowance, osteoporosis, and phosphate binding in dialysis patients. Analysis of lead content in 21 formulations of nonprescription calcium carbonate (including 7 natural [ie, oyster shell] and 14 refined), 1 brand of prescription-only calcium acetate, and 1 noncalcium synthetic phosphate binder conducted in March 2000. Lead content, assayed using electrothermal atomic absorption, expressed as micrograms of lead per 800 mg/d of elemental calcium, per 1500 mg/d of calcium, and for a range of dosages for patients with renal failure. Six microg/d of lead was considered the absolute dietary limit, with no more than 1 microg/d being the goal for supplements. Four of 7 natural products had measurable lead content, amounting to approximately 1 microg/d for 800 mg/d of calcium, between 1 and 2 microg/d for 1500 mg/d of calcium, and up to 10 microg/d for renal dosages. Four of the 14 refined products had similar lead content, including up to 3 microg/d of lead in osteoporosis calcium dosages and up to 20 microg/d in high renal dosages. No lead was detected in the calcium acetate or polymer products. Lead was present even in some brand name products from major pharmaceutical companies not of natural oyster shell derivation. Despite increasingly stringent limits of lead exposure, many calcium supplement formulations contain lead and thereby may pose an easily avoidable public health concern. JAMA. 2000;284:1425-1429.

  13. Calcium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F

    2010-01-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable isotope analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a short summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use

  14. Hypertension: salt restriction, sodium homeostasis, and other ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Jani, Kishan Kumar; Gupta, Nivedita

    2011-03-01

    Salt is composed of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) which in body water becomes essential electrolytes, viz., Sodium (Na⁺) and Chloride (Cl⁻) ions, including in the blood and other extracellular fluids (ECF). Na⁺ ions are necessary cations in muscle contractions and their depletion will effect all the muscles in body including smooth muscle contraction of blood vessels, a fact which is utilized in lowering the blood pressure. Na⁺ ions also hold water with them in the ECF. Na⁺ homeostasis in body is maintained by thirst (water intake), kidneys (urinary excretion) and skin (sweating). In Na⁺ withdrawal, body tries to maintain homeostasis as far as possible. However, in certain conditions (e.g., during exercise, intake of drugs and in disorders causing Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti Diuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH), diuretics, diarrhea) coupled with moderate or severe dietary salt restriction (anorexia nervosa), hyponatremia can get precipitated. Hyponatremia is one end point in the spectrum of disorders caused by severe Na⁺ depletion whereas in moderate depletion it can cause hypohydration (or less total body water) and lower urinary volume (U v ). Moreover, salt sensitivity varies in various populations leading to different responses in relation to dietary Na⁺ intake. Diabetes and Hypertension often co-exist but Na⁺ withdrawal in salt sensitive subjects worsens diabetes though hypertension gets better and reverse occurs in salt loading. Therefore, Na⁺ or salt restriction may be non-physiological. In hypertensive subjects other alternatives to Na⁺ withdrawal could be Potassium (K⁺) and Calcium (Ca⁺²) supplementation. Further studies are required to monitor safety/side effects of salt restriction.

  15. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, He; Li, Yaogang; Duan, Yourong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average s...

  16. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  17. Calcium, essential for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  18. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy; Averill, W.A. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  19. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  20. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  1. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  3. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  4. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  5. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CALCIUM DEFICIT IN PEDIATRICS AND WAYS TO CORRECT IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Gromova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium takes an active part in provision and development of the motion function (tractions, transmission of the neural impulse, muscle reactions to the neural excitement, change of the hormone activity, realizing together with adenylate cyclase. But no less important is the calcium role in participation of the supporting tissue buildup, organization of the integral child's skeletal system, in which there is 99% of the body calcium. This is a sort of depot, in which the element is in the dynamic equilibrium with its level in blood. The skeletal system acts as a buffer to support the stable level of the calcium circulation in the course of the entire life cycle. The calcium deficit among children should fully be treated, frequently conducting therapy of the accompanied pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and intestinal dysbiosis. We should exclude the hereditary pathology of the calcium exchange. For the usual growth of the human body and prevention of the senile osteoporosis, the necessary amount of calcium consumption should be provided from the very childhood of a person. For the prevention and treatment of the calcium deficit among children, we use specific calcium medications together with phosphorus, magnesium, microelements and vitamins tested in clinical practice and approved by the union of pediatricians of Russia.Key words: calcium, deficit of major mineral elements, treatment, prevention, children.

  7. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Determination of thermodynamic parameters for complexation of calcium and magnesium with chondroitin sulfate isomers using isothermal titration calorimetry: Implications for calcium kidney-stone research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Jackson, Graham E.

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) occurs in human urine. It has several potential binding sites for calcium and as such may play an inhibitory role in calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (kidney stone disease by reducing the supersaturation (SS) and crystallization of these salts. Urinary magnesium is also a role player in determining speciation in stone forming processes. This study was undertaken to determine the thermodynamic parameters for binding of the disaccharide unit of two different CS isomers with calcium and magnesium. These included the binding constant K. Experiments were performed using an isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) at 3 different pH levels in the physiological range in human urine. Data showed that interactions between the CS isomers and calcium and magnesium occur via one binding site, thought to be sulfate, and that log K values are 1.17-1.93 and 1.77-1.80 for these two metals respectively. Binding was significantly stronger in Mg-CS than in Ca-CS complexes and was found to be dependent on pH in the latter but not in the former. Furthermore, binding in Ca-CS complexes was dependent on the location of the sulfate binding site. This was not the case in the Mg-CS complexes. Interactions were shown to be entropy driven and enthalpy unfavourable. These findings can be used in computational modeling studies to predict the effects of the calcium and magnesium CS complexes on the speciation of calcium and the SS of calcium salts in real urine samples.

  9. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  10. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  11. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  12. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus-hemolysin A on calcium signalling in immortalized human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstaedt, Stefanie; Gäbler, Karoline; Below, Sabine; Müller, Christian; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Hildebrandt, Petra; Völker, Uwe; Hecker, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Part of the innate defence of bronchial epithelia against bacterial colonization is secretion of salt and water which generally depends on coordinated actions of receptor-mediated cAMP- and calcium signalling. The hypothesis that Staphylococcus aureus-virulence factors interfere with endogenous signals in host cells was tested by measuring agonist-mediated changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in S9 cells upon pre-incubation with bacterial secretory products. S9 cells responded to mAChR-activation with calcium release from intracellular stores and capacitative calcium influx. Treatment of cells with culture supernatants of S. aureus (COL) or with recombinant alpha-hemolysin (Hla) resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in [Ca(2+)](i). High concentrations of Hla (2000 ng/ml) resulted in elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by accelerated calcium influx. A general Hla-mediated permeabilization of S9 cell membranes to small molecules, however, did not occur. Lower concentrations of Hla (200 ng/ml) induced a reduction in [Ca(2+)](i)-levels during the sustained plateau phase of receptor-mediated calcium signalling which was abolished by pre-incubation of cells with carboxyeosin, an inhibitor of the plasma membrane calcium-ATPase. This indicates that low concentrations of Hla change calcium signalling by accelerating pump-driven extrusion of Ca(2+) ions. In vivo, such a mechanism may result in attenuation of calcium-mediated cellular defence functions and facilitation of bacterial adherence to the bronchial epithelium.

  13. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  14. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  15. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  16. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  17. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  18. Immobilization of LiCl-Li 2 O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, salt occlusion and hydrothermal processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reaction with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream following pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and aide in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an acid digestion vessel with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  19. Immobilization of LiCl-Li2O pyroprocessing salt wastes in chlorosodalite using glass-bonded hydrothermal and salt-occlusion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Brian J.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Kroll, Jared O.; Frank, Steven M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, hydrothermal and salt-occlusion processes were used to make chlorosodalite through reactions with a high-LiCl salt simulating a waste stream generated from pyrochemical treatment of oxide-based used nuclear fuel. Some products were reacted with glass binders to increase chlorosodalite yield through alkali ion exchange and to aid in densification. Hydrothermal processes included reaction of the salt simulant in an autoclave with either zeolite 4A or sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. Chlorosodalite yields in the crystalline products were nearly complete in the glass-bonded materials at values of 100 mass% for the salt-occlusion method, up to 99.0 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with zeolite 4A, and up to 96 mass% for the hydrothermal synthesis with sodium aluminate and colloidal silica. These results show promise for using chemically stable chlorosodalite to immobilize oxide reduction salt wastes.

  20. Wetland Loss Patterns and Inundation-Productivity Relationships Prognosticate Widespread Salt Marsh Loss for Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidal salt marsh is a key defense against, yet is especially vulnerable to, the effects of accelerated sea level rise. To determine whether salt marshes in southern New England will be stable given increasing inundation over the coming decades, we examined current loss patterns, ...

  1. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  2. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...

  3. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  4. Design of in situ dispersible and calcium cross-linked alginate pellets as intestinal-specific drug carrier by melt pelletization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulaini, Harjoh; Wong, Tin Wui

    2011-06-01

    Conventional alginate pellets underwent rapid drug dissolution and loss of multiparticulate characteristics such as aggregation in acidic medium, thereby promoting oral dose dumping. This study aimed to design sustained-release dispersible alginate pellets through rapid in situ matrix dispersion and cross-linking by calcium salts during dissolution. Pellets made of alginate and calcium salts were prepared using a solvent-free melt pelletization technique that prevented reaction between processing materials during agglomeration and allowed such a reaction to occur only in dissolution phase. Drug release was remarkably retarded in acidic medium when pellets were formulated with water-soluble calcium acetate instead of acid-soluble calcium carbonate. Different from calcium salt-free and calcium carbonate-loaded matrices that aggregated or underwent gradual erosion, rapid in situ solvation of calcium acetate in pellets during dissolution resulted in burst of gas bubbles, fast pellet breakup, and dispersion. The dispersed fragments, though exhibiting a larger specific surface area for drug dissolution than intact matrix, were rapidly cross-linked by Ca(2+) from calcium acetate and had drug release retarded till a change in medium pH from 1.2 to 6.8. Being dispersible and pH-dependent in drug dissolution, these pellets are useful as multiparticulate intestinal-specific drug carrier without exhibiting dose dumping tendency of a "single-unit-like" system via pellet aggregation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Using Aspen simulation package to determine solubility of mixed salts in TRU waste evaporator bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Nitric acid from plutonium process waste is a candidate for waste minimization by recycling. Process simulation software packages, such as Aspen, are valuable tools to estimate how effective recovery processes can be, however, constants in equations of state for many ionic components are not in their data libraries. One option is to combine single salt solubility`s in the Aspen model for mixed salt system. Single salt solubilities were regressed in Aspen within 0.82 weight percent of literature values. These were combined into a single Aspen model and used in the mixed salt studies. A simulated nitric acid waste containing mixed aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium and sodium nitrate was tested to determine points of solubility between 25 and 100 C. Only four of the modeled experimental conditions, at 50 C and 75 C, produced a saturated solution. While experimental results indicate that sodium nitrate is the first salt to crystallize out, the Aspen computer model shows that the most insoluble salt, magnesium nitrate, the first salt to crystallize. Possible double salt formation is actually taking place under experimental conditions, which is not captured by the Aspen model.

  6. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  7. Salt fluoridation and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthaler, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  8. Salt, caprock, and sheath study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karably, L.S. Jr.; Jernigan, B.L.; Petre, I.C.; Sullivan, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Salt domes of the Gulf Coast region of the United States consist of four component parts: 1) a salt stock, 2) caprock material, 3) sheath material, and 4) the surrounding upturned sediments. Salt stock consists of remarkably pure halite (NaCl), which represents 90 to 99% of the total mass, with the major impurity being anhydrite. Salt stocks are markedly homogeneous and continuous with respect to composition, texture and structure. Caprock consists primarily of anhydrite, gypsum and calcite which commonly occur in monomineralic zones oriented roughly parallel to the top of the salt stock. Caprock composition varies markedly over any single salt stock as well as from one salt stock to another. Fracturing, porosity and permeability of caprock material are correspondingly variable, but are usually developed tto a higher degree in the upper portions of caprock; porosity and permeability may also be relatively high at the caprock-salt interface. Caprock is generally believed to form by residual accumulation of anhydrite from the dissolution of salt, with subsequent alteration of the anhydrite to calcite and gypsum. Sheath material, probably a mixture of sedimentary rocks (clastic and evaporite), formed as a result of mechanical interaction between the salt stock and surrounding sediments during diapirism. Sheath material is thought to be distributed throughout an external zone, consisting mainly of disturbed sediment, and an internal zone, consisting mainly of disturbed salt. Sheath material forms along a roughly cylindrical shear zone which encloses thesalt stock. Sheath material may be overpressured and is generally thought to be impermeable. Upturned sediments around the salt diapirs are the result of dome genesis; hovever, these sedimentary beds and other structures are beyond the scope of this report

  9. Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, F; Blumenthal, N C; Posner, A S; Becker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1975-06-01

    The radial distribution function calculated from x-ray diffraction of mineralized cytoplasmic structures isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is very similar to that previously found for synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. Both types of mineral apparently have only short-range atomic order, represented as a neutral ion cluster of about 10 A in longest dimension, whose probable composition is expressed by the formula Ca9(PO4)6. The minor differences observed are attributed to the presence in the biological mineral of significant amounts of Mg-2+ and ATP. Synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate in contact with a solution containing an amount of ATP equivalent to that of the biological mineral failed to undergo conversion to the thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite. The amorphous calcium phosphate of the cytoplasmic mineral granules is similarly stable, and does not undergo conversion to hydroxyapatite, presumably owing to the presence of ATP and Mg-2+, known in inhibitors of the conversion process. The physiological implications of mineral deposits consisting of stabilized calcium phosphate ion clusters are discussed.

  10. Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Latge, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na 2 O into stable Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 . The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

  11. Electrorefining of Cerium in LiCl-KCl Molten Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Kelly, R.P.; Paget, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrorefining of cerium from cerium-gallium alloys has been demonstrated in lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts at temperatures below 500 deg. C, with excellent current efficiencies and high product yields. These experiments are being carried out as non-active trials for a process for the purification of impure actinide metals. The results reported show anodic current efficiencies consistently close to 100%, and in several experiments complete oxidation of the cerium in the feed occurred. The cathodic product is hard and metallic, and incorporates a significant amount of salt into its structure. The product can be consolidated into a dense, pure metal by melting under calcium chloride at 850 deg. C. The yield of this consolidation step varies between 16 and 75%, seeming to depend on the total mass of metal being consolidated and the quality of inert atmosphere. A small-scale electrochemical cell has been demonstrated which will be used in initial active experiments. (authors)

  12. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  13. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  14. Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  15. Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism by high calcium diet is associated with enhanced resistance artery relaxation in experimental renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolma, Pasi; Kööbi, Peeter; Kalliovalkama, Jarkko; Saha, Heikki; Fan, Meng; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Moilanen, Eeva; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2003-12-01

    Vasorelaxation is impaired in renal failure (RF) and hypertension. A high calcium diet enhances vasodilatation and reduces blood pressure in experimental hypertension. Oral calcium salts are used as phosphate binders in RF. However, the effect of increased calcium intake on arterial tone in RF is unknown. We investigated the influence of an 8-week high calcium diet (0.3 vs 3.0%) on resistance artery tone in 5/6 nephrectomized (NTX) rats. Calcium was supplemented as carbonate salt, blood pressure measured by tail-cuff, urine collected in metabolic cages, and samples taken for blood chemistry and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Functional studies of isolated third-order branches of the mesenteric artery in vitro were performed using the Mulvany multimyograph. Plasma urea was elevated 1.6-fold and systolic blood pressure by 10 mmHg after NTX, while increased calcium intake was without effect on these variables. Plasma PTH and phosphate were raised following NTX, and suppressed by high calcium diet. Vasorelaxations induced by K(+) channel agonists 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and levcromakalim were impaired after NTX. Vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine was also reduced following NTX, and experiments with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, diclofenac and charybdotoxin + apamin suggested that the K(+) channel-mediated component of endothelium-dependent relaxation was deficient after NTX. Increased calcium intake corrected all impairments of vasodilatation in NTX rats. Deficient vasorelaxation via K(+) channels was normalized by high calcium diet in experimental RF. This effect was independent of the degree of renal impairment and blood pressure, but was associated with improved calcium metabolism: plasma levels of PTH and phosphate were decreased and ionized calcium was increased.

  16. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  17. Application of Microfluidic Techniques to Pyrochemical Salt Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Launiere, C.; Smith, N.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic techniques enable production of micro-samples of molten salt for analysis by at-line and off-line sensors and detectors. These sampling systems are intended for implementation in an electrochemical used fuel treatment facility as part of the material balance and control system. Microfluidics may reduce random statistical error associated with sampling inhomogeneity because a large number of uniform sub-microlitre droplets may be generated and successively analyzed. The approach combines two immiscible fluids in a microchannel under laminar flow conditions to generate slug flows. Because the slug flow regime is characterized by regularly sized and spaced droplets, it is commonly used in low-volume/high-throughput assays of aqueous and organic phases. This scheme is now being applied to high-temperature molten salts in combination with a second fluid that is stable at elevated temperatures. The microchip systems are being tested to determine the channel geometries and absolute and relative phase flow rates required to achieve stable slug flow. Because imaging is difficult at the 5000 C process temperatures the fluorescence of salt ions under ultraviolet illumination is used to discern flow regimes. As molten chloride melts are optically transparent, UV-visible light spectroscopy is also being explored as a spectroscopic technique for integration with at-line microchannel systems to overcome some of the current challenges to in situ analysis. A second technique that is amenable to droplet analysis is Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). A pneumatic droplet generator is being interfaced with a LIBS system for analysis of molten salts at near-process temperatures. Tests of the pneumatic generator are being run using water and molten salts, and in tandem with off-line analysis of the salt droplets with a LIBS spectrometer. (author)

  18. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holschbach, M.; Roden, W.; Hamkens, W. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin)

    1991-04-01

    A useful synthetic approach to carbon-11 labelled 1,4-dihydropyridines is described. Carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists {sup 11}C-Nifedipine, {sup 11}C-Nisoldipine, {sup 11}C-nitrendipine and {sup 11}C-CF{sub 3}-Nifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch method using protected carboxy functions. Deprotection of the carboxylic acids by alkaline hydrolysis followed by conversion into the corresponding potassium salts and subsequent methylation with {sup 11}CH{sub 3}I produced the labelled compounds in very good chemical and radiochemical yields (94%). (author).

  19. Meals and dephytinization affect calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Aliu, Oluseyi; Griffin, Ian J; Pam, Sunday D; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Imade, Godwin E; Abrams, Steven A

    2009-05-01

    Nutritional rickets resulting from calcium insufficiency is common in Nigeria and high dietary phytate is thought to inhibit calcium and zinc absorption. We compared the effects of a high-phytate meal and enzymatic dephytinization on calcium and zinc absorption in Nigerian children with and without rickets. Nineteen children with rickets and 15 age-matched control children, aged 2-10 y, were given calcium (600 mg/d) and ergocalciferol (1250 microg/wk). After 6 wk, calcium and zinc absorption were measured in both groups with and without maize porridge using stable isotopes. One week later, absorption measurements were repeated to assess the effects of enzymatic dephytinization and fermentation of the maize porridge. The phytate concentration of maize porridge (3.87 +/- 0.38 g/kg wet weight) was reduced by enzymatic dephytinization (2.83 +/- 0.41 g/kg; P rickets or by fermentation of maize porridge. Calcium absorption was greater with a meal (61.3 +/- 25.1%) than without (27.8 +/- 14.6%; P Rickets was not associated with impaired calcium or zinc absorption. Calcium absorption was enhanced by maize porridge, but zinc absorption was reduced. Enzymatic dephytinization increased zinc absorption. Multiple strategies may be required to optimize calcium and zinc absorption in deficient populations.

  20. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1960s, much interest was raised in regard to biomedical applications of various ceramic materials. A little bit later, such materials were named bioceramics. This review is limited to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates only, which belong to the categories of bioactive and bioresorbable compounds. There have been a number of important advances in this field during the past 30–40 years. Namely, by structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether calcium orthophosphate bioceramics were biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether they were resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics—which is able to promote regeneration of bones—was developed. Presently, calcium orthophosphate bioceramics are available in the form of particulates, blocks, cements, coatings, customized designs for specific applications and as injectable composites in a polymer carrier. Current biomedical applications include artificial replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Exploratory studies demonstrate potential applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics as scaffolds, drug delivery systems, as well as carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  1. Transient myocardial ischemia after abrupt withdrawal of antianginal therapy in chronic stable angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1988-01-01

    In 47 patients with chronic stable angina and proven coronary artery disease, abrupt withdrawal of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents either as monotherapy or in combination with calcium antagonists (group 1, n = 25) was compared with abrupt withdrawal of calcium antagonist monotherapy (group 2, n...... less than 0.05). These results indicate that a rebound increase in ischemic activity (mainly silent) occurs after abrupt withdrawal of beta-receptor blockade in patients with chronic stable angina. This increase in ischemic activity may be caused by increased myocardial oxygen demand....

  2. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  3. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  4. Influence of de-icing salt chemistry on the corrosion behavior of AA6016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoukens, Ine; Cavezza, Francesca; Cerezo, Jose

    2017-01-01

    . This represents an important challenge for the automotive industry as the corrosion behavior of automotive parts is intricately linked to the chemistry of the road environment. Furthermore, the use of aluminium alloys in the automotive industry increases due to a constant search for weight reduction. Till now......, most of the corrosion studies on aluminium alloys in chloride based solutions have only been focused on sodium chloride. In this study, the effect of different chloride based salts on the corrosion of AA6016 was investigated. For that purpose, potentiodynamic polarization measurements were combined...... with surface analysis by SEM-EDS and depth profiling using GDOES. Salts based on sodium and calcium showed similar effects on the corrosion behavior of AA6016 while the magnesium based salt reduced the corrosion rate. Mixture of sodium and magnesium based salts increased the corrosive attack....

  5. Calcium chromate process related investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    A pilot plant for production of calcium chromate has been scaled up to a small production facility at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department. In preparation for this scale-up, the process and final product were studied in order to evaluate problems not considered previously. The variables and processes studied included: (1) the determination of optimum drying temperature and time for product analysis; (2) the effect of the grade of lime used as the precipitating agent on the purity of the calcium chromate; (3) product purity when calcium chromate is precipitated by the addition of ammonium chromate to slaked lime; (4) the reagents best suited for cleaning calcium chromate spills; and (5) methods for determining hydroxide ion concentration in calcium chromate. The optimum drying time for the product before analysis is four hours at 600 0 C. Gases evolved at various temperatures during the drying process were carbon dioxide and water vapor. Technical grade lime produced calcium chromate of the highest purity. Both nitric and acetic acids were efficient dissolvers of calcium chromate spills. Direct titration of hydroxide ion with sulfuric acid gave an average recovery of 93% for samples spiked with calcium hydroxide. 1 figure, 17 tables

  6. Calcium kinetics in parathyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymling, J.F.

    1964-01-01

    This paper reports a study of calcium kinetics in twelve cases of parathyroid disease. The data suggest that hyperparathyroidism usually causes increased bone turnover. The study of calcium kinetics may be a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and in evaluating treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The bone turnover in one case of hypoparathyroidism was extremely low. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears that during the origin and early evolution of life the Ca2+ ion was given a ... tion and development of tissues (bone and calcareous skeleton) (Ringer and Sainsbury 1894), conduction of nerve impulse to muscle, cell ...

  8. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal bone ...

  9. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing features ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are given ...

  10. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Ramana G. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2013-10-23

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the

  11. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  12. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  13. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  14. Controlled adsorption and release onto calcium phosphates materials and drug delivery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroug A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The adsorptive properties of synthetic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral were examined with respect to cisplatin and risedronate, two biological active drugs; the uptake and release experiments were carried out under various conditions in order to understand the basic mechanism of interaction. The effect of temperature and solution composition were highlighted and discussed. The adsorption results obtained for the therapeutic agents demonstrated that, depending on the conditions investigated (nature of the sorbent, concentration range, ionic composition, temperature…, the shape of the isotherms is of Freundlich or Langmuir type. The adsorption is described as an ion-exchange process in dilute solutions, while the interaction appears to be reactive for concentrated solutions (dissolution of mineral ions from the apatite substrate and formation of soluble calcium complex and/or precipitation of calcium salts involving sorbate molecules. The information gained on the surface reactivity of calcium phosphate were exploited to associate an antibiotic to calcium phosphate cements for drug delivery applications. The specimens were obtained by combination of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate powders upon mixing with water. The physicochemical properties of the paste were altered by the drug loading method (in the liquid or solid phase. Thus, a dose-dependent effect was noticed for the paste setting time, hardening and the release process.

  15. Salt-Assisted Ultrasonic Deaggregation of Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcheniuk, K; Trecazzi, C; Deeleepojananan, C; Mochalin, V N

    2016-09-28

    We report a new facile, inexpensive, and contaminant-free technique of salt-assisted ultrasonic deaggregation (SAUD) of nanodiamond into single-digit particles stable in aqueous colloidal solution in a wide pH range. The technique utilizes the energy of ultrasound to break apart nanodiamond aggregates in sodium chloride aqueous slurry. In contrast to current deaggregation techniques, which introduce zirconia contaminants into nanodiamond, the single-digit nanodiamond colloids produced by SAUD have no toxic or difficult-to-remove impurities and are therefore well-suited to produce nanodiamonds for numerous applications, including theranostics, composites, and lubrication, etc. Requiring only aqueous slurry of sodium chloride and standard horn sonicator, and yielding highly pure well-dispersed nanodiamond colloids, the technique is an attractive alternative to current nanodiamond deaggregation protocols and can be easily implemented in any laboratory or scaled up for industrial use.

  16. Chitin receptor CERK1 links salt stress and chitin-triggered innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Catherine; Liang, Yan; Stacey, Gary

    2017-03-01

    In nature, plants need to respond to multiple environmental stresses that require the involvement and fine-tuning of different stress signaling pathways. Cross-tolerance, in which plants pre-treated with chitin (a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern) have improved salt tolerance, was observed in Arabidopsis, but is not well understood. Here, we show a unique link between chitin and salt signaling mediated by the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1). Transcriptome analysis revealed that salt stress-induced genes are highly correlated with chitin-induced genes, although this was not observed with other microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or with other abiotic stresses. The cerk1 mutant was more susceptible to NaCl than was the wild type. cerk1 plants had an irregular increase of cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ) after NaCl treatment. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that CERK1 physically interacts with ANNEXIN 1 (ANN1), which was reported to form a calcium-permeable channel that contributes to the NaCl-induced [Ca 2+ ] cyt signal. In turn, ann1 mutants showed elevated chitin-induced rapid responses. In short, molecular components previously shown to function in chitin or salt signaling physically interact and intimately link the downstream responses to fungal attack and salt stress. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  18. Salt, Aldosterone, and Parathyroid Hormone: What Is the Relevance for Organ Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Catena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured interventions on lifestyle have been suggested as a cost-effective strategy for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that dietary salt restriction effectively decreases blood pressure, but its influence on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still under debate. Evidence gathered from studies conducted in patients with primary aldosteronism, essential hypertension, or heart failure demonstrates that long-term exposure to elevated aldosterone results in cardiac structural and functional changes that are independent of blood pressure. Animal experiments and initial clinical studies indicate that aldosterone damages the heart only in the context of an inappropriately elevated salt status. Recent evidence suggests that aldosterone might functionally interact with the parathyroid hormone and thereby affect calcium homeostasis with important sequelae for bone mineral density and strength. The interaction between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone might have implications also for the heart. Elevated dietary salt is associated on the one hand with increased urinary calcium excretion and, on the other hand, could facilitate the interaction between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone at the cellular level. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the contribution of salt and aldosterone to cardiovascular disease and the possible cardiac and skeletal consequences of the mutual interplay between aldosterone, parathyroid hormone, and salt.

  19. Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karisen, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components (1) The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580 degrees C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms, such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, developed by Rockwell International, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900-1000 degrees C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700 degrees C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary

  20. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted......, a cathode and an anode, that were placed on a masonry wall of an old stable. The masonry had a high concentration of nitrates and problems with hygroscopic moisture. The electrodes consisted of reinforcement steel in carbonate-rich clay. The clay was chosen mainly to improve electric contact between metal...... the highest initial concentrations in the masonry. The second pilot-test with a new set of electrodes is running at present. Current have been applied to these electrodes for 35 days in very cold weather (most of the time below 0ºC) which shows that the method can be used during periods with frost....

  1. Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karlsen, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components. The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580 degree C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms. such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900--1000 degree C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700 degree C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary

  2. Biorelevant characterisation of amorphous furosemide salt exhibits conversion to a furosemide hydrate during dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Gordon, Sarah; Pajander, Jari Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Biorelevant dissolution behaviour of the amorphous sodium salt and amorphous acid forms of furosemide was evaluated, together with investigations of the solid state changes during in vitro dissolution in medium simulating the conditions in the small intestine. UV imaging of the two amorphous forms......, as well as of crystalline furosemide salt and acid showed a higher rate of dissolution of the salt forms in comparison with the two acid forms. The measured dissolution rates of the four furosemide forms from the UV imaging system and from eluted effluent samples were consistent with dissolution rates...... showed a conversion of the amorphous furosemide salt to a more stable polymorph. It was found by thermogravimetric analysis and hot stage microscopy that the salt forms of furosemide converted to a trihydrate during dissolution. It can be concluded that during biorelevant dissolution, the amorphous...

  3. A salt-inducible chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase from halophyte Avicennia marina confers salt stress tolerance on transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Kumaresan; George, Suja; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2010-10-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Avicennia marina, a halophytic mangrove, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in salt stress tolerance. A large scale random EST sequencing from a salt stressed leaf tissue cDNA library of one month old A. marina plants resulted in identification of a clone showing maximum homology to Monodehydroascorbate reductase (Am-MDAR). MDAR plays a key role in regeneration of ascorbate from monodehydroascorbate for ROS scavenging. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco of this salt inducible Am-MDAR. A transit peptide at the N-terminal region of Am-MDAR suggested that it encodes a chloroplastic isoform. The chloroplastic localization was confirmed by stable transformation and expression of the Am-MDAR-GFP fusion protein in tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Am-MDAR survived better under conditions of salt stress compared to untransformed control plants. Assays of enzymes involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycle revealed an enhanced activity of MDAR and ascorbate peroxidase whereas the activity of dehyroascorbate reductase was reduced under salt stressed and unstressed conditions in Am-MDAR transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed an enhanced redox state of ascorbate and reduced levels of malondialdehyde indicating its enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for genetic engineering of economically important plants tolerant to salt stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of porous calcium phosphate; Sintesis y caracterizacion del fosfato de calcio poroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.; Bonifacio M, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The porous calcium phosphate was prepared by the continuous precipitation method using Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} salts. The synthesized material was structurally and superficially characterized using the XRD, BET, IR TGA and SEM techniques. The obtained inorganic material was identified as calcium phosphate that presents a great specific area for what can be efficiently used as adsorbent material for adsorption studies in the radioactive wastes treatment present in aqueous solution. (Author)

  5. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  6. Salt-sensitive hypertension: mechanisms and effects of dietary and other lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilic, Leta; Pedlar, Charles R; Mavrommatis, Yiannis

    2016-10-01

    Salt sensitivity, which is an increase in blood pressure in response to high dietary salt intake, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. It is associated with physiological, environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. This review focuses on the physiological mechanisms of salt sensitivity in populations at particular risk, along with the associated dietary factors. The interplay of mechanisms such as the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, ion transport, and estrogen decrease in women contributes to development of salt sensitivity. Because of their effects on these mechanisms, higher dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins, and proteins rich in L-arginine, as well as adherence to dietary patterns similar to the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, can be beneficial to salt-sensitive populations. In contrast, diets similar to the typical Western diet, which is rich in saturated fats, sucrose, and fructose, together with excessive alcohol consumption, may exacerbate salt-sensitive changes in blood pressure. Identifying potential mechanisms of salt sensitivity in susceptible populations and linking them to protective or harmful dietary and lifestyle factors can lead to more specific guidelines for the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparison of the adjuvant activity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response towards Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Hidekel; Herrera, María; Rojas, Leonardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Leiguez, Elbio; Teixeira, Catarina; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo; Montero, Mavis L

    2014-01-01

    The adjuvanticity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response in mice towards the venom of the snake Bothrops asper was studied. It was found that, in vitro, most of the venom proteins are similarly adsorbed by both mineral salts, with the exception of some basic phospholipases A2, which are better adsorbed by calcium phosphate. After injection, the adjuvants promoted a slow release of the venom, as judged by the lack of acute toxicity when lethal doses of venom were administered to mice. Leukocyte recruitment induced by the venom was enhanced when it was adsorbed on both mineral salts; however, venom adsorbed on calcium phosphate induced a higher antibody response towards all tested HPLC fractions of the venom. On the other hand, co-precipitation of venom with calcium phosphate was the best strategy for increasing: (1) the capacity of the salt to couple venom proteins in vitro; (2) the venom ability to induce leukocyte recruitment; (3) phagocytosis by macrophages; and (4) a host antibody response. These findings suggest that the chemical nature is not the only one determining factor of the adjuvant activity of mineral salts.

  8. Treatment of waste salt from the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (II) : optimum immobilization condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2004-01-01

    Since zeolite is known to be stable at a high temperature, it has been reported as a promising immobilization matrix for waste salt. The crystal structure of dehydrated zeolite A breaks down above 1060 K, resulting in the formation of an amorphous solid and re-crystallization to beta-Cristobalite. This structural degradation depends on the existence of chlorides. When contacted to HCl, zeolite 4A is not stable even at 473 K. The optimum consolidation condition for LiCl salt waste from the oxide fuel reduction process based on the electrochemical method (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) has been studied using zeolite A since 2001. Actually the constituents of waste salt are water-soluble. And, alkali halides are known to be readily radiolyzed to yield interstitial halogens and metal colloids. For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salt must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are leach resistance and waste form durability. In this work, we prepared some samples with different mixing ratios of LiCl salt to zeolite A, and then compared some characteristics such as thermal stability, salt occlusion, free chloride content, leach resistance, mixing effect, etc

  9. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  11. Influence of dietary calcium on bone calcium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, M.; Roland, D.A. Sr.; Clark, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 microCi 45 Ca/day were administered to 125 hens for 10 days. Hens were then allocated to five treatments with calcium levels ranging from .08 to 3.75% of the diet. In Experiment 2, hens with morning oviposition times were randomly allocated to 11 treatments that were periods of time postoviposition ranging from 6 hr to 24 hr, in 2-hr increments (Experiment 2). At the end of each 2-hr period, eggs from 25 hens were removed from the uterus. The 18-, 20-, and 22-hr treatments were replicated three times. In Experiment 3, hens were fed either ad libitum or feed was withheld the last 5 or 6 hr before oviposition. In Experiment 4, hens were fed 10 microCi of 45 Ca for 15 days to label skeletal calcium. Hens were divided into two groups and fed a .08 or 3.75% calcium diet for 2 days. On the second day, 25 hens fed the 3.75% calcium diet were intubated with 7 g of the same diet containing .5 g calcium at 1700, 2100, 0100, 0500, and 0700 hr. The measurements used were egg weight, shell weight, and 45 Ca content of the egg shell. Results indicated a significant linear or quadratic regression of dietary calcium levels on 45 Ca accumulation in eggshells and eggshell weight (Experiment 1). As the calcium level of the diet increased, eggshell weight increased and 45 Ca recovery decreased. Utilization of skeletal calcium for shell formation ranged from 28 to 96%. In Experiment 2, the rate of shell calcification was not constant throughout the calcification process but varied significantly

  12. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  13. Increasing Base Cations in Streams: Another Legacy of Deicing Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, A. M.; Barclay, J. R.; Bellucci, C.; Rittenhouse, C.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated use of deicing salts directly increases sodium chloride inputs to watersheds. Sodium can accumulate in soils over time and has the potential to leach other cations (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) from the soil through cation exchange. We hypothesize that increased use of deicing salts results in a legacy of soils depleted in non-sodium base cations with loss of cations to receiving waters. The goal of this project is to quantify temporal trends in base cations and chloride in streams and rivers across the United States. We used Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) to analyze trends in base cations. Our preliminary analysis of 10 rivers in Connecticut with chemical periods of record ranging from 24 - 64 years (median = 55 years), shows that the flux of base cations is increasing in all sites (25 - 366 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), driven largely by increases in sodium (23 - 222 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), the dominant cation in 7 of the sites. Chloride is also increasing at all sites (26 - 261 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), which, in combination with salt use trends, suggests a road salt source for the increased sodium. Non-sodium cations are also increasing in 9 of the sites (8 - 54 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), though they are not directly added with most deicing salts. We will compare these trends to other long-term sites across the United States, and quantify relationships between cation trends and land cover, road density, and snowfall.

  14. Interactions between high salt intake and the musculoskeletal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to muscle and bone loss. However, high dietary salt (NaCl) intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss. We have recently shown that a very high salt intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a low-grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub Dec 2007). A decrease in pH, however, is on the one hand mandatory to activate osteoclast activity, on the other hand it might affect protein metabolism and thereby muscle mass. In head-down bed rest (HDBR) studies physiological adaptation as seen in microgravity is mimicked. In a recent short-term HDBR study of 14 days, we combined high salt intake and low mechanical loading to test if low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by high NaCl intake is an additive stimulus for increased bone resorption and muscle protein loss. The results show that high NaCl intake combined with low mechanical load exaggerates the increase in calcium excretion as well as the rise in bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (both: p ¡ 0.001). Bone alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, was not different according to NaCl intake (p = 0.74). Additionally, the slightly negative nitrogen balance in HDBR ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d) was exacerbated 3 fold by high NaCl intake ( 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d; p ¡ 0.001). These results were accompanied by reduced bicarbonate (p = 0.018) and base excess (p = 0.009) concentrations during high salt intake. In conclusion, HDBR and high salt intake cause -like in ambulatory test subjectsa low-grade metabolic acidosis. This may exacerbate bone resorption and nitrogen loss, which may then exaggerate disuse induced bone and muscle loss.

  15. Calcium intake and 28-year cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality in Dutch civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vijver, L P; van der Waal, M A; Weterings, K G; Dekker, J M; Schouten, E G; Kok, F J

    1992-02-01

    Data obtained from a general health examination in 1953-1954 of 2605 middle-aged Dutch civil servants were analysed to investigate the relation between dietary calcium and cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Calcium intake was assessed at baseline by a 1-week food frequency recall. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using the highest quintile of calcium intake as the reference. No statistically significant associations were observed for low calcium intake in 15 and 28 years of follow-up in both men and women. For men, multivariate adjusted OR for the lowest quintile of calcium intake were 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-1.9) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.6-1.6) for 28-year CVD and CHD mortality, respectively. For women, corresponding OR were 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.0) and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.5-2.5). Although an inverse association between calcium intake and CVD and CHD mortality, possibly mediated by blood pressure, might be hypothesized, no clear association was observed. Because dietary patterns in the 1950s were quite stable, and major calcium sources were addressed, misclassification of calcium intake may not be fully responsible for this finding.

  16. Comparative analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptomes reveals genotype-specific salt tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Xu, Yuxing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Lu, Chengkai; Shen, Guojing; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed 2237 and 1125 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ZM and XJ in the presence and absence of salt stress, among which many genes are involved in stress-related pathways. After salt treatment, compared with the controls, the number of DEGs in XJ (19373) was about four times of that in ZM (4833). We also detected specific differential gene expression patterns: In response to salt stress, compared with XJ, ZM maintained relatively more stable expression levels of genes related to the ROS and Ca 2+ pathways, phytohormone biosynthesis, and Na + /K + transport. Notably, several salt resistance-associated genes always showed greater levels of expression in ZM than in XJ, including a transcription factor. Consistent with the suppression of plant growth resulting from salt stress, the expression of numerous photosynthesis- and growth hormone-related genes decreased more dramatically in XJ than in ZM. By contrast, the expression levels of photosynthetic genes were lower in ZM under low-salt conditions. Compared with XJ, ZM is a salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar possessing specific regulatory mechanisms conferring exceptional salt tolerance, likely by maintaining high transcript levels of abiotic and biotic stress resistance-related genes. Our results suggest that maintaining this specific physiological status and/or plant adaptation to salt stress most likely arises by inhibition of plant growth in ZM through

  17. Young Stars with SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  18. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  19. [Calcium metabolism after the menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanovitch, D; Klotz, H P

    1976-02-16

    The authors recall the antagonism between estradiol and parathormone. Estradiol tends to lower serum calcium and fix calcium in the bones as shown by one of us 25 years ago. The mechanism of this action of estrogen on calcium metabolism has been determined by numerous authors but some points are still not clear, e.g. the interferences between estrogen and calcitonin. Classically, parathormone is known to increase bony reabsorption and raise serum calcium. After the menopause the gradual reduction in estradiol secretion leads to post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is better to administer estrogens prophylactically to women after the menopause provided a cervical smear and mammography have been carried out to eliminate latent carcinoma of the breast or uterine cervix.

  20. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  1. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  2. Fortification of milk with calcium: effect on calcium bioavailability and interactions with iron and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sara; Barberá, Reyes; Lagarda, María Jesús; Farré, Rosaura

    2006-06-28

    Calcium solubility, dialysability, and transport and uptake (retention + transport) by Caco-2 cells as indicators of calcium bioavailability have been estimated in the in vitro gastrointestinal digests of milk and calcium fortified milk. A significant linear correlation (p calcium uptake and the amount of soluble calcium added to the cells, and also between percentage calcium uptake and the calcium measured in the analyzed samples. The solubility, dialysis, transport, and uptake values are higher (p calcium fortified milks than for nonfortified milks; that is, calcium fortification increases not only calcium content but also its bioavailability. An inhibitory effect of calcium from fortified milks upon iron absorption was found. The observed effect of calcium from fortified milks upon zinc bioavailability depends on the in vitro method used, zinc solubility and dialysis decrease in calcium fortified milks, and percentage zinc uptake remains unchanged.

  3. Effects of Salts and Metal Oxides on Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Nagame, Seigo; Kambara, Masaki; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1994-10-01

    The effects of calcium salts and metal oxide powders on electrochemical, optical and biological properties of Streptococcus mutans have been studied as a novel method to determine the strain. Electrochemical signals of Streptococcus mutans show remarkable decrease in the presence of saturated calcium salts such as CaHPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3OH depending on the strains of Streptococcus mutans: Ingbritt, NCTC-10449, or GS-5. The number of viable cells also decreases upon addition of these powders. The effects of metal oxides such as ZnO and BaTiO3 on the electrochemical characteristics and photoluminescence of Streptococcus mutans have also been studied.

  4. Inhibition of salt precipitation, corrosion and corrosion fatigue of steel in neutral environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlovskij, V.Ya.; Slobodyan, Z.V.; Soprunyuk, N.G.; Ivanov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Processes of salt precipitation, corrosion under dynamic and static conditions, are studied as well as corrosion fatigue of 20 and 40Kh steels in neutral aqueous media without and with the addition of compounds of several classes. The solution of calcium bicarbonate with the initial concentration [Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 ]=1.3 g/l and 3% NaCl solution in distilled water are used for investigation. The effectiveness index of salt precipitation inhibitor is determined by the change in the rate of calcium bicarbonate transformation into carbonate. The combination of results obtained permits to make the conclusion that tripolyphosphate and pyrophosphoric acid are rather perspective inhibitors of complex effect with low protective concentrations

  5. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pick up the salt shaker. Get tips on cutting back and how to build a healthier relationship ... from the start. Healthy Eating • Healthy Eating Home • Nutrition AHA Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Making Healthy Choices ...

  6. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and salt that cooks add to foods at restaurants and other food service establishments. Q. What are ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  7. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  8. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaishali B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.

  9. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  10. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  11. Hydrogen-bonding catalysis of sulfonium salts

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Shiho; Kumatabara, Yusuke; Shimizu, Shoichi; Maruoka, Keiji; Shirakawa, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Although quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts are known as important catalysts in phase-transfer catalysis, the catalytic ability of tertiary sulfonium salts has not yet been well demonstrated. Herein, we demonstrate the catalytic ability of trialkylsulfonium salts as hydrogen-bonding catalysts on the basis of the characteristic properties of the acidic α hydrogen atoms on alkylsulfonium salts.

  12. Solid-state characterization of amorphous and mesomorphous calcium ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, Faraj; Mao, Chen; Masadeh, Ahmad S; Byrn, Stephen R

    2010-09-01

    This article is concerned with exploring the application of pair distribution in pharmaceutical analysis. The solid-state characterization of amorphous and mesomorphous (liquid crystalline) calcium ketoprofen is used as an example and the structures of the amorphous and mesomorphous phases of calcium ketoprofen are compared to that of the crystalline phase. An approach to calculating the optimal experimental parameters in pair distribution function (PDF) analysis as well as a suggested method to help assign the many different peaks in a PDF diagram of an organic material are discussed. The studied salts were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), solid-state NMR (SSNMR), variable-temperature SSNMR, and PDF. Raman and SSNMR were useful techniques in identifying and differentiating the crystalline phase from the other two phases but failed, alone, to differentiate between the amorphous and mesomorphous phases. The absence of significant changes in chemical shifts in SSNMR and peak shifts in Raman spectra suggested that the differences in the molecular environment of the major chemical groups in the amorphous and mesomorphous phases were minimal. However, the broadening of the Raman and SSNMR peaks in the noncrystalline phases indicated an increase in the disorder in these systems. PDF analysis of the disordered phases revealed that upon dehydration or quench cooling where the system transformed from crystalline to become disordered, the calcium-calcium and calcium-oxygen (oxygen of the carboxylic acid) distances remained intact meanwhile the rest of the molecule became disordered. The preliminary results from variable-temperature SSNMR showed two different T(1) relaxation time profiles for the amorphous and mesomorphous phases. This was consistent with the hypothesis that part of the molecule remained ordered while the rest of the molecule became disordered and the amorphous

  13. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Co-precipitation of mineral based salts in scaling is still not well understood and/or thermodynamically well defined in the water industry. This study focuses on investigating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sulfate mixed precipitation in scaling which is commonly observed in industrial water treatment processes including seawater desalination either by thermal-based or membrane-based processes. Co-precipitation kinetics were studied carefully by monitoring several parameters simultaneously measured, including: pH, calcium and alkalinity concentrations as well as quartz microbalance responses. The CaCO3 germination in mixed precipitation was found to be different than that of simple precipitation. Indeed, the co-precipitation of CaCO3 germination time was not anymore related to supersaturation as in a simple homogenous precipitation, but was significantly reduced when the gypsum crystals appeared first. On the other hand, the calcium sulfate crystals appear to reduce the energetic barrier of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the nature of scales structures. Gypsum was found to be the dominant precipitate while calcite and especially vaterite were found at lower proportions. These analyses showed also that gypsum crystals promote calcite crystallization to the detriment of other forms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  15. Scaling of Calcium Carbonate at Heated Surfaces in a Continuous System

    OpenAIRE

    Nergaard, Margrethe

    2011-01-01

    Scaling is the precipitation of a mineral layer on a surface. Sparingly soluble salts with inverse solubility, which calcium carbonate exhibits, will prefer precipitation at heated surfaces, making heat exchangers a target for scale formation. A continuous setup was used to study scale formation, the nature of the scale formed and scaling rate. An internally heated U-shaped tube was inserted into a continuously stirred tank, giving the same conditions for all scaling points. The experimental ...

  16. Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 angstrom diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms

  17. Precipitation of sparingly soluble salts in packed sandbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems encountered by the oil extraction industry, is the reduction of the local permeability of the rock formation near the extraction wells because of salt deposition in the pores of the rocks during the injection of brine water to displace the trapped oil ganglia within the oil formations. This phenomenon makes the oil recovery less efficient and under extreme cases the well is abandoned with a large amount of oil entrapped. Several detailed studies have been conducted in the past concerning sand bed consolidation using sparingly soluble salts for varying conditions (e.g. temperature, grain size, sand type, salt concentrations etc) and various salts [1]. Nevertheless, salt precipitation in the rock formation pores under the presence of other miscible or immiscible substances with water has not been investigated in details yet. In the present study, salt (CaCO3) precipitation experiments were performed in small beds packed with sea sand mixed with a low amount of CaCO3 seed grains. The experiments were performed using pure solutions (NaHCO3, CaCl2.2H2O) and solutions mixed with Ethylene Glycol in sand beds. Additionally, precipitation experiments were performed using pure solutions in sand beds saturated with oil phase (n-dodecane) for a wide range of solution supersaturation. During the experiments the ionic strength was kept constant. pH and concentration values of calcium ion of the effluent were measured and the precipitated salt crystals were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. At the end of each experiment Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was conducted using a sample of the precipitated sand to identify the morphology of the precipitated crystals and their cohesion with sand grains. Acknowledgments This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420). References

  18. Fluid inclusion brine compositions from Palo Duro Basin salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The fluid inclusion analyses were done on salt samples from Lower San Andres Cycle 4 and 5. The stable isotope composition of the fluid inclusion brines was measured on duplicate samples taken from the same fluid inclusion brine for correlation of geochemical content with the stable isotopic content. The analyzed Palo Duro Basin salt fluid inclusions are predominantly one phase, i.e., the presence of a fluid only. However, many of the larger fluid inclusions do have a small vapor bubble. This liquid/vapor ratio is so high in these vapor-containing fluid inclusions that their behavior in a thermal gradient would be almost identical to that of all liquid inclusions. Closely associated with the fluid inclusions are cryptomelane where some fibers penetrate into halite host crystal. The fluid inclusions have a wide variability in content for those components that were analyzed, even within the same salt type. The fluid inclusion brines are also acidic, ranging from 3 to 6 as measured with pH test papers

  19. Production of a calcium silicate cement material from alginate impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washizawa, Norimasa; Narusawa, Hideaki; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biomaterials from daily dental waste. Since alginate impression material contains silica and calcium salts, we aimed to synthesize calcium silicate cement from alginate impression material. Gypsum-based investment material was also investigated as control. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that although firing the set gypsum-based and modified investment materials at 1,200°C produced calcium silicates, firing the set alginate impression material did not. However, we succeeded when firing the set blend of pre-fired set alginate impression material and gypsum at 1,200°C. SEM observations of the powder revealed that the featured porous structures of diatomite as an alginate impression material component appeared useful for synthesizing calcium silicates. Experimentally fabricated calcium silicate powder was successfully mixed with phosphoric acid solution and set by depositing the brushite. Therefore, we conclude that the production of calcium silicate cement material is possible from waste alginate impression material.

  20. [Selection and characterization of salt-tolerant calli of Taraxacum officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinguo; Chen, Xianyang; Jiang, Dan; Li, Yinxin

    2008-07-01

    In order to obtain salt-tolerant calli of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber), calli were induced from leaf explants of Dandelion on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophen oxyacetic acid With 1.5% NaCl as selection pressure, most calli became brown and dead, whereas some new cell clusters appeared at the edge of the brown calli after 2 to 3 weeks. The survived cells were picked out and sub-cultured every 3 weeks onto the fresh selection medium and salt-tolerant calli were finally obtained through 4 continuous selections on the selection medium supplemented with 1.5% NaCl. Salt-tolerant calli increased steadily under a fixed NaCl stress though their relative growth rate decreased with increased NaCl concentration whereas the control calli which were sub-cultured by 4 continus selections on salt free medium ceased to grow under the same condition. This result indicated that the salt-tolerance of the selected calli is improved and this character is stable. Compared with the control, the SDS-PAGE pattern of the salt-tolerant calli had a unique 34 kD protein band. Its 30 kD and 18 kD protein bands were up-regulated. Further more, within the NaCl stress range up to 1.5%, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxidase dimutase, peroxidase and catalase, and the proline contents of the salt-tolerant calli were higher than those of the control. The results indicated that the selected calli with improved and stable salt tolerance were cell variants. The accumulation of the organic compatible solutes including proteins and the enhanced antioxidant capabilities in the salt tolerant calli are the two ways for them to regulate their osmotic homeostasis and alleviate the secondary reactive oxygen spexies damage respectively.

  1. Opinion on Salt intake of Dutch children

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

    2009-01-01

    The amount of salt in many, especially commercially prepared, food is too high. Reducing salt intake can contribute positively to public health. A reduction in salt intake at a young age reduces the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in later life. The salt intake of 2-6 year old Dutch children was estimated using the Dutch Food Consumption Survey, which was aimed at children in 2005/2006. The foods that contributed most to the total salt intake were determined.

  2. Modeling Calcium Microdomains using Homogenisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Erin R.; Goel, Pranay; Puglisi, Jose L.; Bers, Donald M.; Cannell, Mark; Sneyd, James

    2007-01-01

    Microdomains of calcium (i.e., areas on the nanometer scale that have qualitatively different calcium concentrations from that in the bulk cytosol) are known to be important in many situations. In cardiac cells, for instance, a calcium microdomain between the L-type channels and the ryanodine receptors, the so-called diadic cleft, is where the majority of the control of calcium release occurs. In other cell types that exhibit calcium oscillations and waves, the importance of microdomains in the vicinity of clusters of inositol trisphosphate receptors, or between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other internal organelles or the plasma membrane, is clear. Given the limits of computational power, it is not currently realistic to model an entire cellular cytoplasm by incorporating detailed structural information about the ER throughout the entire cytoplasm. Hence, most models use a homogenised approach, assuming that both cytoplasm and ER coexist at each point of the domain. Conversely, microdomain models can be constructed, in which detailed structural information can be incorporated, but, until now, methods have not been developed for linking such a microdomain model to a model at the level of the entire cell. Using the homogenisation approach we developed in an earlier paper (Goel P., A. Friedman and J. Sneyd. 2006. Homogenization of the cell cytoplasm: the calcium bidomain equations. SIAM J. on Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, in press) we show how a multiscale model of a calcium microdomain can be constructed. In this model a detailed model of the microdomain (in which the ER and the cytoplasm are separate compartments) is coupled to a homogenised model of the entire cell in a rigorous way. Our method is illustrated by a simple model of the diadic cleft of a cardiac half-sarcomere. PMID:17499276

  3. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sanphui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acemetacin (ACM is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM, isonicotinamide (INA, and picolinamide (PAM], caprolactam (CPR, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, and piperazine (PPZ. The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid...pyridine heterosynthon and N—H...O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid...amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl...carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable

  4. Calcium: the molecular basis of calcium action in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pochet, Roland; Donato, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    ... of Calcium Calcium Signalling in Excitable Cells Ca2+ Release in Muscle Cells by N. Macrez and J. Mironneau Calcium Signalling in Neurons Exemplified by Rat Sympathetic Ganglion Cells by S.J. M...

  5. Cyclic α-Alkoxyphosphonium Salts from (2-(Diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and Aldehydes and Their Application in Synthesis of Vinyl Ethers and Ketones via Wittig Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhua; Rong, Hong-Ying; Xu, Jie

    2015-07-02

    Cyclic α-alkoxyphosphonium salts have been synthesized from (2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and aldehydes in 36-89% yields. These phosphonium salts are bench-stable solids and undergo Wittig olefination with aldehydes under basic conditions (K2CO3 or t-BuOK) to form benzylic vinyl ethers, which are readily hydrolyzed to 1,2-disubstituted ethanones under acidic conditions. The formation mechanism of these phosphonium salts via hemiacetal is also proposed.

  6. Evaluation of calcium ion release and change in pH on combining calcium hydroxide with different vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intracanal medicaments have traditionally been used in endodontics to disinfect root canals between appointments. Calcium hydroxide is widely used as an intracanal medicament for disinfection and to promote periapical healing. It is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. The efficacy of calcium hydroxide as a disinfectant is dependent on the availability of the hydroxyl ions in the solution that depends on the vehicle in which the calcium hydroxide is carried. In general, three types of vehicles are used: Aqueous, viscous or oily. Some in vitro studies have shown that the type of vehicle has a direct relationship with the concentration and the velocity of ionic liberation as well as with the antibacterial action when the paste is carried into a contaminated area. Aim of the Study: To evaluate the calcium ion release and measure the change in pH of the environment that occurred when calcium hydroxide was combined with different vehicles (distilled water, propylene glycol, calcium hydroxide containing gutta-percha points and chitosan over different time periods. Materials and Methods: Forty single rooted mandibular first premolar teeth were decoronated for this study. Working length was established and the root canals were enlarged and irrigation accomplished with 2 ml of NaOCl solution after every file. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. The canals were then packed with different preparations of calcium hydroxide using the following vehicles-distilled water, propylene glycol, gutta-percha points and chitosan. Calcium ion release in different groups was analyzed using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 220 nm. The change in pH of was determined using a pH meter. Results were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA test. Result: For calcium ion release, Group 2 showed cumulative drug release of 81.97% at the end of 15 days, whereas Group 1, 3 and 4 showed a release

  7. Progress in modeling solidification in molten salt coolants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Mauricio; Rubiolo, Pablo; Doche, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Molten salts have been proposed as heat carrier media in the nuclear and concentrating solar power plants. Due to their high melting temperature, solidification of the salts is expected to occur during routine and accidental scenarios. Furthermore, passive safety systems based on the solidification of these salts are being studied. The following article presents new developments in the modeling of eutectic molten salts by means of a multiphase, multicomponent, phase-field model. Besides, an application of this methodology for the eutectic solidification process of the ternary system LiF-KF-NaF is presented. The model predictions are compared with a newly developed semi-analytical solution for directional eutectic solidification at stable growth rate. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between the two approaches. The results obtained with the phase-field model are then used for calculating the homogenized properties of the solid phase distribution. These properties can then be included in a mixture macroscale model, more suitable for industrial applications.

  8. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ), and calcium chloride (CaCl 2 )-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl -  L -1 ) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl 2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl -  L -1 . CaCl 2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl -  L -1 (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl 2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg 2+ cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl 2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of parathyroid function and mineral metabolism in psychiatric patients using lithium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Thiago Costa de; Campos Neto, Ivo Alves de; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel Hermínio de; Pereira, Francisco de Assis

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate parathyroid function and mineral metabolism in psychiatric patients users of lithium salts. We measured the serum levels of calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), urea, creatinine, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and lithium of 35 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in use of lithium carbonate (LC) for at least one year (Lithium Group - LG) and 35 healthy subjects (Control Group - CG). The LG and CG were matched by sex and age. There was only statistic difference in relation to the levels of PTH and ionized calcium, with p < 0.004 and p < 0.03, respectively. Secondary form of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was found in eight (22.8%) LG patients and in none of the CG. There was no correlation between lithemia, usage time and dosage of LC. Our data demonstrate that lithium may create an imbalance in the parathyroid axis, characterized by elevated levels of PTH.

  10. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaa.turk@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: m.genisel@hotmail.com [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: serkanerdal25@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  11. Book review: Use of Stable Iodine in Nuclear Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiological or nuclear event, radioactive iodine may be get into the body through respiratory or gastrointestinal systems. In the contaminated cases with radioactive iodine, the radioactive iodine absorbed by the thyroid can injure the gland. Because of the carcinogenic effects of its radiation, there is a significant public health risk in the event of exposure to radioactive iodine. On other hand, due to stable (non-radioactive iodine acts to block radioactive iodine from being taken into the thyroid gland, it can help protect this gland from injury and following side effects. In this query, potassium iodide (also called KI is a salt of stable iodine in a medicine form which is recommended to use sine many years ago. With effective planning and the use of stable iodine prophylaxis, accompanied with other protective implementations, this risk is mostly avoidable. This book contains information such as iodine and physiology kinetic , exposure risk to radioactive iodine, how to use stable iodine in this events , complications attributed to stable(non-radioactive iodine and also at last chapter the final recommendation published by WHO is included.

  12. Validation of a simple isotope method for estimating true calcium fractional absorption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; McCabe, G P; Martin, B R; Weaver, C M

    2011-01-01

    We validated a single oral isotope method for estimating fractional calcium absorption determined by double isotope methods in adolescents. Developed equations with an oral isotope including a single blood draw or spot urine collection can be used to evaluate fractional calcium absorption in adolescents which allows flexibility in developing protocols. This study was designed to develop and validate a simpler, less expensive single oral isotope method for determining fractional calcium (Ca) absorption in adolescents. We used our database of 31 observations from ten white and 12 black adolescent girls aged 10-15 years who participated in metabolic and kinetic studies. Tracer data following oral ((44)Ca) and intravenous (IV, (42)Ca) administration of calcium stable isotopes and samples in serum and urine from various time points up to 4 days were used to develop methods using multiple regression analysis based on a single measurement of enriched stable isotope/tracee defined as tracer/tracee (TT) in serum (TT(serum)) or urine (TT(urine)). Reference values for fractional calcium absorption were from oral/IV stable isotope ratios in 24-h serum or urine and full kinetic modeling. The strongest equation using a single blood sample had R (2) = 0.94 (p single urine sample had R (2) = 0.95 (p single blood draw or urine collection for determining fractional calcium absorption were successfully validated in healthy, non-obese white and black adolescent girls aged 10-15 years. The equations well-predicted fractional calcium absorption in Asian adolescent boys and girls.

  13. Aqueous solutions of calcium ions: hydration numbers and the effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2005-11-03

    Hydration numbers of calcium ions are determined from extensive measurements of colligative properties of water solutions of calcium salts. The hydration numbers reported refer to the average number of water molecules that are bound sufficiently strongly to calcium ions so as to be removed from the solvent and become part of the solute. Contrary to common descriptions of deviations from ideal behavior for concentrated solutions, ideal behavior is demonstrated when mole fractions are calculated by taking account of such bound water. Measurements over wide concentration and temperature ranges are used to obtain the effect of temperature on the average hydration number of Ca(2+). Freezing point depression measurements yield a hydration number of 12.0 +/- 0.8. Boiling point elevations yield 6.7 +/- 0.6. Consistent with this, vapor pressure measurements from 0 to 200 degrees C show a gradual decrease in hydration number with increasing temperature, with a value of 5.0 at 200 degrees C.

  14. Precipitation of calcium sulphate on hot walls - influence of impurities, thermal and hydraulic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Roger

    1973-01-01

    After some generalities on desalination by distillation processes and on problems due to scaling, this research thesis aims at a better understanding of the formation of deposits and their effects in the case of precipitation of calcium sulphate hemihydrate which precipitates above 100 C in pure solution and between 100 and 300 C in brine. Deposit growth, influence of impurities, and influence of the deposit on heat exchange and loss of load are the main issues of this research. The author addresses general principles of salt crystallization and the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of calcium sulphate precipitation, studies the growth kinetics of the calcium sulphate hemihydrate in a transient concentration regime, reports the study of thermal and hydraulic effects of the formation of a hemihydrate deposit, notably by discussing the different phases involved in the covering of a metallic surface

  15. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  16. A Study on the Coupled Model of Hydrothermal-Salt for Saturated Freezing Salinized Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water and heat interact in the process of freezing for the saturated soil. And for the salinized soil, water, heat, and salt interact in the freezing process, because salinized soil has soluble salt. In this paper, a one-dimensional mathematical coupled model of hydraulic-thermal-salt is established. In the model, Darcy’s law, law of conservation of energy, and law of conservation of mass are applied to derive the equations. Consider that a saturated salinized soil column is subjected to the condition of freezing to model the moisture migration and salt transport. Both experiment and numerical simulation under the same condition are developed in the soil column. Then the moisture content and salt content between simulation and experiment are compared. The result indicates that simulation matches well with the experiment data, and after 96 hours, the temperature distribution becomes stable, freezing front reaches a stable position, and a lot of unfrozen water has time to migrate. Besides, the excess salt precipitates when the concentration is greater than the solubility, and the precipitation is distributed discontinuously. These results can provide reference for engineering geology and environmental engineering in cold region and saline soil area.

  17. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  18. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Triangulenium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Dong

    . The formed vesicles showed excellent stability standing over for 7 month at ambient lab conditions or upon heated up to 70 °C as monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Chapter 4 reportes the dynamic air–water interfaces catalyzed self-assembly of insoluble aminotriangulenium salts into Stable......–water interfaces and lateral compression of the monolayer results in the collapsing toward the formation of bilayer nanosheets. The nanosheets showed excellent stability after standing over 10 months stocked in a close vial at ambient conditions due to the ionic atmosphere surrounding its charged surfaces...... in the self-assembly of the synthetic amphiphilic triangulenium salt in aqueous media. In this chapter, self-assembled nanotubes, nanorribbons and nanorods are presented and collusions II are made based on the experimental observations. The following chapter 6 repots the chain length effect on the self...

  19. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Saha, B.

    2016-05-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl3) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2.2H2O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  20. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 μg/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of 45 Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in 45 Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled 45 Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer. (author)

  1. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, A., E-mail: debnathanimesh@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura, 799046 India (India); Bera, A.; Saha, B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl{sub 3}) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  2. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Saha, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl 3 ) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl 2 .2H 2 O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  3. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  4. Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

  5. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  6. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  7. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P parathyroid hormone levels (P animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  8. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of calcium in phosphoinositide metabolism and inhibition of norepinephrine transport into synaptic vesicles by amphetamine analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepper, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Norepinephrine-(NE) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated phosphoinositide (PIn) metabolism in rat brain slices was studied under varying calcium conditions. Tissue was labelled with 3 H-myo-inositol and 3 H-inositol phosphates (IPn), products of PIn metabolism were measured. In the absence of media calcium the response to NE was decreased while that to A23187 was little affected A23187 can release calcium from intracellular stores. Basal and stimulated accumulation of 3 H-IPn was reversibly antagonized with EGTA by addition of calcium. Using calcium buffers, approximately 10 -7 M free calcium was required to support hydrolysis. Free intracellular calcium is maintained at approximately this level. Thus calcium is required for PIn hydrolysis but appears to play a permissive role, basal levels being sufficient to support metabolism. Conformationally-defined (rigid) and -restricted (semi-rigid) analogs of the most stable conformations of amphetamine, antiperiplanar (exo) and gauche (endo), were utilized to probe the conformational requirements of vesicular NE transport. Analogs tested were 2-aminotetralin (2AT), 3-methyltetrahydroisoquinoline, anti- and syn-9-aminobenzobicyclo[2.2.1]heptene, and endo and exo conformers of 2-aminobenzobicyclo[2.2.1]heptene and 2-aminobenzobicyclo[2.2.2]octene

  10. Evidence in favor of a severely impaired net intestinal calcium absorption in patients with (early-stage) chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, L; Meijers, B K I; Vanrenterghem, Y; Evenepoel, P

    2012-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential to many vital physiological processes. Little is known about the net and fractional intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their clinical and hormonal determinants. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 20 healthy volunteers (HV) and 72 stable CKD stage 1-4 patients and analyzed for parameters of mineral metabolism including calcidiol, calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary intake was assessed by dietary history. The 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, as opposed to the phosphorus excretion, showed a stepwise decrease across CKD stages (median of 219, 84, 40, and 22 mg/day in HV and patients with CKD stages 1-2, 3 and 4, respectively). Younger age, high serum calcitriol, and high estimated GFR were associated with a high 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. High serum calcitriol levels and dietary phosphorus intake were associated with a high 24-hour urinary phosphorus excretion. The fractional intestinal calcium absorption, as estimated by the urinary-to-ingested calcium ratio, decreased across CKD stages. The 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium, as opposed to phosphorus, is markedly decreased in CKD, even in early-stage disease. This is partly explained by low calcitriol levels and older age. Assuming a neutral calcium balance at the time of urine collection, we infer that net intestinal calcium absorption may be severely impaired in CKD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of cellular influences caused by calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Fujita, Katsuhide; Nakamura, Ayako; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-05

    The cellular effects of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) nanoparticles were evaluated. Three kinds of CaCO₃ nanoparticles were employed in our examinations. One of the types of CaCO₃ nanoparticles was highly soluble. And solubility of another type of CaCO₃ nanoparticle was lower. A stable CaCO₃ nanoparticle medium dispersion was prepared and applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Then, mitochondrial activity, cell membrane damage, colony formation ability, DNA injury, induction of oxidative stress, and apoptosis were evaluated. Although the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles on mitochondrial activity and cell membrane damage were small, "soluble" CaCO₃ nanoparticles exerted some cellular influences. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles also induced a cell morphological change. Colony formation was inhibited by CaCO₃ nanoparticle exposure. In particular, soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles completely inhibited colony formation. The influence on intracellular the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was small. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles caused an increase in C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, CaCO₃ exposure increased intracellular the Ca²⁺ level and activated calpain. These results suggest that cellular the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles are mainly caused by intracellular calcium release and subsequently disrupt the effect of calcium signaling. In conclusion, there is possibility that soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles induce cellular influences such as a cell morphological change. Cellular influence of CaCO₃ nanoparticles is caused by intracellular calcium release. If inhaled CaCO₃ nanoparticles have the potential to influence cellular events. However, the effect might be not severe because calcium is omnipresent element in cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  14. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Boegly, W.J.; Bradshaw, R.L.; Empson, F.M.; Hemphill, L.; Struxness, E.G.; Tamura, T.

    1960-01-01

    The proposed use of cavities in salt formations as a disposal site for radioactive wastes is based upon : 1. Existence of salt for geologic time periods, 2. The impermeability of salt to the passage of water; 3. The widespread geographical distribution of salt; 4. The extremely large quantities of salt available; 5. The structural strength of salt; 6. The relatively high thermal conductivity of salt in comparison with other general geologic formations; 7. The possible recovery of valuable fission products in the wastes injected into the salt; 8. The relative ease of forming cavities in salt by mining, and the even greater ease and low cost of developing solution cavities in salt; and 9. The low seismicity in the areas of major salt deposits. Radioactive liquid wastes can be stored in cavities in natural salt formations if the structural properties of the salt are not adversely affected by chemical interaction, pressure, temperature, and radiation. Analytical studies show that it is possible to-store 2-year-old 10,000 MWD/T, 800 gal/ton waste in a sphere of 10 ft diameter without exceeding a temperature of 200° F. Laboratory tests show that the structural properties and thermal conductivity of rock salt are not greatly altered by high radiation doses, although high temperatures increase the creep rate for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Chemical interaction of liquid wastes with salt produces chlorine and other chlorine compound gases, but the volumes are not excessive. The migration of nuclides through the salt and deformation of the cavity and chamber can only be studied in undisturbed salt in situ. One-fifth-scale models have been run in a bedded salt deposit in Hutchinson, Kansas, and full-scale field tests are in progress. (author) [fr

  15. Effect of Low Salt Concentrations on Microbial Changes During Kimchi Fermentation Monitored by PCR-DGGE and Their Sensory Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadsah, Lenny S F; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Seon-Kyeong; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-12-28

    Various salt concentrations (1.0%, 1.3%, 1.6%, 1.9%, and 2.1% labeled as sample A, B, C, D, and E, respectively) were investigated for microbial diversity, identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in salted kimchi cabbage, prepared under laboratory conditions. These samples were stored at 4°C for 5 weeks in proper aluminum-metalized pouch packaging with calcium hydroxide gas absorber. A culture-independent method known as polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to identify LAB distributions among various salt concentration samples that had identified 2 Weissella (W. confusa and W. soli), 1 Lactobacillus (Lb. sakei), and 3 Leuconostoc (Lc. mesenteroides, Lc. lactis, and Lc. gelidum) in the overall kimchi samples. The pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, and coliform counts were not affected by salt variations. In order to assess sensory acceptance, the conducted sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale had revealed that samples with 1.3% salt concentration (lower than the manufacturer's regular salt concentration) was more preferred, indicating that the use of 1.3% salt concentration was acceptable in normal kimchi fermentation for its quality and safety. Despite similarities in pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, coliform counts, and LAB distributions among the various salt concentrations of kimchi samples, the sample with 1.3% salt concentration was shown to be the most preferred, indicating that this salt concentration was suitable in kimchi production in order to reduce salt intake through kimchi consumptions.

  16. Leveraging the coronary calcium scan beyond the coronary calcium score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bos (Daniel); M.J.G. Leening (Maarten)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in order to obtain the coronary artery calcium score has become an established diagnostic procedure in the clinical setting, and is commonly employed in clinical and population-based research. This state-of-the-art review paper

  17. A 7-week reduction in salt intake does not contribute to markers of bone metabolism in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natri, A-M; Kärkkäinen, M U M; Ruusunen, M; Puolanne, E; Lamberg-Allardt, C

    2005-03-01

    Sodium intake increases urinary calcium excretion and may thus lead to negative calcium balance and bone loss. We hypothesised that reducing sodium intake would reduce urinary calcium excretion and have a beneficial influence in bone metabolism. A total of 29 subjects, 14 males and 15 females, were divided into two study groups. One group (low-sodium group (LS)) reduced sodium intake for 7 weeks by substituting low-salt alternatives for the most important dietary sources of sodium. The other group, serving as a control group (C), was given the same food items in the form of normally salted alternatives. Fasting serum samples as well as 24-h urine samples were obtained in the beginning and at the end of the study. Urinary sodium, urinary calcium, urinary creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphate, serum creatinine, serum parathyroid hormone (s-PTH), serum C-terminal telopeptides of Type-I collagen and serum bone alkaline phosphatase (s-B-ALP) were analysed. The LS group showed a significant decline (P = 0.001) in urinary sodium/creatinine ratio without a significant effect on urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. In the LS group, s-PTH increased (P = 0.03). The C group showed an increase in s-PTH (P = 0.05) and in s-B-ALP, but no differences were observed between the study groups in the changes of serum markers of calcium and bone metabolism. We have shown that reducing the sodium intake of young, healthy people with adequate calcium intake over a 7-week period does not affect the markers of bone metabolism.

  18. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe Hypernatremia Caused by Acute Exogenous Salt Intake Combined with Primary Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Jin; Park, Su Min; Park, Jong Man; Rhee, Harin; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Seong, Eun Young; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Song, Sang Heon

    2016-12-01

    This report describes a case of severe hypernatremia with a serum sodium concentration of 188.1mmol/L caused by exogenous salt intake. A 26-year-old man diagnosed with Crohn's disease 5 years previously visited our clinic due to generalized edema and personality changes, with aggressive behavior. He had compulsively consumed salts, ingesting approximately 154 g of salt over the last 4 days. Despite careful fluid management that included not only hypotonic fluid therapy for 8 hours but also hypertonic saline administration, his serum sodium level decreased sharply at 40.6 mmol/L; however, it returned to normal within 72-hour of treatment without any neurological deficits. Primary hypothyroidism was also diagnosed. He was discharged after 9 days from admission, with a stable serum sodium level. We have described the possibility of successful treatment in a patient with hypernatremia caused by acute salt intoxication without sustained hypotonic fluid therapy.

  20. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.