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Sample records for stable barium carbonate

  1. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J.P.; Duarte, G.W.; Caldart, C.; Kniess, C.T.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R.; Riella, H.G.; Fiori, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound

  2. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Duarte, G.W. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Research Group in Technology and Information, Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Santa Catarina, SC (Brazil); Caldart, C. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Post-Graduate Program in Professional Master in Management, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Fiori, M.A., E-mail: fiori@unochapeco.edu.br [Post-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil); Post-Graduate Program in Technology and Management of the Innovation, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound.

  3. Electromagnetic properties of carbon black and barium titanate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiqin; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yuping; Liu Shunhua

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon black/barium titanate compound particle (CP) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology of compound particle were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectrum measurements, the electroconductivity was test by trielectrode arrangement and the precursor powder was followed by differential scanning calorimetric measurements (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the complex relative permittivity and permeability of compound particle were investigated by reflection method. The compound particle/epoxide resin composite (CP/EP) with different contents of CP were measured. The results show barium titanate crystal is tetragonal phase and its grain is oval shape with 80-100 nm which was coated by carbon black film. As electromagnetic (EM) complex permittivity, permeability and reflection loss (RL) shown that the compound particle is mainly a kind of electric and dielectric lossy materials and exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance in the X- and Ku-bands

  4. Spectrophotometry of barium, CH, and R-type carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of 35 barium, CH, R, and hydrogen-deficient carbon stars, along with ten comparison K giants, have been made with the Indiana rapid spectrum scanner and the Indiana SIT vidicon spectrometer. The scanner observations cover a wavelength range of 3300--7000 A at 30-A resolution, while the SIT vidicon observations cover a wavelength range of 3800--5000 A at 2.5-A resolution. The data have been used to form molecular indices for a quantitative measurement of the strength of molecular features appearing in this region of the spectrum, and to compare the spectral energy distribution of carbon and oxygen stars over the entire observed wavelength range. We find the C 2 Swan index correlated strongly with both the strength of an unidentified feature centered near 4000 A, and the barium-to-hydrogen ratio. A detailed comparison of the spectral energy distribution of the barium stars with normal K giants shows that this unidentified absorption feature consists of two shallows depressions, one at 4000 A and another at 4325 A

  5. Barium isotope fractionation during experimental formation of the double carbonate BaMn[CO3](2) at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E; Geprägs, Patrizia; Neubert, Nadja; von Allmen, Katja; Pretet, Chloé; Samankassou, Elias; Nägler, Thomas F

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we present the first experimental results for stable barium (Ba) isotope ((137)Ba/(134)Ba) fractionation during low-temperature formation of the anhydrous double carbonate BaMn[CO(3)](2). This investigation is part of an ongoing work on Ba fractionation in the natural barium cycle. Precipitation at a temperature of 21±1°C leads to an enrichment of the lighter Ba isotope described by an enrichment factor of-0.11±0.06‰ in the double carbonate than in an aqueous barium-manganese(II) chloride/sodium bicarbonate solution, which is within the range of previous reports for synthetic pure BaCO (3) (witherite) formation.

  6. New efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis: barium-promoted cobalt on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia......Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia...

  7. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO 2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14 CO 2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH) 2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH) 2 . Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  8. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO3) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO2 gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO3 recovery in the Alkali...

  9. Preparation of meta-stable phases of barium titanate by Sol-hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalakshmi Selvaraj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two low-cost chemical methods of sol–gel and the hydrothermal process have been strategically combined to fabricate barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanopowders. This method was tested for various synthesis temperatures (100 °C to 250 °C employing barium dichloride (BaCl2 and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 as precursors and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as mineralizer for synthesis of BaTiO3 nanopowders. The as-prepared BaTiO3 powders were investigated for structural characteristics using x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The overall analysis indicates that the hydrothermal conditions create a gentle environment to promote the formation of crystalline phase directly from amorphous phase at the very low processing temperatures investigated. XRD analysis showed phase transitions from cubic - tetragonal - orthorhombic - rhombohedral with increasing synthesis temperature and calculated grain sizes were 34 – 38 nm (using the Scherrer formula. SEM and TEM analysis verified that the BaTiO3 nanopowders synthesized by this method were spherical in shape and about 114 - 170 nm in size. The particle distribution in both SEM and TEM shows that as the reaction temperature increases from 100 °C to 250 °C, the particles agglomerate. Selective area electron diffraction (SAED shows that the particles are crystalline in nature. The study shows that choosing suitable precursor and optimizing pressure and temperature; different meta-stable (ferroelectric phases of undoped BaTiO3 nanopowders can be stabilized by the sol-hydrothermal method.

  10. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  11. Growth behaviour of twisted ribbons of barium carbonate/silica self-assembled ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ruiz, J.M.; Moreno, A.

    1997-01-01

    Twisted ribbons of self-assembled crystal aggregates of barium carbonate, in the presence of silicate ions at pH 9.5 grow at constant rate between 20 and 50 mu m/min. The morphological behaviour depends on temperature, while it was demonstrated to be independent of the viscosity of the growth environment. (Author) 7 refs

  12. Eliminating radium from uranium mill acid effluent with barium chloride-sodium carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiayuan

    1998-01-01

    The eliminating radium procedure, barium chloride-sodium carbonate-sand filtering, being used, radium can be eliminated to 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L order of magnitude from uranium mill acid effluents which contain 3.7 Bq/L Ra and pH 6∼9 when Ba 2+ is added by 3∼5 mg per litre, Na 2 CO 3 5mg. The radium elimination rate is more than 90%

  13. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3).

  14. Ammonia synthesis with barium-promoted iron–cobalt alloys supported on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    Iron–cobalt alloys supported on carbon were investigated as ammonia synthesis catalysts. Barium was found to have a promoting effect for Fe with an optimum atomic ratio Ba/Fe of 0.35. At this Ba loading, a local maximum for the NH3 synthesis activity was found at 4 wt% Co by varying the Fe/Co ratio....... Samples containing only Co and no Fe, however, yielded by far the most active catalysts (7.0 μmol (NH3) g−1 s−1, 673 K, 10 bar). Barium was a very efficient promoter for Co, increasing the NH3 synthesis activity by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the unpromoted Co samples, while...

  15. An easily sintered, chemically stable, barium zirconate-based proton conductor for high-performance proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Wenping; Shi, Zhen; Liu, Mingfei; Bi, Lei; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Yttrium and indium co-doped barium zirconate is investigated to develop a chemically stable and sintering active proton conductor for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). BaZr0.8Y0.2-xInxO3- δ possesses a pure cubic perovskite structure. The sintering

  16. Chemically stable Dy–Y double substituted barium zirconate with high proton conductivity and improved sinterability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paydar, M.H., E-mail: paaydar@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nishimura, Ch. [Hydrogen Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, K. [Advanced Ceramics Group, Materials Processing Unit, Advanced Key Technologies Division, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • BaZr{sub (0.8−x)}Dy{sub x}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) powders were synthesized by a wet chemical route. • The ability of the synthesized powders in uptaking water was determined. • Chemical stability of the synthesized powders was evaluated under in wet and CO{sub 2} atmosphere. • The conductivity of the sintered pellets was measured by AC impedance spectroscopy. • It was shown that Dy-doped BZY20 ceramic has excellent proton conductivity. • It was proved that Dy-doped BZY20 ceramic has good chemical stability. • It was concluded that Dy-doped BZY20 electrolyte can be considered as a promising electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell applications. - Abstract: Novel proton conductors BaZr{sub (0.8−x)}Dy{sub x}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} (BZ{sub 0.8−x}D{sub x}Y20, 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) with high proton conductivity, chemical stability and improved sinterability are developed by partially substituting the Zr site of the 20 mol% Y-doped barium zirconate (BZY20) with Dy. A modified Pechini method was applied to synthesize the BZ{sub 0.8−x}D{sub x}Y20 powders. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the well-calcined powders indicated that the specimens with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2 possessed a single-phase of cubic perovskite-type oxides. Stability tests under both CO{sub 2} and moist air atmospheres demonstrated that the excellent chemical stability of the base BZY20 material was not influenced by the introduction of Dy. High density pellets with larger grain sizes were obtained at temperatures lower than those commonly employed for the base Y-doped barium zirconate compound. The proton conductivities, measured in different oxidizing and reducing, dry and humidified atmospheres by impedance spectroscopy, were significantly influenced by the Dy amount. In overall, BaZr{sub (0.8−x)}Dy{sub x}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} solid solutions having Dy ∼ 5–10% showed excellent chemical stability and high conductivity (above 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at

  17. X-ray fluorescence analysis of strontium in environmental water by using barium carbonate coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Akio; Maeda, Yoshimichi; Azumi, Takatugu

    1986-01-01

    Determination of strontium in environmental water was studied by a coprecipitation method with barium carbonate and the subsequent X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fifty mg of barium ion and 1 g of sodium carbonate were added to sample water, which was then mixed for one hour by a magnetic stirrer. Precipitate was gathered onto a membrane filter paper to measure its XF intensity. The amount of strontium from 2 to 150 μg could be repeatedly determined by means of the calibration curve method, and the limit of detection was found to be 0.6 μg of strontium. A large amount of calcium and magnesium ions was found to interfere with the coprecipitation of strontium ion. However, this interference could be eliminated by using a small amount of sample water. Strontium in several environmental waters was determined by the above method. The results obtained from the calibration curve method and the standard addition method agreed with each other, and also agreed with those from the atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  18. Particulate barium tracing of significant mesopelagic carbon remineralisation in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Nolwenn; Planquette, Hélène; Planchon, Frédéric; Sarthou, Géraldine; Jacquet, Stéphanie; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Gourain, Arthur; Cheize, Marie; Monin, Laurence; André, Luc; Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman; Dehairs, Frank

    2018-04-01

    The remineralisation of sinking particles by prokaryotic heterotrophic activity is important for controlling oceanic carbon sequestration. Here, we report mesopelagic particulate organic carbon (POC) remineralisation fluxes in the North Atlantic along the GEOTRACES-GA01 section (GEOVIDE cruise; May-June 2014) using the particulate biogenic barium (excess barium; Baxs) proxy. Important mesopelagic (100-1000 m) Baxs differences were observed along the transect depending on the intensity of past blooms, the phytoplankton community structure, and the physical forcing, including downwelling. The subpolar province was characterized by the highest mesopelagic Baxs content (up to 727 pmol L-1), which was attributed to an intense bloom averaging 6 mg chl a m-3 between January and June 2014 and by an intense 1500 m deep convection in the central Labrador Sea during the winter preceding the sampling. This downwelling could have promoted a deepening of the prokaryotic heterotrophic activity, increasing the Baxs content. In comparison, the temperate province, characterized by the lowest Baxs content (391 pmol L-1), was sampled during the bloom period and phytoplankton appear to be dominated by small and calcifying species, such as coccolithophorids. The Baxs content, related to oxygen consumption, was converted into a remineralisation flux using an updated relationship, proposed for the first time in the North Atlantic. The estimated fluxes were of the same order of magnitude as other fluxes obtained using independent methods (moored sediment traps, incubations) in the North Atlantic. Interestingly, in the subpolar and subtropical provinces, mesopelagic POC remineralisation fluxes (up to 13 and 4.6 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively) were equalling and occasionally even exceeding upper-ocean POC export fluxes, deduced using the 234Th method. These results highlight the important impact of the mesopelagic remineralisation on the biological carbon pump of the studied area with a near

  19. Origin of thermally stable ferroelectricity in a porous barium titanate thin film synthesized through block copolymer templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Suzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A porous barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin film was chemically synthesized using a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method in which micelles of amphipathic diblock copolymers served as structure-directing agents. In the Raman spectrum of the porous BaTiO3 thin film, a peak corresponding to the ferroelectric tetragonal phase was observed at around 710 cm−1, and it remained stable at much higher temperature than the Curie temperature of bulk single-crystal BaTiO3 (∼130 °C. Measurements revealed that the ferroelectricity of the BaTiO3 thin film has high thermal stability. By analyzing high-resolution transmission electron microscope images of the BaTiO3 thin film by the fast Fourier transform mapping method, the spatial distribution of stress in the BaTiO3 framework was clearly visualized. Careful analysis also indicated that the porosity in the BaTiO3 thin film introduced anisotropic compressive stress, which deformed the crystals. The resulting elongated unit cell caused further displacement of the Ti4+ cation from the center of the lattice. This displacement increased the electric dipole moment of the BaTiO3 thin film, effectively enhancing its ferro(piezoelectricity.

  20. Promotion of Water-mediated Carbon Removal by Nanostructured Barium Oxide/nickel Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Yang; Y Choi; W Qin; H Chen; K Blinn; M Liu; P Liu; J Bai; T Tyson; M Liu

    2011-12-31

    The existing Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) perform poorly in carbon-containing fuels because of coking and deactivation at desired operating temperatures. Here we report a new anode with nanostructured barium oxide/nickel (BaO/Ni) interfaces for low-cost SOFCs, demonstrating high power density and stability in C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, CO and gasified carbon fuels at 750 C. Synchrotron-based X-ray analyses and microscopy reveal that nanosized BaO islands grow on the Ni surface, creating numerous nanostructured BaO/Ni interfaces that readily adsorb water and facilitate water-mediated carbon removal reactions. Density functional theory calculations predict that the dissociated OH from H2O on BaO reacts with C on Ni near the BaO/Ni interface to produce CO and H species, which are then electrochemically oxidized at the triple-phase boundaries of the anode. This anode offers potential for ushering in a new generation of SOFCs for efficient, low-emission conversion of readily available fuels to electricity.

  1. Barium and Tc-poor S stars: Binary masqueraders among carbon stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.

    1997-01-01

    The current understanding of the origin of barium and S stars is reviewed, based on new orbital elements and binary frequencies. The following questions are addressed: (i) Is binarity a necessary condition to produce a barium star? (ii) What is the mass transfer mode (wind accretion or RLOF?) responsible for their formation? (iii) Do barium stars form as dwarfs or as giants? (iv) Do barium stars evolve into Tc-poor S stars? (v) What is the relative frequency of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars?

  2. Barium enema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... series; Colorectal cancer - lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - barium enema; Crohn disease - lower GI series; Crohn disease - barium enema; Intestinal blockage - lower GI series; Intestinal blockage - ...

  3. Complete sulphate removal from neutralised acidic mine drainage with barium carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available -barium-calcium) Desalination process which uses barium salts to further reduce the sulphate concentration to acceptable levels with the added advantage that sulphate removal can be controlled due to the low solubility of BaSO4. This paper reports on the results...

  4. Photoluminescence properties and energy-transfer of thermal-stable Ce3+, Mn2+-codoped barium strontium lithium silicate red phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinguo; Gong Menglian

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Excited by UV, strong red luminescence is observed from Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ -codoped barium strontium lithium silicate (BSLS), while violet-blue emission from Ce 3+ sole doped BSLS. → These results indicate the Mn 2+ -derived red emission is originated by an efficient Ce 3+ → Mn 2+ energy transfer. → The red emission becomes stronger with increased Sr content, and shows red-shift. → These phosphors demonstrate good thermal stability even in 180 o C, which is suitable for NUV LED application. - Abstract: A series of thermal-stable Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ -codoped barium strontium lithium silicate (BSLS) phosphors was synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction. The XRD patterns of this phosphor seem to be a new phase that has not been reported before. BSLS:Ce 3+ , Mn 2+ showed two emission bands under 365 nm excitation: one observed at 421 nm was attributed to Ce 3+ emission, and the other found in red region was assigned to Mn 2+ emission through Ce 3+ -Mn 2+ efficient energy transfer. The Mn 2+ emission shifted red along with the replacement of barium by strontium, which was due to the change of crystal field. A composition-optimized phosphor, BSLS:0.10Ce 3+ , 0.05Mn 2+ (Ba = 65), exhibited strong and broad red-emitting and supreme thermal stability. The results suggest that this phosphor is suitable as a red component for NUV LED or high pressure Hg vapor (HPMV) lamp.

  5. Barium carbonate sediment sampling for inorganic dissolved carbon using isotope mass ratio spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Rohaimah Demanah; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2009-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling to obtain the precipitate of BaCO 3 solutions that will be used to analyze 13 C from field work in Kelana Jaya, Selangor, Langkawi, Kedah and Taiping, Perak. The sampling involves collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemicals used. The main purpose of this sampling is to obtain the precipitate of BaCO 3 for 13 C analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise result. With this, the data from the laboratory analysis result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  6. Stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of lakes along a trophic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluijver, A.; Schoon, P.L.; Downing, J.A.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The stable carbon (C) isotope variability of dissolved inorganic and organic C (DIC and DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), glucose and polar-lipid derived fatty acids (PLFAs) was studied in a survey of 22 North American oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes. The d13C of different PLFAs were used as

  7. Stable-carbon isotope variability in tree foliage and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1986-01-01

    This study documents variation of stable-carbon isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C) in trees of genera Juniperus and Pinus under field conditions. Results are from cellulose analysis on leaves, twigs, and wood from a number of localities in the southwestern US. Substantial variability, typically 1-3%, exists among leaves, within wood (radially, vertically, circumferentially), and between individuals at a site. These results may help guide sampling in tracer-type studies with stable-carbon isotope ratios and aid in the interpretation of isotopic results from such studies

  8. Carbon nanotubes allow capture of krypton, barium and lead for multichannel biological X-ray fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Christopher J; Rutte, Reida N; Geraki, Kalotina; Pach, Elzbieta; Martincic, Markus; Kierkowicz, Magdalena; De Munari, Sonia; Wals, Kim; Raj, Ritu; Ballesteros, Belén; Tobias, Gerard; Anthony, Daniel C; Davis, Benjamin G

    2016-10-26

    The desire to study biology in situ has been aided by many imaging techniques. Among these, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping permits observation of elemental distributions in a multichannel manner. However, XRF imaging is underused, in part, because of the difficulty in interpreting maps without an underlying cellular 'blueprint'; this could be supplied using contrast agents. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be filled with a wide range of inorganic materials, and thus can be used as 'contrast agents' if biologically absent elements are encapsulated. Here we show that sealed single-walled CNTs filled with lead, barium and even krypton can be produced, and externally decorated with peptides to provide affinity for sub-cellular targets. The agents are able to highlight specific organelles in multiplexed XRF mapping, and are, in principle, a general and versatile tool for this, and other modes of biological imaging.

  9. Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stable isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC), and contents of OC and nitrogen for four sediment cores recovered from lakes Makat (located in the Ngorongoro Crater), Ndutu and Masek (located in the Serengeti Plains) are used to document sources of organic matter (OM) and climatic changes in sub-arid ...

  10. Radioactivity measurement of barium carbonate [14C] by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Hoizumi, Kiyoshi

    1985-03-01

    Two methods of sample preparation for the measurement of specific activity of BaCO 3 [ 14 C] by external standard method in liquid scintillation counting were studied. BaCO 3 [ 14 C] was decomposed by perchloric acid solution and generated CO 2 [ 14 C] was absorbed by ethylene glycol monomethyl ether solution of monoethanolamine as the method 1 or aqueous sodium hydroxide as the method 2. In order to prepare the sample solution of adequate radioactivity concentration, these carbonate solutions by the methods 1 and 2 were diluted with the suitable organic solvent and distilled water respectively. One tenth millilitre of these sample solutions was added into 10 ml of PPO-toluene scintillator containing 0.1 ml of monoethanolamine in a counting vial and homogeneously dissolved with ethyl alcohol. The results of the radioactivity measurement of BaCO 3 [ 14 C] based on the different method agreed within 5 % and the counting rate was found to be stable for as long as 7 deays or more. Both methods of preparation are suitable for the routine measurement because of their simplicity and feasibility. In the case of method 2, the liquid radioactive waste is almost inorganic solution and recovery in the form of BaCO 3 [ 14 C] is easily performed, so that this method is very advantageous from the view point of the radioactive waste treatement. (author)

  11. Stable carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopes in non-carbonate fractions of cold-seep carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong; Peng, Yongbo; Peckmann, Jörn; Roberts, Harry; Chen, Duofu

    2017-04-01

    Sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) supports chemosynthesis-based communities and limits the release of methane from marine sediments. This process promotes the formation of carbonates close to the seafloor along continental margins. The geochemical characteristics of the carbonate minerals of these rocks are increasingly understood, questions remain about the geochemical characteristics of the non-carbonate fractions. Here, we report stable carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope patterns in non-carbonate fractions of seep carbonates. The authigenic carbonates were collected from three modern seep provinces (Black Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and South China Sea) and three ancient seep deposits (Marmorito, northern Italy, Miocene; SR4 deposit of the Lincoln Creek Formation and Whiskey Creek, western Washington, USA, Eocene to Oligocene). The δ13C values of non-carbonate fractions range from ˜-25‰ to -80‰ VPDB. These values indicate that fossil methane mixed with varying amounts of pelagic organic matter is the dominant source of carbon in these fractions. The relatively small offset between the δ34S signatures of the non-carbonate fractions and the respective sulfide minerals suggests that locally produced hydrogen sulfide is the main source of sulfur in seep environments. The δ15N values of the non-carbonate fractions are generally lower than the corresponding values of deep-sea sediments, suggesting that organic nitrogen is mostly of a local origin. This study reveals the potential of using δ13C, δ15N, δ34S values to discern seep and non-seep deposits. In cases where δ13Ccarbonate values are only moderately low due to mixing processes and lipid biomarkers have been erased in the course of burial, it is difficult to trace back AOM owing to the lack of other records. This problem is even more pronounced when authigenic carbonate is not available in ancient seep environments. Acknowledgments: The authors thank BOEM and NOAA for their years' support

  12. An easily sintered, chemically stable, barium zirconate-based proton conductor for high-performance proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Wenping

    2014-07-25

    Yttrium and indium co-doped barium zirconate is investigated to develop a chemically stable and sintering active proton conductor for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). BaZr0.8Y0.2-xInxO3- δ possesses a pure cubic perovskite structure. The sintering activity of BaZr0.8Y0.2-xInxO3- δ increases significantly with In concentration. BaZr0.8Y0.15In0.05O3- δ (BZYI5) exhibits the highest total electrical conductivity among the sintered oxides. BZYI5 also retains high chemical stability against CO2, vapor, and reduction of H2. The good sintering activity, high conductivity, and chemical stability of BZYI5 facilitate the fabrication of durable SOFCs based on a highly conductive BZYI5 electrolyte film by cost-effective ceramic processes. Fully dense BZYI5 electrolyte film is successfully prepared on the anode substrate by a facile drop-coating technique followed by co-firing at 1400 °C for 5 h in air. The BZYI5 film exhibits one of the highest conductivity among the BaZrO3-based electrolyte films with various sintering aids. BZYI5-based single cells output very encouraging and by far the highest peak power density for BaZrO3-based proton-conducting SOFCs, reaching as high as 379 mW cm-2 at 700 °C. The results demonstrate that Y and In co-doping is an effective strategy for exploring sintering active and chemically stable BaZrO3-based proton conductors for high performance proton-conducting SOFCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Atomization mechanisms for barium in furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styris, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry are used simultaneously in order to elucidate atomization mechanisms of barium dichloride in pyrolytic graphite, vitreous carbon, and tantalum furnaces. Gas-phase barium dicarbide is observed to appear concurrently with the free barium. Barium oxide and barium dihydroxide precursors appear with the chlorides. Surface reactions involving species that are absorbed on the various furnaces are postulated to explain the appearances of the species that are observed in the gas phase. 49 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  14. A Water-Stable Proton-Conductive Barium(II)-Organic Framework for Ammonia Sensing at High Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaimeng; Zhao, Lili; Yu, Shihang; Zhou, Wenyan; Li, Zifeng; Li, Gang

    2018-06-07

    In view of environmental protection and the need for early prediction of major diseases, it is necessary to accurately monitor the change of trace ammonia concentration in air or in exhaled breath. However, the adoption of proton-conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as smart sensors in this field is limited by a lack of ultrasensitive gas-detecting performance at high relative humidity (RH). Here, the pellet fabrication of a water-stable proton-conductive MOF, Ba( o-CbPhH 2 IDC)(H 2 O) 4 ] n (1) ( o-CbPhH 4 IDC = 2-(2-carboxylphenyl)-1 H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid) is reported. The MOF 1 displays enhanced sensitivity and selectivity to NH 3 gas at high RHs (>85%) and 30 °C, and the sensing mechanism is suggested. The electrochemical impedance gas sensor fabricated by MOF 1 is a promising sensor for ammonia at mild temperature and high RHs.

  15. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ( 13 C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of 13 C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure 13 C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard

  16. A promising lightweight multicomponent microwave absorber based on doped barium hexaferrite/calcium titanate/multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed [Imam Hossein University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Science and Research Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2016-07-15

    We present the design of a microwave absorber in the X band based on ternary nanocomposite of doped barium hexaferrite (Ba-M)/calcium titanate (CTO)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in epoxy matrix. The hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize Ba-M and CTO nanopowder. The phase identification has been investigated using XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer, and vector network analyzer are used to analyze the morphology of the different components and the magnetic, electromagnetic, and microwave absorption properties of the final composite absorbers, respectively. As far as we know, the design of this type of multicomponent microwave absorber has not been investigated before. The results reveal that the combination of these three components with their different loss mechanisms has a synergistic effect that enhances the attenuation properties of the final composite. The absorber of only 2.5-mm thickness and 35 wt% of loading ratio exhibits a minimum reflection loss of −43 dB at 10.2 GHz with a bandwidth of 3.6 GHz, while the corresponding absorber based on pure (Ba-M) shows a minimum reflection loss of −34 dB at 9.8 GHz with a bandwidth of 0.256 GHz and a thickness of 4 mm.Graphical Abstract.

  17. Nitrogen: Unraveling the Secret to Stable Carbon-Supported Pt-Alloy Electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. Nitrogen: unraveling the secret to stable carbon-supported Pt- alloy electrocatalysts The views, opinions and/or...Nitrogen: unraveling the secret to stable carbon-supported Pt-alloy electrocatalysts Report Title Nitrogen functionalities significantly improve...design and optimization of next generation high performance catalyst materials. Nitrogen: unraveling the secret to stable carbon-supported Pt-alloy

  18. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  19. Patterns in Stable Isotope Values of Nitrogen and Carbon in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (15N, 13ddC) are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step toward developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter 15dN values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4‰, and 13dC values from −26.4 to −15.6‰over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends toward lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher 15dN and 13dC values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the 15dN of subsurface and surface particulate m

  20. Methodologies for extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon for stable carbon isotope studies : evaluation and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1982-01-01

    The gas evolution and the strontium carbonate precipitation techniques to extract dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for stable carbon isotope analysis were investigated. Theoretical considerations, involving thermodynamic calculations and computer simulation pointed out several possible sources of error in delta carbon-13 measurements of the DIC and demonstrated the need for experimental evaluation of the magnitude of the error. An alternative analytical technique, equilibration with out-gassed vapor phase, is proposed. The experimental studies revealed that delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted from a 0.01 molar NaHC03 solution by both techniques agreed within 0.1 per mil with the delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted by the precipitation technique, and an increase of only 0.27 per mil in that extracted by the gas evolution technique. The efficiency of extraction of DIC decreased with sulfate concentration in the precipitation technique but was independent of sulfate concentration in the gas evolution technique. Both the precipitation and gas evolution technique were found to be satisfactory for extraction of DIC from different kinds of natural water for stable carbon isotope analysis, provided appropriate precautions are observed in handling the samples. For example, it was found that diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide does alter the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the precipitation technique; hot manganese dioxide purification changes the delta carbon-13 of carbon dioxide. (USGS)

  1. Characteristics of stable carbon isotopic composition of shale gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Qu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A type Ⅱ kerogen with low thermal maturity was adopted to perform hydrocarbon generation pyrolysis experiments in a vacuum (Micro-Scale Sealed Vessel system at the heating rates of 2 °C/h and 20 °C/h. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of gas hydrocarbons were measured to investigate their evolving characteristics and the possible reasons for isotope reversal. The δ13C values of methane became more negative with the increasing pyrolysis temperatures until it reached the lightest point, after which they became more positive. Meanwhile, the δ13C values of ethane and propane showed a positive trend with elevating pyrolysis temperatures. The carbon isotopic compositions of shale gasses were mainly determined by the type of parent organic matter, thermal evolutionary extent, and gas migration in shale systems. Our experiments and study proved that the isotope reversal shouldn't occur in a pure thermogenic gas reservoir, it must be involved with some other geochemical process/es; although mechanisms responsible for the reversal are still vague. Carbon isotopic composition of the Fayetteville and Barnett shale gas demonstrated that the isotope reversal was likely involved with water–gas reaction and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis during its generation.

  2. Biosynthetic effects on the stable carbon isotopic compositions of agal lipids: Implications for deciphering the carbon isotopic biomarker record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Klein Breteler, W.C.M.; Blokker, P.; Schogt, N.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Grice, K.; Baas, M.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen species of algae covering an extensive range of classes were cultured and stable carbon isotopic compositions of their lipids were analysed in order to assess carbon isotopic fractionation effects during their biosynthesis. The fatty acids were found to have similar stable carbon isotopic

  3. Barite (Barium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Miller, M. Michael; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products. Within the United States, barite is produced mainly from mines in Nevada. Imports in 2011 (the latest year for which complete data were available) accounted for 78 percent of domestic consumption and came mostly from China.Barite deposits can be divided into the following four main types: bedded-sedimentary; bedded-volcanic; vein, cavity-fill, and metasomatic; and residual. Bedded-sedimentary deposits, which are found in sedimentary rocks with characteristics of high biological productivity during sediment accumulation, are the major sources of barite production and account for the majority of reserves, both in the United States and worldwide. In 2013, China and India were the leading producers of barite, and they have large identified resources that position them to be significant producers for the foreseeable future. The potential for undiscovered barite resources in the United States and in many other countries is considerable, however. The expected tight supply and rising costs in the coming years will likely be met by increased production from such countries as Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, and Vietnam.Barium has limited mobility in the environment and exposed barium in the vicinity of barite mines poses minimal risk to human or ecosystem health. Of greater concern is the potential for acidic metal-bearing drainage at sites where the barite ores or waste rocks contain abundant sulfide minerals. This risk is lessened naturally if the host rocks at the site are acid-neutralizing, and the risk can also be lessened by engineering measures.

  4. Stable carbon isotope ratios: implications for the source of sediment carbon and for phytoplankton carbon assimilation in Lake Memphremagog, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaZerte, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope (SCI) ratio of the sediment of Lake Memphremagog, Quebec is compared with that ot terrestrial sources and the phytoplankton to determine the relative proportion of allochthonous carbon incorporated into the sediments. Approximately 40-50% of the organic carbon in the main basins' pelagic sediment was terrestrial in origin, whereas up to 100% was terrestrial in littoral areas. The SCI method of determining the organic carbon source of sediments appears more reliable than the C/N method. A comparison of the SCI fractionation of the phytoplankton with laboratory cultures under different degrees of carbon limitation indicates that the phytoplankton of Lake Memphremagog are not carbon limited and fix carbon primarily by the C 3 pathway

  5. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-04-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices.

  6. Statistical properties of barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Barium stars are G- and K-giant stars with atmospheric excesses of s-process elements, and a broadband spectral depression in the blue portion of the spectrum. The strength of the λ4554 Ball line is used as a classification parameter known as the Barium Intensity. They have a mean absolute magnitude of 1.0 and a dispersion of 1.2 magnitudes (assuming a Gaussian distribution in absolute magnitude) as measured from secular and statistical parallaxes. These stars apparently belong to a young-disk population from analyses of both the solar reflex motion and their residual velocity distribution, which implies that they have an upper mass limit of around three solar masses. There is no apparent correlation of barium intensity with either luminosity or kinematic properties. The barium stars appear to be preferentially distributed in the direction of the local spiral arm, but show no preference to associate with or avoid the direction of the galactic center. They do not appear related to either the carbon or S-stars because of these tendencies and because of the stellar population to which each type of star belongs. The distribution in absolute magnitude combined with star count analyses implies that these stars are slightly less numerous than previously believed. Barium stars show infrared excesses that correlate with their barium intensities

  7. Stable and radioactive carbon in Indian soils: implications to soil carbon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskar, A.H.; Yadava, M.G.; Ramesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon is a very useful tool to study soil carbon dynamic. The mean residence time of SOC in Indian soils is about a century at the top 0-15 cm, increases linearly to reach values ranging from 2000 to 4000 yrs at a depth of 100 cm. It mainly depends on the clay content indicating that the clay is the main governing factor for SOC stabilization. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil carbonates and SOC are good proxies for paleoclimate and paleovegetation reconstruction. The present day sub-humid climate in the lower Narmada valley has been established prior to ∼ 3 ka. Two comparatively arid phases around 2.1 and 1.3 ka are recorded by oxygen isotopes of soil carbonates; consistent with other proxy records showing its regional significance

  8. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The

  9. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  10. Morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition of black carbon (BC) in urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C). Elemental analysis shows that carbon content in the BC of studied soils ranged from 64.5 to 78.4%, with the average more than 70%. The O/C atomic ratio of BC is on average 0.18. The BC particle displays different morphology, including porous spherical, irregular porous fragmentary, and blocky shapes. The porous spherical BC particles has atomic molar O/C ratio determined by SEM-EDS ranging from 0.04 to 0.37. XRD indicates that BC exists in mainly combining with mineral phases hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), kaolinite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and calcite (CaCO 3 ). The FTIR spectra of BC particles show major bands at approximately 3400 cm -1 (O-H), 2920 cm -1 (C = H), 1600 cm -1 (C = C), 1230 cm -1 (C = O), and 1070 cm -1 (C = O). The stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) of BC ranges from -24.48 to -23.18‰ with the average of -23.79 ± 0.39‰. The concentration of BC in the industrial area is significantly (p fuel combustion. Results indicated that a combination of atomic O/C ratio, porous structure, and stable carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) of BC could reflect effectively the origin of BC

  11. Elemental and stable isotopic approaches for studying the organic and inorganic carbon components in natural samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, J-F

    2009-01-01

    The carbon cycle is an important part of major biogeochemical cycles. Many techniques may be used to characterize carbon amounts and sources in the environment. Here we first review the most popular techniques for the determination of organic and inorganic carbon concentrations. Decarbonatation techniques are also reviewed in details since it is often an important part of organic carbon analysis. The second part of this paper addresses the use of carbon stable isotopes to characterize organic carbon sources and processes in the environment. An overview of general stable isotopes background and terminology is given as well as the most popular analytical techniques.

  12. Tracing organic matter sources of estuarine tidal flat nematodes with stable carbon isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, T.; Luyten, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study explores the use of stable carbon isotopes to trace organic matter sources of intertidal nematodes in the Schelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Stable carbon isotope signatures of nematodes from a saltmarsh and 4 tidal flat stations were determined in spring and winter situations, and

  13. Stable carbon isotope response to oceanic anoxic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiumian; Wang Chengshan; Li Xianghui

    2001-01-01

    Based on discussion of isotope compositions and fractionation of marine carbonate and organic carbon, the author studies the relationship between oceanic anoxic events and changes in the carbon isotope fractionation of both carbonate and organic matter. During the oceanic anoxic events, a great number of organisms were rapidly buried, which caused a kind of anoxic conditions by their decomposition consuming dissolved oxygen. Since 12 C-rich organism preserved, atmosphere-ocean system will enrich relatively of 13 C. As a result, simultaneous marine carbonate will record the positive excursion of carbon isotope. There is a distinctive δ 13 C excursion during oceanic anoxic events in the world throughout the geological time. In the Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event. this positive excursion arrived at ∼0.2% of marine carbonate and at ∼0.4% of organic matter, respectively. Variations in the carbon isotopic compositions of marine carbonate and organic carbon record the changes in the fraction of organic carbon buried throughout the geological time and may provide clues to the changes in rates of weathering and burial of organic carbon. This will provide a possibility of interpreting not only the changes in the global carbon cycle throughout the geological time, but also that in atmospheric p CO 2

  14. Multi-proxy approach (Thorium-234, excess Barium) of export and remineralisation fluxes of carbon and biogenic elements associated with the oceanic biological pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, Nolwenn

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to improve our understanding of the different controls that affect the oceanic biological carbon pump. Particulate export and remineralisation fluxes were investigated using the thorium-234 ( 234 Th) and biogenic barium (Baxs) proxies. In the North Atlantic, the highest particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes were associated to biogenic (biogenic silica or calcium carbonate) and lithogenic minerals, ballasting the particles. Export efficiency was generally low (≤ 10%) and inversely related to primary production, highlighting a phase lag between production and export. The highest transfer efficiencies, i.e. the fraction of POC that reached 400 m, were driven by sinking particles ballasted by calcite or lithogenic minerals. The regional variation of meso-pelagic remineralisation was attributed to changes in bloom intensity, phytoplankton cell size, community structure and physical forcing (down-welling). Carbon remineralisation balanced, or even exceeded, POC export, highlighting the impact of meso-pelagic remineralisation on the biological pump with a near-zero, deep carbon sequestration for spring 2014. Export of trace metals appeared strongly influenced by lithogenic material advected from the margins. However, at open ocean stations not influenced by lithogenic matter, trace metal export rather depended on phytoplankton activity and biomass. A last part of this work focused on export of biogenic silica, particulate nitrogen and iron near the Kerguelen Island. This area is characterized by a natural iron-fertilization that increases export fluxes. Inside the fertilized area, flux variability is related to phytoplankton community composition. (author)

  15. Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through Carbon-13 stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Thesis ‘Studying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through

    carbon-13 stable isotopes’

    Ivar van der Velde

    Making predictions of future climate is difficult, mainly due to large uncertainties in the carbon cycle. The rate at which carbon is stored in the oceans and

  16. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  17. Stable carbon isotope composition of organic material and carbonate in sediment of a swamp and lakes in Honshu island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    Recent sediments from a swamp and lakes in Honshu were analyzed for organic carbon and carbonate contents, and stable isotope ratios of carbon in the organic materials and carbonate. delta C 13 values of the carbonate tend to be distinctly larger than those of organic carbon in reducing condition as natural gas field, whereas in oxidizing SO 4 -reducing conditions, they are slightly larger than those of organic carbon within the limited range of a few per mil. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic carbon in sediment of the swamp, Obuchi-numa, were analyzed and compared with habitat analysis of associated fossil diatoms. deltaC 13 values of organic carbon in the sediment vary in correlation with the species abundance in habitat of the associated fossil diatoms, ranging from fresh-water (-0.0282) to coastal marine (-0.0236) via brackish. (auth.)

  18. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  19. Highly selective and stable carbon dioxide uptake in polyindole-derived microporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Tiwari, Jitendra N; Kemp, K Christain; Yousuf, Muhammad; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-05-21

    Adsorption with solid sorbents is considered to be one of the most promising methods for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from power plant flue gases. In this study, microporous carbon materials used for CO₂ capture were synthesized by the chemical activation of polyindole nanofibers (PIF) at temperatures from 500 to 800 °C using KOH, which resulted in nitrogen (N)-doped carbon materials. The N-doped carbon materials were found to be microporous with an optimal adsorption pore size for CO₂ of 0.6 nm and a maximum (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) BET surface area of 1185 m(2) g(-1). The PIF activated at 600 °C (PIF6) has a surface area of 527 m(2) g(-1) and a maximum CO₂ storage capacity of 3.2 mmol g(-1) at 25 °C and 1 bar. This high CO₂ uptake is attributed to its highly microporous character and optimum N content. Additionally, PIF6 material displays a high CO₂ uptake at low pressure (1.81 mmol g(-1) at 0.2 bar and 25 °C), which is the best low pressure CO₂ uptake reported for carbon-based materials. The adsorption capacity of this material remained remarkably stable even after 10 cycles. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated to be in the range of 42.7-24.1 kJ mol(-1). Besides the excellent CO₂ uptake and stability, PIF6 also exhibits high selectivity values for CO₂ over N₂, CH₄, and H₂ of 58.9, 12.3, and 101.1 at 25 °C, respectively, and these values are significantly higher than reported values.

  20. Thermal reactions of some calcium, strontium, and barium chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarska-Piesse, B.; Gontarz, Z.; Ostrowski, A.; Kucharski, R.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of calcium chromates and solid state reactions of barium and strontium chromates(VI) with barium and strontium hydroxides and carbonates, as well as the reduction of chromates by carbon and hydrogen, have been investigated. The mechanisms of individual stages of the thermal decomposition have been proposed on the basis of morphological classification. (author)

  1. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D., E-mail: nelsoa@umich.edu [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Alekseev, Evgeny V. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, Juelich 52428 (Germany); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a

  2. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest canopy...

  3. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest...

  4. Carbon sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany derived from stable soil organic carbon saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Hübner, Rico; Spörlein, Peter; Geuß, Uwe; Hangen, Edzard; Reischl, Arthur; Schilling, Bernd; von Lützow, Margit; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-02-01

    Sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) in soils through improved management of forest and agricultural land is considered to have high potential for global CO2 mitigation. However, the potential of soils to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) in a stable form, which is limited by the stabilization of SOC against microbial mineralization, is largely unknown. In this study, we estimated the C sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany by calculating the potential SOC saturation of silt and clay particles according to Hassink [Plant and Soil 191 (1997) 77] on the basis of 516 soil profiles. The determination of the current SOC content of silt and clay fractions for major soil units and land uses allowed an estimation of the C saturation deficit corresponding to the long-term C sequestration potential. The results showed that cropland soils have a low level of C saturation of around 50% and could store considerable amounts of additional SOC. A relatively high C sequestration potential was also determined for grassland soils. In contrast, forest soils had a low C sequestration potential as they were almost C saturated. A high proportion of sites with a high degree of apparent oversaturation revealed that in acidic, coarse-textured soils the relation to silt and clay is not suitable to estimate the stable C saturation. A strong correlation of the C saturation deficit with temperature and precipitation allowed a spatial estimation of the C sequestration potential for Bavaria. In total, about 395 Mt CO2 -equivalents could theoretically be stored in A horizons of cultivated soils - four times the annual emission of greenhouse gases in Bavaria. Although achieving the entire estimated C storage capacity is unrealistic, improved management of cultivated land could contribute significantly to CO2 mitigation. Moreover, increasing SOC stocks have additional benefits with respect to enhanced soil fertility and agricultural productivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Geochemistry of carbon stable isotopes in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes geochemical process which affect the distribution in the sea of the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of total inorganic dissolved CO 2 ; synthesis of the biomass and respiratory phenomena; oxidation of organic matter; dissolution of carbonates; run off waters; exchange of CO 2 between sea and atmosphere. Some applications to the paleoclimatology are presented. (author) [fr

  6. Stable carbon isotope depth profiles and soil organic carbon dynamics in the lower Mississippi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J.G.; Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of depth trends of 13C abundance in soil organic matter and of 13C abundance from soil-respired CO2 provides useful indications of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle and of paleoecological change. We measured depth trends of 13C abundance from cropland and control pairs of soils in the lower Mississippi Basin, as well as the 13C abundance of soil-respired CO2 produced during approximately 1-year soil incubation, to determine the role of several candidate processes on the 13C depth profile of soil organic matter. Depth profiles of 13C from uncultivated control soils show a strong relationship between the natural logarithm of soil organic carbon concentration and its isotopic composition, consistent with a model Rayleigh distillation of 13C in decomposing soil due to kinetic fractionation during decomposition. Laboratory incubations showed that initially respired CO 2 had a relatively constant 13C content, despite large differences in the 13C content of bulk soil organic matter. Initially respired CO2 was consistently 13C-depleted with respect to bulk soil and became increasingly 13C-depleted during 1-year, consistent with the hypothesis of accumulation of 13C in the products of microbial decomposition, but showing increasing decomposition of 13C-depleted stable organic components during decomposition without input of fresh biomass. We use the difference between 13C / 12C ratios (calculated as ??-values) between respired CO 2 and bulk soil organic carbon as an index of the degree of decomposition of soil, showing trends which are consistent with trends of 14C activity, and with results of a two-pooled kinetic decomposition rate model describing CO2 production data recorded during 1 year of incubation. We also observed inconsistencies with the Rayleigh distillation model in paired cropland soils and reasons for these inconsistencies are discussed. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stable isotopic constraints on global soil organic carbon turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Liu, Dongwei; Hou, Jianfeng; Cheng, Weixin; Bai, Edith

    2018-02-01

    Carbon dioxide release during soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover is a pivotal component of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global climate change. However, reliably measuring SOC turnover rates on large spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Here we use a natural carbon isotope approach, defined as beta (β), which was quantified from the δ13C of vegetation and soil reported in the literature (176 separate soil profiles), to examine large-scale controls of climate, soil physical properties and nutrients over patterns of SOC turnover across terrestrial biomes worldwide. We report a significant relationship between β and calculated soil C turnover rates (k), which were estimated by dividing soil heterotrophic respiration rates by SOC pools. ln( - β) exhibits a significant linear relationship with mean annual temperature, but a more complex polynomial relationship with mean annual precipitation, implying strong-feedbacks of SOC turnover to climate changes. Soil nitrogen (N) and clay content correlate strongly and positively with ln( - β), revealing the additional influence of nutrients and physical soil properties on SOC decomposition rates. Furthermore, a strong (R2 = 0.76; p turnover and thereby improving predictions of multiple global change influences over terrestrial C-climate feedback.

  8. Highly stable carbon-doped Cu films on barrierless Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Li, X.N.; Nie, L.F.; Chu, J.P.; Wang, Q.; Lin, C.H.; Dong, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical resistivities and thermal stabilities of carbon-doped Cu films on silicon have been investigated. The films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a Cu-C alloy target. After annealing at 400 deg. C for 1 h, the resistivity maintains a low level at 2.7 μΩ-cm and no Cu-Si reaction is detected in the film by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. According to the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results, carbon is enriched near the interfacial region of Cu(C)/Si, and is considered responsible for the growth of an amorphous Cu(C)/Si interlayer that inhibits the Cu-Si inter-diffusion. Fine Cu grains, less than 100 nm, were present in the Cu(C) films after long-term and high-temperature annealings. The effect of C shows a combination of forming a self-passivated interface barrier layer and maintaining a fine-grained structure of Cu. A low current leakage measured on this Cu(C) film also provides further evidence for the carbon-induced diffusion barrier interlayer performance.

  9. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in vertical peat profiles of natural and drained boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Mpamah, Promise; Rissanen, Antti; Pitkänen, Aki; Turunen, Jukka; Simola, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands form a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle. Change in peat hydrology, due to global warming is projected to change microbiological processes and peat carbon pool. We tested if bulk stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes serve as indicators of severe long term drying in peatlands drained for forestry. Depth profile analysis of peat, for their carbon and nitrogen content as well as their carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures, were conducted for peatlands in southern and eastern Finland, having ombrotrophic and minerotrophic natural and corresponding drained pairs or separate drained sites. The selection of sites allowed us to compare changes due to different fertility and changes due to long term artificial drying. Drainage lasting over 40 years has led to changes in hydrology, vegetation, nutrient mineralization and respiration. Furthermore, increased nutrient uptake and possible recycling of peat nitrogen and carbon trough vegetation back to the peat surface, also possibly has an effect on the stable isotopic composition of peat carbon and nitrogen. We think that drainage induced changes somehow correspond to those caused by changed hydrology due to climate change. We will present data from these measurements and discuss their implications for carbon and nitrogen flows in peatlands.

  10. Charge distributions of barium isotopes from muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.; Wohlfahrt, H.D.; Hoehn, M.V.; Tanaka, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a muonic X-ray study of the charge radii of stable barium isotopes are presented and compared with optical isotope shifts. The isotope shifts Δ 2 > of a wide range of barium isotopes are found to be in good agreement with the droplet model and with IBA calculations. (orig.)

  11. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  12. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdas, D. A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Cristea, G., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Bot, A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Mirel, V., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ{sup 13}C between batches from −29.7 to −31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between −31.3 to −34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  13. Stable-carbon isotopic composition of maple sap and foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Long, A.

    1985-01-01

    The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of Acer grandidentatum sap sugar collected during the dormant period are compared to those of buds, leaves, and wood developed over the following growing season. As the primary carbon source for cellulose manufacture at initiation of annual growth in deciduous trees, sap sucrose would be expected to have an isotopic composition similar to first-formed cellulose. Although constancy in concentration and 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the maple sap sugar suggests any gains or losses (e.g. to maintenance metabolism) do not appreciably alter composition, the 13 C/ 12 C ratios of cellulose of the enlarging buds in the spring are quite distinct from those of the sap sugar, seemingly precluding a simple direct biochemical pathway of sap sucrose→glucose→cellulose in favor of a more complex pathway with greater likelihood of isotopic fractionation. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of the leaves and in the growth ring were initially similar to the sap sugar but decreased steadily over the growing season. (author)

  14. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in the smut fungus Ustilago violacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, O.H. III; Tieszen, L.L.; Kellen, M.; Gerlach, T.

    1986-01-01

    Haploid strains 15.10, I.C429, and I.C2y and diploid strain JK2 of Ustilago Piolacea were grown on one or more of the following carbon sources: glucose, sucrose, maltose, inulin, starch, inositol, glycerol, casein, and yeast extract. The media, both before and after fungal growth, and the fungal cells were analyzed for 13 C/ 12 C content (δ 13 values) using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer after combustion to CO 2 . In all cases, the used and unused media had identical δ 13 C values. Strain 15.10 had significantly less 13 C than the media when grown on glucose, sucrose, maltose, and inositol; significantly more 13 C when grown on inulin, starch, and glycerol; and no significant difference in δ 13 C values when grown on casein and yeast extract media. Other haploid strains responded similarly to 15.10. Diploid strain JK2 was also depleted in 13 C when grown on glucose and enriched in 13 C when grown on glycerol; however, JK2 was slightly depleted in 13 C when grown on casein, whereas all the tested haploid strains were enriched in 13 C

  15. Nanocomposites from Stable Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymeric Matrices Using Dispersion Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymeric matrices include CNTs dispersed in a host polymer or copolymer whose monomers have delocalized electron orbitals, so that a dispersion interaction results between the host polymer or copolymer and the CNTs dispersed therein. Nanocomposite products, which are presented in bulk, or when fabricated as a film, fiber, foam, coating, adhesive, paste, or molding, are prepared by standard means from the present stable dispersions of CNTs in polymeric matrices, employing dispersion interactions, as presented hereinabove.

  16. Effects of euthanasia method on stable-carbon and stable-nitrogen isotope analysis for an ectothermic vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Meredith A

    2013-04-30

    Stable isotope analysis is a critical tool for understanding ecological food webs; however, results can be sensitive to sample preparation methods. To limit the possibility of sample contamination, freezing is commonly used to euthanize invertebrates and preserve non-lethal samples from vertebrates. For destructive sampling of vertebrates, more humane euthanasia methods are preferred to freezing and it is essential to evaluate how these euthanasia methods affect stable isotope results. Stable isotope ratios and elemental composition of carbon and nitrogen were used to evaluate whether the euthanasia method compromised the integrity of the sample for analysis. Specifically, the stable isotope and C:N ratios were compared for larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica  =  Lithobates sylvaticus), an ectothermic vertebrate, that had been euthanized by freezing with four different humane euthanasia methods: CO2, benzocaine, MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), and 70% ethanol. The euthanasia method was not related to the δ(13)C or δ(15)N values and the comparisons revealed no differences between freezing and any of the other treatments. However, there were slight (non-significant) differences in the isotope ratios of benzocaine and CO2 when each was compared with freezing. The elemental composition was altered by the euthanasia method employed. The percentage nitrogen was higher in CO2 treatments than in freezing, and similar (non-significant) trends were seen for ethanol treatments relative to freezing. The resulting C:N ratios were higher for benzocaine treatments than for both CO2 and ethanol. Similar (non-significant) trends suggested that the C:N ratios were also higher for animals euthanized by freezing than for both CO2 and ethanol euthanasia methods. The euthanasia method had a larger effect on elemental composition than stable isotope ratios. The percentage nitrogen and the subsequent C:N ratios were most affected by the CO2 and ethanol euthanasia methods, whereas

  17. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic characterization of PAH contaminants at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo . E-mail moonkoo.kim@wmich.edu; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian Yaorong

    2006-01-01

    The molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica were analyzed in samples collected from land and sub-tidal area. PAHs in the study areas were characterized by high amounts of naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes from petroleum products introduced by human activities in the area. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PAH composition data identified multiple sources of PAH contamination in the study area. Compositional assignments of origins were confirmed using compound specific stable carbon isotopic analysis

  18. The synthesis of a tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled cathepsin C inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul; Bragg, Ryan A; Caffrey, Moya; Ericsson, Cecilia; Hickey, Michael J; Kingston, Lee P; Elmore, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    As part of a medicinal chemistry program aimed at developing a highly potent and selective cathepsin C inhibitor, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope-labeled materials were required. The synthesis of tritium-labeled methanesulfonate 5 was achieved via catalytic tritiolysis of a chloro precursor, albeit at a low radiochemical purity of 67%. Tritium-labeled AZD5248 was prepared via a 3-stage synthesis, utilizing amide-directed hydrogen isotope exchange. Carbon-14 and stable isotope-labeled AZD5248 were successfully prepared through modifications of the medicinal chemistry synthetic route, enabling the use of available labeled intermediates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Measurement of organic carbon stable isotope composition of different soil types by EA-IRMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Biao; Ding Lingling; Cui Jiehua; Wang Yanhong

    2009-01-01

    Element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometers (EA-IRMS) is a rapid and precise method for measuring stable carbon isotope. Pure CO 2 reference gas was calibrated via international standard-Urea, and the δ 13 C us PDB value of pure CO 2 is (-29.523 ± 0.0181)%. Stability and linearity of the EA-IRMS system, precision of δ 13 C measurement for samples were tested through experimental comparison. Moreover, determination method of organic carbon stable isotope in soil was based on the system. The EA-IRMS system had well linearity when ion intensity ranged from 1.0 to 7.0V, and it excelled the total linearity when the ion intensity was from 1.5 to 5.0V, and the accurate result of δ 13 C for sample analysis could be obtained with precision of 0.015%. If carbon content in sample is more than 5μg, the requirement for analyzing accurate result of δ 13 C could be achieved. The organic carbon stable isotope was measured in 18 different types soil samples, the average natural abundance of 13 C was 1.082%, and the organic carbon stable isotope composition was significantly different among different type soils. (authors)

  20. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson , Lucy; Dynes , Travis; Berry , Jennifer; Delaplane , Keith; McCormick , Lydia; Brosi , Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  1. Grasland Stable Isotope Flux Measurements: Three Isotopomers of Carbon Dioxide Measured by QCL Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, M. J.; Tuzson, B.; Eugster, W.; Werner, R. A.; Buchmann, N.; Emmenegger, L.

    2007-12-01

    To improve our understanding of greenhouse gas dynamics of managed ecosystems such as grasslands, we not only need to investigate the effects of management (e.g., grass cuts) and weather events (e.g., rainy days) on carbon dioxide fluxes, but also need to increase the time resolution of our measurements. Thus, for the first time, we assessed respiration and assimilation fluxes with high time resolution (5Hz) stable isotope measurements at an intensively managed farmland in Switzerland (Chamau, 400m ASL). Two different methods were used to quantify fluxes of carbon dioxide and associated fluxes of stable carbon isotopes: (1) the flux gradient method, and (2) the eddy covariance method. During a week long intensive measurement campaign, we (1) measured mixing ratios of carbon dioxide isotopomers (12C16O2, 12C16O18O, 13C16O2) with a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL, Aerodyne Inc.) spectroscope and (2) collected air samples for isotope analyses (13C/12C) and (18O/16O) of carbon dioxide by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS, Finnigan) every two hours, concurrently along a height profile (z = 0.05; 0.10; 0.31; 2.15m). In the following week, the QCL setup was used for closed-path eddy covariance flux measurement of the carbon dioxide isotopomers, with the air inlet located next to an open-path Infra Red Gas Analyzers (IRGA, LiCor 7500) used simultaneously for carbon dioxide measurements. During this second week, an area of grass inside the footprint was cut and harvested after several days. The first results of in-field continuous QCL measurements of carbon dioxide mixing ratios and their stable isotopic ratios show good agreement with IRGA measurements and isotope analysis of flask samples by IRMS. Thus, QCL spectroscopy is a very promising tool for stable isotope flux investigations.

  2. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonyuy, Ernest W.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ 13 C DIC ) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ 13 C DIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe 2+ , alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ 13 C DIC . We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13 C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe 2+ followed by Fe 3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH) 3(s) . The extent of DIC decrease and 13 C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO 3 - dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13 C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO 3 - or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe 3+ hydrolysis for HCO 3 - dehydration. The 13 C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe 2+ was proportional to HCO 3 - concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13 C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO 3 - input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC

  3. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C) measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e...

  4. FATTY ACID STABLE ISOTOPE INDICATORS OF MICROBIAL CARBON SOURCE IN TROPICAL SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil microbial community plays an important role in tropical ecosystem functioning because of its importance in the soil organic matter (SOM) cycle. We have measured the stable carbon isotopic ratio (delta13C) of individual phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in a variety of tr...

  5. ANALYTICAL EMPLOYMENT OF STABLE ISOTOPES OF CARBON, NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN FOR FOOD AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Novelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen were used for analytical purposes for the discrimination of the type of production (farming vs. fishing in the case of sea bass and for geographical origin in the case of milk. These results corroborate similar experimental evidences and confirm the potential of this analytical tool to support of food traceability.

  6. Changes of stable isotopes carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in different tissues of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengmei; Yu Hongxia; Wu Wei; Yang Shuming

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a potential tool for tracing food origin. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in different tissues of two varieties of cattle under the same culture condition were investigated. δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of different defatted muscle and crude fat, cattle tail hair, blood, liver and feed were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen composition was not affected by cattle variety; the δ 13 C values between different defatted muscle, blood, liver and cattle hair were not significantly different, but δ 15 N value in the liver was much higher than other muscle and the δ 13 C values didn't show difference among all the crude fat samples. So these results indicated that isotope fractionation in the various tissue was discrepant. (authors)

  7. Late Glacial Tropical Savannas in Sundaland Inferred From Stable Carbon Isotope Records of Cave Guano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, C. M.; Bird, M. I.; Bull, I.; Dungait, J.; Bryant, C. L.; Ertunç, T.; Hunt, C.; Lewis, H. A.; Paz, V.

    2008-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Period (LGP), reduced global sea level exposed the continental shelf south of Thailand to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo to form the contiguous continent of Sundaland. However, the type and extent of vegetation that existed on much of this exposed landmass during the LGP remains speculative. Extensive bird and bat guano deposits in caves throughout this region span beyond 40,000 yr BP, and contain a wealth of untapped stratigraphic palaeoenvironmental information. Stable carbon isotope ratios of insectivorous bird and bat guano contain a reliable record of the animal's diet and, through non-specific insect predation, reflect the relative abundance of major physiological pathways in plants. Various physiological pathways of carbon fixation in plants yield differing stable carbon isotope ratios. Stable carbon isotope values of C3 plants are lower than C4 vegetation due to different enzymatic discriminations of the heavy isotope through the carbon fixing pathways. In tropical locales, grasses nearly always follow the C4 photosynthetic pathway, whereas tropical rainforest uses C3 photosynthesis, providing a proxy for vegetation and therefore climate change in the past. Here we discuss four guano stable-isotope records, based on insect cuticle and n-alkane analysis, supplemented by pollen analysis. All sites suggest a C3 dominated ecosystem for the Holocene, consistent with the wet tropical forest vegetation present at all locations. Two sites from Palawan Island, Philippines, record stable carbon isotope values of guano that document a drastic change from C3 (forest) to C4 (savanna) dominated ecosystems during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A third location, at Niah Great Cave, Malaysia, indicates C3-dominant vegetation throughout the record, but does display variation in stable carbon isotope values likely linked to humidity changes. A fourth location, Batu Caves in Peninsular Malaysia, also indicates open vegetation during the LGM. Vegetation

  8. Study on adsorption performance of coal based activated carbon to radioactive iodine and stable iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping; Zhang, Youchen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The impregnated coal-based activated carbons as adsorbent for removing methyl iodide. • The coal-based activated carbons to remove stable iodine. • Iodine residues are under 0.5 μg/ml after adsorption treatment. • The decontamination factor is much higher than 1000. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant, nuclear reactors and nuclear powered ship exhaust contains a large amount of gaseous radioactive iodine, and can damage to the workplace and the surrounding environment. The quantitative test to remove methyl iodide and the qualitative test for removing stable iodine were investigated using the impregnated coal-based activated carbons and coal-based activated carbons as adsorbents. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues were under 0.5 μg/ml after adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing the stable iodine was more than 1000, which can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, and satisfy the requirement of gaseous waste treatment of nuclear powered vessel and other nuclear plants

  9. Monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons by using stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Hinchee, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Spilled or leaked nonhalogenated petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil can generally be metabolized by indigenous, aerobic bacteria. In situ biological degradation of hydrocarbons may be accelerated by supplying inorganic nutrients and/or oxygen. Approaches to monitoring and verifying enhanced in situ biodegradation have included measurements of changes over time in the (a) concentration of hydrocarbons, (b) temperature, (c) number of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, (d) ratio of fast-degrading hydrocarbons (e.g., pristanes or phytanes), and (e) metabolic intermediates. Measurements of oxygen consumption over time and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations in soil gas also have been used as indicators of hydrocarbon degradation. An alternative approach that may help substantiate biodegradation is to measure stable carbon isotope ratios in soil gas CO 2 . Stable carbon isotope ratio analysis is inexpensive and commercially available at many laboratories. Carbon dioxide produced by hydrocarbon degradation may be distinguished from that produced by other processes based on the carbon isotopic compositions characteristic of the source material and/or fractionation accompanying microbial metabolism. Here the authors demonstrate the applicability of the stable isotope technique for monitoring enhanced. aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons using data from three locations in the United States

  10. Stable carbon isotope signals in particulate organic and inorganic carbon of coccolithophores - A numerical model study for Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Lena-Maria; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Thoms, Silke

    2017-05-07

    A recent numerical cell model, which explains observed light and carbonate system effects on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC and PIC) production rates under the assumption of internal pH homeostasis, is extended for stable carbon isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C). Aim of the present study is to mechanistically understand the stable carbon isotopic fractionation signal (ε) in POC and PIC and furthermore the vital effect(s) included in measured ε PIC values. The virtual cell is divided into four compartments, for each of which the 12 C as well as the 13 C carbonate system kinetics are implemented. The compartments are connected to each other via trans-membrane fluxes. In contrast to existing carbon fractionation models, the presented model calculates the disequilibrium state for both carbonate systems and for each compartment. It furthermore calculates POC and PIC production rates as well as ε POC and ε PIC as a function of given light conditions and the compositions of the external carbonate system. Measured POC and PIC production rates as well as ε PIC values are reproduced well by the model (comparison with literature data). The observed light effect on ε POC (increase of ε POC with increasing light intensities), however, is not reproduced by the basic model set-up, which is solely based on RubisCO fractionation. When extending the latter set-up by assuming that biological fractionation includes further carbon fractionation steps besides the one of RubisCO, the observed light effect on ε POC is also reproduced. By means of the extended model version, four different vital effects that superimpose each other in a real cell can be detected. Finally, we discuss potential limitations of the ε PIC proxy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable Carbon Fractionation In Size Segregated Aerosol Particles Produced By Controlled Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalaite, Agne; Garbaras, Andrius; Garbariene, Inga; Ceburnis, Darius; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Puida, Egidijus; Kvietkus, Kestutis; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning is the largest source of primary fine fraction carbonaceous particles and the second largest source of trace gases in the global atmosphere with a strong effect not only on the regional scale but also in areas distant from the source . Many studies have often assumed no significant carbon isotope fractionation occurring between black carbon and the original vegetation during combustion. However, other studies suggested that stable carbon isotope ratios of char or BC may not reliably reflect carbon isotopic signatures of the source vegetation. Overall, the apparently conflicting results throughout the literature regarding the observed fractionation suggest that combustion conditions may be responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of the present study was to gather more quantitative information on carbonaceous aerosols produced in controlled biomass burning, thereby having a potential impact on interpreting ambient atmospheric observations. Seven different biomass fuel types were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size segregated particles. Size segregated aerosol particles were collected using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The largest negative fractionation was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation was observed during the buckwheat shells combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in

  12. [Relationship between Fe, Al oxides and stable organic carbon, nitrogen in the yellow-brown soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Li-Sha; Wang, Dai-Zhang; Jiang, Xin; Rao, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Guo, Chun-Yan; Li, Teng

    2010-11-01

    The stable organic carbon and nitrogen of the different particles were gained by oxidation of 6% NaOCl in the yellow-brown soils. The relationships between the contents of selective extractable Fe/Al and the stable organic carbon/nitrogen were investigated. It shown that amounts of dithionite-citrate-(Fe(d)) and oxalate-(Fe(o)) and pyrophosphate extractable (Fe(p)) were 6-60.8 g x kg(-1) and 0.13-4.8 g x kg(-1) and 0.03-0.47 g x kg(-1) in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 43.1-170 g x kg(-1) and 5.9-14.0 g x kg(-1) and 0.28-0.78 g x kg(-1) in soils than in arid yellow-brown soils, and that of selective extractable Al are lower in the former than in the latter. Amounts of the stable organic carbon and nitrogen, higher in paddy yellow-brown soils than in arid yellow-brown soils, were 0.93-6.0 g x kg(-1) and 0.05-0.36 g x kg(-1) in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 6.05-19.3 g x kg(-1) and 0.61-2.1 g x kg(-1) in stabilization index (SI(C) and SI(N)) of the organic carbon and nitrogen were 14.3-50.0 and 11.9-55.6 in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 53.72-88.80 and 40.64-70.0 in soils than in paddy yellow-brown soils. The organic carbon and nitrogen are advantageously conserved in paddy yellow-brown soil. An extremely significant positive correlation of the stable organic carbon and nitrogen with selective extractable Fe/Al is observed. The most amounts between the stable organic carbon and nitrogen and selective extractable Fe/Al appear in clay particles, namely the clay particles could protect the soil organic carbon and nitrogen.

  13. The relationship between carbon stable isotope ratios of hatchling down and egg yolk in Black-headed Gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Baarspul, T.; Dekkers, T.; Van Tienen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstructed the nutrient source for egg synthesis by sampling Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs for yolk, analyzing their carbon stable isotope ratio, and comparing that to hatchling down. Most of the variation in carbon stable isotope ratio was explained by differences between nests,

  14. Discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in meerkat feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaena Montanari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis of feces can provide a non-invasive method for tracking the dietary habits of nearly any mammalian species. While fecal samples are often collected for macroscopic and genetic study, stable isotope analysis can also be applied to expand the knowledge of species-specific dietary ecology. It is somewhat unclear how digestion changes the isotope ratios of animals’ diets, so more controlled diet studies are needed. To date, most diet-to-feces controlled stable isotope experiments have been performed on herbivores, so in this study I analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in the diet and feces of the meerkat (Suricata suricatta, a small omnivorous mammal. The carbon trophic discrimination factor between diet and feces (Δ13Cfeces is calculated to be 0.1 ± 1.5‰, which is not significantly different from zero, and in turn, not different than the dietary input. On the other hand, the nitrogen trophic discrimination factor (Δ15Nfeces is 1.5 ± 1.1‰, which is significantly different from zero, meaning it is different than the average dietary input. Based on data generated in this experiment and a review of the published literature, carbon isotopes of feces characterize diet, while nitrogen isotope ratios of feces are consistently higher than dietary inputs, meaning a discrimination factor needs to be taken into account. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of feces are an excellent snapshot of diet that can be used in concert with other analytical methods to better understand ecology, diets, and habitat use of mammals.

  15. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.

    2008-04-10

    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  16. Measurement of stable isotope ratio of organic carbon in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Otsuki, Akira

    1977-01-01

    A new method for the measurement of stable isotope ratios was investigated and applied to organic carbon's isotope ratio measurements in water samples. A few river water samples from Tsuchiura city were tested. After the wet oxidation of organic carbons to carbon dioxide in a sealed ampoule, the isotope ratios were determined with the gas chromatograph-quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with a total organic carbon analyser, under the dynamic conditions. The GC-MS had been equipped with the multiple ion detector-digital integrator system. The ion intensities at m/e 44 and 45 were simultaneously measured at a switching rate of 1 ms. The measurements with carbon dioxide acquired from sodium carbonate (53 μg) gave the isotope ratios with the variation coefficient of 0.62%. However, the variation coefficients obtained from organic carbons in natural water samples were 2 to 3 times as high as that from sodium carbonate. This method is simple and rapid and may be applied to various fields especially in biology and medicine. (auth.)

  17. Application of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes to the study of Brazilian precambrian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of carbonated rocks of precambrian age are studied. The stable carbon and oxygen isotopes are applied to the study of terrestrial materials considering the variations of some element isotopic composition in function of the environment of sedimentation. The isotopic analysis was done using mass spectrometers. The analytical results and the description of region geology of the site of each sample are presented. The isotopic data are interpreted aiming to the environment of sedimentation. New techniques for better improvement of carbon and oxygen ratios, are proposed, such as: to use the analysis of surface trend and the isotopic logging in mapping of surface and subsurface. A new method for approximated determination of the ages of precambrian carbonated rocks, considering the limitations of their new technique, is also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xiao; Dong, Xinzheng; Tian, Jinrong; Song, Yanrong; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly stable mode locked fiber laser based on single wall carbon nanotubes. The mode locking is achieved by the evanescent field interaction of the propagating light with a single wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber in a microfiber. The pulse width is 66 fs, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest pulse achieved in a carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser. The maximum average output power is 26 mW, which is about 20 times larger than that of a typical carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser. The center of the wavelength is 1555 nm, with 54 nm spectral width. The repetition rate is 146 MHz. To investigate the laser’s stability, the output pulses are monitored for 120 h and there is no significant degradation of the laser spectral width or shape. (paper)

  19. The stable carbon isotope ratios in benthic food webs of the gulf of Calvi, Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauby, Patrick

    1989-02-01

    The Gulf of Calvi, Corsica, presents a wide diversity of biocoenoses, amongst which the seagrass Posidonia meadow is prevalent. More than 100 plant, animal and sediment samples from various biotopes were analysed for their stable carbon isotope ratios, to assess carbon flows within the food chains. Marine plants display a wide range of δ 13C values, from -6 to -32‰ but with three relatively well distinct peaks for Posidonia, brown algae and phytoplankton (-9, -19 and -23‰, respectively), which are the main carbon sources. The range of isotopic values of animals is narrower, from -14 to -24‰, suggesting that they feed mainly on algae and plankton. Computations based on simple equations show the proportion of each carbon source in the diet of the animals. Posidonia, notwithstanding their important biomass, appear to be a minor food source; this is possibly because of the transfer of their dead leaves, towards the shorelines, in winter.

  20. Highly stable carbon coated Mg2Si intermetallic nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu; Hou, Mengyan; Liu, Yao; Bin, Duan; Sun, Yunhe; Fan, Long; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an ideal candidate anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers from rapid capacity fading due to large volume expansion upon lithium insertion. Herein, we design and fabricate highly stable carbon coated porous Mg2Si intermetallic anode material using facile mechano-thermal technique followed by carbon coating using thermal vapour deposition (TVD), toluene as carbon source. The electrode exhibits an excellent first reversible capacity of 726 mAh g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the electrode demonstrates high rate capability (380 mAh g-1 at high rate of 2 A g-1) as well as high cycle stability, with capacity retentions of 65% over 500 cycles. These improvements are attributable to both Mg supporting medium and the uniform carbon coating, which can effectively increase the conductivity and electronic contact of the active material and protects large volume alterations during the electrochemical cycling process.

  1. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical fil...

  2. Stable single helical C- and I-chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Z; Li Y; Jing X D; Meng F S; Zhao X; Li J H; Qiu Z Y; Yuan Q; Wang W X; Bi L; Liu H; Zhang Y P; Liu C J; Zheng S P; Liu B B

    2016-01-01

    The helicity of stable single helical carbon chains and iodine chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied by calculating the systematic van der Waals interaction energy. The results show that the optimal helical radius increases linearly with increasing tube radius, which produces a constant separation between the chain structure and the tube wall. The helical angle exhibits a ladder-like decrease with increasing tube radius, indicating that a large tube can produce a small helicity in the helical structures. (paper)

  3. Separation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Hua-Shan; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-05-15

    A separation and isotopic analysis method was developed to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratios of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with three to six substituted bromine atoms in fish samples. Sample extracts were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove lipids, purified using complex silica gel column chromatography, and finally processed using alumina/silica (Al/Si) gel column chromatography. The purities of extracts were verified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the full-scan mode. The average recoveries of all compounds across the purification method were between 60% and 110%, with the exception of BDE-154. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of PBDEs can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . No significant isotopic fraction was found during the purification of the main PBDE congeners. A significant change in the stable carbon isotope ratio of BDE-47 was observed in fish carcasses compared to the original isotopic signatures, implying that PBDE stable carbon isotopic compositions can be used to trace the biotransformation of PBDEs in biota. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for the purification of PBDEs for CSIA was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {delta}{sup 13}C of PBDE congeners can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common carp were exposed to a PBDE mixture to investigate debromination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of the {delta}{sup 13}C values can be used to trace the debromination of PBDE in fish.

  4. The synthesis of tritium, carbon-14 and stable isotope labelled selective estrogen receptor degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Ryan A; Bushby, Nick; Ericsson, Cecilia; Kingston, Lee P; Ji, Hailong; Elmore, Charles S

    2016-09-01

    As part of a Medicinal Chemistry program aimed at developing an orally bioavailable selective estrogen receptor degrader, a number of tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotope labelled (E)-3-[4-(2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)phenyl]prop-2-enoic acids were required. This paper discusses 5 synthetic approaches to this compound class. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Stable isotope analysis of Dacryoconarid carbonate microfossils: a new tool for Devonian oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappier, Amy Benoit; Lindemann, Richard H; Frappier, Brian R

    2015-04-30

    Dacryoconarids are extinct marine zooplankton known from abundant, globally distributed calcite microfossils in the Devonian, but their shell stable isotope composition has not been previously explored. Devonian stable isotope stratigraphy is currently limited to less common invertebrates or bulk rock analyses of uncertain provenance. As with Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera, isotopic analysis of dacryoconarid shells could facilitate higher-resolution, geographically widespread stable isotope records of paleoenvironmental change, including marine hypoxia events, climate changes, and biocrises. We explored the use of Dacryoconarid isotope stratigraphy as a viable method in interpreting paleoenvironments. We applied an established method for determining stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C, δ(18) O values) of small carbonate microfossils to very well-preserved dacryoconarid shells. We analyzed individual calcite shells representing five common genera using a Kiel carbonate device coupled to a MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Calcite shell δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were compared by taxonomic group, rock unit, and locality. Single dacryoconarid calcite shells are suitable for stable isotope analysis using a Kiel-IRMS setup. The dacryoconarid shell δ(13) C values (-4.7 to 2.3‰) and δ(18) O values (-10.3 to -4.8‰) were consistent across taxa, independent of shell size or part, but varied systematically through time. Lower fossil δ(18) O values were associated with warmer water temperature and more variable δ(13) C values were associated with major bioevents. Dacryoconarid δ(13) C and δ(18) O values differed from bulk rock carbonate values. Dacryoconarid individual microfossil δ(13) C and δ(18) O values are highly sensitive to paleoenvironmental changes, thus providing a promising avenue for stable isotope chemostratigraphy to better resolve regional to global paleoceanographic changes throughout the upper Silurian to the upper Devonian. Our results

  6. Multi-Stable Conductance States in Metallic Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ci Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electrical transport properties of individual metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs were measured down to liquid helium temperature, and multi-stable conductance states were found in DWCNTs. At a certain temperature, DWCNTs can switch continuously between two or more electronic states, but below certain temperature, DWCNTs are stable only at one of them. The temperature for switching is always different from tube to tube, and even different from thermal cycle to cycle for the same tube. In addition to thermal activation, gate voltage scanning can also realize such switching among different electronic states. The multi-stable conductance states in metallic DWCNTs can be attributed to different Fermi level or occasional scattering centers induced by different configurations between their inner and outer tubes.

  7. INFLUENCE OF BARIUM OXIDE ADDITIONS ON PORTLAND CLINKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anezka Zezulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, nuclear power plants are widespread around the world and research is of great interest. Together with nuclear research, shielding of different types of radiation is an important current topic of research aiming at their safety. Portland cement has been an elementary building material for centuries. Since barium is very efficient in shielding different types of radiation, it can be assumed that the radiation shielding capability of cement can be improved by incorporation of barium. This work deals with the influence of barium oxide, added in the form of barium carbonate and sulphate, on the formation and properties of Portland clinker. The structure of burnt clinkers and the ratio of clinker phases were studied by polarizing microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. With increasing barium content, the alite-belite ratio decreases and the content of free lime gradually increases. Moreover, sulphates induce the growth of alite crystals. The ability of barium to be a part of the clinker minerals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Belite and clinker melt contain the highest amount of barium, but aggregates of barium oxide are formed in the clinker melt. Furthermore, the rate of alite crystallization was studied under isothermal conditions.

  8. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Kim, Kwang S; Meyyappan, M

    2015-01-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m"2 g"−"1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm"3 g"−"1 and exhibits a stable CH_4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g"−"1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon. (paper)

  9. Carbon allocation belowground in Pinus pinaster using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannoura, M.; Bosc, A.; Chipeaux, C.; Sartore, M.; Lambrot, C.; Trichet, P.; Bakker, M.; Loustau, D.; Epron, D.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon allocation belowground competes with aboveground growth and biomass production. In the other hand, it contributes to resource acquisition such as nutrient, water and carbon sequestration in soil. Thus, a better characterization of carbon flow from plant to soil and its residence time within each compartment is an important issue for understanding and modeling forest ecosystem carbon budget. 13C pulse labeling of whole crown was conducted at 4 seasons to study the fate of assimilated carbon by photosynthesis into the root on 12 year old Pinus pinaster planted in the INRA domain of Pierroton. Maritime pine is the most widely planted species in South-West Europe. Stem, root and soil CO2 effluxes and their isotope composition were measured continuously by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a trace gas analyzer (TGA 100A; Campbell Scientific) coupled to flow-through chambers. 13CO2 recovery and peak were observed in respiration of each compartment after labeling. It appeared sequentially from top of stem to bottom, and to coarse root. The maximum velocity of carbon transfer was calculated as the difference in time lag of recovery between two positions on the trunk or on the root. It ranged between 0.08-0.2 m h-1 in stem and between 0.04-0.12 m h-1 in coarse root. This velocity was higher in warmer season, and the difference between time lag of recovery and peak increased after first frost. Photosynthates arrived underground 1.5 to 5 days after labeling, at similar time in soil CO2 effluxes and coarse root respiration. 0.08-1.4 g of carbon was respired per tree during first 20 days following labeling. It presented 0.6 -10% of 13C used for labeling and it is strongly related to seasons. The isotope signal was detected in fine root organs and microbial biomass by periodical core sampling. The peak was observed 6 days after labeling in early summer while it was delayed more than 10 days in autumn and winter with less amount of carbon allocated

  10. Barium granuloma of the rectum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Se Hyung; Jeoung, Ah Young; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo

    2003-01-01

    Barium granulomas usually occur after barium enema within 8 cm of the anal verge probably due to minute laceration of rectal wall by enema tip and extravasation of barium during barium enema. We report a case of barium granuloma of rectum in a 47-year-old man, who did not have history of barium enema. In rare instance, barium granuloma can occur without a history of barium enema and careful interpretation of radiologic image is essential to make a correct diagnosis

  11. An Ocean Sediment Core-Top Calibration of Foraminiferal (Cibicides) Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, A.; Mix, A. C.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Peterson, C.; Mackensen, A.; Cartapanis, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) measured on calcium carbonate shells of benthic foraminifera (cibicides) from late Holocene sediments (δ13CCib) are compiled and compared with newly updated datasets of contemporary water-column δ13C observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) as the initial core-top calibration of the international Ocean Circulation and CarbonCycling (OC3) project. Using selection criteria based on the spatial distance between samples we find high correlation between δ13CCib and natural (pre-industrial) δ13CDIC, confirming earlier work. However, our analysis reveals systematic differences such as higher (lower) δ13CCib values in the Atlantic (Indian and Pacific) oceans. Regression analyses are impacted by anthropogenic carbon and suggest significant carbonate ion, temperature, and pressure effects, consistent with lab experiments with planktonic foraminifera and theory. The estimated standard error of core-top sediment data is generally σ ~= 0.25 ‰, whereas modern foram data from the South Atlantic indicate larger errors (σ ~= 0.4 ‰).

  12. Atomization of magnesium, strontium, barium and lead nitrates on surface of graphite atomizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagdaev, V.K.; Pupyshev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Modelling of the processes on graphite surface using differential-thermal analysis and graphite core with identification of decomposition products of magnesium, strontium, barium and lead nitrates by X-ray analysis has shown that carbon promotes the formation of strontium, barium and lead carbonates. The obtained temperatures of strontium and barium carbonate decomposition to oxides agree satisfactorily with calculation ones. Magnesium nitrate does not react with carbon. Formation of strontium and barium carbonates results in considerable slowing down of the process of gaseous oxide dissociation. Lead carbonate is unstable and rapidly decomposes to oxide with subsequent reduction to free metal. Formation of magnesium, strontium and barium free atoms is connected with appearance of gaseous oxides in analytical zone. Oxide and free metal lead are present on graphite surface simultaneously

  13. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, K.S.; Galstyan, E.; Hossain, S.M.; Wang Yiju; Litvinov, D.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m 2 /g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO 2 . The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties H c ∼3000 Oe and M s ∼50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  14. Determination of the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock using stable carbon isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porowska, Dorota

    2015-05-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater from piezometers located around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock (Poland) were performed in order to trace the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater. Due to differences in the isotopic composition of carbon from different sources, an analysis of stable carbon isotopes in the groundwater, together with the Keeling plot approach and a two-component mixing model allow us to evaluate the relative contributions of carbon from these sources in the groundwater. In the natural (background) groundwater, DIC concentrations and the isotopic composition of DIC (δ(13)CDIC) comes from two sources: decomposition of organic matter and carbonate dissolution within the aquifer sediments, whereas in the leachate-contaminated groundwater, DIC concentrations and δ(13)CDIC values depend on the degradation of organic matter within the aquifer sediments and biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. From the mixing model, about 4-54% of the DIC pool is derived from organic matter degradation and 96-46% from carbonate dissolution in natural conditions. In the leachate-contaminated groundwater, about 20-53% of the DIC is derived from organic matter degradation of natural origin and 80-47% from biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. Partial pressure of CO2 (P CO2) was generally above the atmospheric, hence atmospheric CO2 as a source of carbon in DIC pool was negligible in the aquifer. P CO2 values in the aquifer in Otwock were always one to two orders of magnitude above the atmospheric P CO2, and thus CO2 escaped directly into the vadose zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth versus metabolic tissue replacement in mouse tissues determined by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavoy, S. E.; Jamil, T.; Macko, S. A.; Arneson, L. S.

    2003-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis is becoming an extensively used tool in animal ecology. The isotopes most commonly used for analysis in terrestrial systems are those of carbon and nitrogen, due to differential carbon fractionation in C3 and C4 plants, and the approximately 3‰ enrichment in 15N per trophic level. Although isotope signatures in animal tissues presumably reflect the local food web, analysis is often complicated by differential nutrient routing and fractionation by tissues, and by the possibility that large organisms are not in isotopic equilibrium with the foods available in their immediate environment. Additionally, the rate at which organisms incorporate the isotope signature of a food through both growth and metabolic tissue replacement is largely unknown. In this study we have assessed the rate of carbon and nitrogen isotopic turnover in liver, muscle and blood in mice following a diet change. By determining growth rates, we were able to determine the proportion of tissue turnover caused by growth versus that caused by metabolic tissue replacement. Growth was found to account for approximately 10% of observed tissue turnover in sexually mature mice (Mus musculus). Blood carbon was found to have the shortest half-life (16.9 days), followed by muscle (24.7 days). Liver carbon turnover was not as well described by the exponential decay equations as other tissues. However, substantial liver carbon turnover was observed by the 28th day after diet switch. Surprisingly, these tissues primarily reflect the carbon signature of the protein, rather than carbohydrate, source in their diet. The nitrogen signature in all tissues was enriched by 3 - 5‰ over their dietary protein source, depending on tissue type, and the isotopic turnover rates were comparable to those observed in carbon.

  16. Organic carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the intertidal sediments from the Yangtze Estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M. . E-mail mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn; Hou, L.J.; Xu, S.Y.; Ou, D.N.; Yang, Y.; Yu, J.; Wang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The natural isotopic compositions and C/N elemental ratios of sedimentary organic matter were determined in the intertidal flat of the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that the ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were respectively -29.8 per mille to - 26.0 per mille and 1.6 per mille -5.5 per mille in the flood season (July), while they were -27.3 per mille to - 25.6 per mille and 1.7 per mille -7.8 per mille in the dry season (February), respectively. The δ 13 C signatures were remarkably higher in July than in February, and gradually increased from the freshwater areas to the brackish areas. In contrast, there were relatively complex seasonal and spatial changes in stable nitrogen isotopes. It was also reflected that δ 15 N and C/N compositions had been obviously modified by organic matter diagenesis and biological processing, and could not be used to trace the sources of organic matter at the study area. In addition, it was considered that the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine materials generally dominated sedimentary organic matter in the intertidal flat. The contribution of terrigenous inputs to sedimentary organic matter was roughly estimated according to the mixing balance model of stable carbon isotopes

  17. Determination of the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock using stable carbon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porowska, Dorota, E-mail: dorotap@uw.edu.pl

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Research showed the origin of DIC in the groundwater around a reclaimed landfill. • Carbon isotope was used to evaluate the contributions of carbon from different sources. • The leachate-contaminated water was isotopically distinct from the natural groundwater. • DIC in the natural groundwater comes from organic matter and dissolution of carbonates. • In the contaminated water, DIC comes from organic matter in the aquifer and landfill. - Abstract: Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater from piezometers located around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock (Poland) were performed in order to trace the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater. Due to differences in the isotopic composition of carbon from different sources, an analysis of stable carbon isotopes in the groundwater, together with the Keeling plot approach and a two-component mixing model allow us to evaluate the relative contributions of carbon from these sources in the groundwater. In the natural (background) groundwater, DIC concentrations and the isotopic composition of DIC (δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) comes from two sources: decomposition of organic matter and carbonate dissolution within the aquifer sediments, whereas in the leachate-contaminated groundwater, DIC concentrations and δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values depend on the degradation of organic matter within the aquifer sediments and biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. From the mixing model, about 4–54% of the DIC pool is derived from organic matter degradation and 96–46% from carbonate dissolution in natural conditions. In the leachate-contaminated groundwater, about 20–53% of the DIC is derived from organic matter degradation of natural origin and 80–47% from biodegradation of organic matter stored in the landfill. Partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P CO{sub 2}) was generally above the atmospheric, hence atmospheric CO{sub 2} as a source of carbon in DIC pool was negligible in the

  18. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fuentes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test.

  19. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  20. Inorganic markers, carbonaceous components and stable carbon isotope from biomass burning aerosols in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.

    2015-12-01

    To better characterize the sources of fine particulate matter (i.e. PM2.5) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, aerosol chemical composition such total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and inorganic ions were studied as well as stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of TC. Intensively open biomass burning episodes were identified from late September to early October by satellite fire and aerosol optical depth maps. During the biomass burning episodes, concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC, and WSOC increased by a factor of 4-12 compared to non-biomass-burning periods. Non-sea-salt potassium is strongly correlated with PM2.5, OC, EC and WSOC, suggesting an important contribution of biomass burning emission. The enrichment in both the non-sea-salt potassium and chlorine is significantly larger than other inorganic species, indicating that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly fresh and less aged. In addition, WSOC to OC ratio is relatively lower compared to that reported in biomass burning aerosols in tropical regions, supporting that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly primary and secondary organic aerosols is not significant. A lower average δ13C value (-26.2‰) is found for the biomass-burning aerosols, suggesting a dominant contribution from combustion of C3 plants in the studied region.

  1. Stable carbon isotopes as an indicator for soil degradation in an alpine environment (Urseren Valley, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Monika; Alewell, Christine

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of soil organic carbon (SOC) content and stable carbon isotope signatures (delta(13)C) of soils were assessed for their suitability to detect early stage soil erosion. We investigated the soils in the alpine Urseren Valley (southern central Switzerland) which are highly impacted by soil erosion. Hill slope transects from uplands (cambisols) to adjacent wetlands (histosols and histic to mollic gleysols) differing in their intensity of visible soil erosion, and reference wetlands without erosion influence were sampled. Carbon isotopic signature and SOC content of soil depth profiles were determined. A close correlation of delta(13)C and carbon content (r > 0.80) is found for upland soils not affected by soil erosion, indicating that depth profiles of delta(13)C of these upland soils mainly reflect decomposition of SOC. Long-term disturbance of an upland soil is indicated by decreasing correlation of delta(13)C and SOC (r soil erosion in hill slope transects from uplands to adjacent wetlands is documented as an intermediate delta(13)C value (-27.5 per thousand) for affected wetland soil horizons (0-12 cm) between upland (aerobic metabolism, relatively heavier delta(13)C of -26.6 per thousand) and wetland isotopic signatures (anaerobic metabolism, relatively lighter delta(13)C of -28.6 per thousand). Carbon isotopic signature and SOC content are found to be sensitive indicators of short- and long-term soil erosion processes. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany - Spatial variability and driving factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cora; Jaconi, Angélica; Jacobs, Anna; Don, Axel

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels can be mitigated by sequestering carbon in the soil. Sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools, as labile pools with a high turnover may be accumulated much faster but are also more vulnerable to losses. The aims of this study were to (1) assess how soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed among SOC fractions on a national scale in Germany, (2) identify factors influencing this distribution and (3) identify regions with high vulnerability to SOC losses. The SOC content and proportion of two different SOC fractions were estimated for more than 2500 mineral topsoils (soil texture, bulk soil C / N ratio, total SOC content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history of the sites. Arable topsoils in central and southern Germany were found to contain the highest proportions and contents of stable SOC fractions, and therefore have the lowest vulnerability to SOC losses. North-western Germany contains an area of sandy soils with unusually high SOC contents and high proportions of light SOC fractions, which are commonly regarded as representing a labile carbon pool. This is true for the former peat soils in this area, which have already lost and are at high risk of losing high proportions of their SOC stocks. Those black sands can, however, also contain high amounts of stable SOC due to former heathland vegetation and need to be treated and discussed separately from non-black sand agricultural soils. Overall, it was estimated that, in large areas all over Germany, over 30 % of SOC is stored in easily mineralisable forms. Thus, SOC-conserving management of arable soils in these regions is of great importance.

  3. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zemin; Zhang, Xichang; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from -29.0‰ to -26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to -27.5‰ with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as -2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view your large intestine . The barium will make your large intestine more visible on ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI ...

  5. Radiocarbon and stable-isotope geochemistry of organic and inorganic carbon in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigah, Prosper K.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Werne, Josef P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a lake-wide investigation of Lake Superior carbon and organic matter biogeochemistry using radiocarbon, stable isotope, and carbon concentrations. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) abundance in the lake was 121-122 Tg C, with offshore concentration andδ13C values being laterally homogenous and tightly coupled to the physical and thermal regime and biochemical processes. Offshore Δ14C of DIC (50-65‰) exhibited lateral homogeneity and was more 14C enriched than co-occurring atmospheric CO2 (˜38‰); nearshore Δ14C of DIC (36-38‰) was similar to atmospheric CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) abundance was 14.2-16.4 Tg C. DOC's concentration and δ13C were homogenous in June (mixed lake), but varied laterally during August (stratification) possibly due to spatial differences in lake productivity. Throughout sampling, DOC had modern radiocarbon values (14-58‰) indicating a semilabile nature with a turnover time of ≤60 years. Lake particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.9-1.3 Tg C) was consistently 13C depleted relative to DOC. The δ15N of epilimnetic particulate organic nitrogen shifted to more negative values during stratification possibly indicating greater use of nitrate (rather than ammonium) by phytoplankton in August. POC's radiocarbon was spatially heterogeneous (Δ14C range: 58‰ to -303‰), and generally 14C depleted relative to DOC and DIC. POC 14C depletion could not be accounted for by black carbon in the lake but, because of its spatial and temporal distribution, is attributed to sediment resuspension. The presence of old POC within the epilimnion of the open lake indicates possible benthic-pelagic coupling in the lake's organic carbon cycle; the ultimate fate of this old POC bears further investigation.

  6. Preliminary Study: Application of Off-Axis ICOS to Determine Stable Carbon Isotope in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, J. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is one of the major causes for global climate change. Because stable carbon isotope ratio is used to trace carbon source, several analytical techniques likes IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) and LAS (Laser Absorption Spectrometry) were extensively used. Off-axis ICOS, a kind of LAS, has merits on long-term stability and field application, therefore it is widely being used in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) field. The aim of this study is to extend the application scope of OA-ICOS to determine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Because OA-ICOS showed dependence of δ13C on CO2 concentration, data processing is required. We tested CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyzer (CCIA-36-EP, Los Gatos Research) with both reference gas (δ13C= -28.28‰) and aqueous solutions prepared by dissolving sodium bicarbonate standards (δ13C= -12.26‰ and +3.96‰). The differences of δ13C between reference and measurement values are plotted by CO2 concentrations, then compared. At first, we checked the similarity between our curve pattern for reference gas and Guillon's research (δ13C= -43.99‰) by other Analyzer. To analyze aqueous samples, more errors can be caused than gas analysis. The carbon isotope fractionation occurs during dissolving standard reagents and extracting DIC as CO2 gas form. This effect is mixed with CO2 concentration dependence effect, therefore the curve patterns are different with that for reference gas. Our experiments are done for various δ13C values. It could be an important point to use OA-ICOS to analyze DIC, too.

  7. Using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as in-situ tracers for monitoring the natural attenuation of explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyares, Paul H

    1999-01-01

    The use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope measurements from TNT was examined as a possible tool for monitoring the natural attenuation of TNT incubation studies of spiked soil samples were conducted...

  8. Effect of Different Carbon Substrates on Nitrate Stable Isotope Fractionation During Microbial Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer; Einsiedl, Florian

    2012-01-01

    -labeled water and 18O-labeled nitrite were added to the microcosm experiments to study the effect of putative backward reactions of nitrite to nitrate on the stable isotope fractionation. We found no evidence for a reverse reaction. Significant variations of the stable isotope enrichment factor ε were observed......In batch experiments, we studied the isotope fractionation in N and O of dissolved nitrate during dentrification. Denitrifying strains Thauera aromatica and “Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1” were grown under strictly anaerobic conditions with acetate, benzoate, and toluene as carbon sources. 18O...... of nitrate transport across the cell wall compared to the kinetics of the intracellular nitrate reduction step of microbial denitrification....

  9. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of sodium and potassium cyanide as a forensic signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. Upon analysis, a few of the cyanide samples displayed nonhomogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of the 65 cyanide samples, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Simultaneous determination of stable carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen isotopes in cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, N J; Street-Perrott, F A; Daley, T J; Hughes, P D M; Kimak, A; Levanič, T; Mallon, G; Mauquoy, D; Robertson, I; Roland, T P; van Bellen, S; Ziehmer, M M; Leuenberger, M

    2015-01-06

    A technological development is described through which the stable carbon-, oxygen-, and nonexchangeable hydrogen-isotopic ratios (δ(13)C, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) are determined on a single carbohydrate (cellulose) sample with precision equivalent to conventional techniques (δ(13)C 0.15‰, δ(18)O 0.30‰, δ(2)H 3.0‰). This triple-isotope approach offers significant new research opportunities, most notably in physiology and medicine, isotope biogeochemistry, forensic science, and palaeoclimatology, when isotopic analysis of a common sample is desirable or when sample material is limited.

  11. Stable optical soliton in the ring-cavity fiber system with carbon nanotube as saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bang-Qing; Ma, Yu-Lan; Yang, Tie-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Main attention focuses on the theoretical study of the ring-cavity fiber laser system with carbon nanotubes (CNT) as saturable absorber (SA). The system is modelled as a non-standard Schrödinger equation with the coefficients blended real and imaginary numbers. New stable exact soliton solution is constructed by the bilinear transformation method for the system. The influences of the key parameters related to CNTs and SA on the optical pulse soliton are discussed in simulation. The soliton amplitude and phase can be tuned by choosing suitable parameters.

  12. Investigating Pathways of Nutrient and Energy Flows Through Aquatic Food Webs Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadwen, W. L.; Bunn, S. E. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2013-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes can provide valuable insights into pathways of nutrient and energy flows in aquatic ecosystems. Carbon stable isotopes are principally used to trace pathways of organic matter transfer through aquatic food webs, particularly with regard to identifying the dominant sources of nutrition for aquatic biota. Stable isotopes of carbon have been widely used to answer one of the most pressing questions in aquatic food web ecology - to what degree do in-stream (autochthonous) and riparian (allochthonous) sources of energy fuel riverine food webs? In conjunction with carbon stable isotopes, nitrogen stable isotopes have been used to determine the trophic position of consumers and to identify the number of trophic levels in aquatic food webs. More recently, stable nitrogen isotopes have been recommended as indicators of anthropogenic disturbances. Specifically, agricultural land uses and/or sewage effluent discharge have been shown to significantly increase {delta}{sup 15}N signatures in primary producers and higher order consumers in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Together, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes can be used to examine natural food web functions as well as the degree to which human modifications to catchments and aquatic environments can influence aquatic ecosystem function. (author)

  13. Simulation of dual carbon-bromine stable isotope fractionation during 1,2-dibromoethane degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Rolle, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We performed a model-based investigation to simultaneously predict the evolution of concentration, as well as stable carbon and bromine isotope fractionation during 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB, ethylene dibromide) transformation in a closed system. The modelling approach considers bond-cleavage mechanisms during different reactions and allows evaluating dual carbon-bromine isotopic signals for chemical and biotic reactions, including aerobic and anaerobic biological transformation, dibromoelimination by Zn(0) and alkaline hydrolysis. The proposed model allowed us to accurately simulate the evolution of concentrations and isotope data observed in a previous laboratory study and to successfully identify different reaction pathways. Furthermore, we illustrated the model capabilities in degradation scenarios involving complex reaction systems. Specifically, we examined (i) the case of sequential multistep transformation of EDB and the isotopic evolution of the parent compound, the intermediate and the reaction product and (ii) the case of parallel competing abiotic pathways of EDB transformation in alkaline solution.

  14. A free-air system for long-term stable carbon isotope labeling of adult forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable carbon (C) isotopes, in particular employed in labeling experiments, are an ideal tool to broaden our understanding of C dynamics in trees and forest ecosystems. Here, we present a free-air exposure system, named isoFACE, designed for long-term stable C isotope labeling in...

  15. Stable cyclic performance of nickel oxide–carbon composite anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung; Wang, Xinghui; Fan, Yu; Xiao, Qizhen; Fitzgerald, Eugene; Pey, Kin Leong; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) directly grown on nickel foam is regarded as a promising lithium ion battery anode material which shows good cyclic and rate performances with a theoretical specific capacity of 718 mA h g −1 . In this study, we demonstrated a carbon-incorporated NiO anode (NiO–C) with a capacity per unit area of 2.11 mA h cm −2 and 1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.2 C and 0.5 C rates, respectively, fabricated by thermal oxidation of carbon coated nickel foam. The specific capacity of our NiO–C composite samples at 0.5 C rate is found to be typically 389.16 mA h g −1 , with a stable cyclic performance up to more than 100 cycles. This remarkable performance is apparently superior to the control samples of pure NiO samples. The improved performance is contributed to carbon incorporation which serves as a fluent channel for electrons and a flexible network preventing NiO nanostructures from structural deformation during charge and discharge processes. The advantage of using our approach is the easy preparation of the NiO–C composite using a simple two-step process: chemical vapor deposition of ethanol and annealing in air. - Highlights: • We demonstrated a directly grown NiO–C anode on nickel foam substrate. • NiO–C anode was made using simple processes: CVD of ethanol and annealing in air. • The NiO–C anode has a stable cycle life up to 102 cycles. • It has an acceptable areal capacity (1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.5 C rate) for practical use. • Carbon provides electrons path and buffering matrix preventing NiO pulverization

  16. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoli [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000 (China); Xu, Zemin [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Xichang [Laboratory for Teaching in Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Leipzig 04318 (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰.

  17. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zemin; Zhang, Xichang; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰

  18. Seasonal changes in stable carbon isotope ratios within annual growth rings of Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walcroft, A.; Silvester, W.; Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F.

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope composition of photosynthetically assimilated carbon (δ 13 C) is determined by the ratio of the leaf internal CO 2 concentration (c i ) to that of the ambient air (c a ), and so reflects the contribution of both stomatal conductance (g s ) and the rate of photosynthesis (A). Assimilated carbon which is subsequently laid down as wood in annual growth rings may therefore represent a time integrated record of physiological responses by the whole tree to seasonal changes in the environmental variables regulating growth. We analysed the stable carbon isotope composition of Pinus radiata wood collected from two plantation forest sites in New Zealand which differ markedly in temperature, rainfall and soil characteristics. For both sites, discs were cut from the stem of several trees near ground level and whole wood samples were taken from within individual annual growth rings over a number of years. At one site, diameter bands were installed over the 1994 - 1996 growing seasons in order to date precisely the formation of wood during that time. Trees at each site consistently showed a seasonal pattern in the stable isotope composition of wood within individual growth rings. The amplitude of seasonal δ 13 C variation at the wet and dry sites were 1-2 per thousand and 4 per thousand respectively. Mean δ 13 C values from the wet site were 3 per thousand more 13 C depleted than those from the dry site implying lower water-use efficiency (carbon assimilation per unit transpiration). A process-based, model of stomatal conductance and CO 2 assimilation was combined with a soil-water balance model to estimate the average daily leaf-level intercellular CO 2 concentration (c i ). Over two growing seasons at each site there was generally good agreement between mean canopy-level c i derived from the tree-ring δ 13 C data and modelled leaf-level c i levels. Further, the ratio of annual CO 2 assimilation to transpiration estimated by the model for each site

  19. ZnO-carbon nanofibers for stable, high response, and selective H2S sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jitao; Zhu, Zijian; Chen, Changmiao; Chen, Zhi; Cai, Mengqiu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Taihong; Zhang, Ming

    2018-07-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), as a typical atmospheric pollutant, is neurotoxic and flammable even at a very low concentration. In this study, we design stable H 2 S sensors based on ZnO-carbon nanofibers. Nanofibers with 30.34 wt% carbon are prepared by a facial electrospinning route followed by an annealing treatment. The resulting H 2 S sensors show excellent selectivity and response compared to the pure ZnO nanofiber H 2 S sensors, particularly the response in the range of 102-50 ppm of H 2 S. Besides, they exhibited a nearly constant response of approximately 40-20 ppm of H 2 S over 60 days. The superior performance of these H 2 S sensors can be attributed to the protection of carbon, which ensures the high stability of ZnO, and oxygen vacancies that improve the response and selectivity of H 2 S. The good performance of ZnO-carbon H 2 S sensors suggests that composites with oxygen vacancies prepared by a facial electrospinning route may provide a new research strategy in the field of gas sensors, photocatalysts, and semiconductor devices.

  20. Assessing dissolved carbon transport and transformation along an estuarine river with stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y. Jun

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries play an important role in the dynamics of dissolved carbon from rivers to coastal oceans. However, our knowledge of dissolved carbon transport and transformation in mixing zones of the world's coastal rivers is still limited. This study aims to determine how dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and stable isotopes (δ13CDIC and δ13CDOC) change along an 88-km long estuarine river, the Calcasieu River in Louisiana, southern USA, with salinity ranging from 0.02 to 21.92. The study is expected to elucidate which processes most likely control carbon dynamics in a freshwater-saltwater mixing system, and to evaluate the net metabolism of this estuary. Between May 2015 and February 2016, water samples were collected and in-situ measurements on ambient water conditions were performed during five field trips at six sites from upstream to downstream of the Calcasieu River, which enters the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). The DIC concentration and δ13CDIC increased rapidly with increasing salinity in the mixing zone. The average DIC concentration and δ13CDIC at the site closest to the NGOM (site 6) were 1.31 mM and -6.34‰, respectively, much higher than those at the site furthest upstream (site 1, 0.42 mM and -20.83‰). The DIC concentrations appeared to be largely influenced by conservative mixing, while high water temperature may have played a role in deviating DIC concentration from the conservative line due likely to increased respiration and decomposition. The δ13CDIC values were close to those suggested by the conservative mixing model for May, June and November, but lower than those for July and February, suggesting that an estuarine river can fluctuate from a balanced to a heterotrophic system (i.e., production/respiration (P/R) aquatic photosynthesis from carbon produced by terrestrial photosynthesis in a river-ocean continuum.

  1. Springtime carbon emission episodes at the Gosan background site revealed by total carbon, stable carbon isotopic composition, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the emission of carbonaceous aerosols at the Gosan background super-site (33.17° N, 126.10° E in East Asia, total suspended particles (TSP were collected during spring of 2007 and 2008 and analyzed for particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C of TC. The stable carbon isotopic composition of TC (δ13CTC was found to be lowest during pollen emission episodes (range: −26.2‰ to −23.5‰, avg. −25.2 ± 0.9‰, approaching those of the airborne pollen (−28.0‰ collected at the Gosan site. Based on a carbon isotope mass balance equation, we found that ~42% of TC in the TSP samples during the pollen episodes was attributed to airborne pollen from Japanese cedar trees planted around tangerine farms in Jeju Island. A negative correlation between the citric acid-carbon/TC ratios and δ13CTC was obtained during the pollen episodes. These results suggest that citric acid emitted from tangerine fruit may be adsorbed on the airborne pollen and then transported to the Gosan site. Thermal evolution patterns of organic carbon during the pollen episodes were characterized by high OC evolution in the OC2 temperature step (450 °C. Since thermal evolution patterns of organic aerosols are highly influenced by their molecular weight, they can be used as additional information on the formation of secondary organic aerosols and the effect of aging of organic aerosols during the long-range atmospheric transport and sources of organic aerosols.

  2. Relict thermokarst carbon source kept stable within gas hydrate stability zone of the South Kara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.; Winsborrow, M.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Semenov, P.

    2017-12-01

    Substantial shallow sources of carbon can exist in the South Kara Sea shelf, extending offshore from the permafrost areas of Yamal Peninsula and the Polar Ural coast. Our study presents new evidence for >250 buried relict thermokarst units. These amalgamated thawing wedges formed in the uppermost permafrost of the past and are still recognizable in today's non-permafrost areas. Part of these potential carbon reservoirs are kept stable within the South Kara Sea gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We utilize an extensive 2D high-resolution seismic dataset, collected in the South Kara Sea in 2005-2006 by Marine Arctic Geological Expedition (MAGE), to map distinctive U-shaped units that are acoustically transparent. These units appear all over the study area in water depths 50-250 m. Created by thermal erosion into Cretaceous-Paleogene bedrock, they are buried under the younger glacio-marine deposits and reach hundreds of meters wide and up to 100 meters thick. They show the characteristics of relict thermokarst, generated during ancient episode(s) of sea level regression of the South Kara Sea. These thermokarst units are generally limited by the Upper Regional Unconformity, which is an erosional horizon created by several glaciation events during the Pleistocene. On land, permafrost is known to sequester large volumes of carbon, half of which is concentrated within thermokarst structures. Based on modern thermokarst analogues we demonstrate with our study that a significant amount of organic carbon can be stored under the Kara Sea. To assess the stability of these shallow carbon reservoirs we carried out GHSZ modeling, constrained by geochemical analyses, temperature measurements and precise bathymetry. This revealed a significant potential for a GHSZ in water depths >225 m. The relict thermokast carbon storage system is stable under today's extremely low bottom water temperatures ( -1.7 °C) that allows for buried GHSZ, located tens of meters below the seabed

  3. PtRu nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen doped carbon with highly stable CO tolerance and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ying; Yang, Zehui; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Quan; Yu, Xinxin; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    As is well known, the lower durability and sluggish methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of PtRu alloy electrocatalyst blocks the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Here, we design a new PtRu electrocatalyst, with highly stable CO tolerance and durability, in which the PtRu nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen doped carbon layers derived from carbonization of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The newly fabricated electrocatalyst exhibits no loss in electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and MOR activity after potential cycling from 0.6-1.0 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, while commercial CB/PtRu retains only 50% of its initial ECSA. Meanwhile, due to the same protective layers, the Ru dissolution is decelerated, resulting in stable CO tolerance. Methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) testing indicates that the activity of newly fabricated electrocatalyst is two times higher than that of commercial CB/PtRu, and the fuel cell performance of the embedded PtRu electrocatalyst was comparable to that of commercial CB/PtRu. The embedded PtRu electrocatalyst is applicable in real DMFC operation. This study offers important and useful information for the design and fabrication of durable and CO tolerant electrocatalysts.

  4. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e., continuous culture experiments. We quantified linkages among δ13C, nutrients, carbonate chemistry, primary, and secondary production in temperate estuarine waters. Experimental culture vessels (9.1 L containing 33% whole and 67% filtered (0.2 μm seawater were amended with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P in low (3 vessels; 5 μM N, 0.3 μM P, moderate (3 vessels; 25 μM N, 1.6 μM P, and high amounts (3 vessels; 50 μM N, 3.1 μM P. The parameters necessary to calculate carbonate chemistry, chlorophyll-a concentrations, and particulate δ13C values were measured throughout the 14 day experiments. Outflow lines from the experimental vessels fed 250 ml containers seeded with juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. Mussel subsamples were harvested on days 0, 7, and 14 and their tissues were analyzed for δ13C values. We consistently observed that particulate δ13C values were positively correlated with chlorophyll-a, carbonate chemistry, and to changes in the ratio of bicarbonate to dissolved carbon dioxide (HCO3-:CO2. While the relative proportion of HCO3- to CO2 increased over the 14 days, concentrations of each declined, reflecting the drawdown of carbon associated with enhanced production. Plankton δ13C values, like chlorophyll-a concentrations, increased over the course of each experiment, with the greatest increases in the moderate and high treatments. Trends in δ13C over time were also observed in the mussel tissues. Despite ecological variability and different plankton abundances the experiments consistently demonstrated how δ13C values in primary producers and consumers reflected nutrient availability, via its impact on carbonate chemistry. We

  5. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in molluscan shells under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Hayashi, M.; Suzuki, A.; Sato, M.; Nojiri, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ13C, δ18O) of biogenic carbonate have been widely used for many paleoclimate, paleoecological, and biomineralization studies. δ13C of molluscan shells reflects the mixing of δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of seawater and respiratory carbon. Previous studies reported physiological effects on molluscs by ocean acidification, and thus the metabolic changes could potentially appear in shell δ13C as changes in a fraction of two carbon sources. In addition, shell δ18O, a commonly used proxy of seawater temperature and seawater δ18O, is also affected by seawater carbonate chemistry. As changes in the marine carbonate system, such as pH and pCO2, have occurred in the past 300 million years, to estimate pH effect on paleotemperature reconstruction is important. Here, we experimentally examined acidification effects on shell δ13C and δ18O of two species of clams for understanding of environmental and physiological proxies. Juvenile specimens of bloody clam Scapharca broughtonii and Japanese surf clam Pseudocardium sachalinense were cultured at five (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 µatm, P. sachalinense) or six (280, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 µatm, S. broughtonii) different pCO2 levels using CO2 control system of the Demonstration Laboratory, MERI, Japan. Significant negative correlations between shell δ13C and pH appeared in S. broughtonii, which showed non-significant pH effects on calcification, and the slope of the relationship of shell carbonate was lower than that of seawater DIC. On the other hand, in P. sachalinense which showed a decrease in calcification at low-pH treatment, the slopes of the relationship between shell δ13C and pH was roughly the same as that of seawater DIC. Thus, the extrapallial fluid of P. sachalinense might more strongly affected by acidified seawater than S. broughtonii. The results of two species might be attributable to differences in physiological responses to

  6. Organic geochemistry and stable isotope composition of New Zealand carbonate concretions and calcite fracture fills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.J.; Nelson, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonate concretion bodies, representing a number of morphological types, and associated calcite fracture fills, mainly from New Zealand, have been studied both organically and inorganically. Extracted organic material is dominated by a complex polymeric dark brown highly polar fraction with a subordinate less polar and lighter coloured lipid fraction. The relative proportion of the two fractions is the principal control on the colour of fracture fill calcites. Concretions are classified mainly by reference to their carbonate stable carbon and oxygen isotope and cation composition. Typical subspherical calcitic septarian concretions, such as those in the Paleocene Moeraki and the Eocene Rotowaro Siltstones, contain carbon derived mainly by bacterial sulfate reduction in marine strata during early diagenesis. Other concretions, including a septarian calcitic type from the Northland Allochthon, have a later diagenetic origin. Siderite concretions, abundant in the nonmarine Waikato Coal Measures, are typically dominated by methanogenic carbon, whereas paramoudra-like structures from the Taranaki Miocene have the most extreme carbon isotope compositions, probably resulting from methane formation or oxidation in fluid escape conduits. Lipids from concretion bodies and most fracture fill calcites contain significant concentrations of fatty acids. Concretion bodies dominated by bimodally distributed n-fatty acids with strong even-over-odd preference, in which long chain n-acids are of terrestrial origin, have very low hydrocarbon biomarker maturities. Concretion bodies that lack long chain n-acids often have higher apparent biomarker maturity and prominent alpha-omega diacids. Such diacids are abundant in fracture fill calcites at Rotowaro, especially where calcite infills the septaria of a siderite concretion in the non-marine Waikato Coal Measures, and support the view that fluid transport resulted in carbonate entrapment of the fracture-hosted acids. Diacids also

  7. Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Kou, Rong; Wang, Chongmin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Wang, Xiqing; Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    We report a durable electrocatalyst support, highly graphitized mesoporous carbon (GMPC), for oxygen reduction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. GMPC is prepared through graphitizing the self-assembled soft-template mesoporous carbon (MPC) under high temperature. Heat-treatment at 2800 C greatly improves the degree of graphitization while most of the mesoporous structures and the specific surface area of MPC are retained. GMPC is then noncovalently functionalized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and loaded with Pt nanoparticles by reducing Pt precursor (H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}) in ethylene glycol. Pt nanoparticles of {proportional_to}3.0 nm in diameter are uniformly dispersed on GMPC. Compared to Pt supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon black (Pt/XC-72), Pt/GMPC exhibits a higher mass activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the mass activity retention (in percentage) is improved by a factor of {proportional_to}2 after 44 h accelerated degradation test under the potential step (1.4-0.85 V) electrochemical stressing condition which focuses on support corrosion. The enhanced activity and durability of Pt/GMPC are attributed to the graphitic structure of GMPC which is more resistant to corrosion. These findings demonstrate that GMPC is a promising oxygen reduction electrocatalyst support for PEM fuel cells. The approach reported in this work provides a facile, eco-friendly promising strategy for synthesizing stable metal nanoparticles on hydrophobic support materials. (author)

  8. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Larsen

    Full Text Available Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13C patterns among amino acids (δ(13CAA could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  9. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  10. Isotopic exchange reaction between barium ion and tri barium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, G.B.; Cetin, I.

    1982-01-01

    Heterogeneous exchange reaction of tri barium phosphate in barium chloride solution has been studied using 133 Ba as a tracer. The results show that the exchange fraction increases as barium chloride concentration increases for different mole ratio of the exchange ion on the solid surface and in the solution. The phenomenon was studied with respect to the previous treatment of the precipitate leading to different crystal sizes and the effect of reaction time. (author)

  11. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  12. The effects of early diagenesis on the chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiker, E.C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of modern and ancient buried wood show that there is a linear correlation between carbohydrate content and the stable carbon isotope composition as carbohydrates are preferentially degraded during early diagenesis. As the carbohydrate content decreases, the delta 13 C value of the degraded wood decreases 1 to 2 per mil, approaching the value of the residual lignin. These results indicate that carbohydrate degradation products are lost and not incorporated into the aromatic structure as lignin is selectively preserved during early diagenesis of wood. These results also indicate that attempts to quantify terrestrial inputs to modern sedimentary organic matter based on delta 13 C values should consider the possibility of a 1 to 2 per mil decrease in the delta 13 C value of degraded wood. (author)

  13. Highly stable porous silicon-carbon composites as label-free optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chun Kwan; Kelly, Timothy L; Sailor, Michael J; Li, Yang Yang

    2012-12-21

    A stable, label-free optical biosensor based on a porous silicon-carbon (pSi-C) composite is demonstrated. The material is prepared by electrochemical anodization of crystalline Si in an HF-containing electrolyte to generate a porous Si template, followed by infiltration of poly(furfuryl) alcohol (PFA) and subsequent carbonization to generate the pSi-C composite as an optically smooth thin film. The pSi-C sensor is significantly more stable toward aqueous buffer solutions (pH 7.4 or 12) compared to thermally oxidized (in air, 800 °C), hydrosilylated (with undecylenic acid), or hydrocarbonized (with acetylene, 700 °C) porous Si samples prepared and tested under similar conditions. Aqueous stability of the pSi-C sensor is comparable to related optical biosensors based on porous TiO(2) or porous Al(2)O(3). Label-free optical interferometric biosensing with the pSi-C composite is demonstrated by detection of rabbit IgG on a protein-A-modified chip and confirmed with control experiments using chicken IgG (which shows no affinity for protein A). The pSi-C sensor binds significantly more of the protein A capture probe than porous TiO(2) or porous Al(2)O(3), and the sensitivity of the protein-A-modified pSi-C sensor to rabbit IgG is found to be ~2× greater than label-free optical biosensors constructed from these other two materials.

  14. Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-10-22

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed. The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (δ(13)C). It was found that results of δ(13)C for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (δ(2)H). A graphic representation of δ(13)C versus δ(2)H revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins grouped together. Accordingly, values of δ(13)C and δ(2)H can be used for studies of authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors.

  15. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moukhtar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl−1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m−3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m−3.

    In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m−3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m−3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  16. Effects of chemesthetic stimuli mixtures with barium on swallowing apnea duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Butler, Susan G; Plonk, Drew P; Grace-Martin, Karen; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that swallowing apnea duration (SAD) will increase given barium versus water, chemesthetic stimuli (i.e., water barium, age (older > younger), and genetic taste differences (supertasters > nontasters). Prospective group design. University Medical Center. Eighty healthy women were identified as nontasters and supertasters, equally comprising two age groups: 18 to 35 years and 60+ years. The KayPentax Swallowing Signals Lab was used to acquire SAD via nasal cannula during individually randomized swallows of 5 mL barium, 2.7% w/v citric acid with barium, carbonation with barium, and 50:50 diluted ethanol with barium. Data were analyzed using path analysis, with the mediator of chemesthetic perception, adjusted for repeated measures. Significant main effects of age (P = .012) and chemesthetic stimuli (P = .014) were found, as well as a significant interaction between chemesthetic stimuli and age (P = .028). Older women had a significantly longer SAD than younger women. Post hoc analyses revealed that barium mixed with ethanol elicited a significantly longer SAD than other bolus conditions, regardless of age group. There were no significant differences in SAD between barium and water conditions, and no significant effect of chemesthetic perception (P > .05). Ethanol added to barium elicited longer SAD compared to plain barium, but not the other chemesthetic conditions. Older women had a longer SAD than younger women in all conditions. These findings may influence design of future studies examining effects of various stimuli on SAD. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Arctic herbivore diet can be inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in C3 plants, faeces and wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte; Kristensen, Erik; Forchhammer, Mads C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in diet analysis usually relies on the different photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants, and the resulting difference in carbon isotope signature. In the Arctic, however, plant species are exclusively C3, and carbon isotopes alone are therefore not suitable......% graminoids and up to 20% willows. In conclusion, the diet composition of an arctic herbivore can indeed be inferred from stable isotopes in arctic areas, despite the lack of C4 plants...... for studying arctic herbivore diets. In this study, we examined the potential of both stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct the diet of an arctic herbivore, here the muskox (Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780)), in northeast Greenland. The isotope composition of plant communities and functional...

  18. Graphitized Carbon: A Promising Stable Cathode Catalyst Support Material for Long Term PEMFC Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Paritosh Kumar; Regnet, Fabian; Jörissen, Ludwig

    2018-05-28

    Stability of cathode catalyst support material is one of the big challenges of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for long term applications. Traditional carbon black (CB) supports are not stable enough to prevent oxidation to CO₂ under fuel cell operating conditions. The feasibility of a graphitized carbon (GC) as a cathode catalyst support for low temperature PEMFC is investigated herein. GC and CB supported Pt electrocatalysts were prepared via an already developed polyol process. The physical characterization of the prepared catalysts was performed using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis, and their electrochemical characterizations were conducted via cyclic voltammetry(CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and potential cycling, and eventually, the catalysts were processed using membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for single cell performance tests. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SEM) have been used as MEA diagonostic tools. GC showed superior stability over CB in acid electrolyte under potential conditions. Single cell MEA performance of the GC-supported catalyst is comparable with the CB-supported catalyst. A correlation of MEA performance of the supported catalysts of different Brunauer⁻Emmett⁻Teller (BET) surface areas with the ionomer content was also established. GC was identified as a promising candidate for catalyst support in terms of both of the stability and the performance of fuel cell.

  19. High-Performance Hydrogen Storage Nanoparticles Inside Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanofibers with Stable Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanglin; Chen, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xingguo; Guo, Zaiping; Jensen, Craig M; Gu, Qinfen; Yu, Xuebin

    2017-05-10

    An effective route based on space-confined chemical reaction to synthesize uniform Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 nanoparticles is reported. The hierarchical pores inside the one-dimensional carbon nanofibers (CNFs), induced by the creation of well-dispersed Li 3 N, serve as intelligent nanoreactors for the reaction of Li 3 N with Mg-containing precursors, resulting in the formation of uniformly discrete Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 nanoparticles. The nanostructured Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 particles inside the CNFs are capable of complete hydrogenation and dehydrogenation at a temperature as low as 105 °C with the suppression of ammonia release. Furthermore, by virtue of the nanosize effects and space-confinement by the porous carbon scaffold, no degradation was observed after 50 de/rehydrogenation cycles at a temperature as low as 130 °C for the as-prepared Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 nanoparticles, indicating excellent reversibility. Moreover, the theoretical calculations demonstrate that the reduction in particle size could significantly enhance the H 2 sorption of Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 by decreasing the relative activation energy barrier, which agrees well with our experimental results. This method could represent an effective, general strategy for synthesizing nanoparticles of complex hydrides with stable reversibility and excellent hydrogen storage performance.

  20. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. > 9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and δ13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched δ13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, δ13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  1. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. >9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and delta13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched delta13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, delta13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  2. Annual and seasonal distribution of intertidal foraminifera and stable carbon isotope geochemistry, Bandon Marsh, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milker, Yvonne; Horton, Benjamin; Vane, Christopher; Engelhart, Simon; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.; Khan, Nicole S.; Bridgeland, William

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of inter-annual and seasonal differences on the distribution of live and dead foraminifera, and the inter-annual variability of stable carbon isotopes (d13C), total organic carbon (TOC) values and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios in bulk sediments from intertidal environments of Bandon Marsh (Oregon, USA). Living and dead foraminiferal species from 10 stations were analyzed over two successive years in the summer (dry) and fall (wet) seasons. There were insignificant inter-annual and seasonal variations in the distribution of live and dead species. But there was a noticeable decrease in calcareous assemblages (Haynesina sp.) between live populations and dead assemblages, indicating that most of the calcareous tests were dissolved after burial; the agglutinated assemblages were comparable between constituents. The live populations and dead assemblages were dominated by Miliammina fusca in the tidal flat and low marsh, Jadammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata and M. fusca in the high marsh, and Trochamminita irregularis and Balticammina pseudomacrescens in the highest marsh to upland. Geochemical analyses (d13C, TOC and C/N of bulk sedimentary organic matter) show no significant influence of inter-annual variations but a significant correlation of d13C values (R = 20.820, p , 0.001), TOC values (R = 0.849, p , 0.001) and C/N ratios (R = 0.885, p , 0.001) to elevation with respect to the tidal frame. Our results suggest that foraminiferal assemblages and d13C and TOC values, as well as C/N ratios, in Bandon Marsh are useful in reconstructing paleosea-levels on the North American Pacific coast.

  3. Facile synthesis of carbon/MoO 3 nanocomposites as stable battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Jiang

    2017-03-09

    Pristine MoO3 is a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high specific capacity (1117 mA h g−1); it suffers, however, from poor cyclability, resulting from a low conductivity and large volume changes during lithiation/delithiation process. Here we adopt a facile two-step method in which pristine bulk MoO3 is first converted into MoO3 nanorods (MoO3 NR) through mechanical grinding, to buffer the continuous volume changes, and then coated with amorphous carbon through simple stirring and heating, to provide high electronic and ionic conductivities. Electrochemical tests reveal that the carbon-coated MoO3 nanorods (C-MoO3 NRs) exhibit outstanding specific capacity (856 mA h g−1 after 110 cycles at a current density of 0.1 C); remarkable cycle life, among the best reported for carbon-based MoO3 nanostructures (485 mA h g−1 after 300 cycles at 0.5 C and 373 mA h g−1 after 400 cycles at 0.75 C); and greatly improved capacity retention (up to 90.4% after various C-rates) compared to bulk MoO3. We confirm the versatility of the C-MoO3 NR anodes by preparing flexible batteries that display stable performance, even in bent state. This simple approach toward C-MoO3 NR anodes proceeds without rigorous chemical synthesis or extremely high temperatures, making it a scalable solution to prepare high-capacity anodes for next-generation LIBs.

  4. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as markers of dietary variation among sociocultural subgroups of Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups. METHODS: As a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland...... food in the diet was estimated at 21% from the mean δ(13) C value, 25% from the mean δ(15) N value, and 23% from the FFQ. CONCLUSION: Nail samples for analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were convenient to collect during a large population health survey among the Inuit. Isotope...

  5. Barium and radium radiopolarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.

    1979-01-01

    Radiopolarography has been applied to the study of two elements (barium and radium) which is difficult by classical polarography because of their strong electropositivity. Various parameters have been considered: nature, concentration and pH of supporting electrolyte. In any case of investigated mediums, the reduction to the metallic state reaction appeared to be reversible. An important variation of the barium half-wave potential E 1/2 with the ionic strength μ of the solution, imposed by LiCl used as supporting electrolyte, has been observed. It gives the possibility to estimate, for μ = 0, E 1/2 (Ba) = - 1.916 V/S.C.E. and E 1/2(Ra) = - 1.852 V/S.C.E. The values of barium and radium half wave potentials, obtained with a good accuracy in LiCl (or LiClO 4 ) 0.1 M medium, have been used to establish the amalgamation energy Δ 2 (M) of these elements. A linear variation of Δ 2 (M) with the metallic radius of the 2a elements has been obtained. On the other hand, by making the concentration of the complex forming agent (Cit 3- ) vary in the solution, we have a shift in the half wave potential from which we can deduce the stability constant of the complexe and its composition (BaCit - ; pK 1 =2). At last, nature and concentration of the supporting electrolyte (between 5.10 -2 M and 5M) have a determining influence on the extent of the polarogram plateau. This plateau is limited by an 'hollow effect' preceding the supporting electrolyte discharge. An interpretation of this effect is suggested which is based on the Stern model [fr

  6. Making of Magnet Barium Ferit Anisotropic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idayati, Novrita; Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Barium Hexa ferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) is ceramic and materials which usually used for making of permanent magnet. In this research Barium Hexa ferrite were made Anisotropic, and applied for loudspeaker, electro motors, dynamo, KWh metre, etc. this Magnet is commonly used due to its high Induction of Remanen (Br) and coercivity (high Hc). Besides it applies a more simple and easier process technology, cheaper raw material, and easy to find it, hence the magnetic component is much cheaper. Powder Metallurgy was used for the process technology, by reacting all materials in the powder (oxide), with a certain size distribution and a tight preparation step. The next step was mixing ferrite and Barium Carbonate (in the form of oxide), calcination, compaction, cantering and characterisation. The Anisotropic particle effects a high Induce Remanen (Br) and of koersifitas (high Hc). All the process steps will is determine physical and chemical characteristics of the magnet. The best Magnet characteristic of the magnet produced in this research is Induction of Remanen (Br) = 4,27 kg, Coercivity (Hc) = 1,745 kOe, Energy Product max (BHmaks) = 2,31 MGOe

  7. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  8. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-08-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  10. Comparison of stable carbon isotope ratios in the whole wood, cellulose and lignin of Oak tree-rings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loader, NJ

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The stable carbon isotope ratios (N13C) of whole wood, cellulose and acid-insoluble lignin from annual latewood increments of Quereus robur L., from modern and sub-fossil wood, were measured and their potential use as palaeo environmental indicators...

  11. Carbon-13 conundrums: limitations and cautions in the use of stable isotope analysis in stream ecotonal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A secondary analysis of literature was compiled and performed on the δ 13 C values for allochthonous litter, attached algae and consumers in stream ecosystems, finding that 'existing data conflict as to the capability of stable isotope analysis (SIA) for distinguishing carbon pathways'. The paper is in defence of the work previously performed and suggests caution when using stream SIA research. 48 refs

  12. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of pelagic zooplankton elucidate ecohydrographic features in the oligotrophic Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kü rten, Benjamin; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Kurten, Saskia; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Devassy, Reny P.; Struck, Ulrich; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Jones, Burton; Hansen, Thomas; Bruss, Gerd; Sommer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Although zooplankton occupy key roles in aquatic biogeochemical cycles, little is known about the pelagic food web and trophodynamics of zooplankton in the Red Sea. Natural abundance stable isotope analysis (SIA) of carbon (δ13C) and N (δ15N) is one

  13. USE OF GC-MS/COMBUSTION/IRMS TO IDENTIFY AND DETERMINE THE STABLE CARBON ISOTOPIC RATIO OF INDIVIDUAL LIPIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A system that couples a gas chromatograph (GC) via a split to a quadrapole mass spectrometer (MS) and, through a combustion interface, to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) allows the simultaneous detection of electron impact mass spectra and stable carbon isotope ratio an...

  14. Formation of barium strontium titanate powder by solid state reaction using different calcination temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teoh Wah Tzu; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    The unique electrical properties of large permittivity in Barium Strontium Titanate have been widely used to make capacitors; it can be produced by solid state reaction. In this study, the mixture of Barium Carbonate, Strontium Carbonate and Titanium Dioxide was calcined at 500 degree C, 1000 degree C, 1100 degree C , 1150 degree C, 1200 degree C, 1250 degree C and 1300 degree C. The results of the phases change in each stage were investigated via X ay Diffraction. The results show that the formation of Barium Strontium Titanate started at 1100 degree C with the presence of other phases. The mixture is fully reacted to form Barium Strontium Titanate at 1150 degree C. Only Barium Strontium Titanate was formed as the calcination temperature was set higher. (Author)

  15. Reducing conditions on barium absorption in rice plants cultured in BaSO4-enriched soil doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v36i1.17539

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Osvaldo Lima Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the possible solubilization of barium sulfate in soils under reducing conditions and its effects on barium bioavailability, an Oryza sativa pot trial was established. Increasing barium doses and two redox potential conditions were evaluated. The geochemical fractionation data demonstrated that reducing conditions led to an increase in the levels of more labile forms of barium and a reduction in more stable forms. Furthermore, higher doses of barium were found to have a negative impact on grain production. The highest levels of barium accumulation in the leaves, roots, and grains were observed with the highest barium dose under reducing conditions. These results demonstrate that reducing conditions increased barium bioavailability and absorption by rice plants.

  16. Abundant and stable char residues in soils: implications for soil fertility and carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J-D; Johnson, R L; Lehmann, J; Olk, D C; Neves, E G; Thompson, M L; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2012-09-04

    Large-scale soil application of biochar may enhance soil fertility, increasing crop production for the growing human population, while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. But reaching these beneficial outcomes requires an understanding of the relationships among biochar's structure, stability, and contribution to soil fertility. Using quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we show that Terra Preta soils (fertile anthropogenic dark earths in Amazonia that were enriched with char >800 years ago) consist predominantly of char residues composed of ~6 fused aromatic rings substituted by COO(-) groups that significantly increase the soils' cation-exchange capacity and thus the retention of plant nutrients. We also show that highly productive, grassland-derived soils in the U.S. (Mollisols) contain char (generated by presettlement fires) that is structurally comparable to char in the Terra Preta soils and much more abundant than previously thought (~40-50% of organic C). Our findings indicate that these oxidized char residues represent a particularly stable, abundant, and fertility-enhancing form of soil organic matter.

  17. Analytical system for stable carbon isotope measurements of low molecular weight (C2-C6 hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present setup, testing and initial results from a new automated system for stable carbon isotope ratio measurements on C2 to C6 atmospheric hydrocarbons. The inlet system allows analysis of trace gases from air samples ranging from a few liters for urban samples and samples with high mixing ratios, to many tens of liters for samples from remote unpolluted regions with very low mixing ratios. The centerpiece of the sample preparation is the separation trap, which is used to separate CO2 and methane from the compounds of interest. The main features of the system are (i the capability to sample up to 300 l of air, (ii long term (since May 2009 operational δ13C accuracy levels in the range 0.3–0.8 ‰ (1-σ, and (iii detection limits of order 1.5–2.5 ngC (collected amount of substance for all reported compounds. The first application of this system was the analysis of 21 ambient air samples taken during 48 h in August 2009 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Results obtained are generally in good agreement with those from similar urban ambient air studies. Short sample intervals allowed by the design of the instrument help to illustrate the complex diurnal behavior of hydrocarbons in an urban environment, where diverse sources, dynamical processes, and chemical reactions are present.

  18. Use of carbon stable isotope to investigate chloromethane formation in the electrolytic dechlorination of trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yuanxiang; Al-Abed, Souhail R.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon stable isotope trichloroethylene ( 13 C TCE) was used to investigate the formation of chloromethane (CM) during the electrolytic dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) at a granular-graphite packed cathode. A method was developed to use a conventional GC/MS to analyze and quantify regular and 13 C TCE and their dechlorination products. The concentration of a 13 C compound can be calculated, based on the concentration of its regular counterpart, from the response ratio of two fragments of different mass per charge values from the compounds in a sample and two characteristic MS spectrum ratios: one is the response ratio of the two fragments of the regular compound, and the other is the response ratio of the corresponding fragments of the regular and 13 C compounds at the same concentrations. The method was used to analyze the regular and 13 C compounds observed in an experiment of dechlorination in an ammonium acetate solution that contained both regular TCE and 13 C TCE. Results of analysis confirmed that CM was not a direct product of TCE dechlorination at the granular graphite cathode that cis-DCE was an intermediate product of TCE dechlorination, and that 1,1-DCE was not a dechlorination product

  19. Use of carbon stable isotope to investigate chloromethane formation in the electrolytic dechlorination of trichloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yuanxiang [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, USEPA 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, USEPA 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)]. E-mail: Al-Abed.Souhail@epa.gov

    2007-03-22

    Carbon stable isotope trichloroethylene ({sup 13}C TCE) was used to investigate the formation of chloromethane (CM) during the electrolytic dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) at a granular-graphite packed cathode. A method was developed to use a conventional GC/MS to analyze and quantify regular and {sup 13}C TCE and their dechlorination products. The concentration of a {sup 13}C compound can be calculated, based on the concentration of its regular counterpart, from the response ratio of two fragments of different mass per charge values from the compounds in a sample and two characteristic MS spectrum ratios: one is the response ratio of the two fragments of the regular compound, and the other is the response ratio of the corresponding fragments of the regular and {sup 13}C compounds at the same concentrations. The method was used to analyze the regular and {sup 13}C compounds observed in an experiment of dechlorination in an ammonium acetate solution that contained both regular TCE and {sup 13}C TCE. Results of analysis confirmed that CM was not a direct product of TCE dechlorination at the granular graphite cathode that cis-DCE was an intermediate product of TCE dechlorination, and that 1,1-DCE was not a dechlorination product.

  20. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes in Fastfood: Signatures of Corn and Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, H.; Kraft, R.

    2008-12-01

    Americans spend more than one hundred billion dollars on restaurant fastfood each year; fastfood meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. Frustrated by futile attempts to gain information about the origin and production of fastfood from the companies themselves, we used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We sampled food from McDonald's, Burger King and Wendy's chains, purchasing more than 480 servings of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches and fries within geographically-distributed U.S. cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Detroit, Boston and Baltimore. From the entire sample set of beef and chicken, only 12 servings of beef had δ13C McDonald's and Burger King favored other vegetable oils; this differed from ingredient reports. Our results highlighted the overwhelming importance of corn agriculture within virtually every aspect of fastfood manufacture.

  1. Stable iodide doping induced by photonic curing for carbon nanotube transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Zhou, Ying; Azumi, Reiko

    2018-06-01

    Doping has become crucial for achieving stable and high-performance conductive transparent carbon nanotube (CNT) films. In this study, we systematically investigate the doping effects of a few materials including alkali metal iodides, nonmetal iodide, and metals. We demonstrate that photonic curing can enhance the doping effects, and correspondingly improve the conductivity of CNT films, and that such iodides have better doping effects than metals. In particular, doping with a nonmetal compound (NH4I) shows the largest potential to improve the conductivity of CNT films. Typically, doping with metal iodides reduces the sheet resistance (R S) of CNT films with 70–80% optical transmittances at λ = 550 nm from 600–2400 to 250–440 Ω/square, whereas doping with NH4I reduces R S to 57 and 84 Ω/square at 74 and 84% optical transmittances, respectively. Interestingly, such a doped CNT film exhibits only a slight increase in sheet resistance under an extreme environment of high temperature (85 °C) and high relative humidity (85%) for 350 h. The results suggest that photonic-curing-induced iodide doping is a promising approach to producing high-performance conductive transparent CNT films.

  2. Simulation and optimization of stable isotope 13C separation by carbon monoxide cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hulin; Ju Yonglin; Li Liangjun; Xu Dagang

    2009-01-01

    A stable isotope 13 C separation column was set up by carbon monoxide (CO) cryogenic distillation. Diameter of the column is 45 mm, packing height is 17.5 m, of which enriching section is 15 m and stripping section is 2.5 m. Firstly, computer simulation results were validated by test results. Secondly, tests were replaced by computer simulations in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions in the experimental setup. Comprehensive factors of column pressure, feeding velocity, reflux ratio, withdrawing velocity, and boiling power impacts on the products were studied. Then optimization design of the experimental device was achieved through computer simulations combined with uniform experimental design. The final results show that the optimal operation conditions in the built column are as followings: boiling power, 250 W; column pressure, 54 kPa; reflux ratio, 84. The conclusion is that the method of combination of computer simulation and experimental design could be applied to 13 C industrial design and could be popularized in traditional distillation process to realize optimization design. (authors)

  3. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl 2 -NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl 2 -MCl systems.

  4. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

  5. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, Linda; Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to

  6. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  7. Stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates from the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy, over the past 18 kyr: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, G.; di Vito, M.; Fallick, A. E.; Sulpizio, R.

    2000-12-01

    Stable isotopes were measured in the carbonate and organic matter of palaeosols in the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy in order to test whether they are suitable proxy records for climatic and ecological changes in this area during the past 18000 yr. The ages of the soils span from ca. 18 to ca. 3 kyr BP. Surprisingly, the Last Glacial to Holocene climate transition was not accompanied by significant change in 18O of pedogenic carbonate. This could be explained by changes in evaporation rate and in isotope fractionation between water and precipitated carbonate with temperature, which counterbalanced the expected change in isotope composition of meteoric water. Because of the rise in temperature and humidity and the progressive increase in tree cover during the Holocene, the Holocene soil carbonates closely reflect the isotopic composition of meteoric water. A cooling of about 2°C after the Avellino eruption (3.8 ka) accounts for a sudden decrease of about 1 in 18O of pedogenic carbonate recorded after this eruption. The 13C values of organic matter and pedogenic carbonate covary, indicating an effective isotope equilibrium between the organic matter, as the source of CO2, and the pedogenic carbonate. Carbon isotopes suggest prevailing C3 vegetation and negligible mixing with volcanogenic or atmospheric CO2.

  8. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelton W; Thorrold, Simon R; Houghton, Leah A; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world's oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ(13)C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  9. Tracing carbon flow through coral reef food webs using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Kelton

    2015-11-21

    Coral reefs support spectacularly productive and diverse communities in tropical and sub-tropical waters throughout the world’s oceans. Debate continues, however, on the degree to which reef biomass is supported by new water column production, benthic primary production, and recycled detrital carbon (C). We coupled compound-specific stable C isotope ratio (δ13C) analyses with Bayesian mixing models to quantify C flow from primary producers to coral reef fishes across multiple feeding guilds and trophic positions in the Red Sea. Analyses of reef fishes with putative diets composed primarily of zooplankton (Amblyglyphidodon indicus), benthic macroalgae (Stegastes nigricans), reef-associated detritus (Ctenochaetus striatus), and coral tissue (Chaetodon trifascialis) confirmed that δ13C values of essential amino acids from all baseline C sources were both isotopically diagnostic and accurately recorded in consumer tissues. While all four source end-members contributed to the production of coral reef fishes in our study, a single-source end-member often dominated dietary C assimilation of a given species, even for highly mobile, generalist top predators. Microbially reworked detritus was an important secondary C source for most species. Seascape configuration played an important role in structuring resource utilization patterns. For instance, Lutjanus ehrenbergii showed a significant shift from a benthic macroalgal food web on shelf reefs (71 ± 13 % of dietary C) to a phytoplankton-based food web (72 ± 11 %) on oceanic reefs. Our work provides insights into the roles that diverse C sources play in the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems and illustrates a powerful fingerprinting method to develop and test nutritional frameworks for understanding resource utilization.

  10. High-k 3D-barium titanate foam/phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone)/cyanate ester composites with frequency-stable dielectric properties and extremely low dielectric loss under reduced concentration of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longhui; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Liang, Guozheng; Gu, Aijuan

    2018-01-01

    Higher dielectric constant, lower dielectric loss and better frequency stability have been the developing trends for high dielectric constant (high-k) materials. Herein, new composites have been developed through building unique structure by using hyperbranched polysiloxane modified 3D-barium titanate foam (BTF) (BTF@HSi) as the functional fillers and phenolphthalein poly(ether sulfone) (cPES)/cyanate ester (CE) blend as the resin matrix. For BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composite with 34.1 vol% BTF, its dielectric constant at 100 Hz is as high as 162 and dielectric loss is only 0.007; moreover, the dielectric properties of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites exhibit excellent frequency stability. To reveal the mechanism behind these attractive performances of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites, three kinds of composites (BTF/CE, BTF/cPES/CE, BTF@HSi/CE) were prepared, their structure and integrated performances were intensively investigated and compared with those of BTF@HSi/cPES/CE composites. Results show that the surface modification of BTF is good for preparing composites with improved thermal stability; while introducing flexible cPES to CE is beneficial to fabricate composites with good quality through effectively blocking cracks caused by the stress concentration, and then endowing the composites with good dielectric properties at reduced concentration of ceramics.

  11. Barium aluminate cement: its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.; Wolek, W.

    1975-01-01

    The technology of manufacturing barium aluminate cement from barium sulfate and alumina, using a rotary kiln for firing the clinker is described. The method of granulation of the homogenized charge was used. Conditions of using the ''to mud'' method in industry were indicated. The physical and chemical properties of barium aluminate cement are determined and the quality of several batches of cement prepared on a semi-industrial scale and their suitability for making highly refractory concretes are tested. The optimal composition of the concretes is determined as a function of the mixing water and barium aluminate cement contents. Several experimental batches of concretes were used in the linings of furnaces in the steel industry. The suitability of these cements for use in fields other than steelmaking is examined. It is established that calcium aluminate cement has certain limited applications [fr

  12. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope studies of Late Weichselian lake sediments in southern Sweden and northern Poland, with palaeoclimatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarlund, D.

    1994-04-01

    Late Weichselian lacustrine sediment sequences from southern Sweden and northern Poland were studied by means of stable isotope analysis in order to reconstruct the climatic development and climatically induced environmental changes in the respective regions. The methods used include analyses of the stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of bulk organic material, and the stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ 13 C, δ 18 O) of bulk carbonates and carbonate shells of aquatic organisms. These results were complemented and supported by lithological, chemical and biostratigraphic data (plant macrofossils, insects, molluscs). Chronological data were obtained by AMS radiocarbon dates and correlations based on pollen analysis. At c. 12.400 BP a climatic change from arctic, dry, and continental, to subarctic and more humid and maritime conditions occurred in southern Sweden. The Older Dryas stadial (c.12.200-12.000 BP) is characterized by a temporary return to generally colder , drier, and more continental conditions, followed by generally favourable (subarctic), although unstable, climatic conditions. At c. 11.300 BP a gradual transition towards a colder and more continental climate was initiated, followed by total absence of limnic carbonates during the Younger Dryas stadial (c. 11.000-10.200 BP), indicating arctic and continental conditions. The transition to the Holocene is characterized by a rapid and strong climatic warming. The results from northern Poland point to some important differences compared to this development. A climatic warming around 13.000 BP was followed by generally favourable climatic conditions enabling continuous sedimentation of limnic carbonates during the Late Weichselian. Distinct depletions of 13 C in lacustrine organic material at the transition to the Holocene were recorded in southern Sweden, also demonstrated by decreasing mean values obtained from an extensive compilation of δ 13 C data. A number of processes that may

  13. Using stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to study seabird ecology: applications in the Mediterranean seabird community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela G. Forero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of the stable isotope technique to ecological studies is becoming increasingly widespread. In the case of seabirds, stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon have been mainly used as dietary tracers. This approach relieson the fact that food web isotopic signatures are reflected in the tissues of the consumer. In addition to the study of trophic ecology, stable isotopes have been used to track the movement of seabirds across isotopic gradients, as individuals moving between isotopically distinct foodwebs can carry with them information on the location of previous feeding areas. Studies applying the stable isotope methodology to the study of seabird ecology show a clear evolution from broad and descriptive approaches to detailed and individual-based analyses. The purpose of this article is to show the different fields of application of stable isotopes to the study of the seabird ecology. Finally, we illustrate the utility of this technique by considering the particularities of the Mediterranean seabird community, suggesting different ecological questions and conservation problems that could be addressed by using the stable isotope approach in this community.

  14. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  15. Characterization of barium titanate powder doped with sodium and potassium ions by using Rietveld refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M.C.; Assis, J.T.; Pereira, F.R.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-reaction synthesis of doped barium titanate was done by employing barium carbonates, sodium, potassium and titanium oxides with classic procedures. Rietveld refining of X ray diffraction data of perovskite samples with tetragonal symmetry was applying and show good agreement. Besides, the treatment performed from 600 deg C produces nanocrystals of barium titanate with average size of 33 nm. The presence of endothermic peaks related to BaTiO 3 formation at relatively low temperatures was determined by thermal analysis. A pseudo-Voigt Thompson-Cox-Hastings function was used to fit the standard samples of barium titanate. The Rietveld method has showed be efficient to detect the influences of temperature and doping on barium titanate microstructures. (author)

  16. Stable carbon and nitrogen incorporation in blood and fin tissue of the catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    German, Donovan P.; Miles, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    A feeding trial was performed in the laboratory with the catfish species Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus to determine stable carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15 N) turnover rates and discrimination factors in non-lethally sampled tissues (red blood cells, plasma solutes, and fin). A second feeding trial was conducted to determine what P. disjunctivus could assimilate from low-quality wood-detritus—refractory polysaccharides (e.g., cellulose), or soluble wood-degradation products inherent in wood-detr...

  17. The stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate and other dissolved carbon species in deep subseafloor sediments at the northern Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Verena B.; Pohlman, John W.; Torres, Marta E.; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Ocean drilling has revealed the existence of vast microbial populations in the deep subseafloor, but to date little is known about their metabolic activities. To better understand the biogeochemical processes in the deep biosphere, we investigate the stable carbon isotope chemistry of acetate and other carbon-bearing metabolites in sediment pore-waters. Acetate is a key metabolite in the cycling of carbon in anoxic sediments. Its stable carbon isotopic composition provides information on the metabolic processes dominating acetate turnover in situ. This study reports our findings for a methane-rich site at the northern Cascadia Margin (NE Pacific) where Expedition 311 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampled the upper 190 m of sediment. At Site U1329, δ13C values of acetate span a wide range from −46.0‰ to −11.0‰ vs. VPDB and change systematically with sediment depth. In contrast, δ13C values of both the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (−21.6 ± 1.3‰ vs. VPDB) and the low-molecular-weight compound lactate (−20.9 ± 1.8‰ vs. VPDB) show little variability. These species are interpreted to represent the carbon isotopic composition of fermentation products. Relative to DOC, acetate is up to 23.1‰ depleted and up to 9.1‰ enriched in 13C. Broadly, 13C-depletions of acetate relative to DOC indicate flux of carbon from acetogenesis into the acetate pool while 13C-enrichments of pore-water acetate relative to DOC suggest consumption of acetate by acetoclastic methanogenesis. Isotopic relationships between acetate and lactate or DOC provide new information on the carbon flow and the presence and activity of specific functional microbial communities in distinct biogeochemical horizons of the sediment. In particular, they suggest that acetogenic CO2-reduction can coexist with methanogenic CO2-reduction, a notion contrary to the hypothesis that hydrogen levels are controlled by the thermodynamically most favorable electron

  18. Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barré, P; Eglin, T; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    . We analyzed data from six bare fallow experiments of long-duration (>30 yrs), covering a range of soil types and climate conditions, and sited at Askov (Denmark), Grignon and Versailles (France), Kursk (Russia), Rothamsted (UK), and Ultuna (Sweden). A conceptual three pool model dividing soil C...... into a labile pool (turnover time of a several years), an intermediate pool (turnover time of a several decades) and a stable pool (turnover time of a several centuries or more) fits well with the long term C decline observed in the bare fallow soils. The estimate of stable C ranged from 2.7 g C kg−1...... at Rothamsted to 6.8 g C kg−1 at Grignon. The uncertainty associated with estimates of the stable pool was large due to the short duration of the fallow treatments relative to the turnover time of stable soil C. At Versailles, where there is least uncertainty associated with the determination of a stable pool...

  19. Barium and iron abundances in red giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Villacanas, J.L.; Rego, M.; Cornide, M.

    1990-01-01

    An intermediate-dispersion abundance analysis has been carried out on a sample of 21 barium and 14 comparison stars. The excess of barium over iron has been used as the most representative indicator of peculiarity. These excesses are higher in the peculiar stars than in the nonpeculiar stars. Particularly interesting is the case of HD 67447, included in the comparison stars, with an excess Ba/Fe abundance = 1.61, probably a new barium star. A trend indicating a possible anticorrelation between barium overabundance and metallicity favors the suggestion that the barium strong group is older than the barium weak one. 36 refs

  20. Dynamics of Carbonates in Soils under Different Land Use in Forest-Steppe Area of Russia Using Stable and Radiogenic Carbon Isotope Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khokhlova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at the analysis of carbonate dynamics in soils under different land use. The studied area is located in the forest steppe - of the Central Russian Upland. Soils were sampled at four sites: a broadleaf forest, an adjacent 50-year continuously cropped field including plots under a corn monoculture, bare fallow, and a crop rotation area with a clean fallow every fourth year. The carbonates’ morphology, their chemical composition, as well as their stable and radiogenic isotopes of carbon were studied. Clear-cut distinctions were found in the carbonate distribution throughout the profiles in the microstructure of carbonate pedofeatures, carbon isotopic composition, and radiocarbon age of carbonates between the pairs of the plots as follows: the bare fallow and the crop rotation on the one hand, and the corn monoculture and forest on the other. The distinctions are commonly assumed to result from repeating upward water fluxes, which are different in the bare soils and those with plant cover. A clear difference occurred in the hydrothermal regime for soils with and without plant cover, and was found to be the key factor of the observed differences. In addition, in soils under plant cover, the carbonate migration upward occurs due to process of transpiration, whereas in soils devoid of plants, it occurs due to physical evaporation.

  1. Salt-embedded carbon nanodots as a UV and thermal stable fluorophore for light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak H.; Wang, Fu; McCormick, Paul; Wang, Lianzhou; Brown, Chris; Li, Qin

    2014-01-01

    UV and thermal stable, photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) prepared by embedding CDs in ionic salt crystals such as NaCl, KCl, KBr are demonstrated. The salt crystal embedding matrix does not interfere with CDs strong emission, and provides effective protection to CDs from the environment. The degradation of 20% of the initial luminescence intensity of salt-encapsulated CDs (S-CDs) is 15 times slower under UV and 6 times slower under heat compared to that of CDs in silica matrix. We also demonstrate that the S-CDs can be applied as a color-converting phosphor for typical GaN UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) with significant improvements in stability as well as processability. - Highlights: • Carbon dots can be uniformly embedded in ionic salt crystals via crystallization. • Salt crystals provide oxygen-tight matrices for protecting carbon dots from degradations. • Salt-embedded carbon dots can be applied as a stable color-converting phosphor in LEDs

  2. Salt-embedded carbon nanodots as a UV and thermal stable fluorophore for light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tak H. [Queensland Micro- and Nano-Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Environmental Engineering, Griffith University, QLD 4111 (Australia); Wang, Fu [Institute of Physiology, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Street 7, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); McCormick, Paul [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA 2009 (Australia); Wang, Lianzhou [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Brown, Chris [Queensland Micro- and Nano-Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Li, Qin, E-mail: qin.li@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nano-Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Environmental Engineering, Griffith University, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    UV and thermal stable, photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) prepared by embedding CDs in ionic salt crystals such as NaCl, KCl, KBr are demonstrated. The salt crystal embedding matrix does not interfere with CDs strong emission, and provides effective protection to CDs from the environment. The degradation of 20% of the initial luminescence intensity of salt-encapsulated CDs (S-CDs) is 15 times slower under UV and 6 times slower under heat compared to that of CDs in silica matrix. We also demonstrate that the S-CDs can be applied as a color-converting phosphor for typical GaN UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) with significant improvements in stability as well as processability. - Highlights: • Carbon dots can be uniformly embedded in ionic salt crystals via crystallization. • Salt crystals provide oxygen-tight matrices for protecting carbon dots from degradations. • Salt-embedded carbon dots can be applied as a stable color-converting phosphor in LEDs.

  3. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-09-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to investigate the organisms and biochemical pathways involved in the metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach. Our results clearly demonstrate that the activity of bacterial reductive acetogens is a key factor in the reduced methane output of kangaroos. In in vitro fermentations, the microbial community of the kangaroo foregut produced very little methane, but produced a significantly greater proportion of acetate derived from carbon dioxide than the microbial community of the bovine rumen. A bacterial operational taxonomic unit closely related to the known reductive acetogen Blautia coccoides was found to be associated with carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism in the kangaroo foregut. Other bacterial taxa including members of the genera Prevotella, Oscillibacter and Streptococcus that have not previously been reported as containing hydrogenotrophic organisms were also significantly associated with metabolism of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the kangaroo forestomach.

  4. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope and trace element studies in speleothems and across the J-K boundary, Central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudielka, G.

    2001-07-01

    Carbon and Oxygen stable isotope ratios of carbonates decisively depend on fractionation during physicochemical processes. Therefore, they represent a powerful tool to derive information on past conditions under which the carbonates formed. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) offers a large range of applications. This thesis presents two projects based upon investigation of carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios combined with trace element abundances (determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA) in carbonates. (1) Palaeoclimatic investigation on speleothems from central Italy. Four speleothems from Grotta Grande del Vento, central Italy, were analyzed for stable isotope ratios and trace element abundances, and age dated to obtain a chronologically reliable stable isotope profile. The speleothems were sampled by means of a dental drill to gain a stable isotope profile with a 0.5 mm resolution, trace element abundances have been performed by INAA every 0.5 cm, and the samples for age dating were picked according to remarkable features in the stable isotope trends and analyzed by TIMS. The record covers the period from 93 ka until the early holocene with a hiatus lasting from 75 ka until 65.0 ka. Speleothem growth during the last glacial indicates moderate conditions in the Frasassi region back then. Comparison with speleothems from Ireland, France and northern Italy reveal a north-south slope in d18O, indicating, that the rain over central Italy mainly originates from the North Atlantic. Depletion of moisture in d18O during its continental trajectory is due to rainout, which primarily extracts the heavy isotopes. The stable isotope record is in good agreement with the high-resolution speleothem record from Soreq Cave, Israel. Distinct isotopic events coincide between 85 ka and 80 ka, between ∼ 60 ka and 50 ka and from the last glacial to the early holocene. An offset has been existing between the two records at any time. The speleothems of

  5. Carbon and Hydrogen Stable Isotope Fractionation during Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Barbara; Richnow, Hans H.; Schink, Bernhard; Vieth, Andrea; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2002-01-01

    13C/12C and D/H stable isotope fractionation during aerobic degradation was determined for Pseudomonas putida strain mt-2, Pseudomonas putida strain F1, Ralstonia pickettii strain PKO1, and Pseudomonas putida strain NCIB 9816 grown with toluene, xylenes, and naphthalene. Different types of initial reactions used by the respective bacterial strains could be linked with certain extents of stable isotope fractionation during substrate degradation. PMID:12324375

  6. Biochemical and stable carbon isotope records of mangrove derived organic matter in the sediment cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manju, M.N.; Resmi, P.; RatheeshKumar, C.S.; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Joseph, M.M.

    in mangrove sediments. This also confirms the involvement of heterotrophic microorganisms in the organic carbon dynamics of the study area. The bulk elemental ratio (total organic carbon/total nitrogen) varied between 11.39 and 24.14 in the study region...

  7. Measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons and halocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Within the realm of volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons and halocarbons form a sizable proportion of carbon input to the atmosphere. Within these compound categories, the light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, two to seven carbon atoms) and monocarbon halocarbons have a special place as these

  8. Carbonate Mineral Formation on Mars: Clues from Stable Isotope Variation Seen in Cryogenic Laboratory Studies of Carbonate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard; Niles, Paul B.; Sun, Tao; Fu, Qi; Romanek, Christopher S.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2013-01-01

    The geologic history of water on the planet Mars is intimately connected to the formation of carbonate minerals through atmospheric CO2 and its control of the climate history of Mars. Carbonate mineral formation under modern martian atmospheric conditions could be a critical factor in controlling the martian climate in a means similar to the rock weathering cycle on Earth. The combination of evidence for liquid water on the martian surface and cold surface conditions suggest fluid freezing could be very common on the surface of Mars. Cryogenic calcite forms readily when a rise in pH occurs as a result of carbon dioxide degassing quickly from freezing Ca-bicarbonate-rich water solutions. This is a process that has been observed in some terrestrial settings such as arctic permafrost cave deposits, lakebeds of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and in aufeis (river icings) from rivers of N.E. Alaska. We report here the results of a series of laboratory experiments that were conducted to simulate potential cryogenic carbonate formation on the planet Mars. These results indicate that carbonates grown under martian conditions (controlled atmospheric pressure and temperature) show enrichments from starting bicarbonate fluids in both carbon and oxygen isotopes beyond equilibrium values with average delta13C(DIC-CARB) values of 20.5%0 which exceed the expected equilibrium fractionation factor of [10(sup 3) ln alpha = 13%0] at 0 degC. Oxygen isotopes showed a smaller enrichment with delta18O(H2O-CARB) values of 35.5%0, slightly exceeding the equilibrium fractionation factor of [10(sup 3) ln alpha = 34%0 ] at 0degC. Large kinetic carbon isotope effects during carbonate precipitation could substantially affect the carbon isotope evolution of CO2 on Mars allowing for more efficient removal of 13C from the Noachian atmosphere enriched by atmospheric loss. This mechanism would be consistent with the observations of large carbon isotope variations in martian materials despite the

  9. Chemically immobilised carbon nanotubes on silicon: Stable surfaces for aqueous electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavel, Benjamin S.; Garrett, David J.; Lehr, Joshua; Shapter, Joseph G.; Downard, Alison J.

    2010-01-01

    Diazonium ion chemistry has been used to electrochemically graft aminophenyl layers onto p-type silicon (1 0 0) substrates. A condensation reaction was used to immobilise single-walled carbon nanotubes with high carboxylic acid functionality directly to this layer. Electrochemical monitoring of the aminophenyl groups confirmed the formation of an amide linkage between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and the aminophenyl layer. The carbon nanotube electrode showed high stability and good electrochemical performance in aqueous solution. At moderate scan rates the Ru(NH 3 ) 6 +3/+2 couple exhibited quasi-reversible electron transfer kinetics with a standard heterogenous rate constant of 1.2 x 10 -3 cm s -1 at the covalently-linked carbon nanotube surface. The electrode thus combines the advantages of a silicon substrate for easy integration into sophisticated electrical and electronic devices, carbon nanotubes for desirable electrochemical properties, and stability in aqueous medium for future applications in environmental sensing.

  10. Diagenetic evolution and stable isotopes of Lower Permian platform marginal carbonates (Trogkofel Limestone, Carnic Alps, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Maria; Krainer, Karl; Sanders, Diethard Gerald; Spötl, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    and filling of fractures. Closely below the erosional surface at the top of the Trogkofel Limestone, the dolomite is characterized by vuggy porosity. The Tarvis Breccia, which represents coarse alluvial fan deposits, in turn, is thick-bedded, poorly sorted, typically clast-supported, and consists of angular lithoclasts embedded in a matrix of former lime mudstone. Both, matrix as well as lithoclasts, are dolomitized. Various types of cement (isopachous, botryoidal, microbialite, calcite spar), karstic cavity fills (isopachous cements, internal sediments), and replacement dolomites of the Trogkofel section, as well as of the Tarvis Breccia were analysed for their stable isotopic composition. δ18O and δ13C data produced so far allow to differentiate between replacement dolomites and saddle dolomite of the Trogkofel Limestone and the Tarvis Breccia. Saddle dolomite shows the most depleted oxygen isotope values, suggesting formation during relatively high temperatures. Carbon isotope values are invariably positive in all dolomite types indicating lacking influence of organic diagenesis on the alkalinity of the deep-burial pore water. Matrix dolomite from the Tarvis Breccia shows slightly positive δ18O values. Calcite cements show a wide range in δ18O values (ca. -1 to -7 permil VPDB), which overlaps the composition of unaltered brachiopod shells (ca. -3 permil VPDB). Oxygen isotope values of calcite cements reveal a trend towards depleted δ18O values. This trend is reflecting most likely increasing temperature.

  11. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  12. Stable isotope (C, O) and monovalent cation fractionation upon synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyl apatite (CHAP) via calcite transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Wacker, Ulrike; Conrad, Anika C.; Grathoff, Georg; Schmidt, Burkhard; Bahlo, Rainer; Gehlken, Peer-L.; Fiebig, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate-bearing hydroxyl-apatite (CHAP) is of fundamental and applied interest to the (bio)geochemical, paleontological, medical and material science communities, since it forms the basic mineral phase in human and animal teeth and bones. In addition, it is found in non-biogenic phosphate deposits. The stable isotope and foreign element composition of biogenic CHAP is widely used to estimate the formation conditions. This requires careful experimental calibration under well-defined boundary conditions. Within the DFG project EXCALIBOR, synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyapatite was conducted via the transformation of synthetic calcite powder in aqueous solution as a function of time, pH, and temperature using batch-type experiments. The aqueous solution was analyzed for the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbonate (gas irmMS), the oxygen isotope composition of water (LCRDS), and the cationic composition. The solid was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, micro Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, elemental analysis (EA, ICP-OES) and gas irmMS. Temperature was found to significantly impact the transformation rate of calcite to CHAP. Upon complete transformation, CHAP was found to contain up to 5% dwt carbonate, depending on the solution composition (e.g., pH), both incorporated on the A and B type position of the crystal lattice. The oxygen isotope fractionation between water and CHAP decreased with increasing temperature with a tentative slope shallower than those reported in the literature for apatite, calcite or aragonite. In addition, the presence of dissolved NH4+, K+ or Na+ in aqueous solution led to partial incorporation into the CHAP lattice. How these distortions of the crystal lattice may impact stable isotope discrimination is subject of future investigations.

  13. The application of stable carbon isotope ratios as water quality indicators in coastal areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Javed, T.; Tasneem, M.A.; Sajjad, M.I.; Saleem, M.; Khan, S.H.; Rizvi, S.H.N.; Siddiqui, S.A.; Qari, R.

    1998-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC), total inorganic and organic carbon in bottom sediments, as well as sea plants in polluted water sources, non-polluted Karachi Sea water and pollution recipients are used to elaborate pollution scenario of shallow marine environment off Karachi coast. These results are supplemented with stable isotope composition of nitrogen (δ 15 N) in seaweeds and mangroves, toxic/trace metal concentration in sea-bottom sediments, total Coliform bacterial population, electrical conductivity, temperature and turbidity. Isotopic data shows that the mangrove ecosystem and the tidal fluctuations play a key role in controlling contamination inventories in shallow sea water off Karachi coast, specifically the Manora Channel. The Karachi harbour zone is found to be the most heavily polluted marine site in Manora channel during high as well as low tide regimes. Significant concentrations of toxic metals such as Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, V, U are observed in off-shore sediments of Karachi coast. The results show that sewage and industrial wastes are the main sources of heavy metal pollution in Karachi harbour, Manora Channel exit zone and the southeast coast. However, as compared to other coastal areas, the Karachi coast is moderately polluted. Studies suggest incorporation of quick remedial measures to combat pollution in shallow marine environments off Karachi Coast. (author)

  14. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-09-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment, employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e., equivalent to ~8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars obtained from marine sediment extracts indicated that glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus, whereas muramic acid showed isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities. The δ13C analysis of amino sugars provides a valuable addition to the biomarker-based characterization of microbial metabolism in the deep marine biosphere, which so far has been lipid oriented and biased towards the detection of archaeal signals.

  15. Development of a Method to Isolate Glutamic Acid from Foodstuffs for a Precise Determination of Their Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masaharu; Yatsukawa, Yoichi; Tanabe, Soichi; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2018-01-01

    Recent growing health awareness is leading to increasingly conscious decisions by consumers regarding the production and traceability of food. Stable isotopic compositions provide useful information for tracing the origin of foodstuffs and processes of food production. Plants exhibit different ratios of stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C) because they utilized different photosynthetic (carbon fixation) pathways and grow in various environments. The origins of glutamic acid in foodstuffs can be differentiated on the basis of these photosynthetic characteristics. Here, we have developed a method to isolate glutamic acid in foodstuffs for determining the δ 13 C value by elemental analyzer-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) without unintended isotopic fractionation. Briefly, following acid-hydrolysis, samples were defatted and passed through activated carbon and a cation-exchange column. Then, glutamic acid was isolated using preparative HPLC. This method is applicable to measuring, with a low standard deviation, the δ 13 C values of glutamic acid from foodstuffs derived from C3 and C4 plants and marine algae.

  16. Cobalt phosphate-modified barium-doped tantalum nitride nanorod photoanode with 1.5% solar energy conversion efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanbo

    2013-10-03

    Spurred by the decreased availability of fossil fuels and global warming, the idea of converting solar energy into clean fuels has been widely recognized. Hydrogen produced by photoelectrochemical water splitting using sunlight could provide a carbon dioxide lean fuel as an alternative to fossil fuels. A major challenge in photoelectrochemical water splitting is to develop an efficient photoanode that can stably oxidize water into oxygen. Here we report an efficient and stable photoanode that couples an active barium-doped tantalum nitride nanostructure with a stable cobalt phosphate co-catalyst. The effect of barium doping on the photoelectrochemical activity of the photoanode is investigated. The photoanode yields a maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.5%, which is more than three times higher than that of state-of-the-art single-photon photoanodes. Further, stoichiometric oxygen and hydrogen are stably produced on the photoanode and the counter electrode with Faraday efficiency of almost unity for 100 min. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Stratigraphy and stable isotope geochemistry of the carbonate sequence from the Paraguay belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Ventura.; Alvarenga, Carlos Jose Souza de; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2001-01-01

    Two main Neoproterozoic carbonate sequences occur central Brazil both of which are stratiphicaly above glacial derived sediments. An older carbonate sequence occurs over the Sao Francisco Craton and in the surrounding folded belts (Rio Preto, Aracuai Ribeira and Brasilia). These carbonates overlie glacial diamictites that were related to the 'Sturtian' event dated between 0.7 and 0.9 Ga (Toulkeridis et al. 1999, Santos et al., 2000). A second carbonate sequence is described in the Paraguay Belt and postdated Vendian/Varegian glaciation sediments from the end of the Neoproterozoic. This glacial event has been reported in many studies concerning the Gondwana and the Laurentia supercontinent (Trompette, 1996; Condon and Prave, 2000; Myrow and Kaufman, 1999). In the Paraguay Belt the Vendian- Varangian glaciation rocks are characterized by a glaciomarine sequence, that occur at the border of the basin, and by glacial derived turbidites deposits, that occur in the deeper parts of the basin (Alvarenga and Trompette, 1992). Near the city of Corumba this glaciomarine sequence is overlaid by carbonate rocks containing Ediacaran-like fauna in which has been described Corumbella werneri and Cloudina Lucianoi (Hahn et al., 1982; Walde et al., 1982; Zaine and Fairchild, 1985; 1987). These carbonates have been interpreted as cap carbonates and the age of their fossils have been attributed to the Vendian Superior (590-545 MA) (Alvarenga and Trompette, 1992, Trompette 1996). Isotope stratigraphy studies have been widely used to study cap carbonate rocks that overlie Sturtian and Vendian- Varagian glaciogenic rocks. Stratigraphic correlation of these units is usually difficult because their lack fossils and there is no precise dating method that could be applied to these rocks. Hence, most studies concerning Neoproterozoic carbonates have concentrated on their stromatilites and microfossils content as well as on carbon isotope variations. In the present study, we present new carbon

  18. Mass spectrometric analysis of stable carbon isotopes in abiogenic and biogenic natural compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Ahmed, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.A.; Latif, Z.

    1989-07-01

    This report describes the general methodology of sup/13/ carbon analysis on mass spectrometer and various preparation systems developed for conversion of samples into isotopically non-fractionated and purified carbon dioxide. Laboratory standards required for sup/13/ C analysis have been calibrated against international standards. The reproducibility/accuracy of sample preparation and analysis on mass spectrometer for sup/13/ C or sup/12/ C measurement is well within the internationally acceptable limits. (author)

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values for Plants and Mammals in a Semi-Desert Region of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Davie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the isotopic signatures of plants and animals in Mongolia, limiting the application of stable isotope analysis to wildlife biology studies. Here we present plant and mammal carbon (δ 13 C and nitrogen (δ 15 N isotope values from a desert-steppe region of southeastern Mongolia. We analyzed 11 samples from 11 plant species and 93 samples from 24 mammal species across Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, and compared these numbers to isotope values reported from other areas of Mongolia. Our plant and mammal 13 C and 15 N values were similar to those from a similar arid steppe region and more enriched than those from less arid habitats. Habitat variation within and between study sites has an important infl uence on δ 13 C and δ 15 N variation. Our results supplement current knowledge of isotopic variation in Mongolia and provide a reference for future stable isotope research in Mongolia and similar Asian steppe ecosystems.

  20. Martian Cryogenic Carbonate Formation: Stable Isotope Variations Observed in Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Sun, Tao; Fu, Qi; Romanek, Christopher S.; Gibson, Everett K. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The history of water on Mars is tied to the formation of carbonates through atmospheric CO2 and its control of the climate history of the planet. Carbonate mineral formation under modern martian atmospheric conditions could be a critical factor in controlling the martian climate in a means similar to the rock weathering cycle on Earth. The combination of evidence for liquid water on the martian surface and cold surface conditions suggest fluid freezing could be very common on the surface of Mars. Cryogenic calcite forms easily from freezing solutions when carbon dioxide degasses quickly from Ca-bicarbonate-rich water, a process that has been observed in some terrestrial settings such as arctic permafrost cave deposits, lake beds of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and in aufeis (river icings) from rivers of N.E. Alaska. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted that simulated cryogenic carbonate formation on Mars in order to understand their isotopic systematics. The results indicate that carbonates grown under martian conditions show variable enrichments from starting bicarbonate fluids in both carbon and oxygen isotopes beyond equilibrium values.

  1. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  2. Long-term summer temperature variations in the Pyrenees from detrended stable carbon isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esper, J.; Konter, O.; Krusic, P. J.; Saurer, M.; Holzkaemper, S.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2015), s. 53-59 ISSN 1897-1695 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tree-rings * climate sensitivity * past millennium * delta-o-18 * delta-c-13 * cellulose * wood * uncertainties * chronologies * variability * Climate change * paleoclimatology * stable isotope geochemistry * tree-rings * Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2015

  3. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Evaluate Trophic Interactions in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David R.; LaRoche, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a series of laboratory exercises for upper level biology courses, independent research and/or honors programs. Students sampled fish from a local water body with the assistance of a local fish and wildlife agency. Tissue samples from collected fish were utilized to obtain estimates of the stable isotopes delta[superscript 13]C…

  4. Engineered in situ bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer: assessment of mineralization based on alkalinity, inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotope balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkeler, Daniel; Höhener, Patrick; Bernasconi, Stefano; Zeyer, Josef

    1999-04-01

    A concept is proposed to assess in situ petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization by combining data on oxidant consumption, production of reduced species, CH 4, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with measurements of stable isotope ratios. The concept was applied to a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, which was treated by engineered in situ bioremediation. In the contaminated aquifer, added oxidants (O 2 and NO 3-) were consumed, elevated concentrations of Fe(II), Mn(II), CH 4, alkalinity and DIC were detected and the DIC was generally depleted in 13C compared to the background. The DIC production was larger than expected based on the consumption of dissolved oxidants and the production of reduced species. Stable carbon isotope balances revealed that the DIC production in the aquifer originated mainly from microbial petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization, and that geochemical reactions such as carbonate dissolution produced little DIC. This suggests that petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization can be underestimated if it is determined based on concentrations of dissolved oxidants and reduced species.

  5. Relationship between climate and vegetation and the stable carbon isotope chemistry of soils in the eastern Mojave Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundson, R.G.; Chadwick, O.A.; Sowers, J.M.; Doner, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the stable C-isotope composition of the soil environment and modern climate and vegetation was determined empirically along a present-day climatic transect in the eastern Mojave Desert. The δ 13 C of the soil CO 2 and carbonates decreased with increasing elevation and plant density, even though plant assemblages at all elevations were isotopically similar. Several factors, including differences in the ratios of pedogenic of limestone calcite and differences in past vegetation, were considered as explanations of this trend, However, it appears that in the sparsely vegetated Mojave Desert, the δ 13 C of pedogenic carbonate is controlled by differences in plant density and biological activity. This relationship may provide a tool for assessing past vegetational densities, as long as the vegetation is isotopically homogeneous. (author)

  6. Chemically immobilised carbon nanotubes on silicon: Stable surfaces for aqueous electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavel, Benjamin S., E-mail: ben.flavel@flinders.edu.a [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Garrett, David J.; Lehr, Joshua [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Shapter, Joseph G. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Downard, Alison J., E-mail: alison.downard@canterbury.ac.n [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2010-04-30

    Diazonium ion chemistry has been used to electrochemically graft aminophenyl layers onto p-type silicon (1 0 0) substrates. A condensation reaction was used to immobilise single-walled carbon nanotubes with high carboxylic acid functionality directly to this layer. Electrochemical monitoring of the aminophenyl groups confirmed the formation of an amide linkage between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and the aminophenyl layer. The carbon nanotube electrode showed high stability and good electrochemical performance in aqueous solution. At moderate scan rates the Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup +3/+2} couple exhibited quasi-reversible electron transfer kinetics with a standard heterogenous rate constant of 1.2 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1} at the covalently-linked carbon nanotube surface. The electrode thus combines the advantages of a silicon substrate for easy integration into sophisticated electrical and electronic devices, carbon nanotubes for desirable electrochemical properties, and stability in aqueous medium for future applications in environmental sensing.

  7. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of chlorinated ethenes by a microbial consortium containing multiple dechlorinating genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ding, Longzhen; Li, Haijun; Zhang, Pengpeng; Zheng, Jixing; Weng, Chih-Huang

    2018-08-01

    The study aimed to determine the possible contribution of specific growth conditions and community structures to variable carbon enrichment factors (Ɛ- carbon ) values for the degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CEs) by a bacterial consortium with multiple dechlorinating genes. Ɛ- carbon values for trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride were -7.24% ± 0.59%, -14.6% ± 1.71%, and -21.1% ± 1.14%, respectively, during their degradation by a microbial consortium containing multiple dechlorinating genes including tceA and vcrA. The Ɛ- carbon values of all CEs were not greatly affected by changes in growth conditions and community structures, which directly or indirectly affected reductive dechlorination of CEs by this consortium. Stability analysis provided evidence that the presence of multiple dechlorinating genes within a microbial consortium had little effect on carbon isotope fractionation, as long as the genes have definite, non-overlapping functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Porous one-dimensional carbon/iron oxide composite for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high and stable capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Ge, Yeqian; Jasper, Samuel; Leary, Jennifer D.; Li, Dawei; Jiang, Mengjin; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-01-01

    Hematite iron oxide (α-Fe_2O_3) is considered to be a prospective anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity (1007 mAh g"−"1), nontoxicity, and low cost. However, the low electrical conductivity and large volume change during Li insertion/extraction of α-Fe_2O_3 hinder its use in practical batteries. In this study, carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers, prepared via an electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment process, are employed as the anode material for LIBs. The as-prepared porous nanofibers with a carbon content of 12.5 wt% show improved cycling performance and rate capability. They can still deliver a high and stable capacity of 715 mAh g"−"1 even at superior high current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles with a large Coulombic efficiency of 99.2%. Such improved electrochemical performance can be assigned to their unique porous fabric structure as well as the conductive carbon coating which shorten the distance for Li ion transport, enhancing Li ion reversibility and kinetic properties. It is, therefore, demonstrated that carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofiber prepared under optimized conditions is a promising anode material candidate for LIBs. - Graphical abstract: Carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers are employed as anode material to achieve high and stable electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries, enhancing their commercial viability. - Highlights: • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and thermal treatment. • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers exhibit stable cyclability and good rate capability. • α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers maintain high capacity at 1000 mA g"−"1 for 200 cycles. • A capacity retention of 99.2% is achieved by α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers after 200 cycles.

  9. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas G, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  10. Autotrophic and heterotrophic acquisition of carbon and nitrogen by a mixotrophic chrysophyte established through stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrado, Ramon; Pasulka, Alexis L; Lie, Alle A-Y; Orphan, Victoria J; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2017-01-01

    Collectively, phagotrophic algae (mixotrophs) form a functional continuum of nutritional modes between autotrophy and heterotrophy, but the specific physiological benefits of mixotrophic nutrition differ among taxa. Ochromonas spp. are ubiquitous chrysophytes that exhibit high nutritional flexibility, although most species generally fall towards the heterotrophic end of the mixotrophy spectrum. We assessed the sources of carbon and nitrogen in Ochromonas sp. strain BG-1 growing mixotrophically via short-term stable isotope probing. An axenic culture was grown in the presence of either heat-killed bacteria enriched with 15N and 13C, or unlabeled heat-killed bacteria and labeled inorganic substrates (13C-bicarbonate and 15N-ammonium). The alga exhibited high growth rates (up to 2 divisions per day) only until heat-killed bacteria were depleted. NanoSIMS and bulk IRMS isotope analyses revealed that Ochromonas obtained 84–99% of its carbon and 88–95% of its nitrogen from consumed bacteria. The chrysophyte assimilated inorganic 13C-carbon and 15N-nitrogen when bacterial abundances were very low, but autotrophic (photosynthetic) activity was insufficient to support net population growth of the alga. Our use of nanoSIMS represents its first application towards the study of a mixotrophic alga, enabling a better understanding and quantitative assessment of carbon and nutrient acquisition by this species. PMID:28524870

  11. Autotrophic and heterotrophic acquisition of carbon and nitrogen by a mixotrophic chrysophyte established through stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrado, Ramon; Pasulka, Alexis L; Lie, Alle A-Y; Orphan, Victoria J; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2017-09-01

    Collectively, phagotrophic algae (mixotrophs) form a functional continuum of nutritional modes between autotrophy and heterotrophy, but the specific physiological benefits of mixotrophic nutrition differ among taxa. Ochromonas spp. are ubiquitous chrysophytes that exhibit high nutritional flexibility, although most species generally fall towards the heterotrophic end of the mixotrophy spectrum. We assessed the sources of carbon and nitrogen in Ochromonas sp. strain BG-1 growing mixotrophically via short-term stable isotope probing. An axenic culture was grown in the presence of either heat-killed bacteria enriched with 15 N and 13 C, or unlabeled heat-killed bacteria and labeled inorganic substrates ( 13 C-bicarbonate and 15 N-ammonium). The alga exhibited high growth rates (up to 2 divisions per day) only until heat-killed bacteria were depleted. NanoSIMS and bulk IRMS isotope analyses revealed that Ochromonas obtained 84-99% of its carbon and 88-95% of its nitrogen from consumed bacteria. The chrysophyte assimilated inorganic 13 C-carbon and 15 N-nitrogen when bacterial abundances were very low, but autotrophic (photosynthetic) activity was insufficient to support net population growth of the alga. Our use of nanoSIMS represents its first application towards the study of a mixotrophic alga, enabling a better understanding and quantitative assessment of carbon and nutrient acquisition by this species.

  12. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Karyne M.

    2003-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature (δ 15 N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature (δ 13 C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months

  13. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2003-07-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to assess sewage contamination of a sewage outfall, discharging milli-screened effluent into Moa Point Bay, New Zealand, and monitor the recovery of flora and fauna after the outfall's closure. An initial study characterising the extent of the discharge and the effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from the area, showed effects of the sewage discharge on flora and fauna were localised within in the bay. The immediate area surrounding the discharge area was found to contain limited biodiversity, with an abundance of Ulva lactuca, a bright green lettuce-like seaweed, typically found in areas with high nutrient input, limpets and small blue mussels. The nitrogen isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in seaweed and associated grazers (i.e. limpets) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to seawater nitrogen derived from the effluent. The carbon isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 13}C) is suggested as a more appropriate sewage tracer for mussels, which filter feed the effluent's particulate organic matter from the water. Lower carbon:nitrogen ratios were found in Ulva lactuca sampled from around the outfall region compared to uncontaminated control sites. However carbon:nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. After closure, monitoring continued for 9 months and showed that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of algae (Ulva lactuca L.) returned to similar control site levels within 3 months. Limpet and blue mussels (Cellana denticulata and Mytilus galloprovincialis) showed slower recovery times than the Ulva lactuca, with detectable levels of the sewage-derived carbon and nitrogen remaining in the animal's tissue for up to 9 months.

  14. [Spatial variation of soil carbon and stable isotopes in the southern margin desert of Junggar Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Xu, Wen Qiang; Xu, Hua Jun; Feng, Yi Xing; Li, Chao Fan

    2017-07-18

    The southern margin desert of Junggar Basin in the central arid region of Asia was selec-ted as the study area. To gain insight into the distribution characteristic of stable carbon isotope and the relationship between the change of soil carbon and the distance to oasis of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC), three belt transects were set according to the distance between the desert and the oasis in edge, middle and hinterland of the desert respectively, and collected the soil profile samples with depth of 2 m. The results indicated that the SOC content reduced with the soil depth, and the variation with the distance to oasis was the edge> the middle> the hinterland. The δ 13 C value of SOC varied in the range of -21.92‰ to -17.41‰, and decreased with the depth; the range in the middle and hinterland was -25.20‰ to -19.30‰, and increased then declined with the depth. Therefore, we could infer that the C3 plants played a dominant role in the central of desert, and had experienced the succession from C3 plants to C4 plants. The average content of SIC was 38.98 g·kg -1 in the edge of desert, which was about 6.01 folds as large as the content in the hinterland. This indicated that a large number of SIC with 0-2 m depth were clustered in the edge of the desert. The δ 13 C value of SIC increased first then decreased with the soil depth, and enriched in the bottom layer, which was mainly affected by the original carbonate content and soil carbon dioxide.

  15. Activated carbon derived from harmful aquatic plant for high stable supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangfeng; Wu, Qingsheng

    2018-01-01

    Considering cost and environmental protection, the harmful aquatic plant altemanthera philoxeroides derived carbon material with super high specific surface area (2895 m2 g-1) is an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor. The structure and composition of these carbon materials were characterized by SEM, EDS, XPS and BET measurements. The obtained material exhibits a maximum specific capacitance of 275 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and retains a capacitance of 210 F g-1 even at 50 A g-1. In addition, it also shows excellent capacity retention of 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1.

  16. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m -3 , in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r 13 C/ 12 C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d 13 C = 26 +- 2 0 //sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols ( 13 C = -21 +- 2 0 / 00 ) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere

  17. Stable, microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates without volume distortion on patterned, carbon and Al₂O₃-primed carbon nanotube forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David S; Kanyal, Supriya S; Gupta, Vipul; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew E; Engelhard, Mark; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2012-09-28

    Some of us recently described the fabrication of thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates from patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests via direct infiltration/coating of the CNTs by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of silicon from SiH₄, followed by high temperature oxidation of the CNTs and Si. Herein we present an improved microfabrication process for the preparation of these TLC plates. First, a few nanometers of carbon and/or a thin film of Al₂O₃ is deposited on the CNTs. This method of priming the CNTs for subsequent depositions appears to be new. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of additional oxygen after carbon deposition. After priming, the plates are coated by rapid, conformal deposition of an inorganic material that does not require subsequent oxidation, i.e., by a fast pseudo atomic layer deposition (ψ-ALD) of SiO₂ from trimethylaluminum and tris(tert-butoxy)silanol. Unlike devices described previously, faithful reproduction of the features in the masks is still observed after oxidation. A bonded, amino phase on the resulting plates shows fast, highly efficient separations of fluorescent dyes (plate heights in the range of 1.6-7.7 μm). Extensive characterization of the new materials by TEM, SEM, EDAX, DRIFT, and XPS is reported. A substantially lower process temperature for the removal of the CNT scaffold is possible as a result of the already oxidized materials used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient dose variation investigated in four Irish hospitals for barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, E.; Brennan, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Four hospitals have been studied, intra- and inter-hospital variations examined and the mean DAP values recorded for barium enemas and barium meals. Mean DAP values for barium meals and barium enemas at 11.4 Gy.cm 2 and 20.1 Gy.cm 2 respectively have been shown. Differences between individual examinations for barium meals varied by up to a factor of 185 and for barium enemas, up to a factor of 19, with hospital means for barium meal and enema examinations each differing by up to a factor of 3. The data provided by this study have suggested that large variations in patient dose do exist in Ireland for barium meal and barium enema examinations. Fluoroscopy time was shown to be a major contributor to the variations reported, with number of images playing a minor role. Results have demonstrated the need for standardisation of technique throughout the country for these examinations. (author)

  19. Stable and efficient nitrogen-containing-carbon based electrocatalysts for reactions in energy conversion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicong; Teng, Zhenyuan; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2018-05-17

    High activity and stability are crucial for practical electrocatalysts used for reactions in fuel cells, metal-air batteries and water electrolysis including ORR, HER, OER and oxidation reactions of formic acid and alcohols. N-C based electrocatalysts have shown promising prospects for catalyzing these reactions, however, there is no systematic review for strategies toward engineering active and stable N-C based electrocatalysts reported by far. Herein, a comprehensive comparison of recently reported N-C based electrocatalysts regarding both electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability is presented. In the first part of this review, relationships between electrocatalytic reactions and element selections for modifying N-C based materials are discussed. Afterwards, synthesis methods for N-C based electrocatalysts are summarized, and synthetic strategies for highly stable N-C based electrocatalysts are presented. Multiple tables containing data on crucial parameters for both electrocatalytic activity and stability are displayed in this review. Finally, constructing M-Nx moieties is proposed as the most promising engineering strategy for stable N-C based electrocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Polymyxin-coated Au and carbon nanotube electrodes for stable [NiFe]-hydrogenase film voltammetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.J.M.; Heller, I.; Albracht, S.P.J.; Dekker, C.; Lemay, S.G.; Heering, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the use of polymyxin (PM), a cyclic cationic lipodecapeptide, as an electrode modifier for studying protein film voltammetry (PFV) on Au and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electrodes. Pretreating the electrodes with PM allows for the subsequent immobilization of an active

  1. Variation in stable carbon isotopes in organic matter from the Gunflint Iron Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barghoorn, E.S.; Knoll, A.H.; Dembicki, H. Jr.; Meinschein, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to examine possible variations in organic carbon isotopic ratios within a single Precambrian formation, the kerogen separated from 15 samples of the approximately 2000 m.y. old Gunflint Iron Formation and the conformably overlying Rove Formation, representing a wide range of lithologies and geographic localities, was isotopically analyzed. From the resulting data, four conclusions can be drawn: (1) delta 13 C values of the shallow water algal chert facies are significantly more negative (-25 to -30 parts per thousand) than those of the deeper water chert-carbonate and taconite facies (-15 to -20 parts per thousand). Comparative data for modern marine algal mats shows a range of delta 13 C values from -8.4 to -19 parts per thousand PDB. Values obtained for fresh water mats were slightly more negative. (2) These differences in isotopic ratios can be correlated with similar differences in preserved microbiotas. (3) Anthraxolite lenses are depleted in 13 C relative to the reduced carbon in surrounding sediments. (4) The effect of Keweenawan diabase intrusions upon the carbon isotopic composition is pronounced, but limited to the immediate vicinity of the contact. (author)

  2. Normalization of stable isotope data for carbonate minerals: implementation of IUPAC guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Tae; Coplen, Tyler B.; Horita, Juske

    2015-01-01

    Carbonate minerals provide a rich source of geochemical information because their δ13C and δ18O values provide information about surface and subsurface Earth processes. However, a significant problem is that the same δ18O value is not reported for the identical carbonate sample when analyzed in different isotope laboratories in spite of the fact that the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has provided reporting guidelines for two decades. This issue arises because (1) the δ18O measurements are performed on CO2 evolved by reaction of carbonates with phosphoric acid, (2) the acid-liberated CO2 is isotopically fractionated (enriched in 18O) because it contains only two-thirds of the oxygen from the solid carbonate, (3) this oxygen isotopic fractionation factor is a function of mineralogy, temperature, concentration of the phosphoric acid, and δ18O value of water in the phosphoric acid, (4) researchers may use any one of an assortment of oxygen isotopic fractionation factors that have been published for various minerals at various reaction temperatures, and (5) it sometimes is not clear how one should calculate δ18OVPDB values on a scale normalized such that the δ18O value of SLAP reference water is −55.5 ‰ relative to VSMOW reference water.

  3. Abundant and stable char residues in soils: Implications for soil fertility and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale soil application of biochar might enhance soil fertility and increase crop production, while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. Reaching these outcomes requires an undertanding of the chemical structure of biochar. Using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

  4. Application of carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Oe, Takaaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Hisatsune, Yuri; Kawao, Takafumi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Japanese apricot liqueur manufacturers are required to control the quality and authenticity of their liqueur products. Citric acid made from corn is the main acidulant used in commercial liqueurs. In this study, we conducted spiking experiments and carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses to detect exogenous citric acid used as an acidulant in Japanese apricot liqueurs. Our results showed that the δ 13 C values detected exogenous citric acid originating from C 4 plants but not from C 3 plants. The δ 2 H values of citric acid decreased as the amount of citric acid added increased, whether the citric acid originated from C 3 or C 4 plants. Commercial liqueurs with declared added acidulant provided higher δ 13 C values and lower δ 2 H values than did authentic liqueurs and commercial liqueurs with no declared added acidulant. Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses are suitable as routine methods for detecting exogenous citric acid in Japanese apricot liqueur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope variability in modern South Australian mammals: A baseline for palaeoecological inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, F.D.; Anson, T.J.; Noble, A.H.; Schoeninger, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical bone samples were collected from a range of modern mammals at four field sites along a 1225 km north-south transect from temperate coastal to arid interior South Australia in order to address variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition. Collection sites were located along the eastern border of the state and included Mount Gambier, Karte, Plumbago and Innamincka. Mean annual rainfall along the transect ranges from 700-800 mm at Mount Gambier to 150-200 mm at Innamincka. Bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotope values become more positive toward the arid north in relation to increasing quantities of C-4 plants and decreasing amounts of rainfall. respectively. In addition, carnivores and herbivores can be differentiated by stable nitrogen isotope values. On average, carnivore bone collagen is approximately 6 per mil more positive than that of rabbits at Mount Gambier but only 2.6 - 3.4 per mil more positive at the three arid collection sites. In general, the large eutherian herbivores have mean bone collagen δ15N values that are 1.4 - 2.3 per mil more positive than those of the marsupial herbivores. Eutherian and marsupial bone collagen δ15N differences only disappear at the most arid collection site, Innamincka

  6. Source characterization using compound composition and stable carbon isotope ratio of PAHs in sediments from lakes, harbor, and shipping waterway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian, Yaorong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular compositions and compound specific stable carbon isotope ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isolated from sediments were used to characterize possible sources of contamination at an urban lake, a harbor, a shipping waterway, and a relatively undisturbed remote lake in the northwest United States. Total PAH concentrations in urban lake sediments ranged from 66.0 to 16,500 μg g -1 dry wt. with an average of 2600 μg g -1 , which is ∼ 50, 100, and 400 times higher on average than PAH in harbor (48 μg g -1 on average), shipping waterway (26 μg g -1 ), and remote lake (7 μg g -1 ) sediments, respectively. The PAH distribution patterns, methyl phenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios, and a pyrogenic index at the sites suggest a pyrogenic origin for PAHs. Source characterization using principal component analysis and various molecular indices including C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, C3-dibenzothiophenes/C3-phenanthrenes, and C2-chrysenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratios, was able to differentiate PAH deposited in sediments from the four sites. The uniqueness of the source of the sediment PAHs from urban lake was also illustrated by compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis. It was concluded that urban lake sediments are accumulating PAH from sources that are unique from contamination detected at nearby sites in the same watershed

  7. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A; Ramirez Silva, M T; Palomar Pardave, M E

    2010-01-01

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10 -6 M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  8. Self-assembled air-stable magnesium hydride embedded in 3-D activated carbon for reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S S; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Yu, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The rational design of stable, inexpensive catalysts with excellent hydrogen dynamics and sorption characteristics under realistic environments for reversible hydrogen storage remains a great challenge. Here, we present a simple and scalable strategy to fabricate a monodispersed, air-stable, magnesium hydride embedded in three-dimensional activated carbon with periodic synchronization of transition metals (MHCH). The high surface area, homogeneous distribution of MgH 2 nanoparticles, excellent thermal stability, high energy density, steric confinement by carbon, and robust architecture of the catalyst resulted in a noticeable enhancement of the hydrogen storage performance. The resulting MHCH-5 exhibited outstanding hydrogen storage performance, better than that of most reported Mg-based hydrides, with a high storage density of 6.63 wt% H 2 , a rapid kinetics loading in hydrogenation compared to that of commercial MgH 2 . The origin of the intrinsic hydrogen thermodynamics was elucidated via solid state 1 H NMR. This work presents a readily scaled-up strategy towards the design of realistic catalysts with superior functionality and stability for applications in reversible hydrogen storage, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells.

  9. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A [Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Ramirez Silva, M T [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Palomar Pardave, M E, E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-06-18

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10{sup -6} M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  10. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  11. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as markers of dietary variation among sociocultural subgroups of Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Buchardt, Bjørn

    2017-09-10

    We assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups. As a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland during 2005-2010, we analyzed the isotope composition of toenails from 1025 adult Inuit and meat of common species hunted for food. Information on diet and sociocultural variables was collected by interviews. Weighted by sex and place of residence to the total population of Inuit in Greenland, the average δ 13 C value in toenails was -20.2‰ and the δ 15 N value was 12.0‰ which are higher than in a general Danish omnivorous population. Both isotopes were significantly associated with other biomarkers of marine food and with results of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The percentage of marine food in the diet was estimated at 21% from the mean δ 13 C value, 25% from the mean δ 15 N value, and 23% from the FFQ. Nail samples for analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were convenient to collect during a large population health survey among the Inuit. Isotope enrichment levels showed statistically significant associations with other biomarkers for consumption of marine food and with results of an FFQ and were used to estimate the percentage of marine food in the diet. Isotope levels were significantly associated with a novel score of sociocultural transition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bone collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope variability in modern South Australian mammals: A baseline for palaeoecological inferences.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, F.D.; Anson, T.J.; Noble, A.H. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). Department of Archaeology; Schoeninger, M.J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Department of Anthropology

    1997-12-31

    Cortical bone samples were collected from a range of modern mammals at four field sites along a 1225 km north-south transect from temperate coastal to arid interior South Australia in order to address variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition. Collection sites were located along the eastern border of the state and included Mount Gambier, Karte, Plumbago and Innamincka. Mean annual rainfall along the transect ranges from 700-800 mm at Mount Gambier to 150-200 mm at Innamincka. Bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotope values become more positive toward the arid north in relation to increasing quantities of C-4 plants and decreasing amounts of rainfall. respectively. In addition, carnivores and herbivores can be differentiated by stable nitrogen isotope values. On average, carnivore bone collagen is approximately 6 per mil more positive than that of rabbits at Mount Gambier but only 2.6 - 3.4 per mil more positive at the three arid collection sites. In general, the large eutherian herbivores have mean bone collagen {delta}15N values that are 1.4 - 2.3 per mil more positive than those of the marsupial herbivores. Eutherian and marsupial bone collagen {delta}15N differences only disappear at the most arid collection site, Innamincka.

  13. Fabrication of air-stable n-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrates using bilayer dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanhong; Li, Qunqing; Jin, Yuanhao; Zhao, Yudan; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-11-14

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin-film transistors hold great potential for flexible electronics. However, fabrication of air-stable n-type devices by methods compatible with standard photolithography on flexible substrates is challenging. Here, we demonstrated that by using a bilayer dielectric structure of MgO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 or HfO2, air-stable n-type devices can be obtained. The mechanism for conduction type conversion was elucidated and attributed to the hole depletion in SWNT, the decrease of the trap state density by MgO assimilating adsorbed water molecules in the vicinity of SWNT, and the energy band bending because of the positive fixed charges in the ALD layer. The key advantage of the method is the relatively low temperature (120 or 90 °C) required here for the ALD process because we need not employ this step to totally remove the absorbates on the SWNTs. This advantage facilitates the integration of both p-type and n-type transistors through a simple lift off process and compact CMOS inverters were demonstrated. We also demonstrated that the doping of SWNTs in the channel plays a more important role than the Schottky barriers at the metal contacts in carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, unlike the situation in individual SWNT-based transistors.

  14. Efficient and Stable Carbon-coated Nickel Foam Cathodes for the Electro-Fenton Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Shuqin; Wu, Mingmei; Liu, Yuhui; Zhu, Qiping; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-coated nickel foam (C@NF) was prepared by cycle coating carbon process. • Ni leaching can be effectively controlled at C@NF4 (4 cycle coating times) cathode. • C@NF4 exhibits excellent electro-Fenton performance with desirable stability. • C@NF4 exhibits low energy consumption for DMP degradation. - Abstract: Carbon-coated nickel foam (C@NF) electrodes are prepared via a simple and effective method, hydrothermal-carbonization cycle coating process, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and employed as the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) cathode for degrading dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in aqueous solution. For the sake of comparison, nickel foam (NF) electrode and the conventional E-Fenton cathode (graphite gas diffusion electrode (GDE)) are also tested and compared. Experimental results indicate that nickel leaching can be effectively controlled at C@NF4 cathode (4 times cycle coating process), having great significance for promoting the application of NF in E-Fenton system. Moreover, C@NF4 cathode still presents excellent and effective performance on DMP degradation. DMP can be completely degraded within 2 h at −0.5 V and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal reaches as high as 82.1 %, which is almost 3 times as high as that at graphite GDE. Futhermore, the current efficiency for H 2 O 2 generation at C@NF4 is enhanced by 12 times compared to that at NF, and consequently the energy consumption during DMP degradation at C@NF4 is obvious lower than that at both NF cathode and graphite GDE. From the obtained results it can be deduced that C@NF4 is promising to be an attractive alternative E-Fenton cathode for removing organic pollutants in wastewater

  15. A comparative study on production of stable carbon nano tube dispersions using gum arabic and sodium dodecyl sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashmi, W.; Ismail, A.F.; Jameel, A.T.; Yusof, F.; Khalid, M.; Mubarak, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Improvements on the stability of carbon nano tube (CNT)-water suspensions are necessary to enhance the performance of CNT nano fluids. CNTs are usually packed into crystalline ropes that form strong networks due to Van der Waals attraction. Aggregation of these CNTs is obstacle to most of the applications which diminished its special properties. Thus, this paper aims to produce stable CNT dispersion using Gum Arabic (GA) and Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as dispersants. The CNT concentration is varied from 0.01-0.1 wt% while the concentration of dispersants is varied from 1-12 wt%, respectively. This work gives detailed information on effect of CNT concentration, dispersant concentration and sonication time on stability of CNT dispersions. UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of CNTs with respect to sedimentation time. CNT-GA suspensions were found to be more stable compared to CNT-SDS suspensions. The homogeneous suspension of CNT-GA is stable for several months. (author)

  16. Effects of Water Vapor on the Data Quality of the Stable Oxygen Isotopic Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. U.; White, J. W.; Vaughn, B.; Tans, P. P.; Pardo, L.

    2007-12-01

    The stable oxygen isotopic ratio of carbon dioxide can potentially track fundamental indicators of environmental change such as the balance between photosynthesis and respiration on regional to global scales. The Stable Isotope Laboratory (SIL) at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), University of Colorado at Boulder, has measured the stable isotopes of atmospheric carbon dioxide from more than 60 NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) air flask-sampling sites since the early 1990s. If air is sampled without drying, oxygen can exchange between carbon dioxide and water in the flasks, entirely masking the desired signal. An attempt to investigate how water vapor is affecting the δ18O signal is accomplished by comparing the SIL measurements with specific humidity, calculated from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) global integrated surface hourly temperature and dew point database, at the time of sampling. Analysis of sites where samples have been collected initially without drying, and subsequently with a drying kit, in conjunction with the humidity data, has led to several conclusions. Samples that initially appear isotopically unaltered, in that their δ18O values are within the expected range, are being subtly influenced by the water vapor in the air. At Bermuda and other tropical to semi-tropical sites, the 'wet' sampling values have a seasonal cycle that is strongly anti-correlated to the specific humidity, while the 'dry' values have a seasonal cycle that is shifted earlier than the specific humidity cycle by 1-2 months. The latter phasing is expected given the seasonal phasing between climate over the ocean and land, while the former is consistent with a small, but measurable isotope exchange in the flasks. In addition, we note that there is a strong (r > 0.96) correlation between the average specific humidity and the percent of rejected samples for 'wet' sampling. This presents an opportunity for determining a threshold of

  17. Disentangling drought-induced variation in ecosystem and soil respiration using stable carbon isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Stephan; Máguas, Cristina; Pereira, João S; Aires, Luis M; David, Teresa S; Werner, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Combining C flux measurements with information on their isotopic composition can yield a process-based understanding of ecosystem C dynamics. We studied the variations in both respiratory fluxes and their stable C isotopic compositions (delta(13)C) for all major components (trees, understory, roots and soil microorganisms) in a Mediterranean oak savannah during a period with increasing drought. We found large drought-induced and diurnal dynamics in isotopic compositions of soil, root and foliage respiration (delta(13)C(res)). Soil respiration was the largest contributor to ecosystem respiration (R (eco)), exhibiting a depleted isotopic signature and no marked variations with increasing drought, similar to ecosystem respired delta(13)CO(2), providing evidence for a stable C-source and minor influence of recent photosynthate from plants. Short-term and diurnal variations in delta(13)C(res) of foliage and roots (up to 8 and 4 per thousand, respectively) were in agreement with: (1) recent hypotheses on post-photosynthetic fractionation processes, (2) substrate changes with decreasing assimilation rates in combination with increased respiratory demand, and (3) decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity in drying roots, while altered photosynthetic discrimination was not responsible for the observed changes in delta(13)C(res). We applied a flux-based and an isotopic flux-based mass balance, yielding good agreement at the soil scale, while the isotopic mass balance at the ecosystem scale was not conserved. This was mainly caused by uncertainties in Keeling plot intercepts at the ecosystem scale due to small CO(2) gradients and large differences in delta(13)C(res) of the different component fluxes. Overall, stable isotopes provided valuable new insights into the drought-related variations of ecosystem C dynamics, encouraging future studies but also highlighting the need of improved methodology to disentangle short-term dynamics of isotopic composition of R (eco).

  18. A universal carbonate ion effect on stable oxygen isotope ratios in unicellular planktonic calcifying organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ziveri, P.; Thoms, S.; Probert, I.; Geisen, M.; Langer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of calcium carbonate of planktonic calcifying organisms is a key tool for reconstructing both past seawater temperature and salinity. The calibration of paloeceanographic proxies relies in general on empirical relationships derived from field experiments on extant species. Laboratory experiments have more often than not revealed that variables other than the target parameter influence the proxy signal, which makes proxy c...

  19. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  20. Stable carbon isotope cycling in mobile coastal muds of Amapá, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongbin; Aller, Robert C.; Mak, John

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 10% of the sediment delivered by the Amazon River moves northwest along the coast of Amapá, Brazil, initiating the Guianas mobile mud belt. Amapá coastal muds generally have a two-layer transport structure and are characterized by highly non-steady-state sedimentation. Isotopic compositions of pore water ∑CO 2 and solid phase C org demonstrate that remineralization in the surficial mobile zone (˜0.3-1 m thick) is dominated by terrestrial sources at sites in proximity to the mangrove fringe (˜1-2 m water depth), and marine (plus possible carbonate dissolution) sources further offshore (˜21 km, ˜7 m depth). The net δ13C of ∑CO 2 produced and C org remineralized is ˜-26‰ and -25.9‰, respectively inshore, and ˜-14‰ and -18.6‰, respectively offshore (compared to average terrestrial and marine C org end members of -28‰ and -20‰). Efficient remineralization in the suboxic mobile zone lowers particle surface loading of C org from ˜0.35 mg C m -2 in the Amazon delta topset to ˜0.13-0.16 along Amapá. Sequential, temperature-dependent extractions were used to operationally fractionate inorganic C pools. Authigenic carbonates, mostly siderite and mixed Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn-carbonates, dominate sediment inorganic C (˜50-200 μmol g -1). The mass weighted δ13C of carbonates, ˜-15‰ to -19‰, is relatively restricted in range compared to pore water ∑CO 2, implying most precipitation in the reactive mobile surface sediments. Periodic mixing with bottom seawater and/or dissolution of biogenic carbonates in the surficial layer shift δ13C values of pore water to heavier values than C org reactant sources. At one offshore site (˜7 m), about 22% of pore water ∑CO 2 has undergone reduction during methanogenesis below the mobile surface zone, extracting ∑CO 2 with δ13C˜-90‰ and leaving a residual δ13C˜-0.37‰. Diagenetic processes in the suboxic mobile mud zone dominate C remineralization and storage along the coast of Amapá.

  1. Freezing and fractionation: effects of preservation on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of some limnetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J Marshall; Johnson, Brett; Silver, Douglas; Pate, William; Christianson, Kyle

    2016-03-15

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen have become important natural tracers for studying food-web structure and function. Considerable research has demonstrated that chemical preservatives and fixatives shift the isotopic ratios of aquatic organisms. Much less is known about the effects of freezing as a preservation method although this technique is commonly used. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of freezing (-10 °C) and flash freezing (–79 °C) on the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of zooplankton (Cladocera), Mysis diluviana and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Subsamples (~0.5 mg) of dried material were analyzed for percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen, and the relative abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N values) using a Carlo Erba NC2500 elemental analyzer interfaced to a ThermoFinnigan MAT Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The effects of freezing were taxon-dependent. Freezing had no effect on the isotopic or elemental values of Rainbow Trout muscle. Effects on the δ13C and δ15N values of zooplankton and Mysis were statistically significant but small relative to typical values of trophic fractionation. The treatment-control offsets had larger absolute values for Mysis (δ13C: ≤0.76 ± 0.41‰, δ15N: ≤0.37 ± 0.16‰) than for zooplankton (δ13C: ≤0.12 ± 0.06‰, δ15N: ≤0.30 ± 0.27‰). The effects of freezing were more variable for the δ13C values of Mysis, and more variable for the δ15N values of zooplankton. Generally, both freezing methods reduced the carbon content of zooplankton and Mysis, but freezing had a negative effect on the %N of zooplankton and a positive effect on the %N of Mysis. The species-dependencies and variability of freezing effects on aquatic organisms suggest that more research is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for freezing-related fractionation before standardized protocols for freezing as a preservation method can be adopted.

  2. Automated determination of the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aqueous samples: RSIL lab codes 1851 and 1852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Kinga M.; Doctor, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab codes 1851 and 1852 are to determine the total carbon mass and the ratio of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, lab code 1851) and total nonpurgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC, lab code 1852) in aqueous samples. The analysis procedure is automated according to a method that utilizes a total carbon analyzer as a peripheral sample preparation device for analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas by a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS). The carbon analyzer produces CO2 and determines the carbon mass in parts per million (ppm) of DIC and DOC in each sample separately, and the CF-IRMS determines the carbon isotope ratio of the produced CO2. This configuration provides a fully automated analysis of total carbon mass and δ13C with no operator intervention, additional sample preparation, or other manual analysis. To determine the DIC, the carbon analyzer transfers a specified sample volume to a heated (70 °C) reaction vessel with a preprogrammed volume of 10% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), which allows the carbonate and bicarbonate species in the sample to dissociate to CO2. The CO2 from the reacted sample is subsequently purged with a flow of helium gas that sweeps the CO2 through an infrared CO2 detector and quantifies the CO2. The CO2 is then carried through a high-temperature (650 °C) scrubber reactor, a series of water traps, and ultimately to the inlet of the mass spectrometer. For the analysis of total dissolved organic carbon, the carbon analyzer performs a second step on the sample in the heated reaction vessel during which a preprogrammed volume of sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) is added, and the hydroxyl radicals oxidize the organics to CO2. Samples containing 2 ppm to 30,000 ppm of carbon are analyzed. The precision of the carbon isotope analysis is within 0.3 per mill for DIC, and within 0.5 per mill for DOC.

  3. Petrography and stable isotope geochemistry of Oligocene-Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas: Implications for paleoclimate and paleoenvironment near sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Conan; Fan, Majie; Jesmok, Greg; Upadhyay, Deepshikha; Tripati, Aradhna

    2018-05-01

    Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the southern Texas Gulf Coastal Plains contain abundant continental carbonates that are useful for reconstructing terrestrial paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in a region near sea-level. Our field observations and thin section characterizations of the Oligocene and Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas identified three types of pedogenic carbonates, including rhizoliths, carbonate nodules, and platy horizons, and two types of groundwater carbonates, including carbonate-cemented beds and carbonate concretions, with distinctive macromorphologic and micromorphologic features. Based on preservations of authigenic microfabrics and variations of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, we suggest these carbonates experienced minimal diagenesis, and their stable isotopic compositions reflect paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in south Texas. Our Oligocene and Miocene carbonate clumped isotope temperatures (T(Δ47)) are 23-28 °C, slightly less than or comparable to the range of modern mean annual and mean warm season air temperature (21-27 °C) in the study area. These T(Δ47) values do not show any dependency on carbonate-type, or trends through time suggesting that groundwater carbonates were formed at shallow depths. These data could indicate that air temperature in south Texas was relatively stable since the early Oligocene. The reconstructed paleo-surface water δ18O values are similar to modern surface water which could indicate that meteoric water δ18O values also remained stable since the early Oligocene. Mean pedogenic carbonate δ13C values increased - 4.6‰ during the late Miocene, most likely reflecting an expansion of C4 grassland in south Texas. This study provides the first mid- and late Cenozoic continental records of paleoclimate and paleoecology in a low-latitude, near sea-level region.

  4. Postmortem study of stable carbon isotope ratios in human cerebellar DNA: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Irsa, A.P.; Friedman, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is observed that 13 C/ 12 C ratios in tissue specimens removed postmortem in the United States and Canada are significantly different from corresponding ratios in European specimens. On the basis of this information, measurements of carbon isotope ratios in DNA isolated from cerebella of native-born and European-born North Americans are in progress with the goal of estimating the average lifetime rate of DNA turnover in human neurons. Preliminary results from twenty postmortem examinations are consistent with the hypothesis that a significant proportion of human cerebellar DNA is renewed during the lifetime of an individual

  5. Stable carbon isotope ratios of lipid biomarkers and their applications in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolosa, I.; Mora, S. de

    2001-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of lipid biomarkers in the environment help elucidate biogeochemical processes, but recent findings have significantly reduced the specificity of some biomarkers. The analytical development of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-IRMS (GC-C-IRMS) allows the determination of the δ 13 C of specific biomarkers, thereby improving the veracity of source apportionment. In this report, we present a brief description of the analytical approach for sample preparation and carbon isotope measurements of individual biomarkers. Selected examples of the applications in the use of GC-C-IRMS for biomarker source elucidation in the marine environment and potential applications to paleoclimatological studies are reviewed. (author)

  6. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio (δ13C Measurement of Graphite Using EA-IRMS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Garbaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available δ13C values in non-irradiated natural graphite were measured. The measurements were carried out using an elemental analyzer combined with stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS. The samples were prepared with ground and non-ground graphite, the part of which was mixed with Mg (ClO42. The best combustion of graphite in the oxidation furnace of the elemental analyzer was achieved when the amount of pulverized graphite ranged from 200 to 490 µg and the mass ratio C:Mg(ClO42 was approximately 1:10. The method for the graphite burning avoiding the isotope fractionation is proposed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6873

  7. Impact of contamination and pre-treatment on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of charred plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiglova, Petra; Snoeck, Christophe; Nitsch, Erika; Bogaard, Amy; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2014-12-15

    Stable isotope analysis of archaeological charred plants has become a useful tool for interpreting past agricultural practices and refining ancient dietary reconstruction. Charred material that lay buried in soil for millennia, however, is susceptible to various kinds of contamination, whose impact on the grain/seed isotopic composition is poorly understood. Pre-treatment protocols have been adapted in distinct forms from radiocarbon dating, but insufficient research has been carried out on evaluating their effectiveness and necessity for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. The effects of previously used pre-treatment protocols on the isotopic composition of archaeological and modern sets of samples were investigated. An archaeological sample was also artificially contaminated with carbonates, nitrates and humic acid and subjected to treatment aimed at removing the introduced contamination. The presence and removal of the contamination were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. The results show a ca 1‰ decrease in the δ(15)N values of archaeological charred plant material caused by harsh acid treatments and ultra-sonication. This change is interpreted as being caused by mechanical distortion of the grains/seeds rather than by the removal of contamination. Furthermore, specific infrared peaks have been identified that can be used to detect the three types of contaminants studied. We argue that it is not necessary to try to remove humic acid contamination for stable isotope analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of crushing the grains/seeds before pre-treatment are discussed. We recommend the use of an acid-only procedure (0.5 M HCl for 30 min at 80 °C followed by three rinses in distilled water) for cleaning charred plant remains. This study fills an important gap in plant stable isotope research that will enable future researchers to evaluate potential sources of isotopic change and pre

  8. Differential utilization of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon by aquatic insects of two shrub-steppe desert spring-streams: A stable carbon isotope analysis and critique of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mize, A. L. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the carbon supporting stream food webs comes principally from terrestrial sources or is produced within the stream. Lacking data to resolve the allochthonous/autochthonous issue with any finality, stream ecologists have alternately postulated that stream carbon was principally autochthonous or principally allochthonous. Others argued that autochthonous and allochthonous carbon resources cannot be separated and that the allochthonous/autochthonous dependence issue is unresolvable. Many investigators have seized upon stable carbon isotopes technology as the tool to resolve the controversy. Unfortunately most investigators have conceded that the results are rarely quantitative and that the qualitative relationships are ambiguous. This study points out the fallacies of trying to conjure single isotopic values for either allochthonous or autochthonous carbon. It suggests that stable carbon isotope technology is not reliable in establishing specific consumer/food source relations and that it is not suitable for assessing allochthonous/autochthonous carbon dependence in freshwater streams.

  9. Stable isotope tracing of trout hatchery carbon to sediments and foodwebs of limestone spring creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, Todd M.; Jesic, Slaven; Jerin, Jessica L.; Fuller, Nathan W.; Miller, David

    2008-01-01

    Limestone springs support productive ecosystems and fisheries, yet aquaculture may modify or impair these ecosystems. We determined trout hatchery organic contribution to spring creek sediments and foodwebs with natural abundance stable isotope methods. Hatchery feed, waste, and trout were significantly enriched in δ 13 C relative to autotrophs and wild fish. Spring creek sediments were enriched in δ 13 C toward the hatchery endmember relative to reference streams without hatcheries and relative to a larger larger-order, spring-influenced stream. Contribution of hatchery C to spring creek sediments was greatest during March and associated with greatest sediment %C. Contribution of hatchery C to pollution-tolerant isopod diet was 39-51% in a stream receiving limestone spring water via hatchery effluent. Isopods of one spring creek also relied on hatchery-derived C within one month of hatchery closure. Four years later, less pollution pollution-tolerant amphipods dominated and consumed non-vascular over vascular autotrophs (86%). Isopods of a second spring creek with an active hatchery did not appear to be using hatchery matter directly, but were enriched in δ 34 S relative to a spring creek tributary with no hatchery influence. Isopods in both of these streams were relatively enriched in δ 15 N, indicating general nutrient enrichment from surrounding agricultural land use. The contribution of hatchery vs. wild fish in diet of herons and egrets was traced with δ 13 C of guano. These birds were strongly dependent on stocked trout in a spring creek with a recently closed state trout hatchery, and also near another large, state-run hatchery. Heron dependence on hatchery fish in the spring creek decreased with time since hatchery closure. Use of stable isotope natural abundance techniques in karst spring creeks can reveal stream impairment due to aquaculture, specific C sources to bio-indicating consumers, losses of farmed fish to predation, and potential exposure

  10. Diet and mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: a study of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenbeck, Susanne; McManus, Ellen; Geisler, Hans; Grupe, Gisela; O'Connell, Tamsin

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates patterns of mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria through a combined study of diet and associated burial practice. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were analyzed in human bone samples from the Late Roman cemetery of Klettham and from the Early Medieval cemeteries of Altenerding and Straubing-Bajuwarenstrasse. For dietary comparison, samples of faunal bone from one Late Roman and three Early Medieval settlement sites were also analyzed. The results indicate that the average diet was in keeping with a landlocked environment and fairly limited availability of freshwater or marine resources. The diet appears not to have changed significantly from the Late Roman to the Early Medieval period. However, in the population of Altenerding, there were significant differences in the diet of men and women, supporting a hypothesis of greater mobility among women. Furthermore, the isotopic evidence from dietary outliers is supported by "foreign" grave goods and practices, such as artificial skull modification. These results reveal the potential of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis for questions regarding migration and mobility. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Stable carbon isotope ratio profiling of illicit testosterone preparations--domestic and international seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Lance; Cawley, Adam; Drury, Jason; Edey, Claire; Hasick, Nicole; Goebel, Catrin

    2014-10-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is now established as a robust and mature analytical technique for the doping control of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in human sport. It relies on the assumption that the carbon isotope ratios of naturally produced steroids are significantly different to synthetically manufactured testosterone or testosterone prohormones used in commercial medical or dietary supplement products. Recent publications in this journal have highlighted the existence of black market testosterone preparations with carbon isotope ratios within the range reported for endogenous steroids (i.e. δ(13) C ≥ -25.8 ‰). In this study, we set out to profile domestic and international law enforcement seizures of illicit testosterone products to monitor the prevalence of 'enriched' substrates--which if administered to human subjects would be considered problematic for the use of current GC-C-IRMS methodologies for the doping control of testosterone in sport. The distribution of δ(13) C values for this illicit testosterone sample population (n = 283) ranged from -23.4 ‰ to -32.9 ‰ with mean and median of -28.6 ‰--comparable to previous work. However, only 13 out of 283 testosterone samples (4.6 %) were found to display δ(13) C values ≥ -25.8 ‰, confirming that in the vast majority of cases of illicit testosterone administration, current GC-C-IRMS doping control procedures would be capable of confirming misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Stable carbon isotopic composition of gasolines determined by isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, B.J.; Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.D. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2002-07-01

    A large number of underground gasoline storage facilities in the United States continuously leak gasoline into the subsurface, which makes gasoline a major groundwater contaminant. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are used currently to characterize contaminated groundwater and soils. Correlations of contaminants with suspected source(s) are extremely difficult by these techniques because many gasolines have similar hydrocarbon distributions. The present study applied the technique of isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (irmGC-MS) to 19 gasoline samples from different areas of the USA. This allows a much better correlation of gasoline contaminants to source. Data obtained indicate a wide range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values for 16 ubiquitous compounds in the gasolines. The majority of samples could be distinguished from each other on the basis of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C hydrocarbon composition. The oxygenated additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was present in ten of the gasolines analyzed, and had a relatively narrow range of {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C values (-30.4 to -28.3 per mille). Preliminary investigations were also made to determine the extent of carbon isotopic fractionation after simple water washing and evaporation experiments. Results indicate that the majority of compounds did not undergo significant carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of these processes. (author)

  13. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: Evaluating the potential for a CO2 proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoins, Mirja; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Eberlein, Tim; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However, hardly any data is available for organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates while this is an ecologically important group with a unique fossil record. We performed dilute batch experiments with four harmful dinoflagellate species known for their ability to form organic cysts: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at a range of dissolved CO2 concentrations characterizing past, modern and projected future values (∼5-50 μmol L-1), representing atmospheric pCO2 of 180, 380, 800 and 1200 μatm. In all tested species, 13C fractionation depends on CO2 with a slope of up to 0.17‰ (μmol L)-1. Even more consistent correlations were found between 13C fractionation and the combined effects of particulate organic carbon quota (POC quota; pg C cell-1) and CO2. Carbon isotope fractionation as well as its response to CO2 is species-specific. These results may be interpreted as a first step towards a proxy for past pCO2 based on carbon isotope ratios of fossil organic dinoflagellate cysts. However, additional culture experiments focusing on environmental variables other than pCO2, physiological underpinning of the recorded response, testing for possible offsets in 13C values between cells and cysts, as well as field calibration studies are required to establish a reliable proxy.

  14. Assessment of Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment by Analysis of Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckenstock, Rainer U. [Eberhard-Karls University of Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (Germany)], E-mail: rainer.meckenstock@uni-tuebingen.de; Morasch, Barbara [University of Konstanz, Faculty of Biology (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias; Vieth, Andrea; Richnow, Hans Hermann [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Remediation Research (Germany)

    2002-05-15

    {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C stable carbon isotope fractionation was used to assess biodegradation in contaminated aquifers with toluene as a model compound. Different strains of anaerobic bacteria (Thauera aromatica, Geobacter metallireducens, and the sulfate-reducing strain TRM1) showed consistent {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C carbon isotope fractionation with fractionation factors between {alpha}C = 1.0017 and 1.0018. In contrast, three cultures of aerobic organisms, using different mono- and dioxygenase enzyme systems to initiate toluene degradation, showed variable isotope fractionation factors of {alpha}C = 1.0027 (Pseudomonasputida strain mt-2), {alpha}C = 1.0011 (Ralstonia picketii), and{alpha}C = 1.0004 (Pseudomonas putida strain F1). The great variability of isotope fractionation between different aerobic bacterial strains suggests that interpretation of isotope data in oxic habitats can only be qualitative. A soil column was run as a model system for contaminated aquifers with toluene as the carbon source and sulfate as the electron acceptor and samples were taken at different ports along the column. Microbial toluene degradation was calculated based on the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope fractionation factors of the batch culture experiments together with the observed {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope shifts of the residual toluene fractions. The calculated percentage of biodegradation, B, correlated well with the decreasing toluene concentrations at the sampling ports and indicated the increasing extent of biodegradation along the column. The theoretical toluene concentrations as calculated based on the isotope values matched the measured concentrations at the different sampling ports indicating that the Rayleigh equation can be used to calculate biodegradation in quasi closed systems based on measured isotope shifts. A similar attempt was performed to assess toluene degradation in a contaminated, anoxic aquifer. A transect of groundwater wells was monitored along the main

  15. Assessment of Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment by Analysis of Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Morasch, Barbara; Kaestner, Matthias; Vieth, Andrea; Richnow, Hans Hermann

    2002-01-01

    13 C/ 12 C stable carbon isotope fractionation was used to assess biodegradation in contaminated aquifers with toluene as a model compound. Different strains of anaerobic bacteria (Thauera aromatica, Geobacter metallireducens, and the sulfate-reducing strain TRM1) showed consistent 13 C/ 12 C carbon isotope fractionation with fractionation factors between αC = 1.0017 and 1.0018. In contrast, three cultures of aerobic organisms, using different mono- and dioxygenase enzyme systems to initiate toluene degradation, showed variable isotope fractionation factors of αC = 1.0027 (Pseudomonasputida strain mt-2), αC = 1.0011 (Ralstonia picketii), andαC = 1.0004 (Pseudomonas putida strain F1). The great variability of isotope fractionation between different aerobic bacterial strains suggests that interpretation of isotope data in oxic habitats can only be qualitative. A soil column was run as a model system for contaminated aquifers with toluene as the carbon source and sulfate as the electron acceptor and samples were taken at different ports along the column. Microbial toluene degradation was calculated based on the 13 C/ 12 C isotope fractionation factors of the batch culture experiments together with the observed 13 C/ 12 C isotope shifts of the residual toluene fractions. The calculated percentage of biodegradation, B, correlated well with the decreasing toluene concentrations at the sampling ports and indicated the increasing extent of biodegradation along the column. The theoretical toluene concentrations as calculated based on the isotope values matched the measured concentrations at the different sampling ports indicating that the Rayleigh equation can be used to calculate biodegradation in quasi closed systems based on measured isotope shifts. A similar attempt was performed to assess toluene degradation in a contaminated, anoxic aquifer. A transect of groundwater wells was monitored along the main direction of the groundwater flow and revealed decreasing

  16. Utilization of carbon 13-labelled stable isotopes for studying drug toxicity on cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, M.; Wietzerbin, J.; Tran-Dinh, S.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach for studying the effects of two drugs, amphotericine B (AMB), an anti-fungal antibiotic, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG), on the glucose metabolism in brewer yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is presented; AMB interacts with the membrane sterols, inducing formation of pores through which ions and small molecules can pass. DG may enter in the cytosol, where it is phosphoryled by hexokinase into deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate (DG6P) which disappears very slowly. DG slows down the glycolysis process and induces the formation of new substances. This paper shows the advantages of utilizing carbon 13-labelled substrates combined to the NMR-13C and NMR-1H techniques. 6 figs., 5 refs

  17. A Stable Metal-Organic Framework Featuring a Local Buffer Environment for Carbon Dioxide Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongming; Sun, Qi; Gao, Wenyang; Perman, Jason A; Sun, Fuxing; Zhu, Guangshan; Aguila, Briana; Forrest, Katherine; Space, Brian; Ma, Shengqian

    2018-04-16

    A majority of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) fail to preserve their physical and chemical properties after exposure to acidic, neutral, or alkaline aqueous solutions, therefore limiting their practical applications in many areas. The strategy demonstrated herein is the design and synthesis of an organic ligand that behaves as a buffer to drastically boost the aqueous stability of a porous MOF (JUC-1000), which maintains its structural integrity at low and high pH values. The local buffer environment resulting from the weak acid-base pairs of the custom-designed organic ligand also greatly facilitates the performance of JUC-1000 in the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide under ambient conditions, outperforming a series of benchmark catalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Carbon dioxide selective adsorption within a highly stable mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Lin

    2014-08-01

    A new mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Zn4(2-mbIm) 3(bIm)5·4H2O (named JUC-160, 2-mbIm = 2-methylbenzimidazole, bIm = benzimidazole and JUC = Jilin University China) was synthesized with a solvothermal reaction of Zn(NO3) 2·6H2O, bIm and 2-mbIm in DMF solution at 180 °C. Topological analysis indicated that JUC-160 has a zeolite GIS (gismondine) topology. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of JUC-160 demonstrated its selective adsorption property for carbon dioxide, high thermal stability, and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvent for up to one week. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Assessing diet in savanna herbivores using stable carbon isotope ratios of faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Codron

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In African savannas, browse-based resources (@3 plants are isotopically distinct from grasses (@4 plants. The carbon isotopic composition of the basic plant diet is recorded in animal tissues. Mammal faeces are a readily accessible, non-invasive, sample material for temporally resolved dietary reconstructions. Faeces, however, include both undigested plant matter and waste, hence accuracy of dietary calculations could potentially be compromised by shifts in plant isotopic values related to seasonal or spatial differences, or by variability in the isotopic differences between faeces and diet. A controlled feeding study of four ungulate species showed a small, consistent difference between diet and faeces of-0.9 o, irrespective of whether the diet was @3 or C4-based. Results from faeces oftaxa known to be pure grazers, pure browsers, and mixed-feeders from the Kruger National Park were entirely consistent with their diets, but the accuracy of dietary reconstructions is enhanced with data from local plant communities.

  20. Stable isotope tracing of trout hatchery carbon to sediments and foodwebs of limestone spring creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Todd M. [Department of Biology, Shippensburg University, 1871 Old Main Dr., Shippensburg, PA 17257 (United States)], E-mail: tmhurd@ship.edu; Jesic, Slaven; Jerin, Jessica L.; Fuller, Nathan W.; Miller, David [Department of Biology, Shippensburg University, 1871 Old Main Dr., Shippensburg, PA 17257 (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Limestone springs support productive ecosystems and fisheries, yet aquaculture may modify or impair these ecosystems. We determined trout hatchery organic contribution to spring creek sediments and foodwebs with natural abundance stable isotope methods. Hatchery feed, waste, and trout were significantly enriched in {delta}{sup 13}C relative to autotrophs and wild fish. Spring creek sediments were enriched in {delta}{sup 13}C toward the hatchery endmember relative to reference streams without hatcheries and relative to a larger larger-order, spring-influenced stream. Contribution of hatchery C to spring creek sediments was greatest during March and associated with greatest sediment %C. Contribution of hatchery C to pollution-tolerant isopod diet was 39-51% in a stream receiving limestone spring water via hatchery effluent. Isopods of one spring creek also relied on hatchery-derived C within one month of hatchery closure. Four years later, less pollution pollution-tolerant amphipods dominated and consumed non-vascular over vascular autotrophs (86%). Isopods of a second spring creek with an active hatchery did not appear to be using hatchery matter directly, but were enriched in {delta}{sup 34}S relative to a spring creek tributary with no hatchery influence. Isopods in both of these streams were relatively enriched in {delta}{sup 15}N, indicating general nutrient enrichment from surrounding agricultural land use. The contribution of hatchery vs. wild fish in diet of herons and egrets was traced with {delta}{sup 13}C of guano. These birds were strongly dependent on stocked trout in a spring creek with a recently closed state trout hatchery, and also near another large, state-run hatchery. Heron dependence on hatchery fish in the spring creek decreased with time since hatchery closure. Use of stable isotope natural abundance techniques in karst spring creeks can reveal stream impairment due to aquaculture, specific C sources to bio-indicating consumers, losses of

  1. Tracing carbon flow in an arctic marine food web using fatty acid-stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, S M; Wooller, M J; Springer, A M; Iverson, S J; McRoy, C P; Divoky, G J

    2008-08-01

    Global warming and the loss of sea ice threaten to alter patterns of productivity in arctic marine ecosystems because of a likely decline in primary productivity by sea ice algae. Estimates of the contribution of ice algae to total primary production range widely, from just 3 to >50%, and the importance of ice algae to higher trophic levels remains unknown. To help answer this question, we investigated a novel approach to food web studies by combining the two established methods of stable isotope analysis and fatty acid (FA) analysis--we determined the C isotopic composition of individual diatom FA and traced these biomarkers in consumers. Samples were collected near Barrow, Alaska and included ice algae, pelagic phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Ice algae and pelagic phytoplankton had distinctive overall FA signatures and clear differences in delta(13)C for two specific diatom FA biomarkers: 16:4n-1 (-24.0+/-2.4 and -30.7+/-0.8 per thousand, respectively) and 20:5n-3 (-18.3+/-2.0 and -26.9+/-0.7 per thousand, respectively). Nearly all delta(13)C values of these two FA in consumers fell between the two stable isotopic end members. A mass balance equation indicated that FA material derived from ice algae, compared to pelagic diatoms, averaged 71% (44-107%) in consumers based on delta(13)C values of 16:4n-1, but only 24% (0-61%) based on 20:5n-3. Our estimates derived from 16:4n-1, which is produced only by diatoms, probably best represented the contribution of ice algae relative to pelagic diatoms. However, many types of algae produce 20:5n-3, so the lower value derived from it likely represented a more realistic estimate of the proportion of ice algae material relative to all other types of phytoplankton. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential value of compound-specific isotope analysis of marine lipids to trace C flow through marine food webs and provide a foundation for future work.

  2. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  3. Barium aspiration and alveolarisation of barium in an infant: A case report and review of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Isles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of bilateral inhalation and alveolarisation of barium in an infant following a barium swallow for investigation of dusky spells associated with feeds. A bronchoscopy subsequently revealed the presence of a mid-tracheal tracheo-oesophageal cleft. We review the literature on barium aspiration, its consequences and make recommendations for management.

  4. Attainment of barium hexaferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, S.B.; Timoteo, Jr.J.F.; Melo, G.M.; Souto, K.K.O.; Florioto, N.T.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexaferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  5. Attainment of barium hexa ferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Sheila B.; Timoteo, Flavio Junior J.; Machado, Tercio G.; Souto, Kesia K.O.; Floreoto, Neide T.; Paskocimas, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexa ferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  6. A new CF-IRMS system for quantifying stable isotopes of carbon monoxide from ice cores and small air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analysis technique for stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO from ice core samples. The technique is an online cryogenic vacuum extraction followed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS; it can also be used with small air samples. The CO extraction system includes two multi-loop cryogenic cleanup traps, a chemical oxidant for oxidation to CO2, a cryogenic collection trap, a cryofocusing unit, gas chromatography purification, and subsequent injection into a Finnigan Delta Plus IRMS. Analytical precision of 0.2‰ (±1δ for δ13C and 0.6‰ (±1δ for δ18O can be obtained for 100 mL (STP air samples with CO mixing ratios ranging from 60 ppbv to 140 ppbv (~268–625 pmol CO. Six South Pole ice core samples from depths ranging from 133 m to 177 m were processed for CO isotope analysis after wet extraction. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of stable isotopes of CO in ice core air.

  7. Self-plied and twist-stable carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscles driven by organic solvent adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kaiyun; Zhang, Silan; Zhou, Susheng; Qiao, Jian; Song, Yanhui; Di, Jiangtao; Zhang, Dengsong; Li, Qingwen

    2018-05-03

    Artificial yarn/fiber muscles have recently attracted considerable interest for various applications. These muscles can provide large-stroke tensile and torsional actuations, resulting from inserted twists. However, tensional tethering of twisted muscles is generally needed to avoid muscle snarling and untwisting. In this paper a carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn muscle that is tethering-free and twist-stable is reported. The yarn muscle is prepared by allowing the self-plying of a coiled CNT yarn. When driven by acetone adsorption, this muscle shows decoupled actuations, which provide fast and reversible ∼13.3% contraction strain against a constant stress corresponding to ∼38 000 times the muscle weight but almost zero torsional strokes. The cycling test shows that the self-plied muscle has very good structural stability and actuation reversibility. Applied joule heating can help increase the desorption of acetone and increase the operation frequency of the self-plied muscle. Furthermore, by controlling the coupling between the joule heating and acetone adsorption/desorption, tensile actuations from negative to positive have been achieved. This twist-stable feature could considerably facilitate the practical applications of such muscle.

  8. RNA–Stable-Isotope Probing Shows Utilization of Carbon from Inulin by Specific Bacterial Populations in the Rat Large Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Sims, Ian M.; Lee, Julian; Butts, Christine A.; Roy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the trophisms that underpin bowel microbiota composition is required in order to understand its complex phylogeny and function. Stable-isotope (13C)-labeled inulin was added to the diet of rats on a single occasion in order to detect utilization of inulin-derived substrates by particular members of the cecal microbiota. Cecal digesta from Fibruline-inulin-fed rats was collected prior to (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h following provision of the [13C]inulin diet. RNA was extracted from these cecal specimens and fractionated in isopycnic buoyant density gradients in order to detect 13C-labeled nucleic acid originating in bacterial cells that had metabolized the labeled dietary constituent. RNA extracted from specimens collected after provision of the labeled diet was more dense than 0-h RNA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from cDNA obtained from these fractions showed that Bacteroides uniformis, Blautia glucerasea, Clostridium indolis, and Bifidobacterium animalis were the main users of the 13C-labeled substrate. Culture-based studies of strains of these bacterial species enabled trophisms associated with inulin and its hydrolysis products to be identified. B. uniformis utilized Fibruline-inulin for growth, whereas the other species used fructo-oligosaccharide and monosaccharides. Thus, RNA–stable-isotope probing (RNA-SIP) provided new information about the use of carbon from inulin in microbiota metabolism. PMID:24487527

  9. Using the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus to examine questions in ethnoprimatology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Loudon

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand how humans impact the dietary patterns of eight free-ranging vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus groups in South Africa using stable isotope analysis. Vervets are omnivores that exploit a wide range of habitats including those that have been anthropogenically-disturbed. As humans encroach upon nonhuman primate landscapes, human-nonhuman primate interconnections become increasingly common, which has led to the rise of the field of ethnoprimatology. To date, many ethnoprimatological studies have examined human-nonhuman primate associations largely in qualitative terms. By using stable carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotope analysis, we use quantitative data to understand the degree to which humans impact vervet monkey dietary patterns. Based on initial behavioral observations we placed the eight groups into three categories of anthropogenic disturbance (low, mid, and high. Using δ13C and δ15N values we estimated the degree to which each group and each anthropogenically-disturbed category was consuming C4 plants (primarily sugar cane, corn, or processed foods incorporating these crops. δ13C values were significantly different between groups and categories of anthropogenic-disturbance. δ15N values were significantly different at the group level. The two vervet groups with the highest consumption of C4 plants inhabited small nature reserves, appeared to interact with humans only sporadically, and were initially placed in the mid level of anthropogenic-disturbance. However, further behavioral observations revealed that the high δ13C values exhibited by these groups were linked to previously unseen raiding of C4 crops. By revealing these cryptic feeding patterns, this study illustrates the utility of stable isotopes analysis for some ethnoprimatological questions.

  10. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope variation in the northern lampfish and Neocalanus, marine survival rates of pink salmon, and meso-scale eddies in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Thomas C., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    Northern lampfish (NLF), Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Myctophidae), the dominant pelagic fish taxon of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean, were sampled opportunistically in MOCNESS tows made on continental slope waters of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) as well as in deep areas of Prince William Sound (PWS) during 1997-2006. The overall mean whole-body lipid-corrected stable carbon isotope value of NLF from the GOA was -21.4 (SD = 0.7) whereas that from PWS was -19.5 (SD = 0.9). This pattern is similar to that observed for late feeding stage Neocalanus cristatus copepods thus confirming a mean cross-shelf carbon stable isotope gradient. As well, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the considerable temporal variation in the monthly mean carbon stable isotope composition of GOA Neocalanus and GOA NLF ( r = 0.69, P food chain length whereas carbon stable isotopes reflect organic carbon production. The carbon stable isotope values of NLF, measured in May, were positively correlated to marine survival rate of PWS hatchery salmon cohorts entering the marine environment the same year ( r = 0.84, P < 0.001). The carbon stable isotope values for Neocalanus in May were also positively correlated to salmon marine survival ( r = 0.82, P < 0.001). Processes thus manifested through the carbon stable isotope value of biota from the continental slope more closely predicted marine survival rate than that of the salmon themselves. The incipient relationships suggested by the correlations are consistent with the hypothesis that exchange between coastal and oceanic waters in the study area is driven by meso-scale eddies. These eddies facilitate the occurrence of slope phytoplankton blooms as well as drive oceanic zooplankton subsidies into coastal waters. The strong as well as more significant correlations of salmon marine survival rate to NLF as well as slope Neocalanus carbon stable isotope values point to processes taking place at the slope (i.e., interactions

  11. Stable Carbon Isotopes (δ 13C) in Coral Skeletons: Experimental Approach and Applications for Paleoceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottoli, A. G.

    2004-12-01

    Scleractinian corals obtain fixed carbon via photosynthesis by their endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) and via hetertrophy (injestion of zooplankton, δ 13C ≈ -17 to -22‰ ). Carbon dioxide (CO2) used for photosynthesis is obtained from seawater (δ 13C ≈ 0%) or from respired CO2 within the coral host. The δ 13C of the carbon used in the formation of the underlying coral skeleton is fractionated as a result of both of these metabolic processes. Here I have pooled evidence from several field and tank experiments on the effect of photosynthesis and heterotrophy of coral skeletal δ 13C. In the experiments, decreases in light levels due to shading or depth resulted in a significant decrease in skeletal δ 13C in all species studied (Pavona gigantea, Pavona clavus, Porites compressa). Decreases in photosynthesis in bleached corals also resulted in a decrease in skeletal δ 13C compared to non-bleached corals growing under the same conditions and at the same location. Skeletal δ 13C also decreased at higher than normal light levels most likely due to photoinhibition. Thus, decreases in photosynthesis due to reduced light levels, due to bleaching-induced decreases in chlorophyll a concentrations, or due to photodamage-induced decreases in functional cholorphyll a, results in significant δ 13C decreases. Comprehensive interpretation of all of the data showed that changes in photosynthesis itself can drive the changes in δ 13C. In field experiments, the addition of natural concentrations of zooplankton to the diet resulted in decreases in skeletal δ 13C. Such a decrease was more pronounced with depth and in P. gigantea compared to P. clavus. In situ feeding experiments have since confirmed these findings. However under tank conditions with unaturally high feeding rates, enhanced nitrogen supply in the diet can disrupt the coral-algal symbiosis, stimlate zooxanthellae growth and photosynthesis, and cause an incrase in skeletal δ 13C. It is proposed that under

  12. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert‐Jan

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to samples containing at least several μg of carbon. Methods Here we present a setup combining laser ablation, nano combustion gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA/nC/GC/IRMS). A deep UV (193 nm) laser is used for optimal fragmentation of organic matter with minimum fractionation effects and an exceptionally small ablation chamber and combustion oven are used to reduce the minimum sample mass requirement compared with previous studies. Results Analyses of the international IAEA CH‐7 polyethylene standard show optimal accuracy, and precision better than 0.5‰, when measuring at least 42 ng C. Application to untreated modern Eucalyptus globulus (C3 plant) and Zea mays (C4 plant) pollen grains shows a ~ 16‰ offset between these species. Within each single Z. mays pollen grain, replicate analyses show almost identical δ 13C values. Conclusions Isotopic offsets between individual pollen grains exceed analytical uncertainties, therefore probably reflecting interspecimen variability of ~0.5–0.9‰. These promising results set the stage for investigating both δ 13C values and natural carbon isotopic variability between single specimens of a single population of all kinds of organic particles yielding tens of nanograms of carbon. © 2016 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27766694

  13. Revised interpretations of stable C and O patterns in carbonate rocks resulting from meteoric diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Peter K.; Oehlert, Amanda M.

    2018-02-01

    A positive correlation between the δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate rocks is a screening tool widely used to identify the overprint of meteoric diagenesis on the original isotopic composition of a sample. In particular, it has been suggested that systematic change from negative to positive δ13C and δ18O values with increasing depth in the core is an indicator of alteration within the zone of mixing between meteoric and marine waters. In this paper, we propose that such covariance is not generated within the traditionally defined mixing zone, and that positive correlations between δ13C and δ18O values in marine carbonates are not necessarily indicators of meteoric alteration. This new interpretation is based on data collected from the shallow sub-surface of the Bahamas, a region unequivocally influenced by meteoric waters to depths of at least 200 m below the current sediment-water interface. The classic interpretation of the diagenetic environments, based on changes in the δ13C and δ18O values, would suggest the maximum penetration of freshwater occurs between 65 and 100 m below seafloor. Below these depths, a strong positive covariation between the δ13C and δ18O values exists, and would traditionally be defined as the mixing zone. However, based upon known changes in sea level, the penetration of the freshwater lens extends significantly below this limit. We contend that the zone showing covariance of δ13C and δ18O values is actually altered within the freshwater lens, and not the mixing zone as previously proposed. The co-varying trend in δ13C and δ18O values is the result of diagenetic processes occurring at the interface between vadose and phreatic zones. Significantly greater rates of recrystallization and neomorphism are driven by the increased rates of oxidation of organic matter at this transition with progressively less alteration occurring with increasing depth. As sea level oscillates, the position of this interface moves through the

  14. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  15. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  16. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Stable Isotopes: Extraction Technique Development and Urban Atmospheric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Isaac Josef

    We have developed an extraction system to analyze isotopes of carbon monoxide (CO). We then analyzed CO isotopes for two years at Indianapolis, IN, USA. These measurements were done at three towers, one of which measured incoming, background air into the city. We quantitatively removed the background signal and determined the urban CO mole fraction and isotopic enhancements. During the winter months, we constrained the isotopic signature and concluded that the majority of CO produced during the winter was produced by fossil fuel combustion. We found that the Indianapolis fossil fuel signature differed from that of studies done in Europe. Further, we performed a limited traffic study to look at CO isotopes from traffic. While this was not conclusive, it did support our hypothesis that a larger fraction of the Indianapolis vehicle fleet may have malfunctioning catalytic systems, which biases the isotopic results, particularly for delta18O. We used the wintertime fossil fuel isotopic signature to help constrain the summertime budget. It was hypothesized that a second source of CO was significant during the summer months. Oxidation of biogenically produced volatile organic compounds (BVOC's) was one possible source. Oxidized BVOC's were consistent with the changes between our winter and summer isotopic source signatures. We then used the isotopic signatures to determine that between zero and sixty percent of the summertime CO budget was produced from oxidized VOC's. This provided the first direct evidence of a larger percentage of urban CO being produced by oxidized VOC's.

  18. Stable and highly efficient electrochemical production of formic acid from carbon dioxide using diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsui, Keisuke; Iwakawa, Hitomi; Ikemiya, Norihito [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Nakata, Kazuya [Photocatalysis International Research Center, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); JST-ACCEL, Yokohama (Japan)

    2018-03-01

    High faradaic efficiencies can be achieved in the production of formic acid (HCOOH) by metal electrodes, such as Sn or Pb, in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). However, the stability and environmental load in using them are problematic. The electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to HCOOH was investigated in a flow cell using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. BDD electrodes have superior electrochemical properties to metal electrodes, and, moreover, are highly durable. The faradaic efficiency for the production of HCOOH was as high as 94.7 %. Furthermore, the selectivity for the production of HCOOH was more than 99 %. The rate of the production was increased to 473 μmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} at a current density of 15 mA cm{sup -2} with a faradaic efficiency of 61 %. The faradaic efficiency and the production rate are almost the same as or larger than those achieved using Sn and Pb electrodes. Furthermore, the stability of the BDD electrodes was confirmed by 24 h operation. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Stable and Highly Efficient Electrochemical Production of Formic Acid from Carbon Dioxide Using Diamond Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsui, Keisuke; Iwakawa, Hitomi; Ikemiya, Norihito; Nakata, Kazuya; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2018-03-01

    High faradaic efficiencies can be achieved in the production of formic acid (HCOOH) by metal electrodes, such as Sn or Pb, in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, the stability and environmental load in using them are problematic. The electrochemical reduction of CO 2 to HCOOH was investigated in a flow cell using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. BDD electrodes have superior electrochemical properties to metal electrodes, and, moreover, are highly durable. The faradaic efficiency for the production of HCOOH was as high as 94.7 %. Furthermore, the selectivity for the production of HCOOH was more than 99 %. The rate of the production was increased to 473 μmol m -2  s -1 at a current density of 15 mA cm -2 with a faradaic efficiency of 61 %. The faradaic efficiency and the production rate are almost the same as or larger than those achieved using Sn and Pb electrodes. Furthermore, the stability of the BDD electrodes was confirmed by 24 h operation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stable carbon isotopes in high-productive littoral areas of Lake Constance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondrogianni, C.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation attempted to extend understanding of C fractionation in aquatic systems and to facilitate the interpretation of palaeolimnological isotope data. Particular interest was taken in the aspect of bicarbonate assimilation at high productivity and in the exchange processes between water and atmosphere. Littoral areas of lakes were chosen as areas of investigation as they offer a high-productivity environment with large populations of submersed macrophytes and periphytes. To get a better picture of the factors influencing C fractionation, litteral and pellagial regions were compared on the one hand and a mesotrophic (Ueberlingersee) and a eutrophic (Gnadensee) lake section on the other hand. Further factors of differentiation between the two lake parts were: Volume, the proportional share of the litteral area, and water exchange. Two main fields of interest were investigated: - Determination of the C isotope ratio (δ 13 C) in the dissolved bicarbonate of water in the sediments of a single year for the purpose of calibrating its fractionation in the basis of the present chemical and physical status of the lake water (water programme). - Determination of δ 13 C in selected carbonate components from sedimentary cores in order to find out about palaeolimnological events in the areas of investigation (sediment programme). (orig.) [de

  1. Realization of stable and homogenous carbon nanotubes dispersion as ink for radio frequency identification applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougot, M Nicolas; Dung Dang, Thi My; Le, Nguyen Ngan; Dang, Mau Chien

    2013-01-01

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications offers a very large range of possibilities to exploit the incredible properties of CNTs. However, due to their entanglement state, their size and the different interacting forces between nanotubes bundles present at nanometric scale, CNTs debundling is very hard to achieve, requiring specific equipment and chemicals. Our purpose was to reduce as small as possible CNTs bundles, in order to realize ink to print on an RFID antenna. The size of the head printer nozzles required very small particles, about a few micrometers, in order to be able to print on the sensitive position of the antenna. To reduce the size of the bundles and stabilize the solution, an ultrasonic horn with an ultrasonic bath were combined as mechanical stress for CNT dispersion, and some chemicals such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)—a surfactant, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)—a solvent, or chitosan were used to meet our requirements. (paper)

  2. Stable magnetization of iron filled carbon nanotube MFM probes in external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Franziska; Weissker, Uhland; Muehl, Thomas; Lutz, Matthias U; Mueller, Christian; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Buechner, Bernd, E-mail: f.wolny@ifw-dresden.d [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the application of an iron filled carbon nanotube (Fe-CNT) as a probe for magnetic force microscopy (MFM) in an external magnetic field. If an external field is applied parallel to the sample surface, conventional ferromagnetically coated MFM probes often have the disadvantage that the magnetization of the coating turns towards the direction of the applied field. Then it is difficult to distinguish the effect of the external field on the sample from those on the MFM probe. The Fe-CNT MFM probe has a large shape anisotropy due to the high aspect ratio of the enclosed iron nanowire. Thanks to this the direction of the magnetization stays mainly oriented along the long nanotube axis in in-plane fields up to our experimental limit of 250 mT. Thus, the quality of the MFM images remains unchanged. Apart from this, it is shown that Fe-CNT MFM probe yields a very good magnetic resolution of about 25 nm due to the small diameter of the iron filling.

  3. Carbon-14, tritium, stable isotope and chemical measurements on thermal waters from the Tauranga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; McGill, R.C.; Taylor, C.B.; Whitehead, N.E.; Downes, C.J.

    1984-03-01

    The chemical compositions of groundwater from the Tauranga region are affected to varying degrees by reducing conditions due to buried organic matter. The levels of some dissolved constituents are also affected by mixing with sea water contained within the rocks and by rock-water interaction. Dissolved gas compositions range from oxygen-bearing to methane-bearing reflecting the varying redox conditions. Excess air may be present but further experiments are necessary to confirm this. Apparent ages deduced from carbon-14 measurements (corrected using 12C dilution and 13C fractionation methods) range from 2-25,000 years, suggesting that some of the waters were recharged during late Pleistocene or early Holocene time. ΔD and Δ18 O values of the oldest waters are slightly more negative than those of younger samples; this may indicate recharge during a cooler climate, in agreement with the 14C ages. Very low but significantly non-zero tritium contents (TR=(0.007-0.059)+-0.007) were measured using the high tritium-enrichment facilities at INS and the very low-background counters at the University of Bern. The tritium is thought to derive from contamination or nuclear reactions in the aquifer rocks rather than from recharge water

  4. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Woodborne

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L. trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  5. New manuscript guidelines for the reporting of stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope-ratio data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    To eliminate possible confusion in the reporting of isotopic abundances on non-corresponding scales, the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances recommended at the 37{sup th} General Assembly at Lisbon, Portugal that (i) {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H relative ratios of all substances be expressed relative to VSMOW (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) on a scale such that {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H of SLAP (Standard Light Antartic Precipitation) is 0.572 times that of VSMOW, (ii) {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C relative ratios of all substances be expressed relative to VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) on a scale such that {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C of NBS 19 carbonate is 1.00195 times that of VPDB, and (iii) {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of all substances be expressed relative to either VSMOW or VPDB on scales such that {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O of SLAP is 0.9445 times that of VSMOW. (Author)

  6. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  7. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in an aquatic food web recently invaded by Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Mills, E.L.; Idrisi, N.; Michener, R.

    1996-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of major abiotic and biotic constituents were determined in Oneida Lake, New York. This lake was invaded by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in 1990 and there have been concomitant changes in various biotic and abiotic lake properties. The C (46-49%) and N (12%) concentrations and C:N ratios (3.9-4) of zebra mussel flesh were similar to those reported for other lakes. Trophic positions were reflected in the δ 15 N values for which walleye > gizzard shad and yellow perch > Daphnia spp. and zebra mussel flesh > seston and sediment. There was an average increase of 3.6% 0 15 N per trophic transfer. Results from the δ 13 C analysis suggest that Daphnia spp. were using a distinct source of organic carbon whereas zebra mussel were using the entire seston resource. Only yellow perch showed a significant shift in δ 13 C values (1.1% 0 ), possibly reflecting a shift in a food source and diet from 1992 to 1993. (author). 48 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Identification of stable endogenous control genes for transcriptional profiling of photon, proton and carbon-ion irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharungbam, Geeta D; Schwager, Christian; Chiblak, Sara; Brons, Stephan; Hlatky, Lynn; Haberer, Thomas; Debus, Jürgen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of transcriptional regulation of genes is a prerequisite for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of different radiation qualities such as photon, proton or carbon ion irradiation. Microarrays and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) are considered the two cornerstones of gene expression analysis. In interpreting these results it is critical to normalize the expression levels of the target genes by that of appropriately selected endogenous control genes (ECGs) or housekeeping genes. We sought to systematically investigate common ECG candidates for their stability after different radiation modalities in different human cell lines by qRT-PCR. We aimed to identify the most robust set of ECGs or housekeeping genes for transcriptional analysis in irradiation studies. We tested the expression stability of 32 ECGs in three human cancer cell lines. The epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431), the non small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549) and the pancreatic adenocarincoma cells (BxPC3) were irradiated with photon, proton and carbon ions. Expression Heat maps, clustering and statistic algorithms were employed using SUMO software package. The expression stability was evaluated by computing: mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, coefficient of variation and the stability measure (M) given by the geNorm algorithm. Expression analysis revealed significant cell type specific regulation of 18 out of 32 ECGs (p < 0.05). A549 and A431 cells shared a similar pattern of ECG expression as the function of different radiation qualities as compared to BxPC3. Of note, the ribosomal protein 18S, one of the most frequently used ECG, was differentially regulated as the function of different radiation qualities (p ≤ 0.01). A comprehensive search for the most stable ECGs using the geNorm algorithm identified 3 ECGs for A431 and BxPC3 to be sufficient for normalization. In contrast, 6 ECGs were required to properly normalize expression data in the more

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, M. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Institute of Technology Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, S. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Maitra, S. [Govt. College of Engg. and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata (India)

    2012-01-15

    Barium strontium titanate (BST) ceramics (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})TiO{sub 3} were synthesized by solid state sintering using barium carbonate, strontium carbonate and rutile as the precursor materials. The samples were doped with nickel oxide in different proportions. Different phases present in the sintered samples were determined from X-ray diffraction investigation and the distribution of different phases in the microstructure was assessed from scanning electron microscopy study. It was observed that the dielectric properties of BST were modified significantly with nickel oxide doping. These ceramics held promise for applications in tuned circuits. (author)

  10. Indoor and outdoor urban atmospheric CO2: Stable carbon isotope constraints on mixing and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Yurena; Yapp, Crayton J.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → 13 C of indoor CO 2 indicates proportion of C 4 -derived carbon in occupants' diet. → Flux balance model for ventilated rooms shows rapid approach to CO 2 steady-state. → From extant indoor CO 2 data more dietary C 4 carbon in American than European diets. → Local outdoor urban CO 2 increase of 17 ppm in ten years, no change in average 13 C. - Abstract: From July to November 2009, concentrations of CO 2 in 78 samples of ambient air collected in 18 different interior spaces on a university campus in Dallas, Texas (USA) ranged from 386 to 1980 ppm. Corresponding δ 13 C values varied from -8.9 per mille to -19.4 per mille. The CO 2 from 22 samples of outdoor air (also collected on campus) had a more limited range of concentrations from 385 to 447 ppm (avg. = 408 ppm), while δ 13 C values varied from -10.1 per mille to -8.4 per mille (avg.=-9.0 per mille). In contrast to ambient indoor and outdoor air, the concentrations of CO 2 exhaled by 38 different individuals ranged from 38,300 to 76,200 ppm (avg. = 55,100 ppm), while δ 13 C values ranged from -24.8 per mille to -17.7 per mille (avg. = -21.8 per mille). The residence times of the total air in the interior spaces of this study appear to have been on the order of 10 min with relatively rapid approaches (∼30 min) to steady-state concentrations of ambient CO 2 gas. Collectively, the δ 13 C values of the indoor CO 2 samples were linearly correlated with the reciprocal of CO 2 concentration, exhibiting an intercept of -21.8 per mille, with r 2 = 0.99 and p 2 data representing 18 interior spaces (with varying numbers of occupants), and the coincidence of the intercept (-21.8 per mille) with the average δ 13 C value for human-exhaled CO 2 demonstrates simple mixing between two inputs: (1) outdoor CO 2 introduced to the interior spaces by ventilation systems, and (2) CO 2 exhaled by human occupants of those spaces. If such simple binary mixing is a common feature of interior spaces, it

  11. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  12. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    As part of their research programme on Radioactive Waste Management, the Commission of the European Communities has provided financial support for a detailed study of wastes containing 14 C and the options for their management. The main results of this study are outlined. Carbon-14 is formed by neutron activation reactions in core materials and is therefore present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. Data on the production and release of 14 C from various reactor systems are presented. A possible management strategy for 14 C might be reduction of 14 N impurity levels in core materials, but only reductions of about a factor of five in arisings could be achieved in this way. The key problem in 14 C management is its retention in off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. In this stream the nuclide is present as carbon dioxide and is extensively isotopically diluted by the carbon dioxide content of the air. Processes for trapping 14 C from these off-gases must be integrated with the other processes in the overall off-gas treatment system, and should provide for conversion to a stable solid compound of carbon, suitable for subsequent immobilization and disposal. Three trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates can be identified: the double alkali (NaOH/Ca(OH) 2 ) process, the direct calcium hydroxide slurry process, and the barium ocathydrate gas/solid process. Calcium or barium carbonates, produced in the above processes, could probably be incorporated into satisfactory immobilized waste forms. However, the stability of such waste forms to prolonged irradiation and to leaching remains to be investigated. (author)

  13. The exchange of acetaldehyde between plants and the atmosphere: Stable carbon isotope and flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby Jeremiah

    The exchange of acetaldehyde between plant canopies and the atmosphere may significantly influence regional atmospheric chemistry and plant metabolism. While plants are known to both produce and consume acetaldehyde, the exchange of this compound with forested ecosystems is complicated by physical, biological, and chemical processes that range from being poorly understood to completely unknown. This precludes a quantitative understanding of acetaldehyde exchange rates between the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this study, the processes controlling the exchange of acetaldehyde with plant canopies was investigated using concentration, flux, and natural abundance 13C measurements of gas phase acetaldehyde from individual plants, soils, and entire ecosystems. Although previously only considered important in anoxic tissues, it was discovered that acetaldehyde is produced and consumed in leaves through ethanolic fermentation coupled to the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass system under normal aerobic conditions. These coupled pathways determine the acetaldehyde compensation point, a major factor controlling its exchange with the atmosphere. Carbon isotope analysis suggests a new pathway for acetaldehyde production from plants under stress involving the peroxidation of membrane fatty acids. This pathway may be a major source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere from plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant stomata were found to be the dominant pathway for the exchange of acetaldehyde with the atmosphere with stomatal conductance influencing both emission and uptake fluxes. In addition, increasing temperature and solar radiation was found to increase the compensation point by increasing the rates of acetaldehyde production relative to consumption. Under ambient conditions, bare soil was neutral to the exchange of acetaldehyde while senescing and decaying leaves were found to be strong source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere due to increased decomposition processes and

  14. Stabilization of recent soil carbon in the humid tropics following land use changes: evidence from aggregate fractionation and stable isotope analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Sonja; Flessa, Heiner; Veldkamp, Edzo; López-Ulloa, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Carbon sequestration - Ecuador - Mean residence time - Pasture - Secondary forest - Soil type - Texture - Water-stable aggregates Quantitative knowledge of stabilization- and decomposition processes is necessary to understand, assess and predict effects of land use changes on storage and stability of soil organic carbon (soil C) in the tropics. Although it is well documented that different soil types have different soil C stocks, it is presently unknown how different soil types a...

  15. Stable calcium isotope composition of a pedogenic carbonate in forested ecosystem: the case of the needle fibre calcite (NFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliere, Laure; Verrecchia, Eric; Gussone, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    shape of NFC could be ascribed to a growth related to fungal organic molecules or potentially inside fungal hyphae. Three microscopic morphologies of NFC, previously defined (Milliere et al., 2011a), have been also examined in order to trace the evolution of the NFC inside the soil porosity. The Ca isotope composition of the simple needles, which are supposed to be the original form of NFC are the less fractionated compared to the soil solution, whereas the Ca isotope composition of the two other microscopic morphologies, namely the simple needle with nanofibres and the simple needle with overgrowths, are more fractionated, like the LCC, indicating potentially the influence of biogenic processes in the formation of the simple needles. Milliere L, Hasinger O, Bindschedler S, Cailleau G, Spangenberg JE, Verrecchia EP. 2011a. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures of pedogenic needle fibre calcite. Geoderma 161, 74-87.

  16. Evolutionarily stable strategy of carbon and nitrogen investments in forest leaves and its application in vegetation dynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, E.; Farrior, C.; Dybzinski, R.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf lifespan (LL) are two highly correlated plant traits that are key to plant physiological and ecological properties. Usually, low LMA means short LL, high nitrogen (N) content per unit mass, and fast turnover rates of nutrients; high LMA leads to long LL, low N content, and slow turnover rates. Deciduous trees with low LMA and short lifespan leaves have low carbon cost but high nitrogen demand; and evergreen trees, with high LMA and long lifespan leaves, have high carbon cost but low nitrogen demand. These relationships lead to: 1) evergreen trees have higher leaf area index than deciduous trees; 2) evergreen trees' carbon use efficiency is lower than the deciduous trees' because of their thick leaves and therefore high maintenance respiration; 3) the advantage of evergreens trees brought by their extra leaves over deciduous trees diminishes with increase N in ecosystem. These facts determine who will win when trees compete with each other in a N-limited ecosystem. In this study, we formulate a mathematical model according to the relationships between LMA, LL, leaf nitrogen, and leaf building and maintenance cost, where LMA is the fundamental variable determining the other three. We analyze the evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) of LMA with this mathematical model by examining the benefits of carbon and nitrogen investments to leaves in ecosystems with different N. The model shows the ESS converges to low LMA at high N and high LMA at low N. At intermediate N, there are two ESSs at low and high ends of LMA, respectively. The ESS also leads to low forest productivity by outcompeting the possible high productive strategies. We design a simulation scheme in an individual-based competition model (LM3-PPA) to simulate forest dynamics as results of the competition between deciduous and evergreen trees in three different biomes, which are temperate deciduous forest, deciduous-evergreen mixed forest, and boreal evergreen forest. The

  17. Dynamical symmetry breaking in barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Bir Singh; Chattopadhyay, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The isotopes of Xe with mass numbers 124, 126, 128, 130 and the isotopes of barium with mass numbers 128, 130, 132, 134 were shown to correspond to the O(6) dynamical symmetry of IBM. In the investigation of the dynamical symmetry breaking in this region, the barium isotopes for departures from O(6) symmetry have been studied

  18. Laser cooling and trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Subhadeep

    2008-01-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of heavy alkaline-earth element barium have been demonstrated for the first time ever. For any possible cycling transition in barium that could provide strong cooling forces, the excited state has a very large branching probability to metastable states. Additional lasers

  19. Gas thermodesorption study of barium and strontium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenova, T.I.; Khromushin, I.V.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.; Bukenov, K.D.; Medvedeva, Z.V.; Berdauletov, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic of water, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules release from doped and undoped samples of barium cerates and doped strontium cerates during vacuum heating was studied. The samples were prepared by inductive melting method. The following two kinds of preliminary samples treatments were used: annealing in air (650-750 deg. C) and wet nitrogen atmosphere (625 deg.C). Main results of thermodesorption studies of barium and strontium cerates are represented in the table. The samples of doped LaSrMnO were investigated also. It was found that the initial doped samples (without preliminary annealing) did not show any gas release in temperature range of 20-1100 deg. C. This fact indicates on high stability of compositions and strong bond of 'host' oxygen in their lattice. A significant amount of water and oxygen molecules were released from BaCe 0.9 Nd 0.1 O 3 samples whereas water and hydrogen molecules desorption from SrCe 0.95 Y 0.05 O 3 samples took place. Hydrogen molecules desorption was found for strontium cerates samples; no hydrogen molecules release was observed for doped and pure barium cerate samples.Intensive water molecules release from doped samples confirms the necessity of oxygen vacancies creation in these compounds to get properties of proton conductivity, since it was not found any water molecules release from annealed undoped samples of BaCeO 3 It is necessary to notice that oxygen molecules release from these samples took place at ∼1000 deg. C that is significantly higher then from BaCeNdO samples. Forms of high temperatures part of oxygen and low temperature part of water spectra indicate that phase transformations are responsible for oxygen and water molecules desorption in this cases. These results are in good agreement with literature data. Desorption of water molecules from barium and strontium cerates took place. Oxygen desorption took place only from barium cerates. It can be explained as the following: doped barium cerates have

  20. Analysis of barium by isotope mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Kaiming; Jia Baoting; Liu Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratios for barium at sub-microgram level are analyzed by thermal surface ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Rhenium trips used for sample preparation are firstly treated to eliminate possible barium background interference. During the preparation of barium samples phosphoric acid is added as an emitting and stabilizing reagent. The addition of phosphoric acid increases the collection efficiency and ion current strength and stability for barium. A relative standard deviation of 0.02% for the isotopic abundance ratio of 137 Ba to 138 Ba is achieved when the 138 Ba ion current is (1-3) x 10 -12 A. The experimental results also demonstrate that the isotope fractionation effect is negligibly small in the isotopic analysis of barium

  1. Stable carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, isotope analysis of plants from a South Asian tropical forest: Implications for primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Blumenthal, Scott A; Dittus, Wolfgang; Wedage, Oshan; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2017-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis of primate tissues in tropical forest contexts is an increasingly popular means of obtaining information about niche distinctions among sympatric species, including preferences in feeding height, forest canopy density, plant parts, and trophism. However, issues of equifinality mean that feeding height, canopy density, as well as the plant parts and plant species consumed, may produce similar or confounding effects. With a few exceptions, researchers have so far relied largely on general principles and/or limited plant data from the study area as references for deducing the predominant drivers of primate isotope variation. Here, we explore variation in the stable carbon (δ 13 C), nitrogen (δ 15 N), and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotope ratios of 288 plant samples identified as important to the three primate species from the Polonnaruwa Nature Sanctuary, Sri Lanka, relative to plant part, season, and canopy height. Our results show that plant part and height have the greatest effect on the δ 13 C and δ 18 O measurements of plants of immediate relevance to the primates, Macaca sinica, Semnopithecus priam thersites, and Trachypithecus vetulus, living in this monsoonal tropical forest. We find no influence of plant part, height or season on the δ 15 N of measured plants. While the plant part effect is particularly pronounced in δ 13 C between fruits and leaves, differential feeding height, and plant taxonomy influence plant δ 13 C and δ 18 O differences in addition to plant organ. Given that species composition in different regions and forest types will differ, the results urge caution in extrapolating general isotopic trends without substantial local baselines studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Stable-carbon isotope ratios for sourcing the nerve-agent precursor methylphosphonic dichloride and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James J; Fraga, Carlos G; Nims, Megan K

    2018-08-15

    The ability to connect a chemical threat agent to a specific batch of a synthetic precursor can provide a fingerprint to contribute to effective forensic investigations. Stable isotope analysis can leverage intrinsic, natural isotopic variability within the molecules of a threat agent to unlock embedded chemical fingerprints in the material. Methylphosphonic dichloride (DC) is a chemical precursor to the nerve agent sarin. DC is converted to methylphosphonic difluoride (DF) as part of the sarin synthesis process. We used a suite of commercially available DC stocks to both evaluate the potential for δ 13 C analysis to be used as a fingerprinting tool in sarin-related investigations and to develop sample preparation techniques (using chemical hydrolysis) that can simplify isotopic analysis of DC and its synthetic products. We demonstrate that natural isotopic variability in DC results in at least three distinct, isotope-resolved clusters within the thirteen stocks we analyzed. Isotopic variability in the carbon feedstock (i.e., methanol) used for DC synthesis is likely inherited by the DC samples we measured. We demonstrate that the hydrolysis of DC and DF to methylphosphonic acid (MPA) can be used as a preparative step for isotopic analysis because the reaction does not impart a significant isotopic fractionation. MPA is more chemically stable, less toxic, and easier to handle than DC or DF. Further, the hydrolysis method we demonstrated can be applied to a suite of other precursors or to sarin itself, thereby providing a potentially valuable forensic tool. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B.; Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) → This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times → Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 o C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 ) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 o C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO 3 as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  4. Barium diffusion in metallo-organic solution deposited barrier layers and Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipeles, R.A.; Leung, M.S.; Thiede, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on barium silicate and barium aluminate films that were studied for use as chemical reaction and diffusion barrier layers for Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBC) deposited on sapphire and fused silica substrates by the sol-gel technique. Depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to characterize the abruptness of the interfaces between the barrier layer and the YBC film as well as the barrier layer and the substrate. The authors found that barium aluminate films reacted with fused silica substrates forming a coarse-grained barium silicate phase. Barium silicate, BaSiO 3 , also reacted with silica substrates forming a broad, amorphous reaction zone containing some BaSi 2 O 5 . Although barium silicate and barium aluminate deposited on sapphire formed a BaAl 12 O 19 phase, they provided a barrier to barium diffusion from sol-gel deposited YBC. Crystalline barium aluminate grown on c-cut sapphire was the most effective barrier layer for the growth of YBC films; compositionally uniform YBC films were made similar to that grown on strontium titanate substrates. These data show that chemically stable, crystalline films are more effective barrier layers than amorphous films

  5. In-situ studies of microbial CH4 oxidation efficiency in Arctic wetland soils. Applications of stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, Inken-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Arctic wetland soils are significant sources of the climate-relevant trace gas methane (CH 4 ). The observed accelerated warming of the Arctic is expected to cause deeper permafrost thawing followed by increased carbon mineralization and CH 4 formation in water-saturated permafrost-affected tundra soils thus creating a positive feedback to climate change. Aerobic CH 4 oxidation is regarded as the key process reducing CH 4 emissions from wetlands, but quantification of turnover rates has remained difficult so far. This study improved the in-situ quantification of microbial CH 4 oxidation efficiency in arctic wetland soils in Russia's Lena River Delta based on stable isotope signatures of CH 4 . In addition to the common practice of determining the stable isotope fractionation during oxidation, additionally the fractionation effect of diffusion, an important gas transport mechanism in tundra soils, was investigated for both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The isotopic fractionation factors α ox and α diff were used to calculate the CH 4 oxidation efficiency from the CH 4 stable isotope signatures of wet polygonal tundra soils of different hydrology. Further, the method was used to study the short-term effects of temperature increase with a climate manipulation experiment. For the first time, the stable isotope fractionation of CH 4 diffusion through water-saturated soils was determined with α diff = 1.001 ± 0.0002 (n = 3). CH 4 stable isotope fractionation during diffusion through air-filled pores of the investigated polygonal tundra soils was α diff = 1.013 ± 0.003 (n = 18). For the studied sites the fractionation factor for diffusion under saturated conditions α diff = 1.001 seems to be of utmost importance for the quantification of the CH 4 oxidation efficiency, since most of the CH 4 is oxidized in the saturated part at the aerobic-anaerobic interface. Furthermore, it was found that α ox differs widely between sites and horizons (mean α ox = 1

  6. A novel high-temperature combustion based system for stable isotope analysis of dissolved organic carbon in aqueous samples. : I development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federherr, E.; Cerli, C.; Kirkels, F. M. S. A.; Kalbitz, K.; Kupka, H. J.; Dunsbach, R.; Lange, L.; Schmidt, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Traditionally, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) stable isotope analysis (SIA) is performed using either offline sample preparation followed by elemental analyzer/isotope ratiomass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) or a wet chemical oxidation (WCO)-based device coupled to an isotope ratio mass

  7. A versatile method for simultaneous stable carbon isotope analysis of DNA and RNA nucleotides by liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Brasser, J.; de Ruiter, G.; Houtekamer, M.; Bolhuis, H.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALELiquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) is currently the most accurate and precise technique for the measurement of compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios (C-13/C-12) in biological metabolites, at their natural abundance. However, until now this technique

  8. Source apportionment of organic pollutants of a highway-traffic-influenced urban area in Bayreuth (Germany) using biomarker and stable carbon isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Bock, Michael; Fiedler, Stefan; Mehring, Marion; Heitmann, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Traffic- and urban-influenced areas are prone to enhanced pollution with products of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass such as black carbon or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Black carbon is composed of aromatic and graphitic structures and may act as a carrier for pollutants such as PAHs and heavy metals. However, little is known about possible contributions of traffic-derived black carbon to the black carbon inventory in soils. Similar uncertainties exist regarding the contribution of different pollutant sources to total PAH and black carbon contents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the importance of traffic pollution to black carbon and PAH inventories in soils. PAH contamination of soils adjacent to a major German highway in the urban area of Bayreuth with about 50,000 vehicles per day was in the same order of magnitude compared to highway-close soils reported in other studies. Using molecular (black carbon and PAHs) and compound-specific stable carbon isotope evidence (PAHs) it was demonstrated that this contamination originated not only from automobile exhausts, here primarily diesel, but also from tire abrasion and tailpipe soot which significantly contributed to the traffic-caused black carbon and PAH contamination. Low molecular weight PAHs were more widely transported than their heavy molecular counterparts (local distillation), whereas highway-traffic-caused black carbon contamination was distributed to at least 30 m from the highway. On the other hand, urban fire exhausts were distributed more homogeneously among the urban area.

  9. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of δ 13 C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH 2 PO 4 at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTAR TM column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH 2 PO 4 aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical

  10. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic composition of petroleum hydrocarbons as a tool for tracing the source of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Xiong Yongqiang; Yang Wanying; Xie Yueliang; Li Siyuan; Sun Yongge

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for and consumption of crude oils, oil spill accidents happen frequently during the transportation of crude oils and oil products, and the environmental hazard they pose has become increasingly serious in China. The exact identification of the source of spilled oil can act as forensic evidence in the investigation and handling of oil spill accidents. In this study, a weathering simulation experiment demonstrates that the mass loss of crude oils caused by short-term weathering mainly occurs within the first 24 h after a spill, and is dominated by the depletion of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons ( 18 n-alkanes). Short-term weathering has no significant effect on δ 13 C values of individual n-alkanes (C 12 -C 33 ), suggesting that a stable carbon isotope profile of n-alkanes can be a useful tool for tracing the source of an oil spill, particularly for weathered oils or those with a relatively low concentration or absence of sterane and terpane biomarkers

  11. Stable carbon isotopic assessment of prehistoric diets in the south-western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealy, J C

    1984-01-01

    This thesis consists of a stable carbon isotopic assessment of the diets of the Holocene human inhabitants of the south-western Cape, South-Africa. Samples of the foods these people ate were collected from each of the four major physiographic zones in the area, and their /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios measured. A total of more than 200 such analyses enabled the estimation of the average delta /sup 13/C values of prehistoric human diets in each zone. This information is used to interpret delta /sup 13/C measurements on a series of archaeological human skeletons. The results are consistent with a model of prehistoric subsistence behaviour in which people living at the coast made intensive use of marine food resources throughout the Holocene, consuming such a large proportion of these foods that they must have spent much, if not all of their time at the coast. Inland skeletons reflect an almost entirely terrestrial diet. These results contradict hypotheses about seasonal population movements between the coast and the interior generated from excavated archaeological material. Considerable changes in many of our current views of the Late Stone Age of the south-western Cape will have to be made in order to accommodate these data.

  12. Determination of gas recovery efficiency at two Danish landfills by performing downwind methane measurements and stable carbon isotopic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the total methane (CH4) generation rate and gas recovery efficiency at two Danish landfills were determined by field measurements. The landfills are located close to each other and are connected to the same gas collection system. The tracer gas dispersion method was used...... for quantification of CH4 emissions from the landfills, while the CH4 oxidation efficiency in the landfill cover layers was determined by stable carbon isotopic technique. The total CH4 generation rate was estimated by a first-order decay model (Afvalzorg) and was compared with the total CH4 generation rate...... determined by field measurements. CH4 emissions from the two landfills combined ranged from 29.1 to 49.6 kg CH4/h. The CH4 oxidation efficiency was 6–37%, with an average of 18% corresponding to an average CH4 oxidation rate of 8.1 kg CH4/h. The calculated gas recovery efficiency was 59–76%, indicating...

  13. Stable carbon isotope ratios and intrinsic water-use efficiency of Miocene fossil leaves compared to modern congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.D.; Zhang, J.; Rember, W.C.; Jennings, D.; Larson, P. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Miocene fossil leaves of forest trees were extracted from the Clarkia, Idaho fossil beds and their stable carbon isotope ratios were analyzed. Fossils had higher lignin concentrations and lower cellulose concentrations that modern leaves due to diagenesis and the HF used to extract the fossils. Therefore, [delta][sup 13]C of extracted fossil lignin was compared to that of modern lignin. Fossil lignin [delta][sup 13]C was significantly different from that of congeneric modern leaves (paired t-test, P<0.0001), but was 1.9% less negative. Gymnosperms (Metasequoia, Taxodium) were less negative than angiosperms (e.g., Magnolia, Quercus, Acer, Persea), but no difference between evergreen and deciduous species was detected. Using published estimates of the concentration and [delta][sup 13]C of atmospheric CO[sub 2] during the Miocene was estimated the CO[sub 2] partial pressure gradient across the stomata (intrinsic water-use efficiency). Intrinsic water-use efficiency was at least 70% higher during this past [open quotes]greenhouse[close quotes] period than at present.

  14. Marine subsidies of island communities in the Gulf of California: evidence from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.B.; Polis, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Coastal sites support larger (2 to > 100 x) populations of many consumers than inland sites on islands in the Gulf of California. Previous data suggested that subsidies of energy and nutrients from the ocean allowed large coastal populations. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are frequently used to analyse diet composition of organisms: they are particularly useful to distinguish between diet sources with distinct isotopic signatures, such as marine and terrestrial diets. We analyzed the 13 C and 15 N concentrations of coastal versus inland spiders and scorpions to test the hypothesis that coastal individuals exhibited more strongly marine-based diets than inland individuals. Coastal spiders and scorpions were significantly more enriched in 13 C and 15 N than inland spiders and scorpions, suggesting that the coastal individuals consumed more marine-based foods than their inland counterparts. These patterns existed in both drought years and wet El Nino years. However, the marine influence was stronger in drought years when terrestrial productivity was nearly non-existent, than in wet years when terrestrial productivity increased by an order of magnitude. (au)

  15. Some carbonates from Lagoa Real uranium province, State of Bahia: studies on fluid inclusion and stable isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzikawa, K.

    1982-01-01

    The geochemical conditions of the uraniferous carbonates of Lagoa Real province were studied using the fluid inclusions method and the isotopic determinations of the carbon and oxygen of these carbonates. (A.B.) [pt

  16. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  17. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  18. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  19. Effect of baking and fermentation on the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of grain-based food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Joshua N; Palafox, Sherilyn J; Rottmueller, Marina E; Jahren, A Hope

    2015-05-30

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is used extensively to reconstruct general attributes of prehistoric and modern diets in both humans and animals. In order to apply these methods to the accurate determination of specific intakes of foods/nutrients of interest, the isotopic signature of individually consumed foods must be constrained. For example, 86% of the calories consumed in the USA are derived from processed and prepared foods, but the relationship between the stable isotope composition of raw ingredients and the resulting products has not been characterized. To examine the effect of common cooking techniques on the stable isotope composition of grain-based food items, we prepared yeast buns and sugar cookies from standardized recipes and measured bulk δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of samples collected throughout a 75 min fermentation process (buns) and before and after baking at 190°C (buns and cookies). Simple isotope mixing models were used to determine if the isotopic signatures of 13 multi-ingredient foods could be estimated from the isotopic signatures of their constituent raw ingredients. No variations in δ(13) C or δ(15) N values were detected between pre- and post-baked yeast buns (pre: -24.78‰/2.61‰, post: -24.75‰/2.74‰), beet-sugar cookies (pre: -24.48‰/3.84‰, post: -24.47‰/3.57‰), and cane-sugar cookies (pre: -19.07‰/2.97‰, post: -19.02‰/3.21‰), or throughout a 75 min fermentation process in yeast buns. Using isotopic mass balance equations, the δ(13) C/δ(15) N values of multi-ingredient foods were estimated from the isotopic composition of constituent raw ingredients to within 0.14 ± 0.13‰/0.24 ± 0.17‰ for gravimetrically measured recipes and 0.40 ± 0.38‰/0.58 ± 0.53‰ for volumetrically measured recipes. Two common food preparation techniques, baking and fermentation, do not substantially affect the carbon or nitrogen isotopic signature of grain-based foods. Mass-balance equations can be used to

  20. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of pelagic zooplankton elucidate ecohydrographic features in the oligotrophic Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kürten, Benjamin

    2015-11-10

    Although zooplankton occupy key roles in aquatic biogeochemical cycles, little is known about the pelagic food web and trophodynamics of zooplankton in the Red Sea. Natural abundance stable isotope analysis (SIA) of carbon (δ13C) and N (δ15N) is one approach to elucidating pelagic food web structures and diet assimilation Integrating the combined effects of ecological processes and hydrography, ecohydrographic features often translate into geographic patterns in δ13C and δ15N values at the base of food webs. This is due, for example, to divergent 15N abundances in source end-members (deep water sources: high δ15N, diazotrophs: low δ15N). Such patterns in the spatial distributions of stable isotope values were coined isoscapes. Empirical data of atmospheric, oceanographic, and biological processes, which drive the ecohydrographic gradients of the oligotrophic Red Sea, are under-explored and some rather anticipated than proven. Specifically, five processes underpin Red Sea gradients: a) monsoon-related intrusions of nutrient-rich Indian Ocean water; b) basin scale thermohaline circulation; c) mesoscale eddy activity that causes up-welling of deep water nutrients into the upper layer; d) the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by diazotrophs; and e) the deposition of aerosol-derived N. This study assessed relationships between environmental samples (nutrients, chlorophyll a), oceanographic data (temperature, salinity, current velocity [ADCP]), particulate organic matter (POM), and net-phytoplankton, with the δ13C and δ15N values of zooplankton collected in spring 2012 from 16°28’ to 26°57’N along the central axis of the Red Sea. The δ15N of bulk POM and most zooplankton taxa increased from North (Duba) to South (Farasan). The potential contribution of deep water nutrient-fueled phytoplankton, POM, and diazotrophs varied among sites. Estimates suggested higher diazotroph contributions in the North, a greater contribution of POM in the South

  2. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed δ 13 C, δ 15 N and Hg in hair from Japanese whale meat-eaters and non-eaters. ► The δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in whale meat-eaters were higher than those in non-eaters. ► The Hg concentration in whale meat-eaters was higher than that in non-eaters. ► A positive correlation was seen between δ 15 N and Hg in whale meat-eaters. ► Consumption of whale meat may increase δ 15 N, δ 13 C and Hg in the scalp hair. -- Abstract: We analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) as well as mercury (Hg) concentration in the scalp hair of Japanese who consumed whale meat and those who did not, and investigated the relationships among the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and Hg concentration. The average δ 15 N and δ 13 C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and −18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and −18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 μg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 μg/g). Significant positive correlations were found between the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values and between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration in the hair of whale meat-eaters, while the correlation between the δ 15 N value and Hg concentration was not statistically significant in the non-eaters. The consumption of whale meat may increase Hg concentration as well as δ 15 N and δ 13 C values in scalp hair

  3. Effects of sewage contamination on macro-algae and shellfish at Moa Point, New Zealand, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to characterise sewage discharge and effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from Moa Point Bay, New Zealand. The nitrogen ( 15 N / 14 N) ratio is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in Ulva lactuca and associated grazers (Cellana denticulata) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to the surrounding marine environment from the sewage outfall. The carbon ( 13 C / 12 C) ratio is suggested as a more appropriate sewer tracer for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), which filter feed the particulate organic matter from the effluent. Lower carbon : nitrogen ratios were found in U. lactuca sampled from the outfall region, compared to uncontaminated control sites, however carbon : nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Time requirement for barium reduction in intussusception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Eun; Kim, Seung Ho; Kang, In Young; Park, Byoung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun

    1988-01-01

    During the period between January 1985 and December 1987, barium reduction was performed in 146 cases of intussusception who were admitted to Kwangju Christian Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Success rate to the symptom duration is relatively constant. 2. The success rate in infants with severe dehydration was 50% but it was gradually increased in infants with moderate dehydration and in infants with mild dehydration, 83.3% and 100% respectively. 3. The success rate of 12 cases in severely dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 16.7%. 4. The success rate of 15 cases in moderately dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 66.7%. 5. The average time requirement for barium reduction was 58.3 minutes. No serious complications were noted during barium reduction, except mild vomiting. 6. With above results, it is desirable that barium reduction should be performed according to the patient's physical status and radiologic findings.

  5. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neutral barium cloud evolution at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Xu Ronglan

    2002-01-01

    Considering the joint effects of diffusion, collision, oxidation and photoionization, the authors study the evolution of the barium cloud at different altitudes in the space plasma active experiment. The results present the variation of the loss rate, number density distribution and brightness of the barium cloud over the range from 120 to 260 km. This can be divided into oxidation, oxidation plus photoionization and photoionization regions

  8. Temporal variation in organic carbon stable isotope compositions of lacustrine sediments from sub-arid northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzuka, A.N.N.; Nyandwi, N.

    2002-01-01

    The stable isotope compositions for four sediment cores recovered from three shallow lakes located in the Ngorongoro crater (Lake Magat) and head of the Olduvai Gorge (Lakes Ndutu and Messak) are used to document climatic changes in sub-arid northern Tanzania during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The two lakes, which are located on the head of the Olduvai Gorge about 1 km apart and 100 km from the Ngorongoro Crater, were probably once one lake during periods of high precipitation. All four cores were collected using a flow-through type of corer, and sub-sampled every 10 cm with each sample representing a homogenate of 1 cm. Two cores (40 cm and 500 cm long) were collected from Lake Magat, and AMS 14 C age on total organic matter (OM) for a nearby core collected about 1 m apart indicate that the sedimentation rate at these sites is approximately 17 cm/ka. Assuming that these sites have a constant rate of sedimentation, the analysed long core represents sediments that were deposited during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. The δ 13 C for 40 cm long core shows a downcore increase, with δ-values ranging from -21 per mille to -12.5 per mille. A similar downcore increase in 13 C values is observable for the 500 cm long core. Apart from this general tend, this core also shows three peaks of low δ-values centred at 200 cm, 380 cm and 490 cm. A general downcore increase in the 13 C for the two cores from the Ngorongoro crater suggests changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 , probably indicating changes in precipitation and lake levels in the area. High precipitation and lake levels being associated with deposition of OM depleted in 13 C. Although, diagenetic changes might have contributed to the observed trend, but a change of up to 7 per mille cannot solely be attributed to diagenetic changes. High content of organic carbon and nitrogen in sections enriched in 13 C excludes the possibility of diagenetic effects. Although record from Lake Ndutu is

  9. Structural and catalytic characterization of a thermally stable and acid-stable variant of human carbonic anhydrase II containing an engineered disulfide bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Christopher D.; Habibzadegan, Andrew [University of Florida, PO Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Tu, Chingkuang; Silverman, David N. [University of Florida, PO Box 100267, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); McKenna, Robert, E-mail: rmckenna@ufl.edu [University of Florida, PO Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The X-ray crystallographic structure of the disulfide-containing HCAII (dsHCAII) has been solved to 1.77 Å resolution and revealed that successful oxidation of the cysteine bond was achieved while also retaining desirable active-site geometry. The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of mostly zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of CO{sub 2} to bicarbonate and a proton. Recently, there has been industrial interest in utilizing CAs as biocatalysts for carbon sequestration and biofuel production. The conditions used in these processes, however, result in high temperatures and acidic pH. This unfavorable environment results in rapid destabilization and loss of catalytic activity in CAs, ultimately resulting in cost-inefficient high-maintenance operation of the system. In order to negate these detrimental industrial conditions, cysteines at residues 23 (Ala23Cys) and 203 (Leu203Cys) were engineered into a wild-type variant of human CA II (HCAII) containing the mutation Cys206Ser. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the disulfide-containing HCAII (dsHCAII) was solved to 1.77 Å resolution and revealed that successful oxidation of the cysteine bond was achieved while also retaining desirable active-site geometry. Kinetic studies utilizing the measurement of {sup 18}O-labeled CO{sub 2} by mass spectrometry revealed that dsHCAII retained high catalytic efficiency, and differential scanning calorimetry showed acid stability and thermal stability that was enhanced by up to 14 K compared with native HCAII. Together, these studies have shown that dsHCAII has properties that could be used in an industrial setting to help to lower costs and improve the overall reaction efficiency.

  10. Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and contents of organic carbon and nitrogen of lacustrine sediments from sub-arid northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzuka, A.N.N.

    2006-01-01

    The stable isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC), and contents of OC and nitrogen for four sediment cores recovered from lakes Makat (located in the Ngorongoro Crater), Ndutu and Masek (located in the Serengeti Plains) are used to document sources of organic matter (OM) and climatic changes in sub-arid northern Tanzania during the late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Accelerate mass spectrometer (AMS) 14 C ages on total OM for sediments collected from the Ngorongoro Crater Lake indicate that the sedimentation rate is approximately 17 cm/ka. The δ 13 C values from the 20 cm long core (short core) show a downcore increase, whereas that of 500 cm long core (long core), show two peaks enriched in 13 C and three peaks depleted in 13 C. A general downcore increase in the δ 13 C values for the short core suggests changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 fraction increasing downcore. Similarly, low and high peaks in the long core suggest changes in the relative proportion of C 3 and C 4 with low values having high proportion of C 3 type of material, probably indicating changes in precipitation and lake levels in the area. Deposition of OM depleted in 13 C took place during periods of high precipitation and high lake levels. Although high content of OC and nitrogen in some core sections are associated with elevated C/N ratio values, diagenetic alteration of isotope signature is unlikely to have caused OC and isotope enrichment in sections having high contents of OC and nitrogen. The OC isotope record from Lake Ndutu shows a general downcore decrease in δ 13 C values and contents of OC and nitrogen. (author)

  11. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  12. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  13. Branched GDGTs in Lacustrine Environments: Tracing Allochthonous and Autochthonous Sources Using Compound-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Y.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Lehmann, M. F.; Niemann, H.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are ubiquitous in soils and peat, as well as in sediments of lakes, rivers and coastal marine environments. It has been found that the distribution of brGDGTs changes systematically with ambient temperature and pH, attesting to their potential as proxy indicators for paleoclimatic reconstruction. In lacustrine sedimentary archives, brGDGTs can originate from two sources: (1) allochthonous soil organic matter and (2) autochthonous brGDGTs produced within the lake system, both of which display fairly distinct temperature-brGDGT relationships. Until now, disentangling the relative contribution of these sources was impossible, complicating the use of brGDGTs for quantitative paleotemperature reconstructions. BrGDGTs in soils display a narrow range with respect to their stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C), generally between -27 and -30 ‰, whereas we recently found contrasting δ13C values as low as -43 ‰ to -46 ‰ for brGDGTs in sediments of a small Alpine lake. To trace the origin of this distinct isotope signal, we determined the 13C content of brGDGTs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the water column of Lake Lugano (Switzerland). The δ13C of SPM-derived brGDGTs decreased systematically from -34 ‰ in the mixolimnion to -41 ‰ in the anoxic monimolimnion of Lake Lugano, providing evidence for aquatic in situ production of 13C-depleted brGDGT. In order to study whether the negative δ13C offset of water column- vs. soil-derived brGDGTs may serve as an indicator for lacustrine brGDGT production, we also analyzed surface sediments from 36 lakes across the Alpine Region. In most (~85 %) of the studied lake sediments, the δ13C of brGDGTs ranged between -34 ‰ and -45 ‰, indicating predominance or a substantial contribution of aquatically produced brGDGTs. However, in some lakes (~15 %) δ13C values between -27 ‰ and -30 ‰ suggest a mainly

  14. Incorporation of Biochar Carbon into Stable Soil Aggregates: The Role of Clay Mineralogy and Other Soil Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlene N.KELLY; Joseph BENJAMIN; Francisco C.CALDER(O)N; Maysoon M.MIKHA; David W.RUTHERFORD; Colleen E.ROSTAD

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation and structure plav key roles in water-holding capacity and stability of soils.In this study,the incorporation of carbon (C) from switchgrass biochar into stable aggregate size fractions was assessed in an Aridisol (from Colorado,USA) dominated by 2:1 clays and an Alfisol (from Virginia,USA) containing weathered mixed 1∶1 and 2∶1 mineralogy,to evaluate the effect of biochar addition on soil characteristics.The biochar was applied at 4 levels,0,25,50,and 100 g kg-1,to the soils grown with wheat in a growth chamber experiment.The changes in soil strength and water-holding capacity using water release curves were measured.In the Colorado soil,the proportion of soil occurring in large aggregates decreased,with concomitant increases in small size fractions.No changes in aggregate size fractions occurred in the Virginia soil.In the Colorado soil,C content increased from 3.3 to 16.8 g kg-1,whereas in the < 53 μm fraction C content increased from 5.7 to 22.6 g kg-1 with 100 g kg-1 biochar addition.In the Virginia soil,C content within aggregate size fractions increased for each size fraction,except the > 2 000 μm fraction.The greatest increase (from 6.2 to 22.0 g kg-1) occurred in the 53-250 μm fraction.The results indicated that C was incorporated into larger aggregates in the Virginia soil,but remained largely unassociated to soil particles in the Colorado soil.Biochar addition had no significant effect on water-holding capacity or strength measurements.Adding biochar to more weathered soils with high native soil organic content may result in greater stabilization of incorporated C and result in less loss because of erosion and transport,compared with the soils dominated by 2∶1 clays and low native soil organic content.

  15. Stable isotopes of carbon dioxide in the marine atmosphere along a hemispheric course from China to Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingqing; Zhu, Renbin; Xu, Hua

    2013-12-01

    During the 24th Chinese Antarctic Expedition, the air samples were collected at 10:00 and 22:00 (local time) along the track of ship “Xuelong” from Shanghai Harbor, China to Antarctica. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and its isotopic compositions were measured in these samples. Mean CO2 concentration at 22:00 (419.4 ± 27.1 ppmv) was higher than that at 10:00 (392.7 ± 20.0 ppmv), whereas δ13C-CO2 values at 22:00 (-8.58 ± 0.47‰) were lower than those at 10:00 (-8.23 ± 0.49‰), indicating that the 13C/12C ratio might be associated with the photosynthesis and respiration of terrestrial or marine organisms during the diurnal cycle. Overall the mean δ13C- and δ18O-CO2 were -8.39 ± 0.51‰ and 0.03 ± 1.39‰, respectively, from 30°N to 69°S, and the δ13C significantly negatively correlated with δ18O-CO2. A small but progressive increase in δ13C values with increasing latitudes southward was in good agreement with the expected trend. The enhanced CO2 concentrations occurred in the atmosphere close to Eurasia continent, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia, and the δ13C oscillations agreed well with anthropogenic pollution. In the range of 30°S-50°S, CO2 concentrations were generally low with relatively stable δ13C and δ18O values. In Antarctic Convergence Zone, a great difference of δ13C occurred between 10:00 and 22:00, and atmospheric CO2 was significantly depleted in 13C at 22:00. Our results indicated that the isotopic compositions of CO2 in the marine atmosphere might be a sensitive indicator for the strength of CO2 source and sink from the ocean.

  16. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  17. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.mallikarjuna@epa.gov [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States); Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L. [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO{sub 3} and/or BaCO{sub 3}-loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO{sub 3} dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO{sub 3} wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  18. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO 3 and/or BaCO 3 -loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO 3 dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO 3 wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  19. Stable carbon isotope analysis of soil organic matter illustrates vegetation change at the grassland/woodland boundary in southeastern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, G R; Boutton, T W; Midwood, A J

    1993-02-01

    In southeastern Arizona, Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. and Quercus emoryi Torr. are the dominant woody species at grassland/woodland boundaries. The stability of the grassland/woodland boundary in this region has been questioned, although there is no direct evidence to confirm that woodland is encroaching into grassland or vice versa. We used stable carbon isotope analysis of soil organic matter to investigate the direction and magnitude of vegetation change along this ecotone. δ 13 C values of soil organic matter and roots along the ecotone indicated that both dominant woody species (C 3 ) are recent components of former grasslands (C 4 ), consistent with other reports of recent increases in woody plant abundance in grasslands and savannas throughout the world. Data on root biomass and soil organic matter suggest that this increase in woody plant abundance in grasslands and savannas may increase carbon storage in these ecosystems, with implications for the global carbon cycle.

  20. Sources of CO{sub 2} in the Gulf of Trieste (N. Adriatic). Stable Carbon Isotope Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, N.; Zavadlav, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Turk, D. [Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, NY (United States); Faganeli, J. [Marine Biological Station National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study the influence of freshwater intrusions on the net carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated. Carbonate mineral weathering dominates the inorganic carbon geochemical flux of the N Adriatic rivers and thus the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the gulf seawater. Based on {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values and isotopic mass balance it was estimated that rivers represents about 20% of DIC in spring, while the riverine contribution in autumn is less pronounced probably due to intensive water mixing. The results, therefore, suggest that river inputs play a significant role in the carbon cycling in the Gulf of Trieste due to mixing of higher DIC riverine water with lower seawater DIC. The observed higher summer {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} values were due to more pronounced photosynthetic carbon fractionation. (author)

  1. SALT reveals the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, B.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jones, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Köppen, J.; Tyndall, A. A.; Mohamed, S. S.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Santander-García, M.

    2013-12-01

    Classical barium stars are binary systems which consist of a late-type giant enriched in carbon and slow neutron capture (s-process) elements and an evolved white dwarf (WD) that is invisible at optical wavelengths. The youngest observed barium stars are surrounded by planetary nebulae (PNe), ejected soon after the wind accretion of polluted material when the WD was in its preceding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Such systems are rare but powerful laboratories for studying AGB nucleosynthesis as we can measure the chemical abundances of both the polluted star and the nebula ejected by the polluter. Here, we present evidence for a barium star in the PN Hen 2-39 (PN G283.8-04.2) as one of only a few known systems. The polluted giant is very similar to that found in WeBo 1 (PN G135.6+01.0). It is a cool (Teff = 4250 ± 150 K) giant enhanced in carbon ([C/H] = 0.42 ± 0.02 dex) and barium ([Ba/Fe] = 1.50 ± 0.25 dex). A spectral type of C-R3 C24 nominally places Hen 2-39 amongst the peculiar early R-type carbon stars; however, the barium enhancement and likely binary status mean that it is more likely to be a barium star with similar properties, rather than a true member of this class. An AGB star model of initial mass 1.8 M⊙ and a relatively large carbon pocket size can reproduce the observed abundances well, provided mass is transferred in a highly conservative way from the AGB star to the polluted star (e.g. wind Roche lobe overflow). It also shows signs of chromospheric activity and photometric variability with a possible rotation period of ˜5.5 d likely induced by wind accretion. The nebula exhibits an apparent ring morphology in keeping with the other PNe around barium stars (WeBo 1 and A 70) and shows a high degree of ionization implying the presence of an invisible hot pre-WD companion that will require confirmation with UV observations. In contrast to A 70, the nebular chemical abundance pattern is consistent with non-Type I PNe, in keeping with the

  2. Placement of radium/barium sludges in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.L.; Multamaki, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Currently radium is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate the radium as radium/barium sulphate. The precipitate is allowed to settle in sedimentation basins prior to discharge of the effluent. The sedimentation basins are not suitable for final disposal of the sludge, and placement of the sludges in the tailings area has been proposed. The geochemical environment of fresh tailings areas was characterized as an acidic, oxidized surface zone underlain by an alkaline, reduced zone comprising the rest of the tailings. The quantity of sludge produced was estimated to be small relative to the quantity of tailings, and therefor a relatively small amount of radium would be added to the tailings disposal area by the addition of sludge. To confirm whether sludge addition affected radionuclide solubilization, laboratory leaching tests were conducted on slurries of acid leach tailings, and sludge-tailings mixtures. Radium in the (Ra,Ba)SO 4 sludge was at least as stable as radium in the tailings, and the sludge was able to absorb radium released from the tailings. The addition of sludge did not affect uranium and thorium solubilization. From these results it appears that the placement of sludge in tailings areas would not adversely affect the stability of radionuclides in the tailings or sludge. (auth)

  3. Investigation of the microbial metabolism of carbon dioxide and hydrogen in the kangaroo foregut by stable isotope probing

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin, Scott; Kang, Alicia; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Manefield, Mike; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Kienzle, Marco; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Dawson, Kerri; Klieve, Athol V

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroos ferment forage material in an enlarged forestomach analogous to the rumen, but in contrast to ruminants, they produce little or no methane. The objective of this study was to identify the dominant organisms and pathways involved in hydrogenotrophy in the kangaroo forestomach, with the broader aim of understanding how these processes are able to predominate over methanogenesis. Stable isotope analysis of fermentation end products and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) were used to ...

  4. Stable isotope composition of bulk and secondary carbonates from the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence in Sutto, Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koeniger, Paul; Barta, Gabriella; Thiel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    reveal pedogenetic information during the different climatic phases. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses are valuable to classify secondary carbonates and to serve as proxies for the interpretation of paleoenvironmental conditions, e.g. moisture conditions, leaching, the role of organic matter...

  5. Bimodality in stable isotope composition facilitates the tracing of carbon transfer from macrophytes to higher trophic levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendonca, R.; Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Roland, F.; Ometto, J.P.; Paz, A.; Bueno, O.C.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Even though the suitability of macrophytes to act as a carbon source to food webs has been questioned by some studies, some others indicate that macrophyte-derived carbon may play an important role in the trophic transfer of organic matter in the food web of shallow lakes. To evaluate the importance

  6. Carbonate stable isotope constraints on sources of arsenic contamination in Neogene tufas and travertines of Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampouroglou, Evdokia E.; Tsikos, Harilaos; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2017-11-01

    We presented new C and O isotope data of rockforming calcite in terrestrial carbonate deposits from Neogene basins of Attica (Greece), coupled with standard mineralogical and bulk geochemical results. Whereas both isotope datasets [δ18O from -8.99 to -3.20‰(VPDB); δ13C from -8.17 to +1.40‰(VPDB)] could be interpreted in principle as indicative of a meteoric origin, the clear lack of a statistical correlation between them suggests diverse sources for the isotopic variation of the two elements. On the basis of broad correlations between lower carbon isotope data with increasing Fe and bulk organic carbon, we interpreted the light carbon isotope signatures and As enrichments as both derived mainly from a depositional process involving increased supply of metals and organic carbon to the original basins. Periodically augmented biological production and aerobic cycling of organic matter in the ambient lake waters, would have led to the precipitation of isotopically light calcite in concert with elevated fluxes of As-bearing iron oxy-hydroxide and organic matter to the initial terrestrial carbonate sediment. The terrestrial carbonate deposits of Attica therefore represented effective secondary storage reservoirs of elevated As from the adjacent mineralized hinterland; hence these and similar deposits in the region ought to be regarded as key geological candidates for anomalous supply of As to local soils, groundwater and related human activities.

  7. Combining Old and New Stable Isotope Techniques to Evaluate the Impact of Conservation Tillage on Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics and Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, T.; Xu, H.; Mercklx, R.; Heiling, M.; Dercon, G.; Resch, C.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a major carbon pool. It is a crucial factor for soil quality including several soil physical properties and a major nutrient source for crops. It also plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Soils can act as a carbon sink or source depending on land use and agricultural management practices. Some practices such as conservation tillage or no-tillage could increase SOM stocks, particularly in the topsoil, but in the long term it remains to be seen if and how this SOM is stabilized (De Clercq et al., 2015; Govaerts et al., 2009). In order to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of soil carbon sequestration measures and the impact of different management and environmental factors, information on SOM stability and mean residence time (MRT) is required. However, this information on SOM stability and MRT is expensive to determine via radiocarbon dating, precluding a wide spread use of stability measurements in soil science. But alternative methods based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, can provide this information at a fraction of the cost

  8. Stable carbon isotopic composition of tree rings from a pine tree from Augustów Wilderness, Poland, as a temperature and local environment conditions indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, Slawomira; Pazdur, Anna; Halas, Stanislaw

    2004-06-01

    Tree rings can be used as archives of climatic and environmental data with annual resolution. Tree rings widths, maximum late wood density and other parameters as stable composition in tree rings can be used for the reconstruction of past climatic and environmental changes. Stable carbon isotope ratios in tree rings may provide valuable information on past climatic conditions. 13C/12C ratios of plant organic matter can reflect corresponding 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 during formation of the rings. Investigations of isotopic carbon composition in tree rings from in the ecologically clean the Augustów Wilderness region in the north-eastern part of Poland (22 degrees 58'E, 53 degrees 51'N) (nowadays a sanctuary) were undertaken. Series of delta13C in alpha-cellulose and in wholewood were acquired. Those measurements constituted a part of more complex investigations of carbon isotope composition in tree rings including the measurements of radiocarbon concentration and tree ring widths. This article presents preliminary results. It is argued that contrary to the tree ring widths and delta13C in wholewood that do not reveal significant correlation with temperature, the variation of delta13C in the latewood alpha-cellulose is correlated with combined July and August temperatures. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  9. Coprecipitation of iron and silver with barium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopilova, N.V.; Khamidov, B.O.; Kashina, Z.A.; Ikrami, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution of trace contaminants of iron and silver at coprecipitation of barium fluoride is studied in present work. It is defined that iron almost completely coprecipitated with barium fluoride in wide range of ph 5.5-12. Silver coprecipitated with barium fluoride in ph range 4-7. The value of coprecipitation varies from 94% to 100%.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  11. Barium ion beam. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, N.; Dandl, R.; Rynn, N.; Wickham, M.

    1985-01-01

    The barium ion beam Zeeman diagnostic is an in situ nonperturbing diagnostic designed to measure both the plasma electric and magnetic fields in devices such as STM and EBT. The diagnostic satisfies the requirements of high precision, spatial resolution and nonperturbation of the plasma. The technique uses resonance absorption of light from a single moded laser in a beam of energetic barium ions to measure the Zeeman effect in the absorption spectrum (to measure changes in the magnetic field) and to observe the changes in beam velocity by the Doppler shift of the absorption lines

  12. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  13. A reconstruction of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotopic composition from the penultimate glacial maximum to the last glacial inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schneider

    2013-11-01

    δ13Catm level in the Penultimate (~ 140 000 yr BP and Last Glacial Maximum (~ 22 000 yr BP, which can be explained by either (i changes in the isotopic composition or (ii intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 yr, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 yr lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS5.5 (120 000 yr BP. Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.

  14. Determination of barium in natural waters by ICP-OES technique. Part II: Assessment of human exposure to barium in bottled mineral and spring waters produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    A method of the classification of natural mineral and spring waters and maximum admissible concentration (MAC) levels of metals present in such types of waters are regulated by Commission Directive 2003/40/EC, Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Ordinance of Minister of Health of 30 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. MAC of barium in natural mineral and spring waters was set at 1.0 mg/l, while World Health Organization determined the Ba guideline value in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. The aims of the study were: the determination of barium in natural mineral and spring waters (carbonated, non-carbonated and medium-carbonated waters) produced and bottled on the area of Poland, and assessment of human exposure to this metal presents in the above-mentioned types of waters. The study concerning barium determinations in 23 types of bottled natural mineral waters and 15 types of bottled spring waters (bought in Polish retail outlets) was conducted in 2010. The analyses were performed by validated method of determination of barium in water based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, using modern internal quality control scheme. Concentrations of barium determined in natural mineral and spring waters were in the ranges from 0.0136 mg/l to 1.12 mg/l and from 0.0044 mg/l to 0.43 mg/l, respectively. Only in the single case of natural mineral water the concentration of barium (1.12 mg/l), exceeded above-mentioned MAC for this metal, which is obligatory in Poland and the European Union - 1.0 mg/l. The long-term monitoring of barium concentration in another natural mineral water (2006 - 2010), in which incidental exceeding MAC was observed in 2006, was conducted. All measured barium concentrations in this water were lower than 1.0 mg/l and therefore, it is possible to state that the proper method of mixing waters taken from six independent

  15. Estimation of food composition of Hodotermes mossambicus (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae) based on observations and stable carbon isotope ratios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Symes, CT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available , observations (93.8%) and stable isotopes (92.6%), no significant differ- ence was recognized (t-test dependent samples, t = 0.84, P = 0.46). Discussion Observations A widely used method of studying feeding habits in termites is by assessing the choice.... Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78, 1?27. LaFage, J.P. and Nutting, W.L. (1978) Food and feeding habits of termites. Nutrient Dynamics of Termites (ed. M.V. Brian), pp. 165?232. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. McKechnie, A.E. (2004) Stable isotopes...

  16. A stable dual-wavelength Q-switch using a compact passive device containing photonics crystal fiber embedded with carbon platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, R.; Amiri, I. S.; Rezayi, M.; Ahmad, H.

    2018-01-01

    A compact fiber laser utilizing platinum nanoparticles doped on carbon (Pt/C) embedded in photonic crystal fiber capable of generating a stable Q-switch dual-wavelength is designed and verified. Stable Q-switch pulses, with a repetition rate of 73.6 kHz, pulse width of 1.45 µs and power of 3.8 nJ in two separated wavelengths of 1557.39 nm and 1558.86 nm at a pump power of 350 mW, have been obtained. This is a novel method for generating Q-switch dual-wavelength pulses using a well-protected component that introduces both a saturable absorber and Mach-Zehnder interferometer effects simultaneously in the laser cavity. Furthermore, to best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Pt/C nanoparticles have been used in a saturable absorber for optical pulse generation.

  17. Radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope compositions of chemically fractionated soil organic matter in a temperate-zone forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Iida, Takao; Asano, Tomohiro

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the role of soil organic matter in terrestrial carbon cycle, carbon isotope compositions in soil samples from a temperate-zone forest were measured for bulk, acid-insoluble and base-insoluble organic matter fractions separated by a chemical fractionation method. The measurements also made it possible to estimate indirectly radiocarbon ( 14 C) abundances of acid- and base-soluble organic matter fractions, through a mass balance of carbon among the fractions. The depth profiles of 14 C abundances showed that (1) bomb-derived 14 C has penetrated the first 16 cm mineral soil at least; (2) Δ 14 C values of acid-soluble organic matter fraction are considerably higher than those of other fractions; and (3) a significant amount of the bomb-derived 14 C has been preserved as the base-soluble organic matter around litter-mineral soil boundary. In contrast, no or little bomb-derived 14 C was observed for the base-insoluble fraction in all sampling depths, indicating that this recalcitrant fraction, accounting for approximately 15% of total carbon in this temperate-zone forest soil, plays a role as a long-term sink in the carbon cycle. These results suggest that bulk soil organic matter cannot provide a representative indicator as a source or a sink of carbon in soil, particularly on annual to decadal timescales

  18. Inconceivable Hypokalemia: A Case Report of Acute Severe Barium Chloride Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium is a heavy divalent alkaline earth metal that has been known as a muscle poison. Barium can cause human toxicity, which may lead to significant hypokalemia and have serious consequences. This paper reports a case of unprecedented barium intoxication in which the patient, who suffered from depression, swallowed at least 3.0 g barium chloride to commit suicide. On admission, the patient presented with nausea, vomiting, stomach burning feeling, dizziness, and weakness. Emergency biochemical testing showed that the patient was suffering from severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.7 mmol/L. His electrocardiogram (ECG prompted atrioventricular blocking, ventricular tachycardia, prolongation of PR interval, ST segment depression with U waves, and T wave inversion. Intravenous potassium supplements were given immediately to correct hypokalemia and regular monitoring of vital signs and fluid balance was arranged. After all-out rescue of our hospital personnel, the condition of the patient is currently stable and he is gradually recovering. This case exemplifies the weaknesses of the management of toxic substances and the lack of mental health education for young people. We hope to get more attention for the supervision of toxic substances and the healthy development of young people.

  19. High Relative Abundance of Biofuel Sourced Ethanol in Precipitation in the US and Brazil Determined Using Compound Specific Stable Carbon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M. S.; Felix, J. D. D.; Casas, M.; Avery, G. B., Jr.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.; Willey, J. D.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol biofuel production and consumption have increased exponentially over the last two decades to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, 85% of global ethanol production and consumption occurs in the US and Brazil. Increasing biofuel ethanol usage in these two countries enhances emissions of uncombusted ethanol to the atmosphere contributing to poor air quality. Although measurements of ethanol in the air and the precipitation reveal elevated ethanol concentrations in densely populated cities, other sources such as natural vegetation can contribute to emission to the atmosphere. Previous modeling studies indicated up to 12% of atmospheric ethanol is from anthropogenic emissions. Only one gas phase study in southern Florida attempted to constrain the two sources through direct isotopic measurements. The current study used a stable carbon isotope method to constrain sources of ethanol in rainwater from the US and Brazil. A method was developed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C) of vehicle ethanol emission sources for both the US (-9.8‰) and Brazil (-12.7‰) represented C4 plants as feedstock (corn and sugarcane) for biofuel production. An isotope mixing model using biofuel from vehicles (C4 plants) and biogenic (C3 plants) end-members was implemented to estimate ethanol source apportionment in the rain. We found that stable carbon isotope ratio of ethanol in the rain ranged between -22.6‰ and -12.7‰. Our results suggest that the contribution of biofuel to atmospheric ethanol can be higher than previously estimated. As biofuel usage increasing globally, it is essential to determine the relative abundance of anthropogenic ethanol in other areas of the world.

  20. Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C(4) -C(3) semi-arid vegetation transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, Alan; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Elizabeth R; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2012-10-30

    Globally, many drylands are experiencing the encroachment of woody vegetation into grasslands. These changes in ecosystem structure and processes can result in increased sediment and nutrient fluxes due to fluvial erosion. As these changes are often accompanied by a shift from C(4) to C(3) vegetation with characteristic δ(13) C values, stable isotope analysis provides a promising mechanism for tracing these fluxes. Input vegetation, surface sediment and fluvially eroded sediment samples were collected across two contrasting C(4) -C(3) dryland vegetation transitions in New Mexico, USA. Isotope ratio mass spectrometric analyses were performed using a Carlo Erba NA2000 analyser interfaced to a SerCon 20-22 isotope ratio mass spectrometer to determine bulk δ(13) C values. Stable isotope analyses of contemporary input vegetation and surface sediments over the monitored transitions showed significant differences (p fluvially eroded sediment from each of the sites, with no significant variation between surface sediment and eroded sediment values. The significant differences in bulk δ(13) C values between sites were dependent on vegetation input. Importantly, these values were robustly expressed in fluvially eroded sediments, suggesting that stable isotope analysis is suitable for tracing sediment fluxes. Due to the prevalent nature of these dryland vegetation transitions in the USA and globally, further development of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has provided a valuable tool for enhanced understanding of functional changes in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Variation in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in flight feathers of a moulting White-bellied Sunbird Cinnyris talatala

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Symes, CT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors measured d13C and d15N isotope signatures in flight feathers of a White-bellied Sunbird to assess the value of using stable isotopes of feathers in avian dietary studies. Significant variation in d13C and d15N isotope values of flight...

  2. Paired carbon stable-isotope records for the Cenomanian Stage (100.5 -93.9 Ma): correlation tool and Late Cretaceous pCO2 record?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian; Gröcke, Darren; Laurin, Jiří; Selby, David; Roest-Ellis, Sascha; Miles, Andrew; Lignum, John; Gale, Andrew; Kennedy, Jim

    2016-04-01

    Carbon stable-isotope stratigraphy of marine carbonates (δ13Ccarb) provides remarkable insights into past variation in the global carbon cycle, and has become firmly established as a powerful global correlation tool. Continuous δ13Ccarb time series are becoming increasingly available for much of the geological record, including the Upper Cretaceous. However, our knowledge of stratigraphic variation in the carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary organic matter (δ13Corg) is much poorer, and is generally restricted to organic-rich sedimentary successions and/or key boundary intervals. Close coupling exists between the global isotopic composition of the reduced and oxidised carbon reservoirs on geological time scales, but the stratigraphic resolution of most long-term δ13Corg Mesozoic records is inadequate to identify leads and lags in the responses of the two reservoirs to carbon cycle perturbations. Cenomanian times (100.5-93.9 Ma) represent perhaps the best documented episode of eustatic rise in sea level in Earth history and the beginning of the Late Mesozoic thermal maximum, driving global expansion of epicontinental seas and the onset of widespread pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate deposition. Significant changes occurred in global stable-isotope records, including two prominent perturbations of the carbon cycle - the Mid-Cenomanian Event I (MCEI; ~96.5-96.2 Ma) and Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2; ~94.5-93.8 Ma). OAE2, one of two truly global Cretaceous OAEs, was marked by the widespread deposition of black shales, and a global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion of 2.0 - 2.5‰ δ13Ccarb, and up to 7‰ in the sulphur-bound phytane biomarker. MCEI, by contrast, shows a English Chalk reference section at Folkestone, and correlate the carbon-isotope events between England, France, Germany and Italy. Comparison of the Vergons δ13Ccarb vs. δ13Corg profiles demonstrates similar medium-term stratigraphic variation, but significant differences in both short

  3. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Hideyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-12-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. {delta}{sup 13}C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  4. Use of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes for Trophic Level Evaluation and Food Webs Reconstruction in the Bay of Biscay : Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouvelon, T.; Caurant, F.; Mendez Fernandez, P.; Bustamante, P. [Littoral Environnement et Societes, La Rochelle (France); Spitz, J. [Centre de Recherche sur les Mammiferes Marins, La Rochelle (France)

    2013-07-15

    Assessing species' trophic level is one key aspect of ecosystem models, providing an indicator to monitor trophic links and ecosystem changes. The stable isotope ratios (SIR) of carbon and nitrogen provide longer term information on the average diet of consumers than the traditional stomach content method. However, using SIR in predators implies a good knowledge of the factors influencing prey species signature and lower trophic levels themselves, such as spatial and temporal variations. In this study, 129 species belonging to several taxa (i.e. crustaceans, molluscs, fish, marine mammals) from the Bay of Biscay where analysed for their isotopic signatures. Results confirmed the existence of several trophic food webs with probable different baseline signatures in this area, an essential consideration when using the isotopic tool for calculating species trophic level and potential evolution in space and time. Results demonstrated a spatial gradient from the shoreline to the oceanic domain for both carbon and nitrogen. (author)

  5. Molecular sieve isolation technique for use in stable carbon isotope analysis of individual long-chain n-alkanes in crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Keita; Kon, Makoto; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi; Uzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    An isolation procedure of microgram amounts of long-chain n-alkanes from crude oil using molecular sieve was examined for its applicability to stable carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The procedure examined is as follows: molecular sieve (type 5A, 200 mg) in 1 ml of isooctane solvent are mixed with a saturated hydrocarbon fraction extracted from an appropriate amount (approx. 20 mg) of crude oil and stayed at room temperatures for more than 3 hours. Long-chain n-alkanes are isolated by extraction with n-hexane after dissolution of the resulting molecular sieve with 47% hydrofluoric acid solution. The recoveries were 90±6% for C 15 -C 34 n-alkanes when their total amounts applied do not exceed 1.4 mg. No effect of the isolation procedure on carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes was observed. (author)

  6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. δ 13 C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-08-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal.

  9. Examination of the metastable and stable pitting corrosion of aluminum modified with carbon by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensch, O.; Enders, B.; Knecht, J.; Ensinger, W.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that aluminum and aluminum alloys are sensitive to pitting corrosion when exposed to aqueous solutions containing aggressive anions like halides. The destructive nature of pitting is due to its high local dissolution rates at electrode potentials above the so-called pitting potential U p . Recently, it has been realized that also at potentials below U p , in the passive and cathodic regions and around the free corrosion potential, anodic current transients appear which have been attributed to metastable pitting events. For the purpose of full characterization of the pitting behavior, a program routine has been developed where the occurrence frequency, lifetime and rate of metastable pitting events are extracted from potentiostatic current/time-measurements depending on the electrode potential. The routine has been applied to measurements of carbon modified pure aluminum. Carbon modifications were done with carbon evaporation and carbon sputtering under concurrent argon ion bombardment. The results are discussed in terms of the applied modification technique, their parameters and their effects on the corrosion protection ability of aluminum modified by carbon

  10. Enterogastroesophageal reflux during barium enema: Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyoun Ja; Rhee, Hak Song

    1972-01-01

    Enterogastric reflux during barium enema examination has been ascribed to various causes including incompetence of the ilepcecal valve, shunt, fistula, excessive barium etc. Recently we have encountered a case of complete enterogastroesphageal regurgitation during barium enema examination performed for the reduction of the ileocolic intuosusception in 6 months old baby. The regurgitation occurred only in the first of two barium enema examinations conducted at one month interval for recurring intussusception. The barium-saline solution used in the present study was not more than 350 ml in quantity. No organic or physical causes of such a complete regurgitation could be determined

  11. Influence of organic carbon sources and isotope exchange processes between water and nitrate on the fractionation of the stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O in dissolved nitrate during microbial dentrification in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, Anja A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of nitrate are commonly used to determine sources and degradation of nitrate. In this study, nitrite oxidizing bacteria were found to promote an oxygen isotope exchange between water and nitrate under anoxic conditions. Also, different carbon sources were found to influence the enrichment of stable isotopes in nitrate during microbial denitrification. Both results refine the stable isotope model of nitrate in respect to nitrate source determination and microbial nitrate reduction.

  12. Carbon transfer from photosynthesis to below ground fine root/hyphae respiration in Quercus serrata using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannoura, M.; Kominami, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Studying carbon allocation in trees is a key to better understand belowground carbon cycle and its response to climate change. Tracing 13C in tree and soil compartments after pulse labeling is one of powerful tool to study the fate of carbon in forest ecosystems. This experiment was conducted in Yamashiro experimental forest, Kyoto, Japan. Annual mean temperature and precipitation from 1994 to 2009 are 15.5 ° C and 1,388 mm respectively. The branch pulse labeling were done 7 times in 2011 using same branch of Quercus serrata (H:11.7 m, DBH; 33.7 cm) to see seasonal variations of carbon velocity. Whole crown labeling of Quercus serrata (H:9 m, DBH; 13.7 cm) was done in 2012 to study carbon allocation and to especially focus on belowground carbon flux until to the hyphae respiration. Pure 13CO2 (99.9%) was injected to the labeling chamber which was set to branch or crown. Then, after one hour of branch labeling and 3.5 hour for crown labeling, the chamber was opened. Trunk respiration chambers, fine root chambers and hyphae chambers were set to the target tree to trace labeled carbon in the CO2 efflux. 41 μm mesh was used to exclude ingrowth of roots into hyphae chambers. The results show that the velocity of carbon through the tree varied seasonally, with higher velocity in summer than autumn, averaging 0.47 m h-1. Half-lives of labeled carbon in autotrophic respiration were similar above and below ground during the growing season, but they were twice longer in trunk than in root in autumn. From the whole crown labeling done end of growing season, the 13CO2 signal was observed 25 hours after labeling in trunk chamber and 34-37.7 hours after labeling in fine root and hyphae respiration almost simultaneously. Half-lives of 13 was longer in trunk than below ground. Trunk respiration was still using labelled carbon during winter suggesting that winter trunk respiration is partly fueled by carbon stored in the trunk at the end of the growing season.

  13. Fabrication of Highly Stable and Efficient PtCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Highly Porous Carbon for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Zhao, Dan; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2016-08-17

    Boosting the durability of Pt nanoparticles by controlling the composition and morphology is extremely important for fuel cells commercialization. We deposit the Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles over high surface area carbon in different metallic molar ratios and optimize the conditions to achieve desired material. The novel bimetallic electro-catalyst {Pt-Cu/PC-950 (15:15%)} offers exceptional electrocatalytic activity when tested for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reactions. A high mass activity of 0.043 mA/μgPt (based on Pt mass) is recorded for ORR. An outstanding longevity of this electro-catalyst is noticed when compared to 20 wt % Pt loaded either on PC-950 or commercial carbon. The high surface area carbon support offers enhanced activity and prevents the nanoparticles from agglomeration, migration, and dissolution as evident by TEM analysis.

  14. An assessment, using stable isotopes, of the importance of allochthonous organic carbon sources to the pelagic food web in Loch Ness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. I.; Grey, J.; Sleep, D.; Quarmby, C.

    1998-01-01

    The natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ1315N) was determined for components of the pelagic food web in Loch Ness, a deep oligotrophic lake in northern Scotland, and compared with values from the inflow rivers and the catchment vegetation. Phytoplankton δ13C was low compared to values reported from other lakes, possibly reflecting a high use of 13C-depleted carbon dioxide from respired organic matter before further isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis. Phytoplankton δ13C was appreciably lower than that of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) in the loch. The DOM and POM were evidently overwhelmingly of allochthonous origin and ultimately derived from terrestrial plant detritus. The distinctive δ13C values for phytoplankton and detritus in the loch allowed the use of food sources by grazing crustacean zooplankton to be assessed, and the contributions of phytoplankton carbon and detrital carbon to zooplankton total body carbon appeared to be about equal. Comparison of δ13C and δ15N values for zooplankton and fish allowed assessment of trophic structure in the loch. The very high dependence of the pelagic food web in Loch Ness on allochthonous organic matter inputs from the catchment may be exceptional in a large lake, but has important implications for our understanding of lake ecosystem processes as well as for lake management.

  15. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  16. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  17. Blood pressure changes during barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, S.C.; Martin, O.J.D.; Owen, A.; Martin, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To document blood pressure changes during barium enema examination and to determine at what point in the examination changes are likely to occur. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure measurements were taken at seven points during the course of barium enema examination in 107 consecutive patients. We found that patients over the age of 60 years had statistically significant decreases in blood pressure when they were stood up during the course of the examination. Many of these patients were asymptomatic. Patients who had symptoms (15/107, 14%) when standing up had a degree of hypotension. The duration of barium enema examination is longer in those patients who experience symptoms. CONCLUSION: During a barium enema examination hypotension occurs at the point of standing up more frequently in patients over 60 years and in those who suffer symptoms at this time. Patients who fall into one of these groups should be considered at risk of fainting at this point in the examination. A modified technique to avoid standing should be considered in at-risk patients. Roach, S.C. et al. (2001)

  18. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (M = Ba, Sr, Ca and Pb). ... Barium stannate (BaSnO3) is a cubic pervoskite oxide com- .... were gold-sputtered and scanned in different regions using .... de ions. Water insertion into the oxide structure can be re- presented as the process of ...

  19. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  20. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  1. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  2. Rheological properties of potassium barium borate glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwejda, K.A.; Vogel, D.L.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Several series of potassium barium borate glasses have been investigated as to their rheological properties. It has been found, that all these glasses show deviations from ‘Newtonian’ behaviour below temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 1010 poises. The activation energies of viscous flow

  3. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  4. Analysis of carbon stable isotope to determine the origin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbon in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of natural gases to determine the origin and gaseous hydrocarbon migration of Brazilian sedimentar basins is analysed. The carbon isotopic ratio of methane from natural gases depends on the process of gas formation and stage of organic matter maturation. In the geochemical surface exploration the biogenic gases are differentiated from thermogenic gases, because the last one is isotopically heavier. As the isotopic composition of methane has not changed during migration, the migrated gases from deeper and more mature source rocks are identified by its relative 13 C enrichment. The methane was separated from chromatography and and the isotopic analysis was done with mass spectrometer. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Effect of Nb on barium titanate prepared from citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of dopants on the microstructure development and electrical properties of BaTiO3 doped with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mol% of Nb and 0.01 mol% of Mn based compounds was studied. Doped barium titanate was prepared using the polymeric precursor method from citrate solutions. The powders calcined at 700°C for 4 hours were analysed by infrared (IR spectroscopy to verify the presence of carbonates, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD for phase formation. The phase composition, microstructure and dielectric properties show a strong dependence on the amount of added niobium.

  6. A multi-period optimization model for planning of China's power sector with consideration of carbon dioxide mitigation—The importance of continuous and stable carbon mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongjie; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; LI, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge China's power sector faces is to mitigate its carbon emissions whilst satisfying the ever-increasing power demand. Optimal planning of the power sector with consideration of carbon mitigation for a long-term future remains a complex task, involving many technical alternatives and an infinite number of possible plants installations, retrofitting, and decommissioning over the planning horizon. Previously the authors built a multi-period optimization model for the planning of China's power sector during 2010–2050. Based on that model, this paper executed calculations on the optimal pathways of China's power sector with two typical decision-making modes, which are based on “full-information” and “limited-information” hypothesis, and analyzed the impacts on the optimal planning results by two typical types of carbon tax policies including a “continuous and stable” one and a “loose first and tight later” one. The results showed that making carbon tax policy for long-term future, and improving the continuity and stability in policy execution can effectively help reduce the accumulated total carbon emissions, and also the cost for carbon mitigation of the power sector. The conclusion of this study is of great significance for the policy makers to make carbon mitigation policies in China and other countries as well. - Highlights: • A multi-stage optimization model for planning the power sector is applied as basis. • Difference of ideal and actual decision making processes are proposed and analyzed. • A “continuous and stable” policy and a “loose first and tight later” one are designed. • 4 policy scenarios are studied applying the optimal planning model and compared. • The importance of “continuous and stable” policy for long term is well demonstrated

  7. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data as paleoenvironmental indicators for limestones from the Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo Basins, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope data of limestones from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo basins provided additional information on the sedimentation environments of these carbonates. The predominance of δ 13 C values between + 1,0 per mille and - 1,0 per mille samples from the Tertiary and the middle section of the Jiquia Stage (Lower Cretaceous) could indiccate, for both carbonate sequences, deposition in a normal marine environment. However, the absence of marine fossils in the Jiquia Stage but not in the Tertiary allows to suggest a normal marine environment for the latter and saline lakes for the former. More positive δ 13 C values in the upper portion of the Jiquia Stage and in the Alagoas Stage suggest a restricted marine environment, with a tendency to hypersalinity. During the Albian the carbonate sedimentation could have occurred in a marine enrironment with an above normal salinity, as indicated by values of δ 13 C between + 3,0 per mille and + 4,0 per mille. According to δ 18 O data, the surface waters were warm, with a tendency of becoming gradually cooler towards the top of the Tertiary. (Author) [pt

  8. Recycling of water, carbon, and sulfur during subduction of serpentinites: A stable isotope study of Cerro del Almirez, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Turchyn, Alexandra; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez Pugnaire, María Teresa; Marchesi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We use the concentrations and isotope compositions of water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinites and their dehydration products to trace the cycling of volatiles during subduction. Antigorite serpentinites from the Cerro del Almirez complex, Spain, contain 9–12 wt.% H2O and 910 ± 730 ppm sulfur, and have bulk δ18O values of 8.6 ± 0.4‰, δD = − 54 ± 5‰, and δ34S = 5.0‰, consistent with serpentinization at temperatures of ~ 200 °C by seawater hydrothermal fluids in a seafloor setting. The serpentinites were dehydrated to chlorite–harzburgite (olivine + orthopyroxene + chlorite) at 700 °C and 1.6–1.9 GPa during subduction metamorphism, resulting in loss of water, and sulfur. The chlorite–harzburgites contain 5.7 ± 1.9 wt.% H2O, and have bulk δ18O = 8.0 ± 0.9‰, and δD = − 77 ± 11‰. The rocks contain 650 ± 620 ppm sulfur having δ34S = 1.2‰. Dehydration of serpentinite resulted in loss of 5 wt.% H2O having δ18O = 8–10‰ and δD = − 27 to − 65‰, and loss of 260 ppm sulfur as sulfate, having δ34S = 14.5‰. The contents and δ13C of total carbon in the two rock types overlap, with a broad trend of decreasing carbon contents and δ13C from ~ 1300 to 200 ppm and − 9.6 to − 20.2‰. This reflects mixing between reduced carbon in the rocks (210 ppm, δ13C ≈ − 26‰) and seawater-derived carbonate (δ13C ≈ − 1‰). Our results indicate: 1) Serpentinized oceanic peridotites carry significant amounts of isotopically fractionated water, carbon and sulfur into subduction zones; 2) Subduction of serpentinites to high P and T results in loss of water, and sulfur, which can induce melting and contribute to 18O, D, and 34S enrichments and oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge; and 3) Isotopically fractionated water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinite dehydration products are recycled deeper into the mantle where they can contribute to isotope heterogeneities and may be significant for volatile budgets of the deep Earth.

  9. Interannual variability in seagrass carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J. W.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Anderson, W. T.; Anderson, W. T.

    2001-12-01

    The shallow marine waters surrounding the southern tip of Florida provide an ideal environment for seagrasses, which are the most common benthic community in the region. Yet, these communities are susceptible to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances, especially changes in water quality caused by an increase the nutrient flux to the near shore environment. In order to better understand the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratio in marine plants, an extensive times series analysis was constructed from quarterly sampling of Thalassia testudinum (the dominate species in the study area) from 1996 through 1998. Sites for study where selected from permanent stations within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), from both sides of the Florida Keys - two stations on the bay side and two stations on the reef side. These data will also help to constrain elements of the carbon and nitrogen cycles affecting this region. The data analyzed over the three year study period show unique cyclic trends associated with seasonal changes in primary productivity and potentially changes in the nitrogen and carbon pools. Additionally, the analysis of our time series indicates that isotope food web studies need to take into account spatial and temporal changes when evaluating trophic levels. The mean carbon and nitrogen isotope values of T. testudinum from all 4 stations vary respectively from -7.2 per mil to -10.41 and 1.1 per mil to 2.2 per mil (n = 48). However, certain stations displayed anonymously depleted nitrogen isotope values, values as low as -1.2 per mil. These values potentially indicated that biogeochmical processes like N fixation, ammonification and denitrification cause regional pattern in the isotopic composition of the source DIN. Both carbon and nitrogen isotopes displayed seasonal enrichment-depletion trends, with maximum enrichment occurring during the summer. The overall seasonal variation for carbon 13 from the different stations ranged from 1 per mil to

  10. Improved constraints on in situ rates and on quantification of complete chloroethene degradation from stable carbon isotope mass balances in groundwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Elsner, Martin; Eisenmann, Heinrich; Atteia, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Spills of chloroethenes (CEs) at industrial and urban sites can create groundwater plumes in which tetrachloro- and trichloroethene sequentially degrade to dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene, or ethane under reducing conditions. For detoxification, degradation must go beyond VC. Assessments based on ethene and ethane, however, are difficult because these products are volatile, may stem from alternative sources, can be further transformed and are not always monitored. To alternatively quantify degradation beyond VC, stable carbon isotope mass balances have been proposed where concentration-weighted CE isotope ratios are summed up and compared to the original source isotope ratio. Reported assessments, however, have provided not satisfactorily quantified results entailing greatly differing upper and lower estimates. This work proposes an integrative approach to better constrain the extent of total chloroethene degradation in groundwater samples. It is based on fitting of measured concentration and compound-specific stable carbon isotope data to an analytical reactive transport equation simulating steady-state plumes in two dimensions using an EXCEL spreadsheet. The fitting also yields estimates of degradation rates, of source width and of dispersivities. The approach is validated using two synthetic benchmark cases where the true extent of degradation is well known, and using data from two real field cases from literature.

  11. Stable carbon isotope ratios as indicators of marine versus terrestrial inputs to the diets of wild and captive tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, A.; Cartland-Shaw, L.; Tyrrell, C.; Lyon, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis was used to examine feeding relationships of wild tuatara on Stephens Island and captive tuatara in New Zealand institutions. We first measured delta 13 C in three food items of wild tuatara. Pectoral muscle of fairy prions (a seabird eaten seasonally by tuatara) was significantly enriched in 13 C compared with whole bodies of wild insects (darkling beetles and tree weta). Values for delta 13 C in blood cells varied significantly among wild tuatara of different life-history stages. Male tuatara were more enriched in 13 C than were females or juveniles, suggesting that males prey more heavily on seabirds. Insect foods of captive tuatara varied dramatically in delta/sup 13/C; this is attributed to differential consumption of plant material derived from the C 3 and C 4 photosynthetic pathways. Blood cells from four different groups of captive tuatara differed significantly in delta 13 C. This was perhaps related to assimilation of insects with different delta 13 C values, and cannot be attributed to differences in seabird predation as captive tuatara do not have access to seabirds. For wild tuatara on Stephens Island, stable carbon isotope analysis provides support for the dietary information available from behavioural observations, gut analyses and measurements of plasma composition. (author). 47 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Combined Stable Carbon Isotope and C/N Ratios as Indicators of Source and Fate of Organic Matter in the Bang Pa kong River Estuary, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonphakdee, Thanomsak; Kasai, Akihide; Fujiwara, Tateki; Sawangwong, Pichan; Cheevaporn, Voravit

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) in suspended solids and surficial sediment were used to define the spatial and temporal variability in an anthropogenic tropical river estuary, the Bang Pa kong River Estuary. Samples were taken along salinity gradients during the four different river discharges in the beginning, high river discharge and at the end of the wet season, and low river discharge during the dry season. The values of [C/N]a ratio and d13C in the river estuary revealed significant differences from those of the offshore station. Conservative behaviors of [C/N]a and d13C in the estuary during the wet season indicated major contribution of terrigenous C3 plants derived OM. By contrast, during the dry season, marine input mainly dominated OM contribution with an evidence of anthropogenic input to the estuary. These compositions of the bulk sedimentary OM were dominated by paddy rice soils and marine derived OM during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These results show that the combined stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios can be used to identify the source and fate of OM even in a river estuary. This tool will be useful to achieve sustainable management in coastal zone

  13. Well-based stable carbon isotope leakage monitoring of an aquifer overlying the CO2 storage reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin; Myrttinen, Anssi; Zimmer, Martin; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2014-05-01

    At the pilot site for CO2 storage in Ketzin, a new well-based leakage-monitoring concept was established, comprising geochemical and hydraulic observations of the aquifer directly above the CO2 reservoir (Wiese et al., 2013, Nowak et al. 2013). Its purpose was to allow early detection of un-trapped CO2. Within this monitoring concept, we established a stable carbon isotope monitoring of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). If baseline isotope values of aquifer DIC (δ13CDIC) and reservoir CO2 (δ13CCO2) are known and distinct from each other, the δ13CDIC has the potential to serve as an an early indicator for an impact of leaked CO2 on the aquifer brine. The observation well of the overlying aquifer was equipped with an U-tube sampling system that allowed sampling of unaltered brine. The high alkaline drilling mud that was used during well drilling masked δ13CDIC values at the beginning of the monitoring campaign. However, subsequent monitoring allowed observing on-going re-equilibration of the brine, indicated by changing δ13CDIC and other geochemical values, until values ranging around -23 ‰ were reached. The latter were close to baseline values before drilling. Baselineδ13CDIC and δ13CCO2 values were used to derive a geochemical and isotope model that predicts evolution of δ13CDIC, if CO2 from the reservoir would leak into the aquifer. The model shows that equilibrium isotope fractionation would have to be considered if CO2 dissolves in the brine. The model suggests that stable carbon isotope monitoring is a suitable tool to assess the impact of injected CO2 in overlying groundwater aquifers. However, more data are required to close gaps of knowledge about fractionation behaviour within the CO2(g) - DIC system under elevated pressures and temperatures. Nowak, M., Myrttinen, A., Zimmer, M., Wiese, B., van Geldern, R., Barth, J.A.C., 2013. Well-based, Geochemical Leakage Monitoring of an Aquifer Immediately Above a CO2 Storage Reservoir by Stable Carbon

  14. Transfer of organic carbon through marine water columns to sediments – insights from stable and radiocarbon isotopes of lipid biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Wakeham; A. P. McNichol

    2014-01-01

    Compound-specific 13C and 14C compositions of diverse lipid biomarkers (fatty acids, alkenones, hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty alcohols) were measured in sinking particulate matter collected in sediment traps and from underlying surface sediments in the Black Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Ross Sea. The goal was to develop a multiparameter approach to constrain relative inputs of organic carbon (OC) from marine biomass, terrigenous vascular-plant and relict-kerogen sources. U...

  15. On-line technique for preparingand measuring stable carbon isotopeof total dissolved inorganic carbonin water samples ( d13CTDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Inguaggiato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast and completely automated procedure is proposed for the preparation and determination of d13C of total inorganic carbon dissolved in water ( d13CTDIC. This method is based on the acidification of water samples transforming the whole dissolved inorganic carbon species into CO2. Water samples are directly injected by syringe into 5.9 ml vials with screw caps which have a pierciable rubber septum. An Analytical Precision «Carbonate Prep System» was used both to flush pure helium into the vials and to automatically dispense a fixed amount of H3PO4. Full-equilibrium conditions between produced CO2 and water are reached at a temperature of 70°C (± 0.1°C in less than 24 h. Carbon isotope ratios (13C/ 12C were measured on an AP 2003 continuous flow mass spectrometer, connected on-line with the injection system. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed method was tested both on aqueous standard solutions prepared using Na2CO3 with d13C=-10.78 per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.08, n = 11, and at five different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 mmol/l and on more than thirty natural samples. Mean d13CTDIC on standard solution samples is ?10.89 < per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.18, n = 50, thus revealing both a good analytical precision and reproducibility. A comparison between average d13CTDIC values on a quadruplicate set of natural samples and those obtained following the chemical and physical stripping method highlights a good agreement between the two analytical methods.

  16. Carbon sources and trophic structure in an eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) bed based on stable isotope and fatty acid analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Jaschinski, Sybill; Brepohl, Daniela C.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Multiple stable isotope and fatty acid analyses were applied to examine food web dynamics in an eelgrass Zostera marina L. system in the western Baltic Sea. Samples of eelgrass, epiphytic algae, sand microflora, red algae, phytoplankton and main consumer species were collected in June 2002. delta C-13 values of primary producers ranged from -9.6%. for eelgrass to the most depleted value of -34.9%. for the most abundant red alga, Delesseria sanguinea, Epiphyte delta C-13 (-11.3 parts per thous...

  17. Culture of microalgae Spirulina platensis with isotope stable Carbon-13; Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis com isótopo estável Carbono-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronemberger, Luiz C.A.; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: luiz_cnst@hotmail.com, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CIE/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Isótopos Estáveis Prof. Dr. Carlos Ducatti

    2017-07-01

    Gastric emptying time abnormalities cause complications that affect the quality of life in humans and scintigraphy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However its application has restrictions due to the use of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc. An alternative to this method is the stable carbon isotope respiratory test. This is a non-radioactive, noninvasive technique with no contraindications. Its application varies according to the substrate used. For evaluation of gastric emptying time one of the substrates that can be used in the respiratory test is Spirulina platensis labeled at 97% carbon atoms with the stable isotope carbon-13 ({sup 13}C). In Brazil, there is no production of this substrate and its high cost (US$475.00/g, excluding import taxes) makes it difficult to apply the test. Thus, the objective of the work is to cultivate labeled S. platensis at 97% of {sup 13}C for use in the respiratory test for gastric emptying and to establish optimization parameters for the best cost-benefit of this culture. In the cultivation process the microalgae will be kept in a closed sterilized glass volumetric flask, with deionized water and a pure {sup 13}C source. The light (photoperiod 12h light / dark), pH (∼ 9.5) and temperature (30 deg C) will be controlled and after 35-40 days of growth, the cyanobacteria will be lyophilized and ground for the acquisition of a powder that will be analyzed by IRMS and compared to S. platensis, which will be our reference standard.

  18. Highly Stable and Flexible Pressure Sensors with Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites for Human Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin; Ming, Yue; Li, Wei; Li, Yafang; Wu, Maoqi; Song, Jinzhong; Li, Xiaojiu; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-26

    A facile method for preparing an easy processing, repeatable and flexible pressure sensor was presented via the synthesis of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWNTs) and polyurethane (PU) films. The surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) simultaneously used a silane coupling agent (KH550) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to improve the dispersibility and compatibility of the MWNTs in a polymer matrix. The electrical property and piezoresistive behavior of the m-MWNT/PU composites were compared with raw multi-walled carbon nanotube (raw MWNT)/PU composites. Under linear uniaxial pressure, the m-MWNT/PU composite exhibited 4.282%kPa −1 sensitivity within the pressure of 1 kPa. The nonlinear error, hysteresis error and repeatability error of the piezoresistivity of m-MWNT/PU decreased 9%, 16.72% and 54.95% relative to raw MWNT/PU respectively. Therefore, the piezoresistive response of m-MWNT/PU had better stability than that of raw MWNT/PU composites. The m-MWNT/PU sensors could be utilized in wearable devices for body movement detection, monitoring of respiration and pressure detection in garments.

  19. Hydrogen spillover in Pt-single-walled carbon nanotube composites: formation of stable C-H bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Rajasekaran, Srivats; Friebel, Daniel; Beasley, Cara; Jiao, Liying; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Dai, Hongjie; Clemens, Bruce; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-04-13

    Using in situ electrical conductivity and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, we have examined how the hydrogen uptake of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is influenced by the addition of Pt nanoparticles. The conductivity of platinum-sputtered single-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt-SWNTs) during molecular hydrogen exposure decreased more rapidly than that of the corresponding pure SWNTs, which supports a hydrogenation mechanism facilitated by "spillover" of dissociated hydrogen from the Pt nanoparticles. C 1s XPS spectra indicate that the Pt-SWNTs store hydrogen by means of chemisorption, that is, covalent C-H bond formation: molecular hydrogen charging at elevated pressure (8.27 bar) and room temperature yielded Pt-SWNTs with up to 16 ± 1.5 at. % sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, which corresponds to a hydrogen-storage capacity of 1.2 wt % (excluding the weight of Pt nanoparticles). Pt-SWNTs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique exhibited the highest Pt/SWNT ratio and also the best hydrogen uptake. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. WC Nanocrystals Grown on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes: An Efficient and Stable Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujun; Zhou, Haiqing; Guo, Xia

    2015-05-26

    Single nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) was first synthesized on the tips of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method through the directly reaction of tungsten metal with carbon source. The VA-CNTs with preservation of vertical structure integrity and alignment play an important role to support the nanocrystalline WC growth. With the high crystallinity, small size, and uniform distribution of WC particles on the carbon support, the formed WC-CNTs material exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), giving a η10 (the overpotential for driving a current of 10 mA cm(-2)) of 145 mV, onset potential of 15 mV, exchange current density@ 300 mV of 117.6 mV and Tafel slope values of 72 mV dec(-1) in acid solution, and η10 of 137 mV, onset potential of 16 mV, exchange current density@ 300 mV of 33.1 mV and Tafel slope values of 106 mV dec(-1) in alkaline media, respectively. Electrochemical stability test further confirms the long-term operation of the catalyst in both acidic and alkaline media.

  1. Intercontinental correlation of organic carbon and carbonate stable isotope records: evidence of climate and sea-evel change during the Turonian (Cretaceous)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarvis, I.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Uličný, David; Laurin, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2015), s. 53-90 ISSN 2055-4877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1991; GA MŠk LH12041 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : carbon isotopes * chemostratigraphy * climate change * Cretaceous * oxygen isotopes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. ASE extraction method for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis in soft tissues of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, Nathalie; Budzinski, Helene; Le Menach, Karyn; Tapie, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Since lipids are depleted in 13 C relative to proteins and carbohydrates, variations in lipid composition among species and within individuals significantly influence δ 13 C and may result in misleading ecological interpretations. Whereas lipid extraction before IRMS analysis constitutes a way of stable isotope result lipid-normalisation, such a procedure was given up because of the un-controlled effects of the methods used (i.e., 'Bligh and Dyer', Soxhlet, etc.) on δ 15 N. The aim of this work was to develop a simple, rapid and efficient lipid extraction method allowing for simultaneous C and N stable isotope analysis in the biological soft tissues of aquatic organisms. The goal was to be free from the lipid influence on δ 13 C values without interfering with δ 15 N values. For that purpose, the modern automated pressurized liquid extraction technique ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) was selected. Eel muscles representative of a broad range of fat contents were extracted via ASE by using different semi-polar solvents (100% dichloromethane and 80% n-hexane/20% acetone) and by operating at different temperature (ambient temperature and 100 deg. C) and pressure (750 and 1900 psi) conditions. The results were discussed in terms of lipid extraction efficiency as well as δ 13 C and δ 15 N variability.

  3. Facile synthesis and stable cycling ability of hollow submicron silicon oxide–carbon composite anode material for Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong-Yeon; Nguyen, Dan Thien [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joon-Sup [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung-Wan, E-mail: swsong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Hollow submicron SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite material was synthesized using Si{sup 4+}-citrate chelation. • Composite material possessed a homogeneous distribution of SiO{sub 2} and carbon. • Composite electrode delivered ⩾600 mAh/g with a stable cycling stability. • This materials design and synthesis provides a useful platform for scalable production. - Abstract: Advanced SiO{sub 2}–carbon composite anode active material for lithium-ion battery has been synthesized through a simple chelation of silicon cation with citrate in a glyme-based solvent. The resultant composite material demonstrates a homogeneous distribution of constituents over the submicron particles and a unique hollow spherical microstructure, which provides an enhanced electrical conductivity and better accommodation of volume change of silicon during electrochemical charge–discharge cycling, respectively. As a result, the composite electrode exhibits a high cycling stability delivering the capacity retention of 91% at the 100th cycle and discharge capacities of 662–602 mAh/g and coulombic efficiencies of 99.8%. This material synthesis is scalable and cost-effective in preparing various submicron or micron composite electrode materials.

  4. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhong Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900 as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  5. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaozhong; Sun, Lingtao; Liao, Wenli; Li, Zhongbin

    2015-12-23

    The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900) as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V ( versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE) and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  6. Dissolved organic carbon, CO2, and CH4 concentrations and their stable isotope ratios in thermokarst lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Mu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermokarst lakes are widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, which accounts for 8% of the global permafrost area. These lakes probably promote organic matter biodegradation and thus accelerate the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases. However, little is known about greenhouse gas concentrations and their stable isotopes characteristics of these lakes. In this study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, dissolved CO2 and CH4, as well as the distribution of δ13CCO2, δ13CCH4, and δ13COM (organic matter of lake sediments in thermokarst lakes on the QTP. Results showed that the OM of the lake sediments was highly decomposed. The concentrations of DOC, CO2 and CH4 in the lake water on the QTP were 1.2–49.6 mg L–1, 3.6–45.0 μmol L–1 and 0.28–3.0 μmol L–1, respectively. The highest CO2 and CH4 concentrations were recorded in July while the lowest values in September, which suggested that temperature had an effect on greenhouse gas production, although this pattern may also relate to thermal stratification of the water column. The results implied that thermokast lakes should be paid more attention to regarding carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions on the QTP.

  7. Characteristics and carbon stable isotopes of fluids in the Southern Kerala granulites and their bearing on the source of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Jackson, D. H.; Mattey, D. P.; Harris, N. B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich inclusions commonly occur in the banded charnockites and khondalites of southern Kerala as well as in the incipient charnockites formed by desiccation of gneisses along oriented zones. The combined high density fluid inclusion isochores and the range of thermometric estimates from mineral assemblages indicate entrapment pressures in the range of 5.4 to 6.1 Kbar. The CO2 equation of state barometry closely compares with the 5 plus or minus 1 Kbar estimate from mineral phases for the region. The isochores for the high density fluid inclusions in all the three rock types pass through the P-T domain recorded by phase equilibria, implying that carbon dioxide was the dominating ambient fluid species during peak metamorphic conditions. In order to constrain the source of fluids and to evaluate the mechanism of desiccation, researchers undertook detailed investigations of the carbon stable isotope composition of entrapped fluids. Researchers report here the results of preliminary studies in some of the classic localities in southern Kerala namely, Ponmudi, Kottavattom, Manali and Kadakamon.

  8. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  9. Oesophageal motility disorders - diagnosis with a barium-rice study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickert, H.C.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Klose, P.; Staritz, M.; Ueberschaer, B.; Thelen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of a 'barium-rice' study for diagnosis of dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. Material and methods: 203 patients with oesophageal motility disorders of various aetiologies were examined by both conventional barium study and a 'barium-rice' study. During the latter, oesophageal clearance of a defined mixture of barium sulfate and boiled rice was measured. Results: The conventional barium study revealed prolonged transit time in only 15.8% (32 of 203 cases), whereas barium-rice study was pathological in 50.8% (103 of 203 cases). In 71 of 171 patients (41.5%) with a normal barium study, barium-rice passage was prolonged. In 23 patients, radiological results were confirmed by manometric measurements. Conclusion: Oesophageal motility disorders are detected by a barim-rice study with high sensitivity independent of the underlying disease. The barium-rice study offers a simple diagnostic tool revealing quantitative and reliable results. The barium-rice study is a suitable method for screening and follow-up of patients with dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. (orig.) [de

  10. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P., E-mail: spsinghceram@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO{sub 2−}–24.3 Na{sub 2}O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants.

  11. The stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon and elemental contents in modern and fossil seabird guano from Northern Chile - Marine sources and diagenetic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lucassen

    Full Text Available Seabird excrements (guano have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano. Where possible, 14C systematics is used for age information. The nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of the marine prey (Peruvian anchovy of the birds is complex as it shows strong systematic variations with latitude. The detailed study of a modern profile that represents a few years of guano deposition up to present reveals systematic changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition towards heavier values that increase with age, i.e. depth. Only the uppermost, youngest layers of modern guano show compositional affinity to the prey of the birds. In the profile, the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs by degassing, and non-volatile elements like phosphorous and calcium are passively enriched in the residual guano. Fossil guano deposits are very low in nitrogen and low in carbon contents, and show very heavy nitrogen isotopic compositions. One result of the study is that the use of guano for tracing nitrogen and carbon isotopic and elemental composition in the marine food web of the birds is restricted to fresh material. Despite systematic changes during diagenesis, there is little promise to retrieve reliable values of marine nitrogen and carbon signatures from older guano. However, the changes in isotopic composition from primary marine nitrogen isotopic

  12. Stable, Microfabricated Thin Layer Chromatography Plates without Volume Distortion on Patterned, Carbon and Al2O3-Primed Carbon Nanotube Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Gupta, Vipul; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2012-09-28

    In a recent report (Song, J.; et al., Advanced Functional Materials 2011, 21, 1132-1139) some of us described the fabrication of thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates from patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, which were directly infiltrated/coated with silicon by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of silicon using SiH4. Following infiltration, the nanotubes were removed from the assemblies and the silicon simultaneously converted to SiO2 in a high temperature oxidation step. However, while straightforward, this process had some shortcomings, not the least of which was some distortion of the lithographically patterned features during the volume expansion that accompanied oxidation. Herein we overcome theis issue and also take substantial steps forward in the microfabrication of TLC plates by showing: (i) A new method for creating an adhesion promotion layer on CNT forests by depositing a few nanometers of carbon followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3. This method for appears to be new, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the expected presence of oxygen after carbon deposition. ALD of Al2O3 alone and in combination with the carbon on patterned CNT forests was also explored as an adhesion promotion layer for CNT forest infiltration. (ii) Rapid, conformal deposition of an inorganic material that does not require subsequent oxidation: fast pseudo-ALD growth of SiO2 via alumina catalyzed deposition of tris(tert-butoxy)silanol onto the carbon/Al2O3-primed CNT forests. (iii) Faithful reproduction of the features in the masks used to microfabricate the TLC plates (M-TLC) this advance springs from the previous two points. (iv) A bonded (amino) phase on a CNT-templated microfabricated TLC plate. (v) Fast, highly efficient (125,000 - 225,000 N/m) separations of fluorescent dyes on M-TLC plates. (vi) Extensive characterization of our new materials by TEM, SEM, EDAX, DRIFT, and XPS. (vii) A substantially lower process temperature for the

  13. Patterns in stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon in particulate matter from the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N, δ13C are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step towards developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter δ15N values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4 ‰, and δ13C values from -26.4 to -15.6 ‰ over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends towards lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher δ15N and δ13C values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the δ15N of subsurface and surface particulate matter (PM significantly increased with water depth (r2 = 0.41, df = 35, p < 0.001, while δ13C values did not change. There were significant positive correlation between δ15N and δ13C values for surface PM in each of the three marine ecoregions that make up the study area. Stable isotope dynamics on the shelf can inform both nearshore and open ocean research efforts, reflecting regional productivity patterns and, even possibly, large-scale climate fluctuations.

  14. Adaptation of benthic invertebrates to food sources along marine-terrestrial boundaries as indicated by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, G.; Haynert, K.; Dinter, T.; Scheu, S.; Kröncke, I.

    2018-01-01

    Frequent environmental changes and abiotic gradients of the Wadden Sea require appropriate adaptations of the local organisms and make it suitable for investigations on functional structure of macrozoobenthic communities from marine to terrestrial boundaries. To investigate community patterns and food use of the macrozoobenthos, a transect of 11 stations was sampled for species number, abundance and stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) of macrozoobenthos and for stable isotope values of potential food resources. The transect was located in the back-barrier system of the island of Spiekeroog (southern North Sea, Germany). Our results show that surface and subsurface deposit feeders, such as Peringia ulvae and different oligochaete species, dominated the community, which was poor in species, while species present at the transect stations reached high abundance. The only exception was the upper salt marsh with low abundances but higher species richness because of the presence of specialized semi-terrestrial and terrestrial taxa. The macrozoobenthos relied predominantly on marine resources irrespective of the locality in the intertidal zone, although δ13C values of the consumers decreased from - 14.1 ± 1.6‰ (tidal flats) to - 21.5 ± 2.4‰ (salt marsh). However, the ubiquitous polychaete Hediste diversicolor showed a δ15N enrichment of 2.8‰ (an increase of about one trophic level) from bare sediments to the first vegetated transect station, presumably due to switching from suspension or deposit feeding to predation on smaller invertebrates. Hence, we conclude that changes in feeding mode represent an important mechanism of adaptation to different Wadden Sea habitats.

  15. Viscoelastic diamine surfactant for stable carbon dioxide/water foams over a wide range in salinity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Amro S; Da, Chang; Chen, Yunshen; Mukherjee, Nayan; Noguera, Jose A; Alzobaidi, Shehab; Reddy, Prathima P; AlSumaiti, Ali M; Hirasaki, George J; Biswal, Sibani L; Nguyen, Quoc P; Johnston, Keith P

    2018-07-15

    The viscosity and stability of CO 2 /water foams at elevated temperature can be increased significantly with highly viscoelastic aqueous lamellae. The slow thinning of these viscoelastic lamellae leads to greater foam stability upon slowing down Ostwald ripening and coalescence. In the aqueous phase, the viscoelasticity may be increased by increasing the surfactant tail length to form more entangled micelles even at high temperatures and salinity. Systematic measurements of the steady state shear viscosity of aqueous solutions of the diamine surfactant (C 16-18 N(CH 3 )C 3 N(CH 3 ) 2 ) were conducted at varying surfactant concentrations and salinity to determine the parameters for formation of entangled wormlike micelles. The apparent viscosity and stability of CO 2 /water foams were compared for systems with viscoelastic entangled micellar aqueous phases relative to those with much less viscous spherical micelles. We demonstrated for the first time stable CO 2 /water foams at temperatures up to 120 °C and CO 2 volumetric fractions up to 0.98 with a single diamine surfactant, C 16-18 N(CH 3 )C 3 N(CH 3 ) 2 . The foam stability was increased by increasing the packing parameter of the surfactant with a long tail and methyl substitution on the amine to form entangled viscoelastic wormlike micelles in the aqueous phase. The foam was more viscous and stable compared to foams with spherical micelles in the aqueous lamellae as seen with C 12-14 N(EO) 2 and C 16-18 N(EO)C 3 N(EO) 2 . Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Assessing the Utility of Hydrogen, Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes in Estimating Consumer Allochthony in Two Shallow Eutrophic Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Syväranta

    Full Text Available Hydrogen stable isotopes (δ2H have recently been used to complement δ13C and δ15N in food web studies due to their potentially greater power to separate sources of organic matter in aquatic food webs. However, uncertainties remain regarding the use of δ2H, since little is known about the potential variation in the amount of exchangeable hydrogen (Hex among common sample materials or the patterns of δ2H when entire food webs are considered. We assessed differences in Hex among the typical sample materials in freshwater studies and used δ2H, δ13C and δ15N to compare their effectiveness in tracing allochthonous matter in food webs of two small temperate lakes. Our results showed higher average amounts of Hex in animal tissues (27% in fish and macroinvertebrates, 19% in zooplankton compared to most plant material (15% in terrestrial plants and 8% in seston/periphyton, with the exception of aquatic vascular plants (23%, referred to as macrophytes. The amount of Hex correlated strongly with sample lipid content (inferred from C:N ratios in fish and zooplankton samples. Overall, the three isotopes provided good separation of sources (seston, periphyton, macrophytes and allochthonous organic matter, particularly the δ2H followed by δ13C. Aquatic macrophytes revealed unexpectedly high δ2H values, having more elevated δ2H values than terrestrial organic matter with direct implications for estimating consumer allochthony. Organic matter from macrophytes significantly contributed to the food webs in both lakes highlighting the need to include macrophytes as a potential source when using stable isotopes to estimate trophic structures and contributions from allochthonous sources.

  17. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-06

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution.

  18. A combination of CoO and Co nanoparticles supported on electrospun carbon nanofibers as highly stable air electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Cinthia; Busacca, Concetta; Di Blasi, Orazio; Antonucci, Vincenzo; Aricò, Antonino Salvatore; Di Blasi, Alessandra; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Bifunctional materials able to catalyze both the oxygen reduction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution (OER) reactions in alkaline media are still a challenge for the progress of energy conversion and storage devices such as metal-air batteries or unitized regenerative fuel cells. In this work, carbon nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning are modified with a combination of cobalt oxide and metallic cobalt (CoO-Co/CNF) and studied as a bifunctional air electrode for metal-air batteries. The performance of CoO-Co/CNF for both reactions is compared with state-of-the-art catalysts such as Pt/C and IrO2. The combination of cobalt oxide and metallic cobalt, finely distributed on the surface of graphitic carbon nanofibers, leads to a bifunctional catalyst with a half-wave potential for the ORR slightly better than Pt/C and a reversibility (ΔEOER-ORR) of 809 mV. The stability of CoO-Co/CNF is assessed by means of different stress tests: polarizations at high electrochemical potentials (2 V vs. RHE), rapid charge-discharge cycles at ±80 mA cm-2 and long durability tests by charging for 12 h at 60 mA cm-2 and discharging for 8 h at -80 mA cm-2. CoO-Co/CNF shows a remarkable stability, maintaining, at least, an 82% of its performance for the ORR after the stress tests, even when cycled for more than 100 h.

  19. Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes: A better field emitter and stable nanofluid with better thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Jha, A. [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, K.K., E-mail: kalyan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Thin Film & Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). • Improved dispersion enhanced thermal conductivity of engine oil. • Again f-a-CNTs showed enhanced field emission property compared to pure a-CNTs. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) were synthesized at low temperature in open atmosphere and further functionalized by treating them in thionyl chloride added stearic acid-dichloro methane solution. The as prepared functionalized a-CNTs (f-a-CNTs) were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The nanofluid was prepared by dispersing f-a-CNTs in engine oil using ultrasonic treatment. The effective thermal conductivity of as prepared nanofluid was investigated at different loading (volume fraction of f-a-CNTs). Obtained experimental data of thermal conductivity were compared with the predicted values, calculated using existing theoretical models. Stability of the nanofluid was tested by means of zeta potential measurement to optimize the loading. The as prepared f-a-CNTs sample also showed improved field emission result as compared to pristine a-CNTs. Dependence of field emission behavior on inter electrode distance was investigated too.

  20. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  1. Analysis of total polyphenols in wines by FIA with highly stable amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    The use of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) films for the continuous monitoring of polyphenols in flow systems has been examined. The performance of these modified electrodes was evaluated and compared to bare GCE by cyclic voltammetry experiments and by flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection monitoring the response of gallic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids in 0.050 M acetate buffer pH 4.5 containing 100 mM NaCl. The GCE modified with CNT dispersions in polyethyleneimine (PEI) provided lower overpotentials, higher sensitivity and much higher signal stability under a dynamic regime than bare GCEs. These properties allowed the estimation of the total polyphenol content in red and white wines with a remarkable long-term stability in the measurements despite the presence of potential fouling substances in the wine matrix. In addition, the versatility of the electrochemical methodology allowed the selective estimation of the easily oxidisable polyphenol fraction as well as the total polyphenol content just by tuning the detection potential at +0.30 or 0.70 V, respectively. The significance of the electrochemical results was demonstrated through correlation studies with the results obtained with conventional spectrophotometric assays for polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu, absorbance at 280 nm index and colour intensity index). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Edger, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Hayes, John M.; DesMarais, David J.; Cady, Sherry; Hope, Janet M.; Summons, Roger E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely thermophilic microbial communities associated with the siliceous vent walls and outflow channel of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, have been examined for lipid biomarkers and carbon isotopic signatures. These data were compared with that obtained from representatives of three Aquificales genera. Thermocrinis ruber. "Thermocrinis sp. HI", Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus and Aquifex aeolicus all contained phospholipids composed not only of the usual ester-linked fatty acids, but also ether-linked alkyls. The fatty acids of all cultured organisms were dominated by a very distinct pattern of n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21 compounds. The alkyl glycerol ethers were present primarily as CIS() monoethers with the expection of the Aquifex spp. in which dialkyl glycerol ethers with a boarder carbon-number distribution were also present. These Aquificales biomarker lipids were the major constituents in the lipid extracts of the Octopus Spring microbial samples. Two natural samples, a microbial biofilm growing in association with deposition of amorphous silica on the vent walls at 92 C, and the well-known 'pink-streamers community' (PSC), siliceous filaments of a microbial consortia growing in the upper outflow channel at 87 C were analyzed. Both the biofilm and PSC samples contained mono and dialkyl glycerol ethers with a prevalence of C-18 and C-20 alkyls. Phospholipid fatty acids were comprised of both the characteristic Aquificales n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21, and in addition, a series of iso-branched fatty acids from i-C-15:0 to i-C-21:0, With i-C-17:0 dominant in the PSC and i-C-19:0 in the biofilm, suggesting the presence of two major bacterial groups. Bacteriohopanepolyols were absent and the minute quantities of archaeol detected showed that Archaea were only minor constituents. Carbon isotopic compositions of the PSC yielded information about community structure and likely physiology. Biomass was C-13-depleted (10.9%) relative to available

  3. Stable oxygen isotope and flux partitioning demonstrates understory of an oak savanna contributes up to half of ecosystem carbon and water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eDubbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Semi-arid ecosystems contribute about 40% to global net primary production (GPP even though water is a major factor limiting carbon uptake. Evapotranspiration (ET accounts for up to 95% of the water loss and in addition, vegetation can also mitigate drought effects by altering soil water distribution. Hence, partitioning of carbon and water fluxes between the soil and vegetation components is crucial to gain mechanistic understanding of vegetation effects on carbon and water cycling. However, the possible impact of herbaceous vegetation in savanna type ecosystems is often overlooked. Therefore, we aimed at quantifying understory vegetation effects on the water balance and productivity of a Mediterranean oak savanna. ET and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE were partitioned based on flux and stable oxygen isotope measurements and also rain infiltration was estimated.The understory vegetation contributed importantly to total ecosystem ET and GPP with a maximum of 43% and 51%, respectively. It reached water-use efficiencies (WUE; ratio of carbon gain by water loss similar to cork-oak trees. The understory vegetation inhibited soil evaporation (E and, although E was large during wet periods, it did not diminish WUE during water-limited times. The understory strongly increased soil water infiltration, specifically following major rain events. At the same time, the understory itself was vulnerable to drought, which led to an earlier senescence of the understory growing under trees as compared to open areas, due to competition for water. Thus, beneficial understory effects are dominant and contribute to the resilience of this ecosystem. At the same time the vulnerability of the understory to drought suggests that future climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean basin threaten understory development. This in turn will very likely diminish beneficial understory effects like infiltration and ground water recharge and therefore ecosystem resilience to

  4. Characterization of barium titanate powder doped with sodium and potassium ions by using Rietveld refining; Caracterizacao do po de titanato de bario dopado com ions sodio e potasio com o refinamento de Rietveld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, M.C.; Assis, J.T.; Pereira, F.R., E-mail: mcalixto@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Araujo, J.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FFP/UERJ), Sao Goncalo, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Formacao de Professores; Moreira, E.L.; Moraes, V.C.A.; Lopes, A.R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A solid-reaction synthesis of doped barium titanate was done by employing barium carbonates, sodium, potassium and titanium oxides with classic procedures. Rietveld refining of X ray diffraction data of perovskite samples with tetragonal symmetry was applying and show good agreement. Besides, the treatment performed from 600 deg C produces nanocrystals of barium titanate with average size of 33 nm. The presence of endothermic peaks related to BaTiO{sub 3} formation at relatively low temperatures was determined by thermal analysis. A pseudo-Voigt Thompson-Cox-Hastings function was used to fit the standard samples of barium titanate. The Rietveld method has showed be efficient to detect the influences of temperature and doping on barium titanate microstructures. (author)

  5. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18-35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca(2+) release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element.

  6. Calcification rate and the stable carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen isotopes in the skeleton, host tissue, and zooxanthellae of bleached and recovering Hawaiian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lisa J.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2006-06-01

    We tested the effectiveness of stable isotopes as recorders of physiological changes that occur during coral bleaching and recovery. Montipora capitata and Porites compressa fragments were bleached in outdoor tanks with seawater temperature raised to 30 °C (treatment corals) for one month. Additional fragments were maintained at 27 °C in separate tanks (control corals). After one month, (0 months recovery), buoyant weight was measured and a subset of fragments was frozen. Remaining fragments were returned to the reef for recovery. After 1.5, 4, and 8 months, fragments were collected, measured for buoyant weight, and frozen. Fragments were analyzed for stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the skeleton (δ 13C s; δ 18O s) and nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of the host tissue (δ 15N h; δ 13C h) and zooxanthellae (δ 15N z; δ 13C z). δ 13C s decreased immediately after bleaching in M. capitata, but not in P. compressa. δ 18O s of both species failed to record the warming event. During the remaining months of recovery, δ 13C s and δ 18O s were more enriched in treatment than control corals due to decreases in calcification and metabolic fractionation during that time. Increased δ 15N h of treatment P. compressa may be due to expelled zooxanthellae during bleaching and recovery. Increased δ 15N z at 1.5 months in treatment fragments of both species reflects the increased incorporation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to facilitate mitotic cell division and/or chl a/cell recovery. Changes in δ 13C h and δ 13C z at 1.5 months in treatment M. capitata indicated a large increase in heterotrophically acquired carbon relative to photosynthetically fixed carbon. We experimentally show that isotopes in coral skeleton, host tissue and zooxanthellae can be used to verify physiological changes during bleaching and recovery, but their use as a proxy for past bleaching events in the skeletal record is limited.

  7. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, O; Hondow, N S; Brydson, R M D; Milne, S J; Brown, A P; Posada, O M; Wälti, C; Saunders, M; Murray, C A

    2015-01-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L 3 -edge energy separation of the t 2g , e g peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t 2g and e g peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO 3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers. (paper)

  8. BARIUM REDUCTION OF INTUSSUSCEPTION IN INFANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenholz, Edward J.; Feher, George. S.

    1955-01-01

    Barium enema reduction was used as the initial routine treatment in 29 infants with intussusception. In 22 of them the intussusception was reduced by this means. In three of eight patients operated upon the intussusception was found to be reduced. Four of the remaining five patients had clinical or x-ray evidence of complications before reduction by barium enema was attempted. Twenty-one of the patients, all of whom were observed in private practice, were treated without admission to the hospital. After reduction, these patients were observed closely by the clinician. None of these patients showed clinical or x-ray signs of complications before reduction. Certain clinical and roentgen criteria must be satisfied before it can be concluded that reduction by barium enema is complete. If there are clinical signs of complications with x-ray evidence of small bowel obstruction, only a very cautious attempt at hydrostatic reduction should be made. As the time factor is generally a reliable clinical guide to reducibility, the late cases should be viewed with greater caution. Long duration of symptoms, however, is not per se a contraindication to an attempt at hydrostatic reduction. PMID:13230908

  9. Paleoecologies and paleoclimates of late cenozoic mammals from Southwest China: Evidence from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasatti, Dana; Wang, Yang; Gao, Feng; Xu, Yingfeng; Flynn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    To examine paleodiets and habitats of extinct taxa and to understand long-term regional climate change, we determined the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of fossil herbivore teeth and soil samples from six localities in Yunnan Province, Southwest China, ranging in age from ˜10 Ma to the present. Although limited in spatial and temporal coverage, these initial results reveal significant changes in the environments and diets of mammalian taxa over the last 10 million years. Prior to 2-3 Ma, while most mammals examined had pure or nearly pure C 3 diets, some individuals consumed a small amount of C 4 grasses (up to 20% C 4). Since then, C 4 grasses became a significant dietary component for most herbivores as indicated by higher enamel-δ 13C values in the Pleistocene Yuanmou Formation and at Shangri-La, most likely reflecting an increased C 4 biomass in the region. The carbon isotope results show that the diets of mammals of ˜2.5-1.75 Ma from Shangri-La ranged from pure C 3 to pure C 4 while 1.7 Ma horses from Yuanmou had 0-70% C 4 grasses in their diets. Mammals living at ˜8-7 Ma in the Yuanmou and Lufeng region had very similar diets and habitats, with similar climatic conditions. Increased C 4 biomass after ˜3-4 Ma suggests a significant change in certain aspects of regional climate, such as increased seasonality of rainfall or an increase in seasonal drought and fires as these factors are important to modern grasslands. The data also show that unlike the Siwalik fauna in the Indian subcontinent, mammals in Yunnan on the southeast side of the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau lived in an environment dominated by dense forests until ˜3-4 Ma. Nonetheless, both δ 13C values of paleosol carbonates and fossil enamels indicate that C 4 grasses were present in the Yuanmou region in the latest Miocene and Pliocene (˜8-3.5 Ma), likely in greatly dispersed, small patches of open habitats where the forest canopy was broken or on flood plains, and the C 4 biomass

  10. Highly stable and active Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst on the steam reforming of ethanol application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Y.Z. Chiou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel one-step direct synthesis of nickel embedded in an ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst (NiOMC is done in a basic medium of nonaqueous solution by a solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The NiOMC sample is characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques, e.g., N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and temperature-programed reduction (TPR. In this study, the NiOMC catalyst is found to exhibit superior catalytic activity for the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE, showing high hydrogen selectivity and durability. Ethanol can be completely converted at 350 °C over the NiOMC catalyst. Also, the durability of the NiOMC catalyst on the SRE reaction exceeds 100 h at 450 °C, with SH2 approaching 65% and SCO of less than 1%.

  11. Strong and Stable Doping of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene by MoO x for Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2012-07-11

    MoO x has been used for organic semiconductor doping, but it had been considered an inefficient and/or unstable dopant. We report that MoO x can strongly and stably dope carbon nanotubes and graphene. Thermally annealed MoO x-CNT composites can form durable thin film electrodes with sheet resistances of 100 ω/sq at 85% transmittance plain and 85 ω/sq at 83% transmittance with a PEDOT:PSS adlayer. Sheet resistances change less than 10% over 20 days in ambient and less than 2% with overnight heating to 300 °C in air. The MoO x can be easily deposited either by thermal evaporation or from solution-based precursors. Excellent stability coupled with high conductivity makes MoO x-CNT composites extremely attractive candidates for practical transparent electrodes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Development of a non-destructive micro-analytical method for stable carbon isotope analysis of transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hode, Tomas [Department of Geology, Portland State University, Portland, P.O. Box 751, OR 97201 (United States)], E-mail: hode@pdx.edu; Kristiansson, Per; Elfman, Mikael [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hugo, Richard C.; Cady, Sherry L. [Department of Geology, Portland State University, Portland, P.O. Box 751, OR 97201 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The biogenicity of ancient morphological microfossil-like objects can be established by linking morphological (e.g. cell remnants and extracellular polymeric matrix) and chemical (e.g. isotopes, biomarkers and biominerals) evidence indicative of microorganisms or microbial activity. We have developed a non-destructive micro-analytical ion beam system capable of measuring with high spatial resolution the stable carbon isotope ratios of thin samples used for transmission electron microscopy. The technique is based on elastic scattering of alpha particles with an energy of 2.751 MeV. At this energy the {sup 13}C cross section is enhanced relative to the pure Rutherford cross section for {sup 13}C, whereas the {sup 12}C cross section is reduced relative to its pure Rutherford cross section. Here we report the initial results of this experimental approach used to characterize ultramicrotomed sections of sulfur-embedded graphite and microbial cells.

  13. Coupled Metagenomic and Chemical Analyses of Degrading Fungal Necromass and Implications for Fungal contributions to Stable Soil Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton-Warburton, L. M.; Schreiner, K. M.; Morgan, B. S. T.; Schultz, J.; Blair, N. E.

    2016-12-01

    Fungi comprise a significant portion of total soil biomass, the turnover of which must represent a dominant flux within the soil carbon cycle. Fungal organic carbon (OC) can turn over on time scales of days to months, but this process is poorly understood. Here, we examined temporal changes in the chemical and microbial community composition of fungal necromass during a 2-month decomposition experiment in which Fusarium avenaceum (a common saprophyte) was exposed to a natural soil microbial community. Over the course of the experiment, residual fungal necromass was harvested and analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS to examine chemical changes in the tissue. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from tissues, amplified with barcoded ITS primers, and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform to examine changes in microbial community composition. Up to 80% of the fungal necromass turned over in the first week. This rapid degradation phase corresponded to colonization of the necromass by known chitinolytic soil fungi including Mortierella species. Members of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota were among the dominant fungal groups involved in degradation with very small contributions from Basidiomycota. At the end of the 2-month degradation, only 15% of the original necromass remained. The residual material was rich in amide and C-O moieties which is consistent with previous work predicting that peptidoglycans are the main residual product from microbial tissue degradation. Straight-chain fatty acids exhibited varying degradation profiles, with some fatty acids (e.g. C16, C18:1) degrading more rapidly than bulk tissue while others maintained steady concentrations relative to bulk OC (C18) or increased in concentration throughout the degradation sequence (C24). These results indicate that the turnover of fungal necromass has the potential to rapidly and significantly influence a variety of soil OC properties including C/N ratios, lipid biomarker

  14. Enhanced decomposition of stable soil organic carbon and microbial catabolic potentials by long-term field warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenting; Liang, Junyi; Hale, Lauren E; Jung, Chang Gyo; Chen, Ji; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Minggang; Yuan, Mengting; Wu, Liyou; Bracho, Rosvel; Pegoraro, Elaine; Schuur, Edward A G; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition under warming is critical to predict carbon-climate feedbacks. According to the substrate regulating principle, SOC decomposition would decrease as labile SOC declines under field warming, but observations of SOC decomposition under warming do not always support this prediction. This discrepancy could result from varying changes in SOC components and soil microbial communities under warming. This study aimed to determine the decomposition of SOC components with different turnover times after subjected to long-term field warming and/or root exclusion to limit C input, and to test whether SOC decomposition is driven by substrate lability under warming. Taking advantage of a 12-year field warming experiment in a prairie, we assessed the decomposition of SOC components by incubating soils from control and warmed plots, with and without root exclusion for 3 years. We assayed SOC decomposition from these incubations by combining inverse modeling and microbial functional genes during decomposition with a metagenomic technique (GeoChip). The decomposition of SOC components with turnover times of years and decades, which contributed to 95% of total cumulative CO 2 respiration, was greater in soils from warmed plots. But the decomposition of labile SOC was similar in warmed plots compared to the control. The diversity of C-degradation microbial genes generally declined with time during the incubation in all treatments, suggesting shifts of microbial functional groups as substrate composition was changing. Compared to the control, soils from warmed plots showed significant increase in the signal intensities of microbial genes involved in degrading complex organic compounds, implying enhanced potential abilities of microbial catabolism. These are likely responsible for accelerated decomposition of SOC components with slow turnover rates. Overall, the shifted microbial community induced by long-term warming accelerates the

  15. Kinematic and spatial distributions of barium stars - are the barium stars and Am stars related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of an evolutionary link between Am stars and barium stars is considered, and an examination of previous data suggests that barium star precursors are main-sequence stars of intermediate mass, are most likely A and/or F dwarfs, and are intermediate-mass binaries with close to intermediate orbital separations. The possible role of mass transfer in the later development of Am systems is explored. Mass transfer and loss from systems with a range of masses and orbital separations may explain such statistical peculiarities of barium stars as the large dispersion in absolute magnitude, the large range of elemental abundances from star to star, and the small number of stars with large peculiar velocities. 93 refs

  16. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  17. Contrast characteristics of barium preparations and the timing of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 光一; 中桐, 義忠; 東, 義晴; 杉田, 勝彦; 小橋, 高郎; 大倉, 保彦; 丹谷, 延義; 三上, 泰隆; 平木, 祥夫

    1995-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the contrast characteristics of barium suspension and timing of exposure. We poured several kinds of barium preparations on the phantom manufactured by ourselves, and took X-ray pictures continuously by a DSA system. We analyzed each of the characteris-tics of the contrast. The time which was reguired for the contrast to reach the peak (Contrast Peak Time ; CPT) was unrelated with the kind of barium preparations used. It depended on the viscosity of the con...

  18. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly.

  19. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly

  20. Diurnal variations of organic molecular tracers and stable carbon isotopic composition in atmospheric aerosols over Mt. Tai in the North China Plain: an influence of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic tracer compounds, as well as organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C of total carbon (TC have been investigated in aerosol samples collected during early and late periods of the Mount Tai eXperiment 2006 (MTX2006 field campaign in the North China Plain. Total solvent-extractable fractions were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 130 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples. They were grouped into twelve organic compound classes, including biomass burning tracers, biogenic primary sugars, biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracers, and anthropogenic tracers such as phthalates, hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. In early June when the field burning activities of wheat straws in the North China Plain were very active, the total identified organics (2090 ± 1170 ng m−3 were double those in late June (926 ± 574 ng m−3. All the compound classes were more abundant in early June than in late June, except phthalate esters, which were higher in late June. Levoglucosan (88–1210 ng m−3, mean 403 ng m−3 was found as the most abundant single compound in early June, while diisobutyl phthalate was the predominant species in late June. During the biomass-burning period in early June, the diurnal trends of most of the primary and secondary organic aerosol tracers were characterized by the concentration peaks observed at mid-night or in early morning, while in late June most of the organic species peaked in late afternoon. This suggests that smoke plumes from biomass burning can uplift the aerosol particulate matter to a certain altitude, which could be further transported to and encountered the summit of Mt. Tai during nighttime. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of biomass-burning OC, fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary

  1. Diurnal variations of organic molecular tracers and stable carbon isotopic composition in atmospheric aerosols over Mt. Tai in the North China Plain: an influence of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Chen, J.; Li, J.; Sun, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Tachibana, E.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Okuzawa, K.; Tanimoto, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2012-09-01

    Organic tracer compounds, as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of total carbon (TC) have been investigated in aerosol samples collected during early and late periods of the Mount Tai eXperiment 2006 (MTX2006) field campaign in the North China Plain. Total solvent-extractable fractions were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 130 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples. They were grouped into twelve organic compound classes, including biomass burning tracers, biogenic primary sugars, biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers, and anthropogenic tracers such as phthalates, hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In early June when the field burning activities of wheat straws in the North China Plain were very active, the total identified organics (2090 ± 1170 ng m-3) were double those in late June (926 ± 574 ng m-3). All the compound classes were more abundant in early June than in late June, except phthalate esters, which were higher in late June. Levoglucosan (88-1210 ng m-3, mean 403 ng m-3) was found as the most abundant single compound in early June, while diisobutyl phthalate was the predominant species in late June. During the biomass-burning period in early June, the diurnal trends of most of the primary and secondary organic aerosol tracers were characterized by the concentration peaks observed at mid-night or in early morning, while in late June most of the organic species peaked in late afternoon. This suggests that smoke plumes from biomass burning can uplift the aerosol particulate matter to a certain altitude, which could be further transported to and encountered the summit of Mt. Tai during nighttime. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of biomass-burning OC, fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC), we estimate that an average of 24% (up to 64%) of the

  2. Diurnal variations of organic molecular tracers and stable carbon isotopic compositions in atmospheric aerosols over Mt. Tai in North China Plain: an influence of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P. Q.; Kawamura, K.; Chen, J.; Li, J.; Sun, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Tachibana, E.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Okuzawa, K.; Tanimoto, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2012-04-01

    Organic tracer compounds of tropospheric aerosols, as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of total carbon (TC) have been investigated for aerosol samples collected during early and late periods of Mount Tai eXperiment 2006 (MTX2006) field campaign in North China Plain. Total solvent extracts were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 130 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples. They were grouped into twelve organic compound classes, including biomass burning tracers, biogenic primary sugars, biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers, and anthropogenic tracers such as phthalates, hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In early June when the field burning activities of wheat straws in North China Plain were very active, the total identified organics (2090 ± 1170 ng m-3) were double those in late June (926 ± 574 ng m-3). All the compound classes were more abundant in early June than in late June, except phthalate esters, which were higher in late June. Levoglucosan (88-1210 ng m-3, 403 ng m-3) was found as the most abundant single compound in early June, while diisobutyl phthalate was the predominant species in late June. During the biomass-burning period in early June, the diurnal trends of most of the primary and secondary organic aerosol tracers were characterized by the concentration peaks observed at mid-night or in early morning, while in late June most of the organic species peaked in late afternoon. This suggests that smoke plumes from biomass burning can uplift the aerosol particulate matter to a certain altitude and then transported to and encountered the summit of Mt. Tai during nighttime. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of biomass-burning OC, fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC), we estimate that an average of 24% (up to 64%) of the OC in the Mt. Tai

  3. The Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Bones of Domestic Animals from three Cities of the European Part of Russia: First Results and Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskaya Liliya Vyacheslavovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the results of first purposeful research on isotopic composition (carbon 13С and nitrogen 15N in the bones collagen of domestic and wild animals from medieval towns at the European part of Russia. The published information about δ 13С и δ 15N was obtained from 61 samples of osteological collections of Yaroslavl, Rostov and Bolgar. The average values of carbon isotope in cattle bones are almost the same in all three cities. By contrast, these values for horses and pigs from Rostov and Bolgar are higher than for Yaroslavl animals. Unusual similarity for δ13С in the bones of sheep, camels and dogs among themselves from the Bolgar collection were fixed. The comparative analysis of the values δ13С in bones of domestic and wild animals allowed us to propose the hypothesis that sheep, camels and dogs appeared in Bolgar from the southern arid areas. The data on δ15N showed the inexplicably high accumulation of the nitrogen stable isotope in sheep and camel bones from the collection of Bolgar and in beaver bones from Rostov samples. This is probably due to the peculiarities of the diet of these dogs, enriched by the entrails of domestic ungulates or fish. The minimum values of δ15N in the bones of dogs from Bolgar reflect the specific diet of herding dogs with a minimal volume of meat. Simultaneously the data of 15N in sheep and camel bones from Bolgar collection and in beaver bones from Rostov samples howed the inexplicably high level of nitrogen stable isotope accumulation.

  4. Stable carbon isotope analysis (δ13C values) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their UV-transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Bendig, Paul; Vetter, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are frequently detected in food and environmental samples. We used compound specific isotope analysis to determine the δ 13 C values of individual PBDEs in two technical mixtures. Within the same technical product (DE-71 or DE-79), BDE congeners were the more depleted in 13 C the higher brominated they were. In contrast, the products of light-induced hydrodebromination of BDE 47 and technical DE-79 were more enriched in 13 C because of more stable bonds between 13 C and bromine. As a result, the δ 13 C values of the irradiated solution progressed diametrically compared to those of the technical synthesis. The ratio of the δ 13 C values of BDE 47 to BDE 99 and of BDE 99 to BDE 153 are thus suggested as indicators to distinguish native technical products from transformation products. Ratios 1) is typical of transformation products. - Highlights: → δ 13 C values of PBDEs were determined by means of compound specific isotope analysis. → PBDEs in technical mixtures were the more depleted in 13 C the higher they were brominated. → Solutions of individual PBDEs and technical PBDE mixtures were irradiated by UV light. → δ 13 C values of irradiated PBDEs and technical PBDEs progressed diametrically. → Ratios of the δ 13 C values were used to distinguish native from transformed PBDEs. - Diametrically progressing δ 13 C values in technical mixtures and UV-transformation products of DE-79 may be useful for source appointment of PBDEs in environmental samples

  5. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of annual rings of pinus radiata provide an integrative record of canopy gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, M.M.; Farquhar, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Seasonal variation in δ 13 C and δ 18 O of cellulose from annual rings of Pinus radiata growing at each of three sites in New Zealand was measured. The three sites differed in annual water balance, temperature, and vapour pressure deficit, and these differences were reflected in cellulose δ 13 C and δ 18 O. Specific events such as drought or heavy rain were recorded as peaks and troughs in enrichment. A canopy-level combined photosynthesis and conductance model was linked to a model of soil water content and δ 18 O of xylem water to allow daily prediction of δ 13 C and δ 18 O of cellulose. A photosynthesis-weighted average of δ 13 C and δ 18 O was calculated for each sampling period. Each sample represented between 3 and 30 days, depending on stem growth rate. The timing and amplitude of changes in δ 13 C were predicted accurately by the model, while general seasonal patterns and event related peaks in δ 18 O enrichment were well predicted. These results suggest that stable isotope ratios of cellulose from annual rings reflect the canopy response to interactions between site-specific and seasonal variation in climatic conditions and soil water availability

  6. Strong evidence for terrestrial support of zooplankton in small lakes based on stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J.J.; Carpenter, S.R.; Kitchell, J.; Pace, M.L.; Solomon, C.T.; Weidel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem subsidies to food webs can alter metabolic balances in the receiving (subsidized) system and free the food web, or particular consumers, from the energetic constraints of local primary production. Although cross-ecosystem subsidies between terrestrial and aquatic systems have been well recognized for benthic organisms in streams, rivers, and the littoral zones of lakes, terrestrial subsidies to pelagic consumers are more difficult to demonstrate and remain controversial. Here, we adopt a unique approach by using stable isotopes of H, C, and N to estimate terrestrial support to zooplankton in two contrasting lakes. Zooplankton (Holopedium, Daphnia, and Leptodiaptomus) are comprised of ???20-40% of organic material of terrestrial origin. These estimates are as high as, or higher than, prior measures obtained by experimentally manipulating the inorganic 13C content of these lakes to augment the small, natural contrast in 13C between terrestrial and algal photosynthesis. Our study gives credence to a growing literature, which we review here, suggesting that significant terrestrial support of pelagic crustaceans (zooplankton) is widespread.

  7. A Stable, Narrow-Gap Oxyfluoride Photocatalyst for Visible-Light Hydrogen Evolution and Carbon Dioxide Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Ryo; Ichibha, Tom; Hongo, Kenta; Lu, Daling; Maezono, Ryo; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Ishitani, Osamu; Oka, Kengo; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2018-05-16

    Mixed anion compounds such as oxynitrides and oxychalcogenides are recognized as potential candidates of visible-light-driven photocatalysts since, as compared with oxygen 2p orbitals, p orbitals of less electronegative anion (e.g., N 3- , S 2- ) can form a valence band that has more negative potential. In this regard, oxyfluorides appear unsuitable because of the higher electronegativity of fluorine. Here we show an exceptional case, an anion-ordered pyrochlore oxyfluoride Pb 2 Ti 2 O 5.4 F 1.2 that has a small band gap (ca. 2.4 eV). With suitable modification of Pb 2 Ti 2 O 5.4 F 1.2 by promoters such as platinum nanoparticles and a binuclear ruthenium(II) complex, Pb 2 Ti 2 O 5.4 F 1.2 worked as a stable photocatalyst for visible-light-driven H 2 evolution and CO 2 reduction. Density functional theory calculations have revealed that the unprecedented visible-light-response of Pb 2 Ti 2 O 5.4 F 1.2 arises from strong interaction between Pb-6s and O-2p orbitals, which is enabled by a short Pb-O bond in the pyrochlore lattice due to the fluorine substitution.

  8. Stable Isotope Signatures of Carbon and Nitrogen to Characterize Exchange Processes and Their Use for Restoration Projects along the Austrian Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, T. [Wasser Cluster Lunz, Lunz-See and Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, (Austria); Bondar-Kunze, E. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Welti, N. [Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    The size and composition of an organic matter pool and its sources is a fundamental ecosystem property of river networks. River ecosystems are known to receive large amounts of terrestrial organic matter from catchments, still the question is to what extent aquatic sources influence riverine food webs or at least some components of these food webs. To identify different sources and their potential biological availability at the ecosystem level, we propose using stable isotope signatures of carbon and nitrogen and their respective elemental ratios. In this study, we used these parameters to evaluate river restoration measures. The target of the restoration was to improve surface connectivity between the main channel of the Danube downstream from Vienna and a side arm system within a floodplain. Analyses of the natural abundance of stable isotopes revealed that the restored side arm system showed distinct differences in the particulate organic matter pool in relation to hydrological connectivity. At low water levels, aquatic sources dominate in the side arm system, while at high water levels riverine organic matter is the dominating source. At medium connectivity levels aquatic sources also prevail in the side arm, thus an export of bio-available organic matter into the main channel can be expected. Based on these measurements, the increased - but hydrologically controlled - phytoplankton production was assessed and through this information, changes in ecosystem function were evaluated. (author)

  9. Distribution of trace elements in organs of six species of cetaceans from the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean), and the relationship with stable carbon and nitrogen ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Das, K. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Pellegrini, R. De; Drava, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Lepoint, G. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miglio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Minganti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: minganti@dictfa.unige.it; Poggi, R. [Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ' Giacomo Doria' - Via Brigata Liguria, 9 I-16121 Genova (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Mercury (total and organic), cadmium, lead, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc concentrations were measured in different organs of 6 different cetacean species stranded in an area of extraordinary ecological interest (Cetaceans' Sanctuary of the Mediterranean Sea) along the coast of the Ligurian Sea (North-West Mediterranean). Stable-isotopes ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were also measured in the muscle. A significant relationship exists between {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, mercury concentration and the trophic level. The distribution of essential and non-essential trace elements was studied on several organs, and a significant relationship between selenium and mercury, with a molar ratio close to 1, was found in the cetaceans' kidney, liver and spleen, regardless of their species. High selenium concentrations are generally associated with a low organic to total mercury ratio. While narrow ranges of concentrations were observed for essential elements in most organs, mercury and selenium concentrations are characterised by a wide range of variation. Bio-accumulation and bio-amplification processes in cetaceans can be better understood by comparing trace element concentrations with the stable-isotopes data.

  10. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  11. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 called perovskites. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application. The used method has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, Part I contains a study of the BaTiO3 structure and frequently used synthesis methods.

  12. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  13. Pedogenic carbonate stable isotopic evidence for wooded habitat preference of early Pleistocene tool makers in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Feibel, Craig S; Wright, James D; Mortlock, Richard A; Harmand, Sonia; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Roche, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    The origin and evolution of early Pleistocene hominin lithic technologies in Africa occurred within the context of savanna grassland ecosystems. The Nachukui Formation of the Turkana Basin in northern Kenya, containing Oldowan and Acheulean tool assemblages and fossil evidence for early members of Homo and Paranthropus, provides an extensive spatial and temporal paleosol record of early Pleistocene savanna flora. Here we present new carbon isotopic (δ(13)CVPDB) values of pedogenic carbonates (68 nodules, 193 analyses) from the Nachukui Formation in order to characterize past vegetation structure and change through time. We compared three members (Kalochoro, Kaitio, and Natoo) at five locations spanning 2.4-1.4Ma and sampled in proximity to hominin archaeological and paleontological sites. Our results indicate diverse habitats showing a mosaic pattern of vegetation cover at each location yet demonstrate grassland expansion through time influenced by paleogeography. Kalochoro floodplains occurred adjacent to large river systems, and paleosols show evidence of C3 woodlands averaging 46-50% woody cover. Kaitio habitats were located along smaller rivers and lake margins. Paleosols yielded evidence for reduced portions of woody vegetation averaging 34-37% woody cover. Natoo environments had the highest percentage of grasslands averaging 21% woody cover near a diminishing Lake Turkana precursor. We also compared paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of lithic archaeological sites with paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of all environments available to hominins at 2.4-1.4Ma in the Nachukui and Koobi Fora Formations. Grassy environments became more widespread during this interval; woody canopy cover mean percentages steadily decreased by 12%. However, significantly more wooded savanna habitats were present in the vicinity of lithic archaeological sites and did not mirror the basin-wide trend of grassland spread. Hominin lithic archaeological sites consistently demonstrated woody cover

  14. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and metal concentration in food webs from a mining-impacted coastal lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Guirao, Lazaro; Lloret, Javier; Marin, Arnaldo

    2008-01-01

    Two food webs from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, differing in the distance from the desert-stream through which mining wastes were discharged, were examined by reference to essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Pb and Cd) metal concentrations and stable isotopes content (C and N). The partial extraction technique applied, which reflects the availability of metals to organisms after sediment ingestion, showed higher bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments from the station influenced by the mining discharges, in agreement with the higher metal concentrations observed in organisms, which in many cases exceeded the regulatory limits established in Spanish legislation concerning seafood. Spatial differences in essential metal concentrations in the fauna suggest that several organisms are exposed to metal levels above their regulation capacity. Differences in isotopic composition were found between both food webs, the wadi-influenced station showing higher δ 15 N values and lower δ 13 C levels, due to the discharge of urban waste waters and by the entrance of freshwater and allochthonous marsh plants. The linear-regressions between trophic levels (as indicated by δ 15 N) and the metal content indicated that biomagnification does not occur. In the case of invertebrates, since the 'handle strategy' of the species and the physiological requirements of the organisms, among other factors, determine the final concentration of a specific element, no clear relationships between trophic level and the metal content are to be expected. For their part, fish communities did not show clear patterns in the case of any of the analyzed metals, probably because most fish species have similar metal requirements, and because biological factors also intervened. Finally, since the study deals with metals, assumptions concerning trophic transfer factors calculation may not be suitable since the metal burden originates not only from the prey but also from adsorption over the body

  15. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and metal concentration in food webs from a mining-impacted coastal lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Guirao, Lazaro [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100-Murcia (Spain)], E-mail: lamarin@um.es; Lloret, Javier; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100-Murcia (Spain)

    2008-04-01

    Two food webs from the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, differing in the distance from the desert-stream through which mining wastes were discharged, were examined by reference to essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Pb and Cd) metal concentrations and stable isotopes content (C and N). The partial extraction technique applied, which reflects the availability of metals to organisms after sediment ingestion, showed higher bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments from the station influenced by the mining discharges, in agreement with the higher metal concentrations observed in organisms, which in many cases exceeded the regulatory limits established in Spanish legislation concerning seafood. Spatial differences in essential metal concentrations in the fauna suggest that several organisms are exposed to metal levels above their regulation capacity. Differences in isotopic composition were found between both food webs, the wadi-influenced station showing higher {delta}{sup 15}N values and lower {delta}{sup 13}C levels, due to the discharge of urban waste waters and by the entrance of freshwater and allochthonous marsh plants. The linear-regressions between trophic levels (as indicated by {delta}{sup 15}N) and the metal content indicated that biomagnification does not occur. In the case of invertebrates, since the 'handle strategy' of the species and the physiological requirements of the organisms, among other factors, determine the final concentration of a specific element, no clear relationships between trophic level and the metal content are to be expected. For their part, fish communities did not show clear patterns in the case of any of the analyzed metals, probably because most fish species have similar metal requirements, and because biological factors also intervened. Finally, since the study deals with metals, assumptions concerning trophic transfer factors calculation may not be suitable since the metal burden originates not only from the prey but

  16. Highly Stable and Active Pt/Nb-TiO2 Carbon-Free Electrocatalyst for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are not sufficiently durable for commercial deployment. One of the major challenges lies in the development of an inexpensive, efficient, and highly durable and active electrocatalyst. Here a new type of carbon-free Pt/Nb-TiO2 electrocatalyst has been reported. Mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres were synthesized by the sol-gel method using polystyrene (PS sphere templates. Pt nanoparticles (NPs were then deposited onto mesoporous Nb-TiO2 hollow spheres via a simple wet-chemical route in aqueous solution, without the need for surfactants or potentiostats. The growth densities of Pt NPs on Nb-TiO2 supports could be easily modulated by simply adjusting the experimental parameters. Electrochemical studies of Pt/Nb-TiO2 show much enhanced activity and stability than commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. PtNP/Nb-TiO2 is a promising new cathode catalyst for PEMFC applications.

  17. Stable and solid pellets of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes produced under high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Pâmela Andréa Mantey dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Materiais (Brazil); Gallas, Marcia Russman [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Radtke, Cláudio; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Elias, Ana Laura [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics and Center for 2-D and Layered Materials (United States); Rajukumar, Lakshmy Pulickal [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Terrones, Humberto [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy (United States); Endo, Morinobu [Shinshu University, Carbon Institute of Science and Technology (Japan); Terrones, Mauricio [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics and Center for 2-D and Layered Materials (United States); Costa, Tania Maria Haas, E-mail: taniaha@iq.ufrgs.br, E-mail: taniahac@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Materiais (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    High pressure/temperature was applied on samples of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), functionalized nanotubes (f-MWCNT), and nanotubes doped with nitrogen (CN{sub x}MWNT). Cylindrical compact pellets of f-MWCNT with diameters of about 6 mm were obtained under pressure of 4.0 GPa at room temperature and at 400 °C, using graphite as pressure transmitting medium. The best pellet samples were produced using nitric and sulfuric acids for the functionalization of MWCNT. The effect of high pressure/temperature on CNT was investigated by several spectroscopy and characterization techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that MWCNT maintain their main features in the compacted pellets, such as integrity, original morphology, and structure, demonstrating that high-pressure/temperature compaction can indeed be used to fabricate novel CNT self-supported materials. Additionally, the specific surface area and porosity are unchanged, which is important when using bulk CNT in adsorption processes. Raman analysis of the G’-band showed a shift to lower wavenumbers when f-MWCNT were processed under high pressure, suggesting that CNT are under tensile stress.

  18. Summer precipitation influences the stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of tree-ring cellulose in Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, John S; Ehleringer, James R

    2007-04-01

    The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of tree-ring cellulose was examined in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) trees in the western USA to study seasonal patterns of precipitation inputs. Two sites (California and Oregon) had minimal summer rainfall inputs, whereas a third site (Arizona) received as much as 70% of its annual precipitation during the summer months (North American monsoon). For the Arizona site, both the delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of latewood cellulose increased as the fraction of annual precipitation occurring in the summer (July through September) increased. There were no trends in latewood cellulose delta(18)O with the absolute amount of summer rain at any site. The delta(13)C composition of latewood cellulose declined with increasing total water year precipitation for all sites. Years with below-average total precipitation tended to have a higher proportion of their annual water inputs during the summer months. Relative humidity was negatively correlated with latewood cellulose delta(13)C at all sites. Trees at the Arizona site produced latewood cellulose that was significantly more enriched in (18)O compared with trees at the Oregon or California site, implying a greater reliance on an (18)O-enriched water source. Thus, tree-ring records of cellulose delta(18)O and delta(13)C may provide useful proxy information about seasonal precipitation inputs and the variability and intensity of the North American monsoon.

  19. Innovative method for carbon dioxide determination in human postmortem cardiac gas samples using headspace-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and stable labeled isotope as internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, V.; Smith, F.; Froidmont, S. de; Dominguez, A.; Rinaldi, A.; Augsburger, M.; Mangin, P.; Grabherr, S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We developed a method for CO 2 analysis in cardiac samples and quantification by 13 CO 2 . •This method was fully validated by accuracy profile. •We have applied this method to perform CO 2 precise quantification for forensic applications. •Context of the death could be documented following CO 2 concentrations. -- Abstract: A novel approach to measure carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in gaseous samples, based on a precise and accurate quantification by 13 CO 2 internal standard generated in situ is presented. The main goal of this study was to provide an innovative headspace-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-GC–MS) method applicable in the routine determination of CO 2 . The main drawback of the GC methods discussed in the literature for CO 2 measurement is the lack of a specific internal standard necessary to perform quantification. CO 2 measurement is still quantified by external calibration without taking into account analytical problems which can often occur considering gaseous samples. To avoid the manipulation of a stable isotope-labeled gas, we have chosen to generate in situ an internal labeled standard gas ( 13 CO 2 ) on the basis of the stoichiometric formation of CO 2 by the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaH 13 CO 3 ). This method allows a precise measurement of CO 2 concentration and was validated on various human postmortem gas samples in order to study its efficiency

  20. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Mark Wild Populations of Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes in South-Eastern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy A Opiyo

    Full Text Available Marking wild mosquitoes is important for understanding their ecology, behaviours and role in disease transmission. Traditional insect marking techniques include using fluorescent dyes, protein labels, radioactive labels and tags, but such techniques have various limitations; notably low marker retention and inability to mark wild mosquitoes at source. Stable isotopes are gaining wide spread use for non-invasive marking of arthropods, permitting greater understanding of mosquito dispersal and responses to interventions. We describe here a simple technique for marking naturally-breeding malaria and dengue vectors using stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N and carbon (13C, and describe potential field applications.We created man-made aquatic mosquito habitats and added either 15N-labelled potassium nitrate or 13C-labelled glucose, leaving non-adulterated habitats as controls. We then allowed wild mosquitoes to lay eggs in these habitats and monitored their development in situ. Pupae were collected promptly as they appeared and kept in netting cages. Emergent adults (in pools of ~4 mosquitoes/pool and individually stored pupae were desiccated and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS.Anopheles gambiae s.l and Aedes spp. from enriched 13C and enriched 15N larval habitats had significantly higher isotopic levels than controls (P = 0.005, and both isotopes produced sufficient distinction between marked and unmarked mosquitoes. Mean δ15N for enriched females and males were 275.6±65.1 and 248.0±54.6, while mean δ15N in controls were 2.1±0.1 and 3.9±1.7 respectively. Similarly, mean δ13C for enriched females and males were 36.08±5.28 and 38.5±6.86, compared to -4.3±0.2 and -7.9±3.6 in controls respectively. Mean δ15N and δ13C was significantly higher in any pool containing at least one enriched mosquito compared to pools with all unenriched mosquitoes, P<0.001. In all cases, there were variations in standardized isotopic ratios

  1. Development of an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for assessing the fate of α-hexachlorocyclo-hexane in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Vogt, Carsten; Gehre, Matthias; Fischer, Anko; Danet, Andrei-Florin; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2011-05-30

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is the only chiral isomer of the eight 1,2,3,4,5,6-HCHs and we have developed an enantiomer-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) method for the evaluation of its fate in the environment. The carbon isotope ratios of the α-HCH enantiomers were determined for a commercially available α-HCH sample using a gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) system equipped with a chiral column. The GC-C-IRMS measurements revealed δ-values of -32.5 ± 0.8‰ and -32.3 ± 0.5‰ for (-) α-HCH and (+) α-HCH, respectively. The isotope ratio of bulk α-HCH was estimated to be -32.4 ± 0.6‰ which was in accordance with the δ-values obtained by GC-C-IRMS (-32.7 ± 0.2‰) and elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) of the bulk α-HCH (-32.1 ± 0.1‰). The similarity of the isotope ratio measurements of bulk α-HCH by EA-IRMS and GC-C-IRMS indicates the accuracy of the chiral GC-C-IRMS method. The linearity of the α-HCH ESIA method shows that carbon isotope ratios can be obtained for a signal size above 100 mV. The ESIA measurements exhibited standard deviations (2σ) that were mostly IRMS method, the isotope compositions of individual enantiomers in biodegradation experiments of α-HCH with Clostridium pasteurianum and samples from a contaminated field site were determined. The isotopic compositions of the α-HCH enantiomers show a range of enantiomeric and isotope patterns, suggesting that enantiomeric and isotope fractionation can serve as an indicator for biodegradation and source characterization of α-HCH in the environment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Stable Carbon Isotope Characterization of CO2 Loss in Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Stream Water: Observations from a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. N.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2007-05-01

    Water from an acid mine drainage spring, ground water from a mine tailings pile, stream water and tap water were acidified to simulate acid mine drainage (AMD) contamination. The objective was to determine how acidification of stream water by AMD affected DIC loss and carbon isotope fraction. Two 20 L HDP containers (reactors) containing samples from each source were left un-acidified and allowed to evolve under ambient conditions for several weeks in the laboratory and two others were acidified. Acidification was carried out progressively with sulfuric acid to pH <3. For acidified samples, one reactor was acidified open to the atmosphere and the other closed from contact with atmosphere and CO2(g) was collected under vacuum. The un-acidified samples did not show significant alkalinity and DIC loss, and the 13C of DIC was enriched with time. The acidified samples showed decrease in alkalinity and DIC and increase in the 13C of DIC and CO2(g) with progressive acidification. The enrichment of 13C of DIC for un-acidified samples was due to exchange with atmospheric CO2. On the other hand, the 13C enrichment in the acidified samples was due to fractionation during dehydration of HCO3- and diffusive loss of CO2(g) from the aqueous phase. The actual values measured depended on the amount of CO2 lost from the aqueous phase during acidification. Samples with greater CO2 loss (closed acidification) had greater 13C enrichment. Beyond the HCO3- titration end point, the δ13C of DIC and CO2(g) was similar and nearly constant. The result of this study suggests that AMD effects on DIC can be modeled as a first order kinetic reaction and the isotope enrichment modeled using Rayleigh distillation.

  3. Thermally Stable and Electrically Conductive, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Infiltrated Composite Structures for High-Temperature Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi Ming; Deng, Lei Min; Li, Da Wei; Zhou, Yun Shen; Golgir, Hossein Rabiee; Keramatnejad, Kamran; Fan, Li Sha; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Lu, Yong Feng

    2017-10-25

    Traditional ceramic-based, high-temperature electrode materials (e.g., lanthanum chromate) are severely limited due to their conditional electrical conductivity and poor stability under harsh circumstances. Advanced composite structures based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and high-temperature ceramics are expected to address this grand challenge, in which ceramic serves as a shielding layer protecting the VACNTs from the oxidation and erosive environment, while the VACNTs work as a conductor. However, it is still a great challenge to fabricate VACNT/ceramic composite structures due to the limited diffusion of ceramics inside the VACNT arrays. In this work, we report on the controllable fabrication of infiltrated (and noninfiltrated) VACNT/silicon composite structures via thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [and laser-assisted CVD]. In laser-assisted CVD, low-crystalline silicon (Si) was quickly deposited at the VACNT subsurfaces/surfaces followed by the formation of high-crystalline Si layers, thus resulting in noninfiltrated composite structures. Unlike laser-assisted CVD, thermal CVD activated the precursors inside and outside the VACNTs simultaneously, which realized uniform infiltrated VACNT/Si composite structures. The growth mechanisms for infiltrated and noninfiltrated VACNT/ceramic composites, which we attributed to the different temperature distributions and gas diffusion mechanism in VACNTs, were investigated. More importantly, the as-farbicated composite structures exhibited excellent multifunctional properties, such as excellent antioxidative ability (up to 1100 °C), high thermal stability (up to 1400 °C), good high velocity hot gas erosion resistance, and good electrical conductivity (∼8.95 Sm -1 at 823 K). The work presented here brings a simple, new approach to the fabrication of advanced composite structures for hot electrode applications.

  4. Rague-Like FeP Nanocrystal Assembly on Carbon Cloth: An Exceptionally Efficient and Stable Cathode for Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiulin

    2015-05-25

    There is a strong demand to replace expensive Pt catalysts with cheap metal sulfides or phosphides for hydrogen generation in water electrolysis. The earth-abundant Fe can be electroplated on carbon cloth (CC) to form high surface area rague-like FeOOH assembly. Subsequent gas phase phosphidation converts the FeOOH to FeP or FeP2 and the morphology of the crystal assembly is controlled by the phosphidation temperature. The FeP prepared at 250 oC presents lower crystal