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Sample records for stabilizing group treatment

  1. Response to "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2014-01-01

    Last November, the European Journal of Psychotraumatology published an interesting paper entitled "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study". This article

  2. Stabilizing Group Treatment for Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Abuse Based on Psycho-Education and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tests a Stabilizing Group Treatment protocol, designed for the management of the long-term sequelae of child abuse, that is, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD). Evidence-based treatment for this subgroup of PTSD patients is largely lacking. This stabilizing treatment aims at improving Complex PTSD using…

  3. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethy Dorrepaal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and personality disorders (PDs are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method: In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive (N=14 with the non-adaptive patients (N=24 as revealed by a cluster analysis. Results: We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles “withdrawn” and “aggressive,” were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Conclusion: Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  4. Stabilizing group treatment for Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder related to childhood abuse based on psycho-education and cognitive behavioral therapy: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrepaal, E.; Thomaes, K.; Smit, J.H.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; van Dyck, R.; Veltman, D.J.; Draijer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tests a Stabilizing Group Treatment protocol, designed for the management of the long-term sequelae of child abuse, that is, Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD). Evidence-based treatment for this subgroup of PTSD patients is largely lacking. This stabilizing

  5. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrepaal, E.; Thomaes, K.; Smit, J.H.; Veltman, D.J.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Draijer, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate if

  6. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  7. The Group Treatment of Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Harvey M.; Richman, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Bulimia has become an increasing problem in the college population. This article describes a group psychotherapeutic treatment approach to the problem. A theoretical formulation of the psychodynamics that may underlie the development of bulimia is offered. (Author/DF)

  8. On the stability of Jensen's functional equation on groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    embedded into some group G such that the Jensen functional equation is stable on G. Keywords. Additive mapping ... direct product of groups; stability of functional equation, wreath product of groups. 1. Introduction ...... [3] Chung J K, Ebanks B R, Ng C T and Sahoo P K, On a quadratic-trigonometric functional equation and ...

  9. ROCTECtm STABILIZATION TREATMENT OF WERF ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Lessing; William J. Quapp; Gary Renlund; Bob Clark; Colin Hundley; James Cornwell; Dave Schlier; John Bulko; Gene Pollack

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a process to stabilize mixed waste flyash generated by the combustion of mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL's) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator such that it will meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) Universal Treatment Standards.

  10. A Decentralized Group Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrow, Douglas C.

    Old style and new style mental hospitals are criticized for not dealing directly with a person's inability to live within his community and relate effectively with significant people. The comprehensive mental health programs, which arose in reaction to the deficits of previous facilities and treatment, are viewed as frequently following a similar,…

  11. A Multifaceted Group Treatment of Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Melanie; Weiss, Lillie

    In spite of growing attention to the negative psychological and physiological consequences of bulimia, little has been written on its treatment. A comprehensive group treatment program was developed to increase the bulimic's comfort with herself and her body. Subjects were five single females (four college students and a nurse) who participated in…

  12. Stability comparison of two different dentoalveolar expansion treatment protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Atik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the longitudinal stability of the conventional straight-wire system after the use of a quad-helix appliance with Damon self-ligating system in patients with Class I malocclusion. Methods: 27 adolescent patients were evaluated at three different periods: pre-treatment (T1, post-treatment (T2 and three years post-treatment (T3. Group 1 included 12 patients (with a mean age of 14.65 year treated with Damon 3MX bracket system; and Group 2 included 15 patients (with a mean age of 14.8 year who underwent orthodontic treatment with Roth prescribed brackets after expansion with Quad-Helix appliance. Relapse was evaluated with dental cast examination and cephalometric radiograph tracings. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM-SPSS for Windows software, version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. A p-value smaller than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were significant increases in all transverse dental and postero-anterior measurements (except for UL6-ML mm in Group 1 with active treatment. There was some significant relapse in the long-term in inter-canine width in both groups and in the inter-first premolar width in Group 2 (p< 0.05. Significant decrease in all frontal measurements from T2 to T3 was seen for both groups. Upper and lower incisors significantly proclined in T1-T2 (p<0.05, however no relapse was found for both groups. When two systems were compared, there was no significant difference for the long-term follow-up period. Conclusion: Conventional (quad-helix appliance with conventional brackets and Damon systems were found similar with regard to the long-term incisor positions and transverse dimension changes of maxillary arch.

  13. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Summary for working group B on long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 36 workshop participants attended at least one session of the Long-Term Stability working group. We avoided turning these sessions into a specialized seminar series by meeting in two subgroups, loosely labeled Analysis and Diffusion ampersand Tracking, so that working discussions among a reasonably small number of people were possible. Nonetheless, no attempt is made to categorize the 13 group B papers according to original subgroup. A similar workshop, the Workshop on Accelerator Orbit and Particle Tracking Problems, was held almost exactly 10 years ago at Brookhaven. It is interesting to see how many of the participants in the photograph of that workshop appear again in the photograph at the front of these proceedings. Fortunately, it is not correct to infer that little progress has been made in the last decade, nor that the average age of the participants has increased significantly. Rather, the recent photograph has many more, younger, faces than its predecessor. This attests to the ongoing interest and vigorous activity in an area of central importance to accelerator physics

  15. Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Köhl, Ralf; Petrosyan, Nansen

    2015-01-01

    We show that every discrete subgroup of GL(n, ℝ) admits a finite-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to SL(3, ℤ), we obtain a four-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic K-theory of its...

  16. Determining true difference between treatment groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinal, Lucien J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the P value and how it is used to determine true difference of outcome in treatment groups. P value, standard deviation, standard error of the mean, bias, and confidence interval are discussed in common language, with a minimum of jargon and with clinical examples.Keywords: P value; standard error of the mean; central limits theorem; standard deviation; normal distribution; statistics; parametric statistics; bias; randomization(Published: 17 February 2016)C...

  17. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, S?rgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  18. The stability of drinking water treatment residue with ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wu, Yu; He, Rui; Jiang, He-Long; Wang, Changhui

    2017-06-12

    The best management of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) in environmental remediation should be based on comprehensively understanding the effectiveness and risk of DWTR. In this study, the variation in physicochemical properties, metal lability, and adsorption capability of DWTR under oxidizing condition were investigated. The oxidizing condition was set up using ozone treatment, and the laboratory incubation test were performed within 50 d in association with thermogravimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, specific surface area and porosity analyzer, fractionation, and P adsorption test. The results showed that ozone treatment had limited effect on the properties of organic matter, the lability of Al, Cu, and Fe, the P adsorption capability, and the distributions of the adsorbed P in DWTR, but the treatment increased N 2 sorption/desorption, specific surface area, total pore volume of DWTR and led to the transformation of Mn from acid-soluble to reducible fractions. These findings demonstrated that DWTR generally kept stable under oxidizing environment; even oxidizing environment may induce a tendency of increasing the adsorption capability and decreasing the environmental risk of DWTR. Accordingly, the effectiveness and safety of DWTR can be maintained under natural aerobic environment, and DWTR is a reliable adsorbent that could be recycled in environmental remediation.

  19. Brief Psychoeducational Group Treatment with Re-Traumatized Refugees and Asylum Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a psychoeducational group treatment with students with a history of refugee trauma, war, and human rights abuses who were further traumatized by the 9/11 attacks in New York City. The rationale for group intervention and specific techniques utilized to promote emotional and behavioral stabilization and…

  20. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, Sérgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes were measured on the dental casts obtained before (T1) and after treatment (T2) and at a mean of 6.9 years after the end of treatment (T3). The groups were matching regarding sex distribution, pretreatment, posttreatment and long-term posttreatment ages, and treatment and long-term posttreatment times. They were also comparable concerning the initial malocclusion severity and the occlusal results at the end of treatment. Stability evaluation was calculated by subtracting the posttreatment from the long-term posttreatment index values (T3 - T2). T tests were used to compare the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. There were no intergroup differences regarding the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. Treatment of class II subdivision malocclusion with 3 and 4 premolar extractions have a similar long-term posttreatment occlusal stability.

  1. Study the Stability of a Wastewater Treatment Unit using LABVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghainm M. Alwan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was devoted to limit the stability conditions of the wastewater treatment unit.       LABVIEW was a powerful and versatile graphical programming language in automation control and date acquisition of the system. The on-line show that accurate and stable control responses were obtained in the present work. The actual phase plane proved to a better technique to limit the regions of the non-linear system stability compared to other theoretical techniques. Limit cycle did not appear in the present system. 

  2. Kohn Anomaly and Phase Stability in Group VB Transition Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Landa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the periodic table, only a few pure metals exhibit lattice or magnetic instabilities associated with Fermi surface nesting, the classical examples being α-U and Cr. Whereas α-U displays a strong Kohn anomaly in the phonon spectrum that ultimately leads to the formation of charge density waves (CDWs, Cr is known for its nesting-induced spin density waves (SDWs. Recently, it has become clear that a pronounced Kohn anomaly and the corresponding softening in the elastic constants is also the key factor that controls structural transformations and mechanical properties in compressed group VB metals—materials with relatively high superconducting critical temperatures. This article reviews the current understanding of the structural and mechanical behavior of these metals under pressure with an introduction to the concept of the Kohn anomaly and how it is related to the important concept of Peierls instability. We review both experimental and theoretical results showing different manifestations of the Kohn anomaly in the transverse acoustic phonon mode TA (ξ00 in V, Nb, and Ta. Specifically, in V the anomaly triggers a structural transition to a rhombohedral phase, whereas in Nb and Ta it leads to an anomalous reduction in yield strength.

  3. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  4. [Hepatitis C treatment in special patient groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Marina; Jorquera, Francisco; Ángel Serra, Miguel; Sola, Ricard; Castellano, Gregorio

    2014-07-01

    The treatment plan for chronic hepatitis C in special populations varies according to comorbidity and the current evidence on treatment. In patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV coinfection, the results of dual therapy (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) are poor. In patients with genotype 1 infection, triple therapy (dual therapy plus boceprevir or telaprevir) has doubled the response rate, but protease inhibitors can interact with some antiretroviral drugs and provoke more adverse effects. These disadvantages are avoided by the new, second-generation, direct-acting antiviral agents. In patients who are candidates for liver transplantation or are already liver transplant recipients, the optimal therapeutic option at present is to combine the new antiviral agents, with or without ribavirin and without interferon. The treatment of patients under hemodialysis due to chronic renal disease continues to be dual therapy (often with reduced doses of pegylated interferon and ribavirin), since there is still insufficient information on triple therapy and the new antiviral agents. In mixed cryoglobulinemia, despite the scarcity of experience, triple therapy seems to be superior to dual therapy and may be used as rescue therapy in non-responders to dual therapy. However, a decision must always be made on whether antiviral treatment should be used concomitantly or after immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions

  6. Nickel speciation in cement-stabilized/solidified metal treatment filtercakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: reroy@lsu.edu [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA (United States); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment, Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • XAS shows the same Ni speciation in untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Ni solubility is the same for untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Leaching is controlled by pH and physical encapsulation for all binders. - Abstract: Cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is used to decrease environmental leaching of contaminants from industrial wastes. In this study, two industrial metal treatment filtercakes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR); speciation of nickel was examined by X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Although the degree of carbonation and crystallinity of the two untreated filtercakes differed, α-nickel hydroxide was identified as the primary nickel-containing phase by XRD and nickel K edge XAS. XAS showed that the speciation of nickel in the filtercake was unaltered by treatment with any of five different S/S binder systems. Nickel leaching from the untreated filtercakes and all their stabilized/solidified products, as a function of pH in the acid neutralization capacity test, was essentially complete below pH ∼5, but was 3–4 orders of magnitude lower at pH 8–12. S/S does not respeciate nickel from metal treatment filtercakes and any reduction of nickel leaching by S/S is attributable to pH control and physical mechanisms only. pH-dependent leaching of Cr, Cu and Ni is similar for the wastes and s/s products, except that availability of Cr, Cu and Zn at decreased pH is reduced in matrices containing ground granulated blast furnace slag.

  7. Thermochemical Properties of Group IVB and VB Transition Metal Alloys with Platinum Group Metals: Acid - Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Michael John

    Solid-state galvanic cell measurements and oxide equilibration experiments are used to derive thermochemical quantities for a variety of acid-base stabilized alloys such as Nb-Pd, Nb-Rh, Ti-Pd, and Ti-Rh. The experiments have effectively resulted in the titration of palladium by niobium metal. The excess partial molar Gibbs energy of niobium at infinite dilution was determined to be -62 kcal/mole at 1000^circ C and the Gibbs energy of formation of {rm NbPd}_{3.55} is -42 kcal/mole. These results and those for the other systems are used to assess the importance of crystal field effects in the context of the generalized Lewis acid-base theory.

  8. Two-group Analysis of Xenon Stability in Slab Geometry by Modal Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norinder, O.

    1963-05-01

    Xenon spatial stability is analyzed with the flux represented by two neutron energy groups. General formulas are given for expansions in a system of modes. Detailed formulas are recorded for a slab described by sinusoidal modes. A short description is given of a Mercury Autocode program for numerical calculations in slab geometry. The essential input parameters and results are noted for 80 computed cases. The main body of the calculations were intended to clarify the xenon stability properties of the Marviken reactor, which was found to have a sufficient margin against unstable xenon oscillations. The neutron flux detection and the control rod insertion in the slab were found to have a large influence on the stability in spite of the nonexistence of space-selective control in the systems investigated. Very good agreement was found between stability limits calculated according to Randall and St. John and stability limits calculated by the program

  9. Modulating the Stability of 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Hydroxyl Protecting Groups via the "Chemical Switch" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Krygier, Dominika; Brzezinska, Jolanta; Chmielewski, Marcin K

    2015-12-18

    A novel and effective method is presented for modulating the stability of 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Protecting Groups (2-Py TPGs) in the "chemical switch" approach. The main advantage of the discussed approach is the possibility of changing the nucleophilic character of pyridine nitrogen using different switchable factors, which results in an increase or decrease in the thermal deprotection rate. One of the factors is transformation of a nitro into an amine group via reduction with a low-valent titanium in mild conditions. The usefulness of our approach is corroborated using 3'-O-acetyl nucleosides as model compounds. Their stability in various solvents and temperatures before and after reduction is also examined. Pyridine N-oxide and pH are other factors responsible for the nucleophilicity and stability of 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Protecting Groups in thermal deprotection. Protonation of 4-amino 2-Pyridinyl Thermolabile Protecting Groups is demonstrated by (1)H-(15)N HMBC and HSQC NMR analysis.

  10. Characteristics, stability and outcomes of the 2011 GOLD COPD groups in the ECLIPSE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agusti, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa D; Celli, Bartolomé

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classifies patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into four groups (A to D). We explored the characteristics, stability and relationship to outcomes of these groups within the ECLIPSE study (Evaluation...

  11. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiger, Sheridan; Harris, Jeffrey R; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Oqueli, Hector Lopez; Kohn, Marlana

    2015-01-01

    We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01), and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg), from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01). We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01). At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for improving hypertension treatment services provided by the public

  12. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia González

    Full Text Available The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs, which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories.We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua. High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment.TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies.Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs.

  13. Stabilization of enzymes by multipoint covalent immobilization on supports activated with glyoxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gallego, Fernando; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Rocha-Martin, Javier; Bolivar, Juan M; Mateo, Cesar; Guisan, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization of enzymes via immobilization techniques is a valuable approach in order to convert a necessary protocol (immobilization) into a very interesting tool to improve key enzyme properties (stabilization). Multipoint covalent attachment of each immobilized enzyme molecule may promote a very interesting stabilizing effect. The relative distances among all enzyme residues involved in immobilization has to remain unaltered during any conformational change induced by any distorting agent. Amino groups are very interesting nucleophiles placed on protein surfaces. The immobilization of enzyme through the region having the highest amount of amino groups (Lys residues) is key for a successful stabilization. Glyoxyl groups are small aliphatic aldehydes that form very unstable Schiff's bases with amino groups and they do not seem to be useful for enzyme immobilization at neutral pH. However, under alkaline conditions, glyoxyl supports are able to immobilize enzymes via a first multipoint covalent immobilization through the region having the highest amount of Lysine groups. Activation of supports with a high surface density of glyoxyl groups and the performance of very intense enzyme-support multipoint covalent attachments are here described.

  14. Stability of anterior open-bite treatment with occlusal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Crepaldi, Marcus Vinicius; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Waldyr

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the long-term stability of anterior open-bite treatment with occlusal adjustment and the dentinal sensitivity caused by this procedure in the long term. The sample comprised 17 open-bite patients who experienced relapse of the negative vertical overbite after orthodontic treatment and were retreated with occlusal adjustment. The cephalometric changes were evaluated on lateral cephalograms obtained before and after the occlusal adjustment and in the long term (mean, 3.4 years after occlusal adjustment). Dentinal sensitivity was also evaluated before the occlusal adjustment, and 1.35 months, 4.61 months, and 3.4 years later. The cephalometric statuses between the 3 evaluations were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests. The percentages of clinically significant relapse were calculated. To compare dentinal sensitivity at the several stages, nonparametric Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were performed. Statistically significant relapse of anterior open bite occurred in 33.3% of the patients. Those who had the procedure before 21 years of age were most likely to experience relapse. Dentinal sensitivity remained within the normal range in the long term. Despite the statistically significant relapse of anterior open bite, clinically significant stability was found in 66.7% of the patients. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effectiveness of Group Treatment for Female Adult Incest Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donalee; Reyes, Sonia; Brown, Brienne; Gonzenbach, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Very few clinicians receive training in the treatment of sexual abuse, yet during their careers many will encounter victims of sexual abuse. This article discusses the incidence of child sexual abuse, defines incest, and discusses treatment options. A review of group treatment is explored, with results being documented providing support for the…

  16. Meaning of Life Group: Group Application of Logotherapy for Substance Use Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somov, Pavel G.

    2007-01-01

    The rationale for the use of logotherapy in the context of substance use treatment is introduced. The article reviews prior group applications of logotherapy and offers a clinical curriculum for a group application of logotherapy tailored to the substance use treatment context. Furthermore, the article provides a discussion of the specifics of the…

  17. Abdominal muscle activation increases lumbar spinal stability: analysis of contributions of different muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Ian A F; Gardner-Morse, Mack G; Henry, Sharon M

    2011-10-01

    Antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and increased intra-abdominal pressure are associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization. Rehabilitation regimens have been proposed to improve spinal stability via selective recruitment of certain trunk muscle groups. This biomechanical analytical study addressed whether lumbar spinal stability is increased by such selective activation. The biomechanical model included anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature, rectus abdominis and 77 symmetrical pairs of dorsal muscles. The muscle activations were calculated with the model loaded with either flexion, extension, lateral bending or axial rotation moments up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressure up to 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mm Hg) and partial bodyweight. After solving for muscle forces, a buckling analysis quantified spinal stability. Subsequently, different patterns of muscle activation were studied by forcing activation of selected abdominal muscles to at least 10% or 20% of maximum. Spinal stability increased by an average factor of 1.8 with doubling of intra-abdominal pressure. Forcing at least 10% activation of obliques or transversus abdominis muscles increased stability slightly for efforts other than flexion, but forcing at least 20% activation generally did not produce further increase in stability. Forced activation of rectus abdominis did not increase stability. Based on analytical predictions, the degree of stability was not substantially influenced by selective forcing of muscle activation. This casts doubt on the supposed mechanism of action of specific abdominal muscle exercise regimens that have been proposed for low back pain rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicente...

  19. Creative Art Therapy Groups: A Treatment Modality for Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Marie-Celine; Kronish, Neomi

    2007-01-01

    This brief report examines the benefits of a creative art therapy group program for outpatients suffering from psychiatric disorders. Included is a review of relevant treatment outcomes literature on the effectiveness of group art therapy. The authors describe the Creative Art Therapy Group Program offered to adult psychiatric outpatients that is…

  20. Early Adolescents' Social Standing in Peer Groups: Behavioral Correlates of Stability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network…

  1. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...... the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...... consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted...

  2. Synthesis, Reactivity and Stability of Aryl Halide Protecting Groups towards Di-Substituted Pyridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptoton Mnangat Brian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis and reactivity of different Benzyl derivative protecting groups. The synthesis and stability of Benzyl halides, 4-methoxybenzyl halides, 3,5-dimethoxybenzyl halides, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl halides, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl halide protecting groups and their reactivity towards nitrogen atom of a di-substituted pyridine ring in formation of pyridinium salts is also reported.

  3. Influence of Linkage Stereochemistry and Protecting Groups on Glycosidic Bond Stability of Sodium Cationized Glycosyl Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Yang, Zhihua; Rodgers, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (ER-CID) experiments of sodium cationized glycosyl phosphate complexes, [GP x +Na]+, are performed to elucidate the effects of linkage stereochemistry (α versus β), the geometry of the leaving groups (1,2- cis versus 1,2- trans), and protecting groups (cyclic versus non-cyclic) on the stability of the glycosyl phosphate linkage via survival yield analyses. A four parameter logistic dynamic fitting model is used to determine CID50% values, which correspond to the level of rf excitation required to produce 50% dissociation of the precursor ion complexes. Present results suggest that dissociation of 1,2- trans [GP x +Na]+ occurs via a McLafferty-type rearrangement that is facilitated by a syn orientation of the leaving groups, whereas dissociation of 1,2- cis [GPx+Na]+ is more energetic as it involves the formation of an oxocarbenium ion intermediate. Thus, the C1-C2 configuration plays a major role in determining the stability/reactivity of glycosyl phosphate stereoisomers. For 1,2- cis anomers, the cyclic protecting groups at the C4 and C6 positions stabilize the glycosidic bond, whereas for 1,2- trans anomers, the cyclic protecting groups at the C4 and C6 positions tend to activate the glycosidic bond. The C3 O-benzyl (3 BnO) substituent is key to determining whether the sugar or phosphate moiety retains the sodium cation upon CID. For 1,2- cis anomers, the 3 BnO substituent weakens the glycosidic bond, whereas for 1,2- trans anomers, the 3 BnO substituent stabilizes the glycosidic bond. The C2 O-benzyl substituent does not significantly impact the glycosidic bond stability regardless of its orientation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Efficiency, effectiveness and treatment stability of clear aligners: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M; Liu, R; Ni, Z; Yu, Z

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the orthodontic literature with regard to efficiency, effectiveness and stability of treatment outcome with clear aligners compared with treatment with conventional brackets. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in October 2014 in the following electronic databases: Google Scholar, the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, Scopus, CENTRAL, MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Quality assessment of the included articles was performed. Two authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. Four controlled clinical trials including a total of 252 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria. We grouped the trials into four main comparisons. One randomized controlled trial was classified as level 1B evidence, and three cohort studies were classified as level 2B evidence. Clear aligners appear to have a significant advantage with regard to chair time and treatment duration in mild-to-moderate cases based on several cross-sectional studies. No other differences in stability and occlusal characteristics after treatment were found between the two systems. Despite claims about the effectiveness of clear aligners, evidence is generally lacking. Shortened treatment duration and chair time in mild-to-moderate cases appear to be the only significant effectiveness of clear aligners over conventional systems that are supported by the current evidence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Intensive outpatient group treatment for adolescents with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michler, Petra; Wolter-Flanz, Andrea; Linder, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We present an intensive outpatient group treatment for girls with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder) additionally to/instead of inpatient treatment or individually treatment by psychotherapists. The therapy concept is primarily behaviour therapy oriented, encouraging the self-management-abilities of the patients thereby learning self-determination and responsibility in dealing with their illness. The slow-open group concept provokes group cohesion, solidarity and support among girls, who share similar age-related development-stages and eating disorders. Other than cognitive behaviour therapy and the principles of self-management we use client-centered therapy, art-, dance- and nutritional therapy. For each patient an individual treatment plan is adapted depending on age, individual symptoms, problems and motivation. Each member of the group has to accept defined group rules during the group sessions. The group takes place twice a week and on one Saturday per month. The adolescents stay in their social environment. Transfer of therapeutic success into daily life therefore is immediate and longlasting. Duration of therapy is between four months and one year, longer only in complex cases. Parallel to the parent/patient cooperation a parental psycho-educative group is available.

  6. Comparison of stability limits in men with traumatic transtibial amputation and a nonamputee control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero-Sánchez, Alberto; Molina-Rueda, Francisco; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M; Cano-de la Cuerda, Roberto; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Currently, knowledge is lacking about whether subjects with traumatic unilateral transtibial amputation (UTA) have a compromised ability to voluntarily move their center of gravity (COG) to positions within the limits of stability. To analyze the ability to voluntarily move the COG to positions within the limits of stability in a sample of subjects with traumatic UTA. Observational, case-control study. University department. Ten men with traumatic UTA and 10 control subjects without amputation. Computerized dynamic posturography SMART EquiTEST System version 8.0 was used for measuring stability limits in both groups. The Limits of Stability test was used to assess the participants' ability to voluntarily sway to various locations in space (8 predetermined target positions). End point excursion achieved statistically significant differences in the prosthetic (P = .02) and backward (P = .03) directions in the subjects with UTA. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the maximum excursion to backward direction (P = .05) in the subjects with UTA. Directional control only reached statistically significant differences in the prosthetic backward direction (P = .05) compared with the control group. Movement velocity was statistically significantly lower in the subjects with UTA toward prosthetic (P = .03), backward (P = .05), sound (P = .01), and sound forward (P = .03) directions in relation to the control group. Persons with traumatic UTA have a reduced ability to move their COG within stability limits (restricted displacement, inadequate directional control, and reduced velocity). These findings should be considered when developing rehabilitation programs for these persons. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is group pelvic floor retraining as effective as individual treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H J S; Gosselink, M P; Fourie, S; Lindsey, I

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, pelvic floor retraining for faecal incontinence or obstructed defaecation has been delivered to patients through individual sessions with a specialist pelvic floor nurse, a resource-intensive practice. This study aimed to assess whether a similar outcome can be achieved by delivering retraining to patients in small groups, allowing considerable savings in the use of resources. Data were collected prospectively in a pelvic floor database. Patients received pelvic floor retraining either individually or in a small group setting and completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Two hundred and fifteen patients were treated, 119 individually and 96 in a small group setting. Scores before and after treatment for the two settings were compared for the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms. Additionally patients receiving group treatment completed a short questionnaire on their experience. The median change in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index score was 5 (range -62 to 73) for individual treatment and 4 (range -41 to 47) for group treatment, both showing statistically significant improvement. However, there was no significant difference between the settings. Similar results were obtained with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scores for the faecal incontinence and obstructed defaecation subgroups respectively. The majority of patients experienced symptomatic improvement following pelvic floor retraining and there was no significant difference in the resulting improvement according to treatment setting. As treatment costs are considerably less in a group setting, group pelvic floor retraining is more cost-effective than individual treatment. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. A randomized controlled study of early headgear treatment on occlusal stability--a 13 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Kiuttu, Päivi; Julku, Johanna; Silvola, Anna-Sofia; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the long-term occlusal stability in a group treated early with headgear (HG) compared with a control group. The total study group comprised 68 children (40 males and 28 females) aged 7.6 years (standard deviation 0.3), randomly divided into two groups of equal size. In the first group, HG treatment was initiated immediately, while in the control group only minor interceptive procedures were performed during the follow-up period. Fixed appliance treatment, if needed, including extraction of permanent teeth due to crowding, was undertaken after the completion of early treatment. The records were available from the start of the early treatment and at follow-up after 2, 4, 8, and 13 years. The US-weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, graded according to the severity of malocclusion, was used to evaluate occlusal stability. Little's Irregularity Index (LII)and intercanine distance in the lower arch were measured at all time periods. The Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) scores was used for evaluation of dental aesthetics at the last follow-up. Parametric tests were applied for statistical analyses, except for the evaluation of aesthetics, where a non-parametric test was used. No significant differences were found when long-term stability between the HG and control groups was evaluated at the 13 year follow-up. Lower PAR scores were observed in patients treated without extraction of teeth. A greater irregularity in lower incisor alignment before treatment was found in subjects later treated with extractions. The findings of this study seem to suggest that treatment timing has only a minor influence on stability.

  9. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stability of molar relationship after non-extraction Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Vaz de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of molar relationship after non-extraction treatment of Class II malocclusion. METHODS: The sample comprised 39 subjects (16 females, 23 males with initial Class II malocclusion treated with no extractions, using fixed appliances. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 12.94 years, at the end of treatment was 15.14 years and at post-retention stage was 21.18 years. Mean treatment time was 2.19 years and mean time of post-treatment evaluation was 6.12 years. To verify the influence of the severity of initial Class II molar relationship in stability of molar relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, one presenting a ½-cusp or ¾-cusp Class II molar relationship, and the other with full-cusp Class II molar relationship. In dental casts from initial, final and postretention stages, molar, first and second premolars and canine relationships were measured. Data obtained were analyzed by dependent ANOVA, Tukey and Pearson's correlation tests, as well as independent t test between the two groups divided by severity of initial molar relationship. RESULTS: There was a non-statistically significant 0.12 mm relapse of molar relationship. The initial severity of Class II molar relationship was not correlated to relapse in the post-retention period. When compared, the two groups showed no difference in relapse of molar relationship. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that correction of Class II molar relationship is stable and initial severity does not influence relapse of molar relationship.

  12. Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jonathan Max; Hills, Susan; Rife, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) presents an overview of the role and efficacy of group therapy in substance abuse treatment. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel…

  13. Bacteriophage enzymes for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections: Stability and stabilization of the enzyme lysing Streptococcus pyogenes cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyachko, N. L.; Dmitrieva, N. F.; Eshchina, A. S.; Ignatenko, O. V.; Filatova, L. Y.; Rainina, Evguenia I.; Kazarov, A. K.; Levashov, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Recombinant, phage associated lytic enzyme Ply C capable to lyse streptococci of groups A and C was stabilized in the variety of the micelles containing compositions to improve the stability of the enzyme for further application in medicine. It was shown that, in the micellar polyelectrolyte composition M16, the enzyme retained its activity for 2 months; while in a buffer solution under the same conditions ((pH 6.3, room temperature), it completely lost its activity in 2 days

  14. Local chemistry of the surfactant's head groups determines protein stability in reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, Michael; Xu, Yao; Bäumer, Alexander; Schäfer, Sarah; Wirtz, Hanna; Savolainen, Janne; Weingärtner, Hermann; Havenith, Martina

    2018-03-28

    When comparing protein folding in vitro and in vivo significant differences have been found. This has been attributed to crowding and confinement effects. Using a combination of GHz- and THz-dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and MD simulations, we studied hydration dynamics and reviewed protein stability data inside sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) reverse micelles which are model systems for confinement. We find that water inside anionic AOT and cationic CTAB reverse micelles is characterized by a strong dielectric depolarization giving rise to a very low relative permittivity compared to an unconfined solution. Despite differences in the hydration dynamics of the surfactant's head groups, simulations using the two-phase thermodynamics method predict a similar reduction in water entropy for both reverse micelle systems compared to bulk water. When we compare the stability data of proteins in these reverse micelles we find that in contrast to our initial expectation, protein stability correlates rather with the local chemistry of the hydrated head groups than with the excluded volume effect or the low global permittivity.

  15. Group therapy for selective mutism - a parents' and children's treatment group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Louise; Mc Nicholas, Fiona; Barry, Edwina; Begley, Maire; Ahern, Sinead

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of group therapy for children with selective mutism and their parents. Five children (mean age 6.1 years) with a diagnosis of selective mutism were administered group therapy over an 8-week period. Parents simultaneously attended a second group, aimed at providing education and advice on managing selective mutism in everyday situations, and in the school environment. At post-treatment, all children increased their level of confident speaking in school, clinic and community settings. Parents indicated a reduction in their own anxiety levels, from pre- to post-treatment on self-rating scales. Findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of group therapy for children with selective mutism and their parents.

  16. Mechanical and Histological Effects of Resorbable Blasting Media Surface Treatment on the Initial Stability of Orthodontic Mini-Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansukh, Odontuya; Jeong, Jong-Wha; Kim, Jong-Wan; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of resorbable blasting media (RBM) treatment on early stability of orthodontic mini-implants by mechanical, histomorphometric, and histological analyses. Methods. Ninety-six (64 for mechanical study and 32 for histological study and histomorphometric analysis) titanium orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) with machined (machined group) or RBM-treated (CaP) surface (RBM group) were implanted in the tibiae of 24 rabbits. Maximum initial torque (MIT) was measured during insertion, and maximum removal torque (MRT) and removal angular momentum (RAM) were measured at 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) were analyzed at 4 weeks after implantation. Results. RBM group exhibited significantly lower MIT and significantly higher MRT and RAM at 2 weeks than machined group. No significant difference in MRT, RAM, and BIC between the two groups was noted at 4 weeks, although BA was significantly higher in RBM group than in machined group. RBM group showed little bone resorption, whereas machined group showed new bone formation after bone resorption. Conclusions. RBM surface treatment can provide early stability of OMIs around 2 weeks after insertion, whereas stability of machined surface OMIs may decrease in early stages because of bone resorption, although it can subsequently recover by new bone apposition.

  17. Identifying Two Groups of Entitled Individuals: Cluster Analysis Reveals Emotional Stability and Self-Esteem Distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael L; LoPilato, Alexander C; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    The present study hypothesized that there exist two distinct groups of entitled individuals: grandiose-entitled, and vulnerable-entitled. Self-report scores of entitlement were collected for 916 individuals using an online platform. Model-based cluster analyses were conducted on the individuals with scores one standard deviation above mean (n = 159) using the five-factor model dimensions as clustering variables. The results support the existence of two groups of entitled individuals categorized as emotionally stable and emotionally vulnerable. The emotionally stable cluster reported emotional stability, high self-esteem, more positive affect, and antisocial behavior. The emotionally vulnerable cluster reported low self-esteem and high levels of neuroticism, disinhibition, conventionality, psychopathy, negative affect, childhood abuse, intrusive parenting, and attachment difficulties. Compared to the control group, both clusters reported being more antagonistic, extraverted, Machiavellian, and narcissistic. These results suggest important differences are missed when simply examining the linear relationships between entitlement and various aspects of its nomological network.

  18. Upward and downward comparison in the intermediate-status group: the role of social stratification stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca

    2012-06-01

    This work analyses intergroup comparison choices made by intermediate-status group members. Seventy-six psychology students were categorized in an intermediate position with respect to other faculties. Stability was manipulated at three levels: stable, upwardly unstable, and downwardly unstable. Data on strength of comparison, comparison for enhancing, comparison for evaluation, and ingroup identification were collected. Results revealed that in the stable condition, participants were equally engaged in both upward and downward comparison. In the upwardly unstable condition, participants were more likely to compare themselves with the high-status group, whereas in the downwardly unstable condition, they were more likely to choose a downward comparison. In this latter condition, both downward comparison for enhancement and in-group identification were lower than in other conditions. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Garenoxacin Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Caused by Viridans Group Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita-Alonso, Paloma; Rouse, Mark S.; Piper, Kerryl E.; Steckelberg, James M.; Patel, Robin

    2006-01-01

    The activity of garenoxacin was compared to that of levofloxacin or penicillin in a rabbit model of Streptococcus mitis group (penicillin MIC, 0.125 μg/ml) and Streptococcus sanguinis group (penicillin MIC, 0.25 μg/ml) endocarditis. Garenoxacin and levofloxacin had MICs of 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively, for both study isolates. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve endocarditis were given no treatment, penicillin at 1.2 × 106 IU/8 h intramuscularly, garenoxacin at 20 mg/kg of body weight/12 h intravenously, or levofloxacin at 40 mg/kg/12 h intravenously. For both isolates tested, garenoxacin area under the curve (AUC)/MIC and maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC ratios were 368 and 91, respectively. Rabbits were sacrificed after 3 days of treatment; cardiac valve vegetations were aseptically removed and quantitatively cultured. For S. mitis group experimental endocarditis, all studied antimicrobial agents were more active than no treatment (P viridans group endocarditis and that garenoxacin and levofloxacin may not be ideal choices for serious infections caused by some quinolone-susceptible viridans group streptococci. PMID:16569838

  20. Treatment results and long-term stability of anterior open bite malocclusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, D.; Hullenaar, B.W. van 't; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Berge, S.J.; Katsaros, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate treatment results and long-term stability of anterior open bite malocclusion and to identify predictive factors for both treatment results and their stability. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: The Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology at the

  1. Temporal stability of personality traits in group-housed gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horback, K M; Parsons, T D

    2016-08-01

    The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls and into group housing can introduce new sources of stress due to the enhanced environmental and social complexity. Some sows may have the behavioral capacity to adapt to these changes better than others. However, little is known about individual differences in behavioral responses, or personality traits, in gestating sows and how they impact the animal's ability to cope with group housing. The temporal consistency in the assessment of an animal's behavior is a prerequisite to the establishment of personality traits and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods in the present study. Forty-six group-housed sows from a commercially available genetic line were assessed for aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, avoidant of humans and active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at electronic sow feeding stations and skin lesion scores, as well as between avoidant of humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behaviors contributing to personality traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how these traits may be useful in identifying individuals likely to succeed in group housing.

  2. Trovafloxacin Treatment of Viridans Group Streptococcus Experimental Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Kerryl E.; Rouse, Mark S.; Ronningen, Karen L.; Steckelberg, James M.; Wilson, Walter R.; Patel, Robin

    2000-01-01

    The activity of trovafloxacin was compared with those of vancomycin and penicillin in a model of Streptococcus sanguis species group (trovafloxacin MIC, 0.125 μg/ml) and Streptococcus mitis species group (trovafloxacin MIC, 0.125 μg/ml) experimental endocarditis. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve vegetations were given no treatment, trovafloxacin at 15 mg/kg of body weight three times a day (t.i.d.), vancomycin at 15 mg/kg twice a day, or penicillin at 1.2 × 106 IU t.i.d. After 3 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed; cardiac valve vegetations were aseptically removed and cultured quantitatively. Penicillin was as active as vancomycin as measured by in vivo clearance of bacteria. Trovafloxacin was less active (P viridans group streptococci. PMID:10952616

  3. Issues involved in the treatment of an adolescent group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R; Schlise, S; Seligman, S

    1975-01-01

    At first we had a lot of information about what to expect from an adolescent group. But we quickly found an enormous gap between our information and the actual experience and gut feelings. It is important to anticipate many overwhelming feelings! It is also crucial for therapists to be open and honest with themselves and each other about their counter-transferences. Second, we discovered that it is not hopeless! However, it is essential to provide structure via firm, consistent limits and goals. Adolescents need to feel protected by therapists who can manage the group's turbulence. Third, creative techniques frequently provide ways of dealing with feelings. Four, a treatment group cannot survive with too many acters-out; one or two may add spice and give permission to others to recognize and express feelings. Also, despite the often chaotic atmosphere, serious treatment takes place. It has been helpful to have Mrs. Friedman as our supervisor. At critical points, when we were overwhelmed, she helped with her objectivity and support, offering a clearer vision of actual treatment issues when feelings were high. At times when we felt depleted, Mrs. Friedman's support replenished us and we were able to return to the group with enthusiasm. In conclusion, it has been fun working as co-therapists. We have found that the sharing and mutual confrontation contributed significantly to our professional growth.

  4. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  5. Post orthodontic treatment stability measurement in dentoskeletal class I malocclusion based on the objective grading system index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Anthony Pasaribu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of orthodontic treatment results in dentoskeletal class I malocclusion treated with and without extraction of four premolars and to compare the stability of treatment result between those groups. Occlusal relationship after treatment and six-month post retention were measured on dental cast using The Objective Grading System Index at Orthodontic Specialist Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran. The analytic descriptive study was carried out on 30 samples that comprised 14 samples were treated without extraction of four premolars and 16 samples were treated with extraction of four premolars. ABO Measuring Gauge was used to measure seven variables: tooth alignment, the height of the marginal ridges, buccolingual inclination, occlusal relationships, occlusal contacts, overjet, and interproximal tooth contacts. The results were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank test to test the difference of The Objective Grading System Index between posttreatment and postretension. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to determine the difference between the group with the extraction of four premolars and the group without extraction of four premolars. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The results of this study showed these following variables: tooth alignment, occlusal contacts, and overjet were unstable at the group with the extraction of four premolars, while only tooth alignment was found to be unstable in the group without extraction of the four premolars. Mann-Whitney U test did not show statistically significant difference in stability comparison test between the groups.

  6. New construction of quantum error-avoiding codes via group representation of quantum stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hailin [Wenzhou University, College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Wenzhou (China); Southeast University, National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Nanjing (China); Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Cognitive Radio and Information Processing, Guilin (China); Zhang, Zhongshan [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center for Convergence Networks and Ubiquitous Services, Beijing (China); Chronopoulos, Anthony Theodore [University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Computer Science, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-10-15

    In quantum computing, nice error bases as generalization of the Pauli basis were introduced by Knill. These bases are known to be projective representations of finite groups. In this paper, we propose a group representation approach to the study of quantum stabilizer codes. We utilize this approach to define decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs). Unlike previous studies of DFSs, this type of DFSs does not involve any spatial symmetry assumptions on the system-environment interaction. Thus, it can be used to construct quantum error-avoiding codes (QEACs) that are fault tolerant automatically. We also propose a new simple construction of QEACs and subsequently develop several classes of QEACs. Finally, we present numerical simulation results encoding the logical error rate over physical error rate on the fidelity performance of these QEACs. Our study demonstrates that DFSs-based QEACs are capable of providing a generalized and unified framework for error-avoiding methods. (orig.)

  7. Occlusal stability after Herbst treatment of patients with retrognathic and prognathic facial types : A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Gnandt, Erhard; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare occlusal changes induced by Herbst treatment and the stability of these changes in patients with retrognathic and prognathic facial types. The sample comprised 11 retrognathic (SNA ≤76°, SNB ≤72°, ML/NSL ≥36°) and 10 prognathic (SNA ≥83°, SNB ≥80°, ML/NSL ≤32°) patients with Class II molar relationships of ≥0.5 cusp widths bilaterally or ≥1.0 cusp width unilaterally. Both groups involved similar distributions of skeletal maturity before treatment. Study parameters were assessed on casts reflecting the situations before treatment (T0), after Herbst treatment (T1), after multibracket treatment immediately following Herbst treatment (T2), and after a mean of 31.1 months of retention (T3). Sagittal molar relationships improved by 0.8 cusp widths in the retrognathic and by 0.7 cusp widths in the prognathic group during active treatment (T0-T2). Insignificant changes of ≤0,2 cusp widths were seen in both groups during retention (T2-T3). Overjet decreased by 8.6 mm in the retrognathic and by 5.5 mm in the prognathic group during T0-T2, and both groups showed clinically irrelevant amounts of relapse by 0.7 mm during T2-T3. Overbite improved by 1.2 mm in the retrognathic and by 2.5 mm in the prognathic group during T0-T2, reaching mean values of 1.0 mm or 1.4 mm by T2, which was followed by 0.2 mm or 1.1 mm of relapse during T2-T3. Treatment with a Herbst appliance seems to offer stable correction of the sagittal occlusal relationships in Class II patients with retrognathic or prognathic facial types, with the vertical changes being more pronounced in the prognathic cases.

  8. Anisotropic square lattice Potts ferromagnet: renormalization group treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Tsallis, C.

    1981-01-01

    The choice of a convenient self-dual cell within a real space renormalization group framework enables a satisfactory treatment of the anisotropic square lattice q-state Potts ferromagnet criticality. The exact critical frontier and dimensionality crossover exponent PHI as well as the expected universality behaviour (renormalization flow sense) are recovered for any linear scaling factor b and all values of q(q - [pt

  9. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Garcia, Camila S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Ogawa, Erika S. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Matos, Adaias O. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine, Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN — Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W Harrison, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R{sub p} and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R{sub p} (P < .008) and increased I{sub corr} and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  10. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beline, Thamara; Garcia, Camila S.; Ogawa, Erika S.; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Matos, Adaias O.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 , and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (R p ) (P < .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P < .006), corrosion current density (I corr ) and corrosion rate (P < .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased R p and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced R p (P < .008) and increased I corr and corrosion rate (P < .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P < .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi. - Highlights: • Acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. • Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi. • Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride can be safely used.

  11. Treatment stability in patients with Class II malocclusion treated with 2 maxillary premolar extractions or without extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Camardella, Leonardo Tavares; Araki, Janine Della Valle; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of Class II malocclusion treatment with and without extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. A sample of 59 records from patients with complete Class II malocclusion was used. This sample was divided into 2 groups with the following characteristics: group 1, comprising 29 patients treated without extractions, and group 2, comprising 30 patients treated with extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. Dental cast measurements were obtained before and after treatment and at a minimum of 2.4 years after treatment. The pretreatment, posttreatment, and postretention occlusal statuses were evaluated with the peer assesment rating index. The occlusal indexes at the postretention stage and the posttreatment changes and percentages of posttreatment changes were compared with t tests. The nonextraction and the 2 maxillary premolar extraction treatment protocols of complete Class II malocclusions had no statistically significant differences in occlusal stability. Finishing Class II malocclusion treatment with the molars in a Class II relationship has similar occlusal stability as finishing with the molars in a Class I relationship. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrical properties and mechanical stability of anchoring groups for single-molecule electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Frisenda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental investigation of transport through single molecules, trapped between two gold nano-electrodes fabricated with the mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ technique. The four molecules studied share the same core structure, namely oligo(phenylene ethynylene (OPE3, while having different aurophilic anchoring groups: thiol (SAc, methyl sulfide (SMe, pyridyl (Py and amine (NH2. The focus of this paper is on the combined characterization of the electrical and mechanical properties determined by the anchoring groups. From conductance histograms we find that thiol anchored molecules provide the highest conductance; a single-level model fit to current–voltage characteristics suggests that SAc groups exhibit a higher electronic coupling to the electrodes, together with better level alignment than the other three groups. An analysis of the mechanical stability, recording the lifetime in a self-breaking method, shows that Py and SAc yield the most stable junctions while SMe form short-lived junctions. Density functional theory combined with non-equlibrium Green’s function calculations help in elucidating the experimental findings.

  13. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  14. Mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment in bipolar disorders and risk of suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. METHODS: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide w...... similar reduction in the rate of suicide, the results suggest that treatment with lithium may have some superiority in relation to prevention of suicide.......OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. METHODS: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide...... was investigated among all patients discharged nationwide from hospital psychiatry as an in- or outpatient in a period from 1995 to 2000 in Denmark with a diagnosis of BD. RESULTS: A total of 5,926 patients were included in the study and among these 51 patients committed suicide eventually during the study period...

  15. Mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment in bipolar disorders and risk of suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, A.G.; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. Methods: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide w...... similar reduction in the rate of suicide, the results suggest that treatment with lithium may have some superiority in relation to prevention of suicide Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Objectives: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. Methods: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide...... was investigated among all patients discharged nationwide from hospital psychiatry as an in- or outpatient in a period from 1995 to 2000 in Denmark with a diagnosis of BD. Results: A total of 5,926 patients were included in the study and among these 51 patients committed suicide eventually during the study period...

  16. Skeletal stability of patients undergoing maxillomandibular advancement for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hwa; Kaban, Leonard B; Lahey, Edward T

    2015-04-01

    To determine the long-term stability of maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent MMA and genial tubercle advancement (GTA) for treatment of OSA. Patients were included if they 1) were older than 19 years; 2) had a confirmatory polysomnogram; 3) underwent a Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomies, and GTA; 4) had adequate radiographic documentation; and 5) at least 11 months of follow-up. Exclusion criteria included previous orthognathic or other maxillofacial surgery. Predictor variables were the presence of OSA treated by MMA, pre- and postoperative orthodontia or no orthodontia, length of follow-up, and magnitude of advancement. The outcome variable was the stability of MMA judged by clinical examination and cephalometric measurements. Standardized lateral cephalometric measurements were performed preoperatively (T0), immediately postoperatively (T1), and at the latest follow-up beyond 11 months (T2). Differences in cephalometric measurements were calculated between time points (T0 to T1 and T1 to T2) for the overall group and for patients who had orthodontia (group 1) and those who did not (group 2). A correlation analysis using length of follow-up and magnitude of advancement as predictor variables of stability was completed. For all analyses, a P value less than .05 was considered statistically significant. During the 9-year study period, 120 patients with OSA were evaluated and 112 had operative treatment; 25 patients specifically had MMA and GTA, met the inclusion criteria, and formed the study sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular advancements (T1 vs T0) were 9.48 mm (range, 1.6 to 15.2 mm) and 10.85 mm (range, 6.3 to 15.8 mm), respectively. From T1 to T2, no occlusal changes occurred. Changes in the subgroup analyses included a decrease in the angle formed by the sella, nasion, and A point (SNA) and the angle formed by the nasion

  17. Aryl-NHC-group 13 trimethyl complexes: structural, stability and bonding insights

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Melissa M.

    2016-12-14

    Treatment of aromatic N-substituted N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with trimethyl-gallium and -indium yielded the new Lewis acid-base adducts, IMes·GaMe3 (1), SIMes·GaMe3 (2), IPr·GaMe3 (3), SIPr·GaMe3 (4), IMes·InMe3 (5), SIMes·InMe3 (6), IPr·InMe3 (7), and SIPr·InMe3 (8), with all complexes being identified by X-ray diffraction, IR, and multinuclear NMR analyses. Complex stability was found to be largely dependent on the nature of the constituent NHC ligands. Percent buried volume (%VBur) and topographic steric map analyses were employed to quantify and elucidate the observed trends. Additionally, a detailed bond snapping energy (BSE) decomposition analysis focusing on both steric and orbital interactions of the M-NHC bond (M = Al, Ga and In) has been performed.

  18. HIGHLY REFRACTORY CRUCIBLES OF STABILIZED ZIRCONIA FOR INDUCTION MELTING OF THE PLATINUM GROUP METALS, FABRICATED BY VIBROCASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Primachenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the studies at PJSC « UKRNIIO them. A.S.Berezhnogo» the technology and commercial production of crucibles from stabilized zirconia for the smelting of platinum group metals are develop

  19. Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kathlene Tracy,1,2 Samantha P Wallace3 1Community Research and Recovery Program (CRRP, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York Harbor Healthcare System (NYHHS, New York, 3Department of Community Health Sciences, State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY, USA Objective: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction.Methods: The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE.Results: Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1 substance use, 2 treatment engagement, 3 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4 secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services

  20. Thiomaltol-Based Organometallic Complexes with 1-Methylimidazole as Leaving Group: Synthesis, Stability, and Biological Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Carmen M; Legina, Maria S; Pichler, Verena; Schmidlehner, Melanie; Roller, Alexander; Dömötör, Orsolya; Enyedy, Eva A; Jakupec, Michael A; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-11-21

    Thiomaltol, a potential S,O-coordinating molecule, has been utilized for the complexation of four different organometallic fragments, yielding the desired Ru II , Os II , Rh III , and Ir III complexes having a "piano-stool" configuration. In addition to the synthesis of these compounds with a chlorido leaving group, the analogous 1-methylimidazole derivatives have been prepared, giving rise to thiomaltol-based organometallics with enhanced stability under physiological conditions. The organometallic compounds have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Their behavior in aqueous solution and their interactions with certain amino acids have been studied by ESI mass spectrometry. Their pH-dependent stability has been investigated by 1 H NMR in aqueous solution, and their cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines has been investigated. Furthermore, their capacity as topoisomerase IIα inhibitors as well as their effect on the cell cycle distribution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation have been elucidated. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thermal stability of second generation carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Campus Universitario, Universidad de Alcala, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    Thermal analysis has a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical industry, in designing new molecules, control of raw materials, stability, compatibility studies, and development of new formulations. This paper evaluates the thermodynamic properties of two second generation G2 carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups by differential scanning calorimetry and TG/FTIR coupled techniques. The physical transformations have been detected and their thermodynamic characteristics have been estimated and analyzed. Both dendrimers are stable up to 150 Degree-Sign C, have the Tg at 75 and 59 Degree-Sign C and melting temperatures at 113 and 128 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The decomposition process proved to be very complex and takes place in three steps in nitrogen atmosphere and four steps in air, for both types of dendrimers. IR spectroscopic analysis was used to observe the evolution of the gaseous products versus temperature.

  2. Treatment issues in the group psychotherapy of addicted physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayne, M; Silvan, M

    1999-01-01

    For the most part, physician-addict patients are affable, cooperative and tend to be bright, verbal and engaging. However, on a deeper level they experience significant internal obstacles to truly using treatment. The role of the healer adopted after years of training and work experience is not easily exchanged for the role of patient. Furthermore, the armour of defenses and character style that have been built up over a lifetime is resistant to modification. Additionally, most of these patients have not chosen to change. They have been ordered into treatment under considerable duress and are aware that retaining their hard-earned careers is dependent on their successful performance in treatment. Given all these difficulties it is striking that the vast majority of these patients gradually come to experience a genuine and meaningful connection to the group and the therapeutic process. They develop close relationships with their fellow group members and come to use them as a support system, even at times when the group is not in session. They report looking forward to group and missing it when it does not meet. In this context they begin to take risks by sharing on a deeper level and slowly bring to the group issues in their life other than addiction. Their devotion to group is reflected by the fact that when no longer mandated, many continue voluntarily and maintain that the experience is central to their recovery. One of the major reasons recovering physicians are able to make this connection is that behind their fear of interpersonal relationships is a tremendous wish to join with others. Many report profound relief at discovering they are not alone and are able to use group to address their deeply felt sense of shame. For many this is their first experience of such strong feelings of attachment and affiliation to a group of peers. Their prior professional experience did not routinely allow for such relationships and as Smith (1978) has observed, their experience

  3. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2005-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of…

  4. Stability of orthodontic treatment outcome in relation to retention status: An 8-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinnes, Jeanett; Johnsen, Gunn; Kerosuo, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the stability of orthodontic treatment outcome and retention status 7 or more years after active treatment in relation to posttreatment or postretention time, type of retention appliance, and duration of retainer use. The subjects were former patients who completed orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances from 2000 to 2007. The pretreatment eligibility criteria were anterior crowding of 4 mm or more in the maxilla or the mandible and Angle Class I or Class II sagittal molar relationship. Acceptable pretreatment and posttreatment dental casts were required. A total of 67 patients participated, 24 men and 43 women, with a mean age of 24.7 years (range, 20.0-50.0 years). All participants had a follow-up clinical examination, which included impressions for follow-up casts, and each completed a questionnaire. Data were obtained from pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up (T2) casts as well as from the patients' dental records. Treatment stability was evaluated with the peer assessment rating (PAR) index and Little's irregularity index. The participation rate was 64%. The average posttreatment time was 8.5 years (range, 7.0-11.0). All participants had received a retainer in the mandible, maxilla, or both after active treatment. At T2, the PAR score showed a mean relapse of 14%. The majority (78%) of participants still had a fixed retainer at T2 (retainer group), and 22% had been out of retention for at least 1 year (postretention group). The relapse according to the PAR did not differ significantly between participants with and without a retainer at T2. From posttreatment to T2, the irregularity of the mandibular incisors increased almost 3 times more in participants with no retainer in the mandible compared with those with an intact retainer at T2 (P = 0.001). In the maxilla, no corresponding difference was found. Our results suggest that occlusal relapse can be expected after active orthodontic treatment irrespective of long

  5. Medium-term effects of Dynesys dynamic stabilization versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion for treatment of multisegmental lumbar degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiting; Pang, Qingjiang; Jiang, Guoqiang

    2017-10-01

    Objective To compare the medium-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for treatment of multisegmental lumbar degenerative disease. Methods Fifty-seven patients with multisegmental lumbar degenerative disease underwent Dynesys stabilization (n = 26) or PLIF (n = 31) from December 2008 to February 2010. The mean follow-up period was 50.3 (range, 46-65) months. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Radiographic evaluations included disc height and range of motion (ROM) of the operative segments and proximal adjacent segment on lumbar flexion-extension X-rays. The intervertebral disc signal change was defined by magnetic resonance imaging, and disc degeneration was classified by the Pfirrmann grade. Results The clinical outcomes including the VAS score and ODI were significantly improved in both groups at 3 months and the final follow-up, but the difference between the two was not significant. At the final follow-up, the disc height of stabilized segments in both groups was significantly increased; the increase was more notable in the Dynesys than PLIF group. The ROM of stabilized segments at the final follow-up decreased from 6.20° to 2.76° and 6.56° to 0.00° in the Dynesys and PLIF groups, respectively. There was no distinct change in the height of the proximal adjacent segment in the two groups. The ROM of the proximal adjacent segment in both groups increased significantly at the final follow-up; the change was significantly greater in the PLIF than Dynesys group. Only one case of adjacent segment degeneration occurred in the PLIF group, and this patient underwent a second operation. Conclusions Both Dynesys stabilization and PLIF can improve the clinical and radiographic outcomes of multisegmental lumbar degenerative disease. Compared with PLIF, Dynesys stabilization can maintain the mobility of the

  6. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra dos

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls) at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions), treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1), final (T2) and long-term posttreatment (T3). A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests. The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  7. Stability of opiates in hair fibers after exposure to cosmetic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötsch, L; Skopp, G

    1996-08-15

    The stability of opiates in clipped natural human hair was investigated. Hair fibers were incubated with defined solutions of morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine (pH 7.4) until saturated. Original opiate-positive hair samples collected from drug addicts also were examined. Commercially available bleaching as well as perming formulas (Poly Blonde Ultra, Poly Lock; Henkel, Düsseldorf, Germany) were applied in vitro to the hair strands of both groups under investigation. After these treatments, the drug concentration had decreased for both bleaching and permanent waving. In the spiked hair, only 2-18% of the starting solution could be found after bleaching. About 20-30% of the drug substances could still be detected after perming. In the authentic hair samples, the drug levels of the formerly opiate positive hair fibers had also been reduced but distinct tendencies could not be observed.

  8. Establishing Theoretical Stability and Treatment Integrity for Motivational Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Cathy; Woods, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence claiming the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in promoting behavioural change. However, ongoing changes to MI theory and practice have implications for its transferability, accessibility and for the validity of previous findings. Lack of practice consistency may make its effectiveness difficult to evaluate. This paper explores the complexity of MI and issues in the development of evidence-based practice in delivery, before describing issues related to practitioner application. Theoretical and practice developments over the last 30 years are reviewed under the headings theory, practice and efficacy. Specifically, developments across the three editions of the core MI texts are examined. Findings from the literature suggest a lack of theoretical stability and practice integrity, with recent fundamental changes to the underpinning structure of MI. Issues relating to the transferability and acquisition of MI skills, consistency of delivery and mechanisms underlying change are discussed. The authors call for greater theoretical stability, more transparency over how developments are based on theoretical principles and empirical outcomes, and clearer guidance about how this informs practice development and delivery of MI.

  9. Comments on the asymptotic treatment of tokamak MHD-stability at large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    1980-01-01

    In the asymptotic treatment of tokamak MHD stability at small inverse aspect ratio epsilon, the special case of poloidal wave number m=0 has been treated improperly in the literature for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes. In axisymmetric stability, a contribution to the perturbational vacuum field is either omitted or cancelled. In a variational stability analysis this field contribution provides σ 2 W with a correction term proportional to (1nepsilon) -1 , which may change the asymptotic range of stability and improve agreement with numerical finite-aspect-ratio results. In non-axisymmetric stability, for the perturbational vacuum field of the m=0 modes, usually the wrong of two possible solutions is chosen. It is shown why in many cases this wrong choice has no consequences on the correctness of the stability results, and circumstances are pointed out under which consequences may arise. (author)

  10. Microtubule Stabilizing Agents as Potential Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurodegenerative Tauopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.; Huryn, Donna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.

    2012-01-01

    The microtubule (MT)-associated protein tau, which is highly expressed in the axons of neurons, is an endogenous MT-stabilizing agent that plays an important role in the axonal transport. Loss of MT-stabilizing tau function, caused by misfolding, hyperphosphorylation and sequestration of tau into insoluble aggregates, leads to axonal transport deficits with neuropathological consequences. Several in vitro and preclinical in vivo studies have shown that MT-stabilizing drugs can be utilized to compensate for the loss of tau function and to maintain/restore an effective axonal transport. These findings indicate that MT-stabilizing compounds hold considerable promise for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and related tauopathies. The present article provides a synopsis of the key findings demonstrating the therapeutic potential of MT-stabilizing drugs in the context of neurodegenerative tauopathies, as well as an overview of the different classes of MT-stabilizing compounds. PMID:23020671

  11. Surface treatment influences electrochemical stability of cpTi exposed to mouthwashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beline, Thamara; Garcia, Camila S; Ogawa, Erika S; Marques, Isabella S V; Matos, Adaias O; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Mesquita, Marcelo F; Consani, Rafael X; Barão, Valentim A R

    2016-02-01

    The role of surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) exposed to mouthwashes was tested. Seventy-five disks were divided into 15 groups according to surface treatment (machined, sand blasted with Al2O3, and acid etched) and electrolyte solution (artificial saliva — control, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.2% sodium fluoride, and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide) (n = 5). Open-circuit-potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of immersion in each solution. Potentiodynamic test and total weight loss of disks were performed after 14 days of immersion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, white light interferometry and profilometry were conducted for surface characterization before and after the electrochemical tests. Sandblasting promoted the lowest polarization resistance (Rp) (P b .0001) and the highest capacitance (CPE) (P b .006), corrosion current density (Icorr) and corrosion rate (P b .0001). In contrast, acid etching increased Rp and reduced CPE, independent to the mouthwash; while hydrogen peroxide reduced Rp (P b .008) and increased Icorr and corrosion rate (P b .0001). The highest CPE values were found for hydrogen peroxide and 0.2% sodium fluoride. Immersion for longer period improved the electrochemical stability of cpTi (P b .05). In conclusion, acid etching enhanced the electrochemical stability of cpTi. Hydrogen peroxide and sodium fluoride reduced the resistance to corrosion of cpTi, independent to the surface treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate and cetylpyridinium chloride did not alter the corrosive behavior of cpTi.

  12. Oxidative stability of cnicken thigh meat after treatment of abies alba essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the Abies alba essential oil in two different concentrations on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass which were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.10% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Abies alba oil 0.20% v/w. The Abies alba essential oil was applicate on ground chicken things and immediately after dipping, each sample was packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and storage in refrigerate at 4 ±0.5 °C. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value expressed in number of malondialdehyde was measured in the process of first storage day of 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day after slaughtering and expressed on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample. The treatments of chicken things with Abies alba essential oil show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group (0.4380 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.124 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.086 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.082 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.077 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with Abies alba essential oil positively influenced on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh

  13. Oxidative stability of chicken thigh meat after treatment of fennel and savory essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the fennel and savory essential oils on oxidative stability of chicken thigh muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were used chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period. The obtained fresh chicken thigh with skin from left half-carcass were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with fennel (Foeniculum vulgare essential oil at concentrations 0.2% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with savory (Satureja hortensis essential oil at concentration 0.2% v/w. The essential oils were applicate on surface chicken thighs. The chicken thighs were packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and stored in refrigerate at                 4 ±0.5 °C. The value of thiobarbituric acid (TBA expressed as amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample was measured during storage in 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day. The treatments of chicken thighs with fennel and savory essential oils show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in thigh muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group                 (0.359 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.129 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.091 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.084 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.089 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. Experiment results show that the treatment of chicken thigh with fennel and savory essential oils had positive influence on the reduction of oxidative processes in thigh muscles during chilling storage and use of essential oil is one of the options increase shelf life of fresh chicken meat.

  14. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yali; Li Jianquan; Ma Zhien; Liu Luju

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. → Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. → Global dynamics of the two models. → Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  15. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  16. Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities

  17. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear: Reliability of MR Imaging to Predict Stability after Conservative Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Ahn, Joong Mo; Yoon, Young Cheol; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Seon Woo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of MR imaging to predict the stability of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) after complete recovery of the ligament's continuity. Twenty patients with 20 knee injuries (13 males and 7 females; age range, 20 54) were enrolled in the study. The inclusion criteria were a positive history of acute trauma, diagnosis of the ACL tear by both the physical examination and the MR imaging at the initial presentation, conservative treatment, complete recovery of the continuity of the ligament on the follow up (FU) MR images and availability of the KT-2000 measurements. Two radiologists, who worked in consensus, graded the MR findings with using a 3-point system for the signal intensity, sharpness, straightness and the thickness of the healed ligament. The insufficiency of ACL was categorized into three groups according to the KT-2000 measurements. The statistic correlations between the grades of the MR findings and the degrees of ACL insufficiency were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test (p < 0.05). The p-values for each category of the MR findings according to the different groups of the KT-2000 measurements were 0.9180 for the MR signal intensity, 1.0000 for sharpness, 0.5038 for straightness and 0.2950 for thickness of the ACL. The MR findings were not significantly different between the different KT-2000 groups. MR imaging itself is not a reliable examination to predict stability of the ACL rupture outcome, even when the MR images show an intact appearance of the ACL.

  18. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  19. The role of mast cell stabilization in treatment of postoperative ileus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Frans O; Buist, Marrije R; Lei, Aaltje; Bennink, Roelof J; Hofland, Jan; van den Wijngaard, René M; de Jonge, Wouter J; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2009-09-01

    Although postoperative ileus (POI) is considered multifactorial, intestinal inflammation resulting from manipulation-induced mast cell activation is recognized as an important pathophysiological mechanism. Therefore, mast cell stabilization may represent a new therapeutic approach to shortening POI. The aim of this paper was to study the effect of ketotifen, a mast cell stabilizer, on postoperative gastrointestinal transit in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. In this pilot study, 60 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery for gynecological malignancy with standardized anesthesia were randomized to treatment with ketotifen (4 or 12 mg) or placebo. Patients were treated for 6 days, starting 3 days before surgery. Gastric emptying of liquids, selected as a primary outcome parameter, was measured 24 h after surgery using scintigraphy. Secondary end points were (scintigraphically assessed) colonic transit, represented as geometrical center of activity (segment 1(cecum) to 7(stool)) and clinical parameters. Gastric retention 1 h after liquid intake was significantly reduced by 12 mg (median 3% (1-7), P=0.01), but not by 4 mg ketotifen (18% (3-45), P=0.6) compared with placebo (16% (5-75)). Twenty-four hour colonic transit in placebo was 0.8 (0.0-1.1) vs. 1.2 (0.2-1.4) colon segments in the 12 mg ketotifen group (P=0.07). Abdominal cramps were significantly relieved in patients treated with 12 mg ketotifen, whereas other clinical parameters were not affected. Ketotifen significantly improves gastric emptying after abdominal surgery and warrants further exploration of mast cell stabilizers as putative therapy for POI.

  20. Effects of heat treatment on density, dimensional stability and color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties and color change of Pinus nigra wood which has high industrial use potential and large growing stocks in Turkey. Wood samples which comprised the material of the study were obtained from an industrial plant. Samples were ...

  1. Treatment of waste using a hybrid gas- water stabilized torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Oost, G.; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Hlína, Michal; Kavka, Tetyana; Beeckman, E.; Verstraeten, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 7-12. ISBN 4-9900642-4-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * pyrolysis * waste treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  2. Composite operator and condensate in the S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory with U (N -1 ) stability group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschinke, Matthias; Matsudo, Ryutaro; Nishino, Shogo; Shinohara, Toru; Kondo, Kei-Ichi

    2018-02-01

    Recently, some reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory inspired by the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition have been developed in order to understand confinement from the viewpoint of the dual superconductivity. In this paper we focus on the reformulated S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory in the minimal option with U (N -1 ) stability group. Despite existing numerical simulations on the lattice we perform the perturbative analysis to one-loop level as a first step towards the nonperturbative analytical treatment. First, we give the Feynman rules and calculate all renormalization factors to obtain the standard renormalization group functions to one-loop level in light of the renormalizability of this theory. Then we introduce a mixed gluon-ghost composite operator of mass dimension 2 and show the Bechi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance and the multiplicative renormalizability. Armed with these results, we argue the existence of the mixed gluon-ghost condensate by means of the so-called local composite operator formalism, which leads to various interesting implications for confinement as shown in preceding works.

  3. Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with bioactive Cerecyte coils: effects on treatment stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Ergun, Onur; Koc, Osman; Cekirge, Saruhan; Saatci, Isil

    2008-01-01

    The Cerecyte coils were developed to improve long-term stability of embolized cerebral aneurysms by producing an increased fibrous reaction over the neck of the aneurysms. We report our preliminary clinical experience with mid-term follow-up. Seventy-eight consecutive patients with 84 intracranial aneurysms treated exclusively with Cerecyte coils were included in this study. Forty-eight aneurysms were ruptured and 36 were incidental. Twenty-two aneurysms were small with ( 25 mm). The embolization technique was the same with that in standard bare coiling. Immediate post-procedure angiography demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion in 69%, neck remnant in 29.8% and incomplete occlusion in 1.2%. Follow-up angiography was obtained in 80 aneurysms in a period of time ranging from 6 months to 2 years. The overall recanalization rate was 11.3%, and the re-treatment rate was 6.3%; in the subgroup analysis, recanalization rates were 4.5% in S/S; 9.8% in S/W; and 33.3% in large aneurysms. The only giant aneurysm also showed recanalization. Procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates were 2.6% and 1.3%, respectively. Our midterm results showed a relatively low rate of recurrence compared to those reported for platinum coils with morbidity and mortality rates comparable to those with standard bare platinum coils. The efficacy of Cerecyte coils in the long term will be specifically addressed by the ongoing randomized Cerecyte coil trial. (orig.)

  4. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  5. Multifunctional and potent roles of the 3-hydroxypropoxy group provide eldecalcitol's benefit in osteoporosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Eldecalcitol (1α,25-dihydroxy-2β-(3-hydroxypropoxy)vitamin D3, [developing code: ED-71]), a new osteoporosis treatment drug that was recently approved in Japan, is a best-in-class drug in the class of calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and its prodrug alfacalcidol (1α-hydroxyvitamin D3), which have been used to treat osteoporosis for 30 years. In a comparative Phase III clinical study with alfacalcidol in osteoporosis patients, eldecalcitol demonstrated superior efficacy in the endpoints of increment of bone mineral density and reduction of bone fracture with equivalent safety to alfacalcidol. Eldecalcitol was discovered by searching synthetic analogs of calcitriol and alfacalcidol, and its main structural characteristic is having the 3-hydroxypropoxy group at the 2β-position. This review discusses why introducing the group leads to excellent efficacy and safety in osteoporosis treatment and elucidates the functional roles of the 3-hydroxypropoxy group. Briefly, the functional roles of the group are, first, realizing the metabolism switching in which eldecalcitol shows resistance to CYP24A1 and is metabolized in the liver; second, increasing the affinity to the serum carrier protein and prolonging the half-life to 53h; and third, stabilizing the eldecalcitol-receptor complex. Taken together, these functional roles of the 3-hydroxypropoxy group are beneficial in osteoporosis treatment. This review attempts to give a detailed account of the mode of action of eldecalcitol by clarifying these multifunctional roles of the 3-hydroxypropoxy group from the medicinal chemist's perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioural Group Treatment for Hoarding Disorder: A Naturalistic Treatment Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulding, Richard; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Kyrios, Michael; Osborne, Debra; Mogan, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to test whether a 12-week publically rebated group programme, based upon Steketee and Frost's Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based hoarding treatment, would be efficacious in a community-based setting. Over a 3-year period, 77 participants with clinically significant hoarding were recruited into 12 group programmes. All completed treatment; however, as this was a community-based naturalistic study, only 41 completed the post-treatment assessment. Treatment included psychoeducation about hoarding, skills training for organization and decision making, direct in-session exposure to sorting and discarding, and cognitive and behavioural techniques to support out-of-session sorting and discarding, and nonacquiring. Self-report measures used to assess treatment effect were the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), Savings Cognition Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Pre-post analyses indicated that after 12 weeks of treatment, hoarding symptoms as measured on the SI-R had reduced significantly, with large effect sizes reported in total and across all subscales. Moderate effect sizes were also reported for hoarding-related beliefs (emotional attachment and responsibility) and depressive symptoms. Of the 41 participants who completed post-treatment questionnaires, 14 (34%) were conservatively calculated to have clinically significant change, which is considerable given the brevity of the programme judged against the typical length of the disorder. The main limitation of the study was the moderate assessment completion rate, given its naturalistic setting. This study demonstrated that a 12-week group treatment for hoarding disorders was effective in reducing hoarding and depressive symptoms in an Australian clinical cohort and provides evidence for use of this treatment approach in a community setting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A 12-week group programme delivered in a community setting was effective for helping with

  7. Treatment method for stabilization of radioactive exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo, Oni; Takashi, Miyake; Hitoshi, Miyamoto; Toshio, Funakoshi; Yuzo, Inagaki.

    1988-01-01

    This is a method for eluting radioactive nuclides from a radioactive ion exchange resin in which it has been absorbed. First, the Cs in this resin is extracted using a neutral salt solution which contains Na + . The Cs that has been transferred to the neutral salt solution is absorbed and expelled by inorganic ion exchangers. Then the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr in said resin are eluted using an acidic solution; the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr that have been transferred to the acidic solution are separated from that solution by means of a diffusion dialysis vat. This process is a unique characteristic of this ion exchange resin treatment method. 1 fig

  8. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H

    2005-01-01

    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude

  9. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Favaro FRANCISCONI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. Material and Methods: The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions, treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1, final (T2 and long-term posttreatment (T3. A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. Results: The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Conclusions: Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  10. Theory and analysis of nonlinear dynamics and stability in storage rings: A working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Audy, P.; Courant, E.D.

    1988-07-01

    A summary and commentary of the available theoretical and analytical tools and recent advances in the nonlinear dynamics, stability and aperture issues in storage rings are presented. 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. The stability and functional properties of proteoliposomes mixed with dextran derivatives bearing hydrophobic anchor groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, Marieke G.L.; Wit, Janny G. de; Veld, Gerda in 't; Reichert, Anke; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Ringsdorf, Helmut; Konings, Wilhelmus

    1992-01-01

    Liposomes composed of Escherichia coli phospholipid were coated with polysaccharides bearing hydrophobic palmitoyl anchors. The effect on the stability of liposomes without or with integral membrane proteins was investigated. A high concentration of hydrophobized dextrans protected the liposomes

  12. Evaluation and improvement of gamma-ray stability of chelating resins containing oxy-acid groups of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyo, Akinori; Yamabe, Kazunori; Shuto, Taketomi

    1998-01-01

    Chelating resins containing oxy-acid groups of phosphorus, such as phosphonic and phosphoric acid groups have been studied from the point of view of solvent extraction processes for the separation of nuclear fuel elements as well as of fission product ones. The present work was planned to evaluate the effect of gamma-ray on properties of the resins and to obtain directional information for design of the resins having high stability to gamma-ray. It was clarified that gamma-ray stability of the resins is not high; tolerance limit is ca. 2.3x10 3 C/kg. The present work also clarified that polymers crosslinked with divinylbenzene have much higher gamma-ray stability than ones crosslinked with dimetacrylate esters of oligo (ethylene glycol)s. (J.P.N.)

  13. Treatment-Resistant Hypertension and Outcomes Based on Randomized Treatment Group in ALLHAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Pressel, Sara L; Muntner, Paul M; Calhoun, David A; Kostis, John B; Whelton, Paul K; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Rahman, Mahboob; Black, Henry R

    2017-04-01

    Although hypertension guidelines define treatment-resistant hypertension as blood pressure uncontrolled by ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, it is unknown whether patient prognosis differs when a diuretic is included. Participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) were randomly assigned to first-step therapy with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. At a Year 2 follow-up visit, those with average blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic on ≥3 antihypertensive medications, or blood pressure heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction) and secondary (all-cause mortality, stroke, heart failure, combined coronary heart disease, and combined cardiovascular disease) outcomes were identified for each treatment group. Of participants assigned to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril, 9.6%, 11.4%, and 19.7%, respectively, had treatment-resistant hypertension. During mean follow-up of 2.9 years, primary outcome incidence was similar for those assigned to chlorthalidone compared with amlodipine or lisinopril (amlodipine- vs chlorthalidone-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-1.39; P = .53; lisinopril- vs chlorthalidone-adjusted HR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.70-1.60; P = .78). Secondary outcome risks were similar for most comparisons except coronary revascularization, which was higher with amlodipine than with chlorthalidone (HR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.11-3.11; P = .02). An as-treated analysis based on diuretic use produced similar results. In this study, which titrated medications to a goal, participants assigned to chlorthalidone were less likely to develop treatment-resistant hypertension. However, prognoses in those with treatment-resistant hypertension were similar across treatment groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of Double Deficit Groups across Time: An Analysis of Group Stability from Kindergarten to Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steacy, Laura M.; Kirby, John R.; Parrila, Rauno; Compton, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    The Double Deficit Hypothesis of dyslexia is one approach to classifying students with reading disabilities. The theory offers four distinct groups of readers: (a) average readers, (b) students with phonological deficits, (c) students with naming speed deficits, and (d) students with double deficits: those having both (b) and (c). This study…

  15. The application of VIS spectrophotometric determination of enalapril maleate in substance, in tablets and estimation of ester group stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisz, B

    1999-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric VIS method is proposed for the determination of enalapril maleate in pure substance and in tablets. Attempts have been made to estimate stability of the ester group in the molecule of enalapril maleate in the solid phase at 70 degrees C.

  16. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100–130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130–140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  17. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization.

  18. Evaluating the Stability of Open Bite Treatments and Its Predictive Factors in the Retention Phase during Permanent Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Parisa; Pakshir, Hamid Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Ali Reza

    2015-03-01

    Orthodontists often find challenges in treating the anterior open bite and maintaining the results. This retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the stability of corrected open bite in the retention phase during permanent dentition. A total number of 37 patients, including 20 males and 17 females, with the mean age of 18±2.1 years at the beginning of the treatment were studied after correction of the anterior open bite. Overbites of the patients were measured from their lateral cephalograms before (T1), at the end (T2) and at least 3 years after the end of the treatment in the presence of their fixed retainers (T3).The mean overbite changes and the number of patients with open bite, due to treatment relapse, at T3 were calculated. The relationship between the pre-treatment factors and the treatment relapse was assessed at T1 and T2. Also the effects of treatment methods, extraction and adjunctive use of removable appliances on the post-treatment relapse were evaluated. The mean overbite change during the post-treatment period was -0.46±0.7 mm and six patients (16.2%) had relapse in the follow-up recall. Cephalometric Jaraback index showed statistically significant, but weak correlation with overbite changes after the treatment (p= 0.035; r= -0.353). No significant difference was found between the extraction and non-extraction groups (p= 0.117) the use and the type of the removable appliances (p= 0.801). Fixed retainers alone are insufficient for stabilizing the results of corrected open bite. The change of overbite in the retention phase could not be predicted from cephalometric measurements. Extraction and use of adjunctive removable appliance did not have any effect on the treatment relapse.

  19. Evaluating the Stability of Open Bite Treatments and Its Predictive Factors in the Retention Phase during Permanent Dentition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Parisa; Pakshir, Hamid Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Orthodontists often find challenges in treating the anterior open bite and maintaining the results. Purpose This retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the stability of corrected open bite in the retention phase during permanent dentition. Materials and Method A total number of 37 patients, including 20 males and 17 females, with the mean age of 18±2.1 years at the beginning of the treatment were studied after correction of the anterior open bite. Overbites of the patients were measured from their lateral cephalograms before (T1), at the end (T2) and at least 3 years after the end of the treatment in the presence of their fixed retainers (T3).The mean overbite changes and the number of patients with open bite, due to treatment relapse, at T3 were calculated. The relationship between the pre-treatment factors and the treatment relapse was assessed at T1 and T2. Also the effects of treatment methods, extraction and adjunctive use of removable appliances on the post-treatment relapse were evaluated. Results The mean overbite change during the post-treatment period was -0.46±0.7 mm and six patients (16.2%) had relapse in the follow-up recall. Cephalometric Jaraback index showed statistically significant, but weak correlation with overbite changes after the treatment (p= 0.035; r= -0.353). No significant difference was found between the extraction and non-extraction groups (p= 0.117) the use and the type of the removable appliances (p= 0.801). Conclusion Fixed retainers alone are insufficient for stabilizing the results of corrected open bite. The change of overbite in the retention phase could not be predicted from cephalometric measurements. Extraction and use of adjunctive removable appliance did not have any effect on the treatment relapse. PMID:25759854

  20. Formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose during ozone treatment of pulp: consequences for pulp bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, Frédéric; Chirat, Christine; Potthast, Antje; Lachenal, Dominique

    2014-08-30

    The formation of carbonyl groups during the ozone treatment (Z) of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid) kraft pulps and their behaviors during subsequent alkaline stages were investigated by the CCOA method with carbazole-9-carboxylic acid [2-(2-aminooxethoxy)-ethoxy] amide (CCOA) as the carbonyl-selective fluorescence label. Several pulp samples with or without lignin and hexenuronic acids (hexA) were used to elucidate the effects of these components when present in unbleached kraft pulp. Both hexA and lignin increased the formation of carbonyl groups on cellulose and hemicellulose during ozonation. It was concluded that radicals are likely formed when ozone reacts with either lignin or hexA. These carbonyl groups were involved in cellulose depolymerization during subsequent alkaline extraction stages with sodium hydroxide (E) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (P, in ZEP or ZP). Their numbers decreased after E but increased during P when H2O2 was not stabilized enough. Several ways to minimize the occurrence of carbonyl group formation are suggested. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Influence of fiber treatment on dimensional stabilities of rattan waste composite boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraida, A.; Insyirah, Y.; Maisarah, T.; Zahurin, H.

    2018-01-01

    The main drawback of using natural fibers in composite boards is its hydrophilic properties which absorb a high volume of moisture. This results in low dimensional stability of the produced composite boards. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of fibers’ treatment processes of the rattan waste fibers on the dimensional stabilities of composite boards. The collected fibers underwent two types of retting processes, namely a water treatment and alkaline treatment retting processes; where the fibers were soaked in water and a 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, respectively. The fibers were dried and mixed with poly(lactic) acid (PLA) pellets with ratio of 30% fibers: 70% matrix; before being fabricated into composite boards via a hot-pressing process and were labelled as RF/PLA, WRF/PLA, CRF/PLA for untreated rattan, rattan treated by water retting, rattan treated by chemical retting, respectively. The produced composite boards were cut and soaked in water for 24 hours for dimensional stability in terms of water absorption and thickness swelling tests. The results showed that WRF/PLA has the lowest water absorption (3.2%), and the CRF/PLA had the highest water absorption (23.2%). The thickness swelling showed a similar trend as water absorption. The presence of void contents and fibers damaged the insides of the boards, which contributed to low dimensional stabilities of the composite boards. It can be concluded that water retting facilitated in improving dimensional stability of the produced composite board.

  2. Wastewater Sludge Stabilization Using Lime A Case Study of West Ahwaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Farzadkia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization is a chemical method used for wastewater sludge stabilization. It is capable of decreasing large quantities of pathogens and of preventing microbial degradation of sludge organic materials. The main objective of the present experimental research was to investigate stabilization of the sludge from west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant by lime addition and to control if the microbial quality of this sludge conforms to the USEPA standards for sludge reuse and safe disposal. The study was carried out on a pilot scale in 5 stages over a period of 12 months (July 2005 to June 2006 at west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant laboratory using raw sludge. For the purposes of this study, a 30-liter reactor was commissioned and loaded with sludge and appropriate quantities of hydrated lime were added based on the solid waste percent. The parameters used to determine stabilization efficiency were pH, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and parasite eggs. The results showed that lime addition at a ratio of 265g Ca(OH2/kg. ds was the optimum level for sludge stabilization in westAhwazwastewater treatment plant, which is acceptable from both economic and technical viewpoints. The method is capable of achieving class B but never satisfied class A of USEPA standards.

  3. Stability of skeletal changes induced by growth modulation procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha Govinakovi Shivamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective of this study, based on an evaluation of lateral cephalograms, was to evaluate the degree of skeletal changes produced by the various growth modulative procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion and to characterize the stability of these changes in the years after treatment. Materials and Methods: Total of 40 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into three groups according to appliance used, i.e. removable or fixed functional appliances (n = 10, combination of functional appliance with headgear (n = 10, and only headgear (n = 10. In addition, almost a matched control group (n = 10 also characterized by skeletal Class II pattern and were under observation, for more than 2 years was also selected. Lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken at the start of treatment (T1, at its completion (T2, and long-term posttreatment (T3. Results: This study showed significant improvement in maxillomandibular relationship in treated group compared to control group, and the changes remained stable in posttreatment phase. Restriction of maxillary growth was evident in headgear and combination groups whereas significant forward movement of the mandible was seen in functional group. Conclusion: Analysis of lateral cephalograms indicates that growth modulation therapy in angle Class II malocclusion brings about desired skeletal changes which remain relatively stable over a long-term period.

  4. Predicting the effect of psychoeducational group treatment for hypochondriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.M.; Bouman, T.K.

    2008-01-01

    Both individual cognitive-behavioural therapy and short-term psychoeducational courses have shown to be effective in reducing hypochondriacal complaints. However, it is unknown which patients benefit from treatment. The aim of the present study is to explore which variables predict treatment outcome

  5. A dynamic combinatorial approach for identifying side groups that stabilize DNA-templated supramolecular self-assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantoni, Delphine; Cantel, Sonia; Dumy, Pascal; Ulrich, Sébastien

    2015-02-06

    DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA.

  6. A Dynamic Combinatorial Approach for Identifying Side Groups that Stabilize DNA-Templated Supramolecular Self-Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Paolantoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA.

  7. Effect of fluorinated groups on photooxidative stability of polymeric protectives applied on marble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiantore, O; Poli, T; Colombo, C; Peruzzi, R; Toniolo, L

    2001-01-01

    Some new protective copolymers and a commercial one have been tested on Candoglia marble, a very low porosity stone. Two of the polymers contained a partially fluorinated methacrylic monomer, 2,2,2 trifluoro ethyl methacrylate (TFEMA), in combination with either an acrylic, methyl acrylate (MA) or a vinyl ether, n-butyl vinyl ether (n-BVE) unit. Two copolymers, ethyl methacrylate/n-butyl vinyl ether and ethyl methacrylate (EMA)/methyl acrylate (Paraloid B72), were non-fluorinated and similar in compositions and molar ratio. The aim of the work is to test the copolymers and compare the performances of fluorinated new polymers with the non fluorinated one and with the largely used commercial product. The results obtained demonstrate that the introduction, even in limited amounts, of fluorine atoms in the side ester groups of methacrylic type polymers really improves their protective effect and the durability of the stone treatments. The best results were obtained with the copolymer TFEM/MA which is the fluorinated homologous of Paraloid B72.

  8. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex

  9. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Holmes-Burns, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Petersell, J. [AIMS, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Schwendiman, L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex.

  10. The Effects of pH and Heat Treatment Processing on the Stability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of pH and heat treatment processing on stability and natural food colours used in dairy products. A repeated laboratory experiment was conducted in which loss of colour intensity or change in shade of natural food colours used in acid and nearly neutral dairy products at ...

  11. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  12. [Membrane-stabilizing preparations in the treatment of patients with heart rhythm disorders of different etiologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A D; Grigor'eva, Z E; Stepanova, I V; Vizir, V A

    1991-10-01

    Data are reported of a study of the efficacy of membrane-stabilizing antiarrhythmic agents--ethmosin, ethacisin, allapinin. The latter was used in the treatment of 85 patients with arrhythmias of different etiology and proved more effective as compared with ethmosin and ethacisin. In ventricular extrasystole the effect was favourable in 86%, in supraventricular--in 70% of patients.

  13. Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnosis among Youths in Treatment and Aftercare for Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Josephine M.; Kaminer, Yifrah; Burke, Rebecca; Burleson, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among a sample of 50 adolescents in cognitive-behaviorally-based treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUD). Methods: A standardized psychiatric interview was administered at baseline and 12 month later to obtain current comorbid psychiatric disorders. Chi…

  14. Marital stability and repartnering: infertility-related stress trajectories of unsuccessful fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D; Costa, Maria E; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-12-01

    To compare the trajectories of infertility-related stress between patients who remain in the same relationship and patients who repartner. Longitudinal cohort study using latent growth modeling. Fertility centers. Childless men and women evaluated before starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. None. Marital stability and infertility-related stress. The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants separated and repartnered while pursuing fertility treatments. Marital stability significantly predicted the initial status of infertility stress and infertility stress growth levels. Specifically, patients who repartnered had higher infertility stress levels at all time points compared with those who remained in the same relationship, regardless of the partner they were with at assessment. Furthermore, results showed an increasing stress trajectory over time for those who repartnered, compared with those who remained in a stable relationship. Men and women in fertility treatment who form a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital relationships and lead to repartnering. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Occlusal stability of adult Class II Division 1 treatment with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko Christian; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2010-08-01

    During recent years, some articles have been published on Herbst appliance treatment in adult patients, an approach that has been shown to be most effective in Class II treatment in both early and late adulthood. However, no results on stability have yet been published. Our objective was to analyze the short-term occlusal stability of Herbst therapy in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The subjects comprised 26 adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions exhibiting a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp bilaterally or > or =1.0 cusp unilaterally and an overjet of > or =4.0 mm. The average treatment time was 8.8 months (Herbst phase) plus 14.7 months (subsequent multi-bracket phase). Study casts from before and after treatment and after an average retention period of 32 months were analyzed. After retention, molar relationships were stable in 77.6% and canine relationships in 71.2% of the teeth. True relapses were found in 8.2% (molar relationships) and 1.9% (canine relationships) of the teeth. Overjet was stable in 92.3% and overbite in 96.0% of the patients; true relapse did not occur. Herbst treatment showed good occlusal stability 2.5 years after treatment in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  17. Application of a Motor Learning Treatment for Speech Sound Disorders in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Steven L; Richard, Jennifer T

    2016-06-01

    Speech sound treatment in the public schools is often conducted in small groups, but there are minimal data on the efficacy of group treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a motor learning-based treatment (Concurrent Treatment) provided to elementary-school students in small groups. Concurrent Treatment incorporates the randomized sequencing of various practice tasks (e.g., words, sentences, or storytelling) and can result in rapid speech sound acquisition during individual treatment settings. Twenty-eight 6- to 9-year-old children participated in a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The experimental group received Concurrent Treatment, while the control group received treatment (if needed) after the study. Participants in the experimental group acquired their target speech sounds within 40 30-minute sessions in groups of up to four participants (effect size, d = 1.31). © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Degree of functionalization and stability of fluorine groups fixed to carbon nanotubes and graphite nanoplates by CF{sub 4} microwave plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader-Fernández, V.K.; Morales-Lara, F. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Melguizo, M.; García-Gallarín, C.; López-Garzón, R.; Godino-Salido, M.L. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071 Jaén (Spain); López-Garzón, F.J., E-mail: flopez@ugr.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Domingo-García, M.; Pérez-Mendoza, M.J. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The surface area of GNPs and MWCNTs determines the degree of fluorination by plasma. • Fluorine is bound to carbon atoms in up to eight chemical environments. • The stability of the fluorine groups varies in a wide range of temperature. • The electronic properties of MWCNTs are changed as a consequence of fluorination. • The textural characteristics of the materials are not changed after fluorination. - Abstract: The fluorination of graphite nanoplates (GNPs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by CF{sub 4} cold plasma is reported. The aim is to analyze the influence of the textural characteristics in the degree of fluorination and in the thermal stability of the fluorine groups. We have used thermal programmed desorption which clearly discriminates the nature of the desorbing species and their stability. The degree of fluorination of both materials is similar up to 20 min of treatment and then it decreases in GNPs at longer treatments. Nevertheless, the fluorine content in MWCNTs keeps increasing after 45 min. This different evolution of the fluorination degree with the time is related to the surface areas. The fluorine bonding is produced not only in defects and irregularities but also on the external graphene sheets of both materials, and it results in up to eight different chemical environments having different thermal stabilities from 150 °C up to temperatures higher than 900 °C. The fluorination increases the electronic states near the Fermi level of the nanotubes whereas it does not affect the electronic properties of graphite nanoplates. It is shown that no intercalation compounds are formed and that the textural characteristics of the materials remain unchanged after fluorination.

  19. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  20. The hydrogen bond stabilizing effect in enammonium salts of captodative aminoalkenes containing a carbonyl group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, S. V.; Rulev, A. Yu; Chipanina, N. N.; Sherstyannikova, L. V.; Turchaninov, V. K.

    2004-03-01

    Enhanced stability of enammonium salts of captodative carbonyl-containing aminoalkenes as compared to the salts of simple enamines is discussed on the basis of 1H and 13C NMR, IR, UV spectroscopy and the results quantum chemical calculations. Stabilization of the N-protonated form of captodative aminoalkenes is due to either intramolecular (NH +⋯OC) or intermolecular (NH +⋯Solv or NH +⋯X -) hydrogen bonding, whereas the C-protonated form is destabilized due to umpolung of the carbon-carbon double bond. The formation of bifurcated (three-centered) hydrogen bond between the enammonium cation and the solvent is demonstrated. The three-centered solvate complex is characterized by nonclassical dependence of the chemical shift of the bridging hydrogen atom from the proton-acceptor power of the solvent.

  1. In vitro analysis of the influence of surface treatment of dental implants on primary stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rodrigues Mazzo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment interferes with the primary stability of dental implants because it promotes a chemical and micromorphological change on the surface and thus stimulates osseointegration. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on primary stability by analyzing insertion torque (IT and pullout force (PF. Eight samples of implants with different surface treatments (TS - external hexagon with acid surface treatment; and MS - external hexagon, machined surface, all 3.75 mm in diameter X 11.5 mm in length, were inserted into segments of artificial bones. The IT of each sample was measured by an electronic torquemeter, and then the pullout test was done with a universal testing machine. The results were subjected to ANOVA (p < 0.05, followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05. The IT results showed no statistically significant difference, since the sizes of the implants used were very similar, and the bone used was not highly resistant. The PF values (N were, respectively, TS = 403.75 ± 189.80 and MS = 276.38 ± 110.05. The implants were shown to be different in terms of the variables of maximum force (F = 4.401, p = 0.0120, elasticity in maximum flexion (F = 3.672, p = 0.024, and relative stiffness (F = 4.60, p = 0.01. In this study, external hexagonal implants with acid surface treatment showed the highest values of pullout strength and better stability, which provide greater indication for their use.

  2. Stabilization of Metal-Loaded Ion-Exchange Resin with a Porous Silica Supporter Through Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I-T. Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.; Kim, J-H.

    2003-02-25

    A new ion exchanger with porous silica as a supporting material and diphosphonic acid as a functional chelating group has been developed at ANL for the effective removal of transition metals and actinide ions from very acidic radioactive liquid wastes. The applicability of this resin for the treatment of low- and/or intermediate-level aqueous waste from nuclear power plants (NPP) has not been reported in scientific literature, but is under study now in Korea. The major radioisotopes in NPP radioactive liquid waste are Cs and Co in neutral pH ranges. This study on the thermal stabilization of metal-loaded waste resin has been carried out in parallel with the sorption experiment. Thermal treatment of metal (Co, Cs or U) loaded resin was accomplished to see the possibility of enhancing the safety and stability of the final product during transportation and disposal. In this paper, characteristics of the metal-loaded resins before and after heat treatment at three different thermal conditions were investigated and compared with each other to see the effectiveness of the thermal treatment method.

  3. Bringing Creative Writing Instruction into Reminiscence Group Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine D

    2017-12-19

    This article describes the program evaluation of a group intervention combining reminiscence with literary creative writing instruction. This 10-week, 1-hour group was completed seven times in an outpatient geriatric mental health clinic. Each session introduced a different reminiscence theme and creative writing practice. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through group monitoring and qualitative feedback. Effectiveness was assessed with pre- and post-test depression screening (PHQ-9) and qualitative feedback. A total of 34 veterans participated in the groups, with a mean group size of 4.86 (SD = .69). Participants were 85% male (n = 29) and 15% female (n = 5) with a mean age of 70.89 (SD = 8.30). To increase accessibility, several adaptations were made. There were statistically significant reductions in PHQ-9 depression scores (p = .005). Veterans reported qualitative improvements including increased motivation and self-expression. This intervention was feasible and acceptable to the veterans being served. Randomized controlled research is needed to better understand efficacy. Clinicians may consider ways to augment or adapt reminiscence interventions to meet the needs of their patient population. Clinicians may find it useful to integrate creative writing instruction into reminiscence interventions.

  4. Treatment stabilization in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasané, Rahul; Hodgkins, Paul; Meijer, Willemijn

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the number of patients reaching stable treatment with a stimulant (methylphenidate or dexamphetamine) or non-stimulant (atomoxetine) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication approved for use in the Netherlands, and the time to treatment stabilization among children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. Prescription data from the PHARMO medical record linkage system from 48 geo-demographic areas in the Netherlands (2003-2006) were analyzed from newly treated patients with ADHD aged 6-17 years. Only patients with ≥ 5 dispensings for any ADHD drug during follow-up (at least 12 months) and no missing information on type of drug, strength, and number of pills per day were included. Attainment of a stable dosing regimen was defined as no change in type of drug (including a switch from an immediate release (IR) to a long-acting (LA) formulation), strength, and number of pills per day for five consecutive dispensings. Time to stable dosing regimen was defined as the number of days between the first dispensing for an ADHD drug and the first of five unchanged dispensings. Of 4909 children or adolescents initiating treatment, 3099 met selection criteria. More patients starting therapy with LA methylphenidate (82.4%) achieved treatment stabilization during follow-up than with IR methylphenidate (74.8%; p dose compared to those initiated on IR methylphenidate (25.3%) or atomoxetine (8.1%; p pills per day varied between 1.0 and 1.8 at initial treatment and 1.1 and 1.9 at treatment stabilization. Potential limitations of the study include the use of ADHD-medication dispensing as a proxy for an ADHD diagnosis and the impact of different titration schedules for the various ADHD medications. Overall, 2316 of the 3066 eligible patients (75.5%) achieved treatment stabilization during follow-up. Among children and adolescents with ADHD in the Netherlands, the time to treatment stabilization varied according to choice of initial treatment and was shortest for

  5. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT THE EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN CORE STABILIZATION VS MCKENZIE EXERCISES IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MECHANICAL LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dutta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical Low back pain is a leading cause of disability. It occurs in similar proportions in all cultures, interferes with quality of life and work performance. Both male and female populations are affected; however, there is a tendency towards a higher incidence in male patients. Mechanical low back pain is associated with pain and clinical instability in lumbar motion segments. Exercises play an important part in the rehabilitation of low back pain. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness between Core stabilization vs McKenzie exercises in the treatment of patients with mechanical low back pain. Methods: 30 patients were selected between the age groups of 20 yrs to 50 yrs and having a past history of low back pain for one month. 15 patients were allotted to each group of experiment. Group I was given Core stabilization exercises and Group II with McKenzie exercises. Interferential therapy was a common treatment for both the groups. Evaluations of the subjects were done using the Revised Oswestry Disability Index and Dynamic Endurance tests. Results: Data analysis revealed statistically significant difference between both the groups (p<0.05 and proved that Core stabilization exercises is more effective than McKenzie exercises in mechanical low back pain. Conclusion: This study shows that core stabilization exercises possess a greater potential over McKenzie exercises in treating Mechanical Low back pain patients.

  7. Wastewater stabilization ponds - an appropriate technology for sewage treatment and refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of wastewater is imperative to protect human health and environmental quality. To this effect, the chosen technology should be cost effective, simple and easy to operate and maintain. Wastewater stabilization ponds offer one such technology and their use should be promoted in countries with scarcity of water so as to reuse the treated effluents in irrigation. Long term, pilot scale investigations on the performance of wastewater stabilization ponds have been undertaken at the Institute of Environmental Engineering and Research, Lahore to develop design criteria for their local use. This paper discuss the types and operation of waste stabilization ponds and the extent of their application in Pakistan. The need for users' education for effective operation of this simple facility is also emphasized. (author)

  8. A holistic group psychotherapeutic intervention for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the intervention was determined by utilising comparative statistics. The findings indicate that holistic short-term group therapy results in significant improvement in terms of depression and anxiety scores, but that IBS symptom severity remains unchanged. It is recommended that further research be conducted to ...

  9. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  10. Thermal Treatment of Iron Oxide Stabilized APC Residues from Waste Incineration and the Effect on Heavy Metal Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Stackpoole, M.; Bender-Koch, C.

    2000-01-01

    Iron oxide stabilized APC residues from MSWI were heat treated at 600°C and 900°C. The thermal treatments resulted in a change in product stability by forcing a transformation in the mineralogical structures of the products. The treatments, moreover, simulated somewhat the natural aging processes...... that would take place in a stabilized residue. Consequent changes in crystalline structure and heavy metal binding were examined....

  11. [Stabilization Treatment of Pb and Zn in Contaminated Soils and Mechanism Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-qiang; Li, Xiao-mingi; Chen, Can; Chen, Xun-feng; Zhong, Yu; Zhong, Zhen-yu; Wan, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the combined application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quick lime and potassium chloride was used to immobilize the Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. The efficiency of the process was evaluated through leaching tests and Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The mechanism of stabilization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reveal the mechanism of stabilization. The results showed that the stabilizing efficiency of Pb contaminated soils was above 80% and the leaching concentrations of Pb, Zn were far below the threshold when the ratio of exogenous P and soil (mol · mol⁻¹) was 2:1-4: 1, the dosing ratio of CaO was 0.1%-0.5% ( mass fraction) and the dosage of potassium chloride was 0.02-0. 04 mol. Meanwhile, Pb and Zn in soil were transformed from the exchangeable fraction into residual fraction, which implied that the migration of Pb, Zn in soil could be confined by the stabilization treatment. XRD and SEM analysis revealed that Ca-P-Pb precipitation, lead orthophosphate [PbHP0₄, Pb₃ (PO₄)₂], pyromorphite (Pb-PO₄-Cl/OH) and mixed heavy metal deposits (Fe-PO₄- Ca-Pb-Zn-OH) could be formed after solidification/stabilization in which Pb and Zn could be wrapped up to form a solidified composition and to prevent leaching.

  12. Stability analysis of an HIV/AIDS epidemic model with treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liming; Li, Xuezhi; Ghosh, Mini; Guo, Baozhu

    2009-07-01

    An HIV/AIDS epidemic model with treatment is investigated. The model allows for some infected individuals to move from the symptomatic phase to the asymptomatic phase by all sorts of treatment methods. We first establish the ODE treatment model with two infective stages. Mathematical analyses establish that the global dynamics of the spread of the HIV infectious disease are completely determined by the basic reproduction number [real]0. If [real]01. Then, we introduce a discrete time delay to the model to describe the time from the start of treatment in the symptomatic stage until treatment effects become visible. The effect of the time delay on the stability of the endemically infected equilibrium is investigated. Moreover, the delay model exhibits Hopf bifurcations by using the delay as a bifurcation parameter. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the results.

  13. Comparing Hatha yoga with dynamic group psychotherapy for enhancing methadone maintenance treatment: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H J; LaSalvia, T A; Stein, J P

    1997-07-01

    As more methadone treatment programs are funded in an attempt to curb substance abuse and HIV infection among i.v. drug users, more cost effective treatment approaches are being sought. To investigate whether clients in outpatient methadone maintenance treatment who practice weekly Hatha yoga in a group setting experience more favorable treatment outcomes than those who receive conventional group psychodynamic therapy. After a 5-day assessment period, 61 patients were randomly assigned to methadone maintenance enhanced by traditional group psychotherapy (ie, conventional methadone treatment) or an alternative Hatha yoga therapy (ie, alternative methadone treatment). Patients were followed for 6 months and evaluated on a variety of psychological, sociological, and biological measures. The revised Symptom Check List provided the primary psychological measures; the Addiction Severity Index provided various indices of addictive behaviors. The evidence revealed that there were no meaningful differences between traditional psychodynamic group therapy and Hatha yoga presented in a group setting. Both treatments contributed to a treatment regimen that significantly reduced drug use and criminal activities. Psychopathology at admission was significantly related to program participation regardless of treatment group. In addition to examining the characteristics of patients who present for treatment, this study identifies unexpected staff issues that complicate the integration of alternative and traditional treatment strategies. Alternative methadone treatment is not more effective than conventional methadone treatment, as originally hypothesized. However, some patients may benefit more from alternative methadone treatment than conventional methadone treatment. Additional research is necessary to determine characteristics that identify patients who might benefit from alternative methadone treatment.

  14. THE ASSESMENT OF THE EFFICENCY AND STABILITY OF WORK SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN ZABAJKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Młyński

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the assessment of the efficiency and stability of work sewage treatment plant in Zabajka was performed based on the results of the physico-chemical measurements raw sewage and treated sewage noted in the period between 2010 and 2014. The analysis was performed for the following pollutants indicators: BOD5, CODCr and total suspended solids. For each of them descriptive statistics, percentage reduction the pollutants indicators and treatment plant reliability factors (WN were calculated. The assessment of the stability of work of sewage treatment plant was performed by using control cards X for the simple test. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that sewage treatment plant in Zabajka works properly, what is confirmed by high values of the pollutants indicators reduction and the values of WN, which are less than 1.00. The analysis of the control cards indicates instability of the treatment process only for CODCr, but it does not impact on treatment efficiency in relation to this indicator.

  15. Role of water balance in the long-term stability of hazardous waste site cover treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1986-01-01

    After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments

  16. Marathon versus Weekly Encounter-Group Treatment on Self-Actualization: Two Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Both treatment groups, conducted by the same leader, received the same sequence of group exercises. A significant group effect indicated that both groups increased their self-actualization scores from the pretest. No significant differences were found between the two experimental groups on self-actualization or perceived adjustment to life events.…

  17. Application of landfill treatment approaches for stabilization of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R

    2016-09-01

    This research sought to compare the effectiveness of three landfill enhanced treatment approaches aimed at removing releasable carbon and nitrogen after anaerobic landfilling including flushing with clean water (FB 1), leachate recirculation with ex-situ treatment (FB 2), and leachate recirculation with ex-situ treatment and in-situ aeration (FB 3). After extensive treatment of the waste in the FB scenarios, the overall solids and biodegradable fraction were reduced relative to the mature anaerobically treated waste. In terms of the overall degradation, aeration did not provide any advantage over flushing and anaerobic treatment. Flushing was the most effective approach at removing biodegradable components (i.e. cellulose and hemicellulose). Leachate quality improved for all FBs but through different mechanisms. A significant reduction in ammonia-nitrogen occurred in FB 1 and 3 due to flushing and aeration, respectively. The reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in FB 1 was primarily due to flushing. Conversely, the reduction in COD in FBs 2 and 3 was due to oxidation and precipitation during Fenton's Reagent treatment. A mass balance on carbon and nitrogen revealed that a significant fraction still remained in the waste despite the additional treatment provided. Carbon was primarily converted biologically to CH4 and CO2 in the FBs or removed during treatment using Fenton's Reagent. The nitrogen removal occurred through leaching or biological conversion. These results show that under extensive treatment the waste and leachate characteristics did meet published stability values. The minimum stability values achieved were through flushing although FB 2 and 3 were able to improve leachate quality and solid waste characteristics but not to the same extent as FB 1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Christine M; Lowder, Jerry L

    2018-01-02

    Urinary tract infections are the most common outpatient infections, but predicting the probability of urinary tract infections through symptoms and test results can be complex. The most diagnostic symptoms of urinary tract infections include change in frequency, dysuria, urgency, and presence or absence of vaginal discharge, but urinary tract infections may present differently in older women. Dipstick urinalysis is popular for its availability and usefulness, but results must be interpreted in context of the patient's pretest probability based on symptoms and characteristics. In patients with a high probability of urinary tract infection based on symptoms, negative dipstick urinalysis does not rule out urinary tract infection. Nitrites are likely more sensitive and specific than other dipstick components for urinary tract infection, particularly in the elderly. Positive dipstick testing is likely specific for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, but urine culture is still the test of choice. Microscopic urinalysis is likely comparable to dipstick urinalysis as a screening test. Bacteriuria is more specific and sensitive than pyuria for detecting urinary tract infection, even in older women and during pregnancy. Pyuria is commonly found in the absence of infection, particularly in older adults with lower urinary tract symptoms such as incontinence. Positive testing may increase the probability of urinary tract infection, but initiation of treatment should take into account risk of urinary tract infection based on symptoms as well. In cases in which the probability of urinary tract infection is moderate or unclear, urine culture should be performed. Urine culture is the gold standard for detection of urinary tract infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, particularly in older women, and should not be treated with antibiotics. Conversely, in symptomatic women, even growth as low as 10 2 colony-forming unit/mL could reflect infection. Resistance is

  19. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for a Heterogeneous Group of Treatment-Resistant Clients: A Treatment Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sue; Kingston, Jessica; Wilson, Kelly G.; Bolderston, Helen; Remington, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been shown to have broad applicability to different diagnostic groups, and there are theoretical reasons to consider its use with clients with chronic mental health problems. We report an innovative treatment development evaluation of ACT for a heterogeneous group of "treatment-resistant clients" (N =…

  1. CONJUGATE TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM LANDFILL AND SEWAGE IN DOMESTIC STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the per capita generation of municipal solid waste is approximately 0.80 kg hab-1 day-1, which implies daily production of 156 tons, whereas on average 50% of this quantity of waste is composed mainly of putrescible organic material that will contribute to the leachate generation process directly influencing the qualitative and quantitative aspects. Landfill leachate basically originates from the percolation process of different types of water and is considered a wastewater to cause in significant environmental impact on the environment, given in possession of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, organic matter difficult to biodegradation, metals heavy and xenobiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a series of stabilization ponds, the treatment process conjugate of landfill leachate fresh more domestic sewage in the proportion of 1 plus 99% (volume percent, respectively. The experimental system consisted of four stabilization ponds in series, being a facultative pond, followed by three maturation ponds. . The applied surface charge (λs the series of stabilization ponds was 320 kg DBO5 ha-1 day-1 with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 17 days for the series. The average removal efficiency of BOD5 and ammonia was 69 and 86% respectively, while removing coliform efficiency always in the 99.9% threshold during the monitoring period was 220 days. Overall it can be concluded that treatment conjugate landfill leachate and sewage in stabilization ponds, in northeastern Brazil, is emerging as a promising technological alternative, given the comfortable area availability in northeastern Brazil, conditions climate favorable and the ponds system present low ratio cost / benefit when compared to other waste treatment systems of this nature.

  2. Group and Individual Variability in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls Recorded on the Same Day Show Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra D. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in a variety of social situations, and USVs have been leveraged to study many neurological diseases including verbal dyspraxia, depression, autism and stuttering. Pups produce isolation calls, a common USV, spontaneously when they are isolated from their mother during the first 2 weeks of life. Several genetic manipulations affect (and often reduce pup isolation calls in mice. To facilitate the use of this assay as a means of testing whether significant functional differences in genotypes exist instead of contextual differences, we test the variability inherent in many commons measures of mouse vocalizations. Here we use biological consistency as a way of determining which are reproducible in mouse pup vocalizations. We present a comprehensive analysis of the normal variability of these vocalizations in groups of mice, individual mice and different strains of mice. To control for maturation effects, we recorded pup isolation calls in the same group of C57BL/6J 5 days old mice twice, with 1 h of rest in between recordings. In almost all cases, the group averages between the first and second recordings were the same. We also found that there were high correlations in some parameters in individual mice across recording while others were not well correlated. These findings could be replicated for the majority of features in a separate group of C57BL/6J mice and a group of 129/SvEvBrd-C57BL/6J mice. The averages of these mouse USV features are highly consistent and represent a robust assay to test the effects of genetic and other interventions in the experimental setting.

  3. A review of heat-treatment effects on activity and stability of PEM fuel cell catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Cicero W.B. [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Av. dos Portugueses, S/N 65.080-040 Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hansan; Lee, Kunchan; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Marques, Aldalea L.B. [Department of Technology Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Marques, Edmar P. [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Av. dos Portugueses, S/N 65.080-040 Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    This paper reviews over 120 papers regarding the effect of heat treatment on the catalytic activity and stability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell catalysts. These catalysts include primarily unsupported and carbon-supported platinum (Pt), Pt alloys, non-Pt alloys, and transition metal macrocycles. The heat treatment can induce changes in catalyst properties such as particle size, morphology, dispersion of the metal on the support, alloying degree, active site formation, catalytic activity, and catalytic stability. The optimum heat-treatment temperature and time period are strongly dependent on the individual catalyst. With respect to Pt-based catalysts, heat treatment can induce particle-size growth, better alloying degree, and changes in the catalyst surface morphology from amorphous to more ordered states, all of which have a remarkable effect on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability. However, heat treatment of the catalyst carbon supports can also significantly affect the ORR catalytic activity of the supported catalyst. Regarding non-noble catalysts, in particular transition metal macrocycles, heat treatment is also important in ORR activity and stability improvement. In fact, heat treatment is a necessary step for introducing more active catalytic sites. For metal chalcogenide catalysts, it seems that heat treatment may not be necessary for catalytic activity and stability improvement. More research is necessary to improve our fundamental understanding and to develop a new strategy that includes innovative heat-treatment processes for enhancing fuel cell catalyst activity and stability. (author)

  4. A review of heat-treatment effects on activity and stability of PEM fuel cell catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Cicero W. B.; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hansan; Lee, Kunchan; Marques, Aldaléa L. B.; Marques, Edmar P.; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun

    This paper reviews over 120 papers regarding the effect of heat treatment on the catalytic activity and stability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell catalysts. These catalysts include primarily unsupported and carbon-supported platinum (Pt), Pt alloys, non-Pt alloys, and transition metal macrocycles. The heat treatment can induce changes in catalyst properties such as particle size, morphology, dispersion of the metal on the support, alloying degree, active site formation, catalytic activity, and catalytic stability. The optimum heat-treatment temperature and time period are strongly dependent on the individual catalyst. With respect to Pt-based catalysts, heat treatment can induce particle-size growth, better alloying degree, and changes in the catalyst surface morphology from amorphous to more ordered states, all of which have a remarkable effect on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability. However, heat treatment of the catalyst carbon supports can also significantly affect the ORR catalytic activity of the supported catalyst. Regarding non-noble catalysts, in particular transition metal macrocycles, heat treatment is also important in ORR activity and stability improvement. In fact, heat treatment is a necessary step for introducing more active catalytic sites. For metal chalcogenide catalysts, it seems that heat treatment may not be necessary for catalytic activity and stability improvement. More research is necessary to improve our fundamental understanding and to develop a new strategy that includes innovative heat-treatment processes for enhancing fuel cell catalyst activity and stability.

  5. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-09-08

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs.

  6. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-01-01

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs

  7. Stability of films impregnated with group IVB metallocene polydyes based on monoazo dyes to high energy radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraher, C.; Kloss, J.; Medina, F. [Flordia Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A number of polydyes were synthesized based on the condensation of Group IVB metallocene dichlorides and monoazo dyes. These polydyes, and the monomeric reactants, were added to produce films. Stability to various high energy radiations derived from lasers and other high energy radiation sources was tested. By comparison, the films containing the polydyes exhibit markedly shorter {open_quotes}burnthrough{close_quotes} times when employing a laser operating in the UV-Visible region. Addition of polydyes to materials then allow energy to be concentrated thus requiring lesser energy for fabrication of items such as computer chips and other electrical devices and miniaturization of items.

  8. Stability of films impregnated with group IVB metallocene polydyes based on monoazo dyes to high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraher, C.; Kloss, J.; Medina, F.

    1993-01-01

    A number of polydyes were synthesized based on the condensation of Group IVB metallocene dichlorides and monoazo dyes. These polydyes, and the monomeric reactants, were added to produce films. Stability to various high energy radiations derived from lasers and other high energy radiation sources was tested. By comparison, the films containing the polydyes exhibit markedly shorter open-quotes burnthroughclose quotes times when employing a laser operating in the UV-Visible region. Addition of polydyes to materials then allow energy to be concentrated thus requiring lesser energy for fabrication of items such as computer chips and other electrical devices and miniaturization of items

  9. Internet-mediated cognitive behavioral group treatment for social phobia with and without comorbid depression

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hyun A

    2008-01-01

    The present study is the first Internet-mediated treatment outcome study for social phobia with and without comorbid depression. This dissertation aimed to evaluate an Internet-mediated cognitive behavioral group treatment (I-CBGT) for social phobia in a Korean population. Twenty social phobics without depression and sixteen social phobics with comorbid depression received 8 sessions of Internet-mediated cognitive behavioral group treatment. The treatment was delivered in a closed Internet co...

  10. Manual therapy and segmental stabilization in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Souza Aquaroli

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cervical radiculopathy (CR is one of the diseases that most affect the cervical spine, causing radicular symptoms in the ipsilateral limb. Conservative treatment aim recover of both mechanical and physiological functions through neural mobilization techniques, along with the activation of the deep neck flexors with cervical segmental stabilization, combining techniques of joint mobilization and manipulation, which seeks mobility improvement of crucial areas of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to evaluate a multimodal treatment to enhance the outcomes of conservative care in patients diagnosed with CR. Methods: The sample consisted of 11 patients with CR, between 21 and 59 years old, 3 female and 8 male. It was recorded the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain, the Functional Development of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS and the goniometry during shoulder abduction. The intervention plan was composed by neural mobilization, intermittent cervical traction, pompages, stretching, myofascial inhibition techniques, manipulative techniques and cervical segmental stabilization exercises. After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects underwent a new evaluation process. Results: Before the treatment, subjects reported an average pain of 7 (± 1.48 in VAS, whose dropped to average 1.18 (± 1.99 (p < 0.01. Functional disability evaluated in NPDS was 36 (± 10.95 before treatment decreasing to 11.45 (± 9.8 (p < 0.01 after the treatment. Range of motion of the ipsilateral upper limb was restores by increasing from 9.2° (± 8.2 to 137° (± 24.4 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: The proposed treatment approach was effective, significantly improving the results of analgesia and functional disability a series of cases of patients diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy. {#}

  11. Stability of additive treatment effects in multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund1, Edward Mills1,21Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaBackground: Many medical interventions are administered in the form of treatment combinations involving two or more individual drugs (eg, drug A + drug B. When the individual drugs and drug combinations have been compared in a number of randomized clinical trials, it is possible to quantify the comparative effectiveness of all drugs simultaneously in a multiple treatment comparison (MTC meta-analysis. However, current MTC models ignore the dependence between drug combinations (eg, A + B and the individual drugs that are part of the combination. In particular, current models ignore the possibility that drug effects may be additive, ie, the property that the effect of A and B combined is equal to the sum of the individual effects of A and B. Current MTC models may thus be suboptimal for analyzing data including drug combinations when their effects are additive or approximately additive. However, the extent to which the additivity assumption can be violated before the conventional model becomes the more optimal approach is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative statistical performance of the conventional MTC model and the additive effects MTC model in MTC scenarios where additivity holds true, is mildly violated, or is strongly violated.Methods: We simulated MTC scenarios in which additivity held true, was mildly violated, or was strongly violated. For each scenario we simulated 500 MTC data sets and applied the conventional and additive effects MTC models in a Bayesian framework. Under each scenario we estimated the proportion of treatment effect estimates that were 20% larger than ‘the truth' (ie, % overestimates, the proportion that were 20% smaller than ‘the truth' (ie, % underestimates,The coverage of the 95% credible

  12. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  13. tau-borides of nickel stabilized by 4a and 5a group metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Pankert, R.

    1982-01-01

    The structure in the nickel rich corners of ternary systems with nickel, boron and the refractory metals of the 4a and 5a group of the periodic system of the elements at 800 0 C is known. tau-borides of the stoichiometry (Ni,Me) 23 B 6 are of significant role in these systems. The concentration-temperature dependence between tau-borides and the nickel solid solutions is investigated in this work. This seems to be of interest with respect to an application of such compounds in wear resistant nickel base hard alloys. (orig.) [de

  14. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  15. The importance of group cohesion in inpatient treatment of combat-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carilyn C; Peterson, Mary; Bufford, Rodger; Benson, Jon

    2014-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most widespread mental illness resulting from exposure to combat, necessitating an increase in the provision of group therapy. This pilot study examined the efficacy of, and treatment outcome predictors associated with, group inpatient treatment of combat-related PTSD. Participants included 38 active duty military personnel deployed during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), diagnosed with PTSD, and consecutive admissions to an inpatient PTSD treatment facility. A paired samples t-test revealed significant change in symptom severity and global functioning between pre- and post-treatment. Multiple regression analyses supported the predictive utility of baseline symptomatology and group cohesion (> 50% of the variance in treatment outcome), highlighting the importance of group cohesion in the efficacy of group treatment for combat-related PTSD.

  16. Synthesis and Thermal Stability of Novel Poly(M-Carborane-Siloxanes) with Various Pendant Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Yanyan; Wang, Cuicui; Zhang, Xiaoa; Jiang, Shengling; Lyu, Yafei

    2017-10-01

    Poly(m-carborane-siloxanes) with various pendant groups (P15-P46) were synthesized via polycondensation of m-carborane-containing disilanols (1-4) and highly active bisureidosilanes (5 and 6). The obtained polymers exhibit controlled molecular weight by carefully adjusting the monomer ratio. Standard spectroscopic techniques including FTIR and NMR were utilized to characterize these polymers and satisfactory results were obtained. TGA analysis indicated that the thermal cyclization of polysiloxanes under nitrogen was greatly postponed by the incorporated m-carborane cage, since the siloxane bonds within the main chain were strengthened by the inductive effect of the latter. DSC and FTIR results confirmed that both siloxane unit and carborane cage were oxidized at elevated temperature under air, which contributed to the transformation of the polymers into the mixture of SiO2 and B2O3. Therefore, high char yield was obtained. Besides, the electronic effect of pendant groups greatly influenced the degradation behavior of m-carborane-containing polysiloxanes, having nothing to do with their position. The initial degradation temperature (T d5) increases with varying substituent in the order: CH2CH2CF3 < CH3 ≈ Ph < CH=CH2.

  17. The effect of hydroxyl groups on the stability and thermodynamic properties of polyhydroxylated xanthones as calculated by density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046 (China); Liu, Hongxia [School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Zhang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046 (China); Flamm, Alison [U.S. Fulbright Student Grantee, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: yangxi@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046 (China); Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046 (China)

    2012-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength of the hydrogen bonds existed in PHOXTHs is ascertained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good linear relations exist between the thermodynamic properties and N{sub PHOS}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relative stability order of PHOXTH congeners is theoretically proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a good relation between C{sub p,m} and the temperature. - Abstract: There are three types of intramolecular hydrogen bonds with bond energy about 52 kJ mol{sup -1}, 12 kJ mol{sup -1}, 20 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively in PHOXTHs which were determined by computation on B3LYP/6-311G** level. The internal rotational potentials of the hydroxy group of 1-MHOXTH and 4 Prime -MHOXTH are evaluated, and the influences of the spatial orientation of the hydroxy groups on the intramolecular hydrogen bonds and molecular stability are illustrated. The standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}{sub f}H{sup {theta}}) and standard Gibbs energy of formation ({Delta}{sub f}G{sup {theta}}) for the most stable conformation of 135 PHOXTHs are calculated by the combination of Gaussian 03 and isodesmic reactions and the theoretical order of relative stability is proposed according to the relative magnitude of calculated {Delta}{sub f}G{sup {theta}} values. In addition, the values of molar heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub p,m}) from 200 to 1000 K for PHOXTH congeners are calculated.

  18. Combined treatment of chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrial effluents by waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeresh, Mangala; Veeresh, A V; Hosetti, B B

    2002-10-01

    Influent and final effluent was collected from the CMM Ltd., Bethora, Ponda, Goa and were analysed for pH, DO, BOD, enzyme activity and chlorophyll content of the waste stabilization pond for over a period of two years of which the data for one year (pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon periods) is given. The study revealed that the DO was maximum during the pre-monsoon months and least during the monsoon. Maximum removal of BOD and phosphate was observed during the pre-monsoon periods. Enzymatic activity was at its peak during the monsoons than during the other months. Chlorophyll content was maximum during the pre-monsoon months due to increased growth of phytoplankton as the conditions were favourable for their growth. Also depending on the concentration of different chlorophyll pigments, one can come to know the different groups of algae inhabiting the stabilization ponds.

  19. "It's not like a fat camp" - A focus group study of adolescents' experiences on group-based obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Anna; Abildsnes, Eirik; Mildestvedt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents' and young adults' motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. We identified four major themes: 1) motivation, 2) body experience and self-image, 3) relationships and sense of belonging, and 4) the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.

  20. Effectiveness of Psychoanalytic-Interactional Group Therapy vs. Behavioral Group Therapy in Routine Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Peter W; Niederhofer, Eva; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schifano, Fabrizio; Bonnet, Udo; Dembski, Nikolai; Niederhofer, Anna; Specka, Michael; Tenbergen, Meike

    2018-02-23

    The cognitive behavioral therapy has been extensively investigated to assess relapse prevention rates in patients with alcohol dependence. In contrast, only little is known regarding the effectiveness of psychoanalytical psychotherapy in relapse prevention, although this treatment is widely used and especially so in Germany. The aim of this quasi-randomized study was to compare the effectiveness of these two group treatments' approaches under the condition of routine outpatient treatment in a non-university hospital. After inpatient detoxification, patients with alcohol dependence were allocated either to combined behavioral intervention (CBI) or to psychoanalytic-interactional therapy (PIT). The group treatment was carried out weekly over a period of six months. Also, the clinical care package included both individual treatment sessions (e.g. every 4-6 weeks) and abstinence supporting medication. The main outcome criteria included retention rates and frequency of alcohol relapse. Some 215 patients (mean age 49.6 years [standard deviation, 10], 56.7% males, with a mean duration of alcohol dependence of 16.5 years [range: 1-50 years]) were included in the study. Overall, CBI clients showed a retention rate of 66.7%, compared to 81.8% for PIT clients (p =.008). An intention-to-treat analysis of alcohol relapses showed a significant difference between PIT and CBI groups (PIT: 33.6%; CBI: 49.5%; p =.018). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of prescription rates of disulfiram, naltrexone or acamprosate. Notwithstanding the study limitations, PIT seemed here to be at least as effective as CBI in terms of retention and relapse prevention rates' levels.

  1. Effect of Stabilization Heat Treatment on Time-Dependent Polarization Losses in Sintered Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some companies in the motor and generator industry utilizing sintered NdFeB magnets have adopted pre-ageing heat treatment in order to improve the stability of the magnets. The parameters of this stabilization heat treatment are based mainly on assumptions rather than on any published research results. In this work, the effects of pre-ageing treatment on the time-dependent polarization losses of two different types of commercial sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. The material showing the squarer J(H curve did not benefit from the pre-ageing treatment, since it seems to be stable under a certain critical temperature. In contrast, a stabilizing effect was observed in the material showing rounder J(H curve. After the stabilization heat treatment, the polarization of the magnets was found to be at lower level, but unchanged over a certain period of time. The length of this period depends on the temperature and the duration of the pre-ageing treatment. In addition, our analysis reveals that the stabilization heat treatment performed in an open circuit condition does not stabilize the magnet uniformly.

  2. Stabilization of a cold cathode electron beam glow discharge for surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingolo, N.; Gonzalez, C.R. [Lab. de Haces Dirigidos, Depto. de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, O.E. [Lab. de Electronica Cuantica, Depto. de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rocca, J.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1997-10-01

    We have demonstrated that the reproducibility of electron beam pulses generated by a high power, cold cathode glow discharge is greatly improved by adding a small continuous keep-alive discharge current. A current of the order of 200 {mu}A was found to limit the shot to shot current variation to within 1.5{percent}. This stabilization in turn reduces by an order of magnitude the fluctuations of the energy density deposited on the target, demonstrating a reliable energy source for surface treatment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Use of alum water treatment sludge to stabilize C and immobilize P and metals in composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2015-09-01

    Alum water treatment sludge is composed of amorphous hydroxyl-Al, which has variable charge surfaces with a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (103 m(-2) g(-1)) capable of specific adsorption of organic matter molecules, phosphate, and heavy metals. The effects of adding dried, ground, alum water treatment sludge (10% w/w) to the feedstock for composting municipal green waste alone, green waste plus poultry manure, or green waste plus biosolids were determined. Addition of water treatment sludge reduced water soluble C, microbial biomass C, CO2 evolution, extractable P, and extractable heavy metals during composting. The decrease in CO2 evolution (i.e., C sequestration) was greatest for poultry manure and least for biosolid composts. The effects of addition of water treatment sludge to mature green waste-based poultry manure and biosolid composts were also determined in a 24-week incubation experiment. The composts were either incubated alone or after addition to a soil. Extractable P and heavy metal concentrations were decreased by additions of water treatment sludge in all treatments, and CO2 evolution was also reduced from the poultry manure compost over the first 16-18 weeks. However, for biosolid compost, addition of water treatment sludge increased microbial biomass C and CO2 evolution rate over the entire 24-week incubation period. This was attributed to the greatly reduced extractable heavy metal concentrations (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) present following addition of water treatment sludge, and thus increased microbial activity. It was concluded that addition of water treatment sludge reduces concentrations of extractable P and heavy metals in composts and that its effect on organic matter stabilization is much greater during the composting process than for mature compost because levels of easily decomposable organic matter are initially much higher in the feedstock than those in matured composts.

  4. STABILIZATION OF ACTIVE SLUDGE AFTER WASTEWATER TREATMENT CONTAMINATED BY PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Semenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biochemical purification of wastewater containing refined petroleum products takes place due to the oxidation of pollutants by active sludge organisms. As a result of this process the intense consumption of pollutants by active sludge and its growth occurs. Therefore, the possibility to use active sludge containing refined petroleum products after wastewater treatment requires its stabilization. Methods: In this work the oxidation by a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution was studied for its use as a stabilizer. Chemical oxidizers, including hydrogen peroxide destroy organic polymers retaining free water thus promoting water release from the structure of sludge particles. On the other hand remains of fine structured oxidized biopolymers can lead to filter clogging, that is, reduce moisture exchange of sludge. Results: The experiment was carried out to find out the correlation between the doses of hydrogen peroxide and the resistivity value of sludge filtration. Discussion: Stabilized active sludge can be used as a fuel for boiler rooms, which in its turn will reduce natural gas consumption for the enterprise needs.

  5. Arsenic in an alkaline AMD treatment sludge: Characterization and stability under prolonged anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; Fiset, Jean-Francois; Poirier, Glenn; Ablett, James

    2010-01-01

    Lime treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates large volumes of neutralization sludge that are often stored under water covers. The sludge consists mainly of calcite, gypsum and a widespread ferrihydrite-like Fe phase with several associated species of metal(loid) contaminants. The long-term stability of metal(loid)s in this chemically ill-defined material remains unknown. In this study, the stability and speciation of As in AMD sludge subjected to prolonged anoxic conditions is determined. The total As concentration in the sludge is 300 mg kg -1 . In the laboratory, three distinct water cover treatments were imposed on the sludge to induce different redox conditions (100%N 2 , 100%N 2 + glucose, 95%N 2 :5%H 2 ). These treatments were compared against a control of oxidized, water-saturated sludge. Electron micro-probe (EMP) analysis and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) results indicate that As is dominantly associated with Fe in the sludge. In all treatments and throughout the experiment, measured concentrations of dissolved As were less than 5 μg L -1 . Dissolved Mn concentration in the N 2 + glucose treatment increased significantly compared to other treatments. Manganese and As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses showed that Mn was the redox-active element in the solid-phase, while As was stable. Arsenic(V) was still the dominant species in all water-covered sludges after 9 months of anoxic treatments. In contrast, Mn(IV) in the original sludge was partially reduced into Mn(II) in all water-covered sludges. The effect was most pronounced in the N 2 + glucose treatment, suggesting microbial reduction. Micro-scale SXRF and XANES analysis of the treated sludge showed that Mn(II) accumulated in areas already enriched in Fe and As. Overall, the study shows that AMD sludges remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions. External sources of chemical reductants or soluble C were needed to induce

  6. Group treatment for survivors of torture and severe violence: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Mary; Goesel, Charles; Kinet, Melodie; Ray, Faith

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review of scholarly journals and manuscripts. The search was limited to articles published in English that focused on group treatment with torture survivors. The authors identified 36 articles and chapters for review describing a variety of group interventions for survivors of torture, including: • Supportive Group Therapy • Empowerment Workshops • Group Treatment for Sleep Disorders • Den Bosch model • Wraparound approach • Stage-oriented model The literature examined varied in approach and format: present-day and past-focused groups; structured, time-limited groups; and flexible, ongoing support groups. The studies took place in diverse locations, including Denmark, Germany, Guinea, Namibia, the Netherlands, Palestine, Serbia, the U.S., the UK, and Zimbabwe, and, in conflict, post-conflict and/or humanitarian settings. The interventions were facilitated by licensed mental health professionals, paraprofessionals, and bilingual/bicultural staff - or a combination of the latter two. Group treatment is an approach which can be administered to larger groups of survivors to address a range of treatment issues. The authors examined key clinical practice issues for group treatment including group composition and content, facilitation and measurement strategies. While the literature does provide a compelling conceptual rationale for using group treatment, the empirical literature is in fact very limited at this time, and needs to be strengthened in order to build confidence in outcomes across contexts and survivor communities. This paper points to a growing interest in the topic of group treatment for survivors of torture and severe violence, providing a comprehensive picture of group-based interventions and highlighting the need for additional research and knowledge-building.

  7. Laboratory simulations of prebiotic molecule stability in the jarosite mineral group; end member evaluation of detection and decomposition behavior related to Mars sample return

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; C. Doc Richardson; Andrew G. Conly; Jill R. Scott

    2009-10-01

    Recently, the prebiotic amino acid glycine has been found associated with natural jarosite samples from various locations around the world. Since the discovery of jarosite on Mars, extensive research focuses on linking this mineral group with possible detection of biosignatures in the geologic record on Earth and Mars. Multiple analytical methods, including extraction and mass spectrometry techniques have identified glycine and other biomolecules in jarosite samples. The jarosite end members jarosite (sensu stricto-potassium jarosite), natrojarosite (sodium jarosite), and ammoniojarosite (ammonium jarosite) have different thermodynamic stabilities, decompose at different rates, and have potentially different susceptibilities to substitution. Planetary protection issues have led to the suggestion that samples returned from Mars would need to be heat-treated before they could be analyzed on Earth. Although heat treatment of the samples would in theory destroy any potential biosignatures, valuable information can be obtained during thermal treatment by employing gravimetric techniques. The relationship between the thermodynamic stability of the jarosite end members and the effect that glycine has on the thermal decomposition behavior of each end member was investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis. Thermal gravimetric analysis has been suggested as a method capable of providing the heat treatment necessary to provide planetary protection while still providing useful information about the original state and composition of the potentially returned materials. Introducing glycine into the synthesis procedure of the potassium, sodium and ammonium jarosite end-member has elucidated the effects that glycine has on the thermal stability of the mineral group. Potassium jarosite appears to be the least susceptible to the effects of glycine, with the sodium and ammonium end members showing marked changes in thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition rates. In

  8. Improving insomnia in primary care patients: A randomized controlled trial of nurse-led group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Christina; Hetta, Jerker; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Westman, Jeanette

    2017-07-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem, and most people who seek help for insomnia consult primary care. In primary care, insomnia treatment typically consists of hypnotic drugs, although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is the recommended treatment. However, such treatment is currently available to few primary care patients. To evaluate the effects of a group treatment program for insomnia led by nurses in primary care. were the Insomnia Severity Index, a 2-week sleep diary, and a questionnaire on frequency of hypnotic drug use. A randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-treatment assessment and a 1-year post-treatment follow-up of the intervention group. Routine primary health care; 7 primary care centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Patients consulting primary care for insomnia were assessed for eligibility. To be included, patients had to have insomnia disorder and be 18 years or older. Patients were excluded if they if they worked night shifts or had severe untreated somatic and/or mental illness, bipolar disorder, or untreated sleep disorder other than insomnia. One-hundred and sixty-five patients 20 to 90 years were included. Most were women, and many had co-existing somatic and/or mental health problems. The post-treatment dropout rate was 20%. The intervention was a nurse-led group treatment for insomnia based on the techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The nurses had 2days of training in how to deliver the program. Ninety patients were randomized to the intervention and 75 to the control group (treatment as usual). Data from 82 in the intervention and 71 in the control group were analyzed in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Fifty-four of the 72 in the intervention group who participated in the group treatment program were followed up after 1year. Mean Insomnia Severity Index score decreased significantly from 18.4 to 10.7 after group treatment but remained unchanged after treatment as usual (17.0 to 16.6). The effect

  9. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incompatibility group P-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2010-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a 25-kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the IncP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidiosa required a 1.4-kbp region from pXF-RIV11 containing a replication initiation gene (trfA) and the adjacent origin of DNA replication (oriV). Constructs containing trfA and oriV from pVEIS01, a related IncP-1 plasmid of the earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae, also were competent for replication in X. fastidiosa. Constructs derived from pXF-RIV11 but not pVEIS01 replicated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas syringae. Although plasmids bearing replication elements from pXF-RIV11 or pVEIS01 could be maintained in X. fastidiosa under antibiotic selection, removal of selection resulted in plasmid extinction after 3 weekly passages. Addition of a toxin-antitoxin addiction system (pemI/pemK) from pXF-RIV11 improved plasmid stability such that >80 to 90% of X. fastidiosa cells retained plasmid after 5 weekly passages in the absence of antibiotic selection. Expression of PemK in E. coli was toxic for cell growth, but toxicity was nullified by coexpression of PemI antitoxin. Deletion of N-terminal sequences of PemK containing the conserved motif RGD abolished toxicity. In vitro assays revealed a direct interaction of PemI with PemK, suggesting that antitoxin activity of PemI is mediated by toxin sequestration. IncP-1 plasmid replication and stability factors were added to an E. coli cloning vector to constitute a stable 6.0-kbp shuttle vector (pXF20-PEMIK) suitable for use in X. fastidiosa.

  10. Treatment of invasive fungal infections: stability of voriconazole infusion solutions in PVC bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa I.H. Adams

    Full Text Available Voriconazole is a novel broad-spectrum antifungal drug, employed in the treatment of invasive fungal infections, and represents an alternative to amphotericin B treatment. The manufacturer recommends that any unused reconstituted product should be stored at 2ºC to 8ºC, for no more than 24 h, but no recommendations about i.v. infusion solutions are given. Previous works have reported on the stability of voriconazole in polyolefin bags and just one in 5% dextrose polyvinyl chloride (PVC bags, at a 4 mg.mL-1 concentration. In this work, the stability of voriconazole as an i.v. infusion solution in 0.9% sodium chloride and in 5% dextrose, in PVC bags, at 0.5 mg.mL-1, stored at 4 ºC and at room temperature, protected from light, was evaluated. These infusion solutions were analyzed for a 21-day period. Chemical stability was evaluated by HPLC assay. Visual inspection was performed and pH of the solutions was measured. No color change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. The drug content remained above 90% for 11 days in 0.9% sodium chloride and for 9 days in 5% dextrose solutions. The i.v. infusion solutions stored at room temperature were not stable. At room temperature, the voriconazole content dropped down to 88.3 and 86.6%, in 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose solutions, respectively, two days after admixture. Assays performed at the end of the study suggest the sorption of voriconazole by the PVC bags. The results of this study allow cost-effective batch production in the hospital pharmacy.

  11. MMB4 DMS nanoparticle suspension formulation with enhanced stability for the treatment of nerve agent intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Hong; Clark, Andrew P-Z; Cabell, Larry A; McDonough, Joe A

    2013-01-01

    Various oximes are currently fielded or under investigation in the United States and other countries as a component of autoinjector emergency treatment systems for organophosphate nerve agent chemical weapons. Bis-pyridinium oximes in general have greater efficacy against a broad spectrum of nerve agents, but they have poor stability due to hydrolytic degradation at elevated temperatures. 1,1'-Methylenebis-4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) is a leading candidate for next-generation nerve agent treatment systems, because it is more stable than other bis-pyridinium oximes, but it still degrades quickly at temperatures often encountered during storage and field use. The primary goal is to increase the stability and shelf life of MMB4 while maintaining the desirable pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the aqueous formulation. We have developed a formulation to be used in a phase 1 clinical trial consisting of MMB4 micro/nanoparticles suspended in cottonseed oil, a biocompatible vegetable oil. Through various milling techniques, the average particle size can be controlled from approximately 200 to 6000 nm to produce non-Newtonian formulations that are viscous enough to resist rapid particle sedimentation while remaining injectable at a range of concentrations from 5 to 400 mg/mL. The preliminary accelerated stability test shows that MMB4 in these formulations is stable for at least 2 years at temperatures up to 80°C. Preliminary preclinical in vivo studies have demonstrated that all concentrations and particle sizes have desirable PK properties, including high bioavailability and rapid absorption, which is critical to combat potent and fast-acting nerve agents.

  12. Predicting stabilizing treatment outcomes for complex posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder: an expertise-based prognostic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Erik W; van der Hart, Onno; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Chu, James A; Glas, Gerrit; Draijer, Nel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an expertise-based prognostic model for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We developed a survey in 2 rounds: In the first round we surveyed 42 experienced therapists (22 DID and 20 complex PTSD therapists), and in the second round we surveyed a subset of 22 of the 42 therapists (13 DID and 9 complex PTSD therapists). First, we drew on therapists' knowledge of prognostic factors for stabilization-oriented treatment of complex PTSD and DID. Second, therapists prioritized a list of prognostic factors by estimating the size of each variable's prognostic effect; we clustered these factors according to content and named the clusters. Next, concept mapping methodology and statistical analyses (including principal components analyses) were used to transform individual judgments into weighted group judgments for clusters of items. A prognostic model, based on consensually determined estimates of effect sizes, of 8 clusters containing 51 factors for both complex PTSD and DID was formed. It includes the clusters lack of motivation, lack of healthy relationships, lack of healthy therapeutic relationships, lack of other internal and external resources, serious Axis I comorbidity, serious Axis II comorbidity, poor attachment, and self-destruction. In addition, a set of 5 DID-specific items was constructed. The model is supportive of the current phase-oriented treatment model, emphasizing the strengthening of the therapeutic relationship and the patient's resources in the initial stabilization phase. Further research is needed to test the model's statistical and clinical validity.

  13. Successful treatment of groin pain syndrome in a pole-vault athlete with core stability exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola; Laver, Lior; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this case report was to present a case of groin pain in a pole vault athlete describing the biomechanical features of the injury`s mechanism, acute medical management, and its successful rehabilitation. A 22-year-old professional pole-vaulter sustained an injury during a regular training session. The athlete reported significant left lower abdominal and left proximal adductor discomfort in all activities, including basic trunk motion when moving in bed, sit to stand, and walking, and was unable to return to the regular training. Clinical evaluation and imaging studies addressed the injury to a case of adductor-related groin pain associated with pubic symphysis degeneration. Treatment consisted of an exercise-based therapeutic protocol based on trunk and core muscle strengthening and stability program, with progressive motor and functional demands. Significant improvements in the overall clinical findings and functional outcomes were reported after 52 days of intervention when the athletes returned to his full athletic activity. These results suggest that an appropriate rehabilitation program, focused on trunk and core musculature stability exercise addressing to sport-related specific demands, should be considered as an optimal conservative method in the multidisciplinary approach for treatment of groin pain and prior to any surgical intervention.

  14. A solidification/stabilization process for wastewater treatment sludge from a primary copper smelter

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    Ivšić-Bajčeta Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment sludge from primary copper smelter is characterized as hazardous waste that requires treatment prior disposal due to significant amount of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the feasibility and the effectiveness of solidification/stabilization process of the sludge using fly ash and lime as binders. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS testing, leaching tests (EN 12457-4 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC test. All samples reached target UCS of 0.35 MPa. Calcium to silicon concentration ratio (cCa/cSi, determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF analysis, was identified as main factor governing strength development. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES analyses of solutions after leaching tests showed excellent stabilization of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (above 99 % and arsenic (above 90 % in samples with high Ca(OH2 content. Results of ANC test indicated that buffering capacity of solidified material linearly depended on Ca concentration in FA and lime. Sample with 20 % of binder heaving 50 % of FA and 50 % of lime met all requirements to be safely disposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34033

  15. STABILIZATION OF DRY SLUDGE OF LIQUID WASTE OF LEATHER TREATMENT BY USING FLY ASH

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    Cahya Widiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of solidification of dry sludge of liquid waste of leather treatment are containing chrome (Cr by using fly ash has been done.  The experiment objective are immobilize Cr in the solid waste by using pozzoland cement was made of fly ash in order to stable in the repository.  The experiment were carried out by solidification of solid waste are containing total chrome of 1480.5 mg/kg sum of 2 - 10 weight % of (water + pozzoland cement by using pozzoland cement was made from the mixture of fly ash and calcite were burned at 1000 oC temperature for 2 hours.  The characterization of the solid composite of stabilization result consist of the compressive strength test and the leaching test by American Nuclear Society (ANS-16.1 method.  The experiment result were shown that pozzoland cement  can binding solid waste sum of 10 weight % of (water + pozzoland cement became the composite of waste concrete with the compressive strength of 577 ton/m2 and the chrome leaching test for 14 days of 0.059 mg/l.  The composite of waste concrete according to Bapedal rule for solidification of toxic waste with minimum compressive strength of 10 ton/m2 and maximum leached chrome of 5 mg/L.   Keywords: stabilization, solid waste, leather treatment, fly ash.

  16. Thermal stability and structural changes during heat treatment of nanostructured Al2024 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ena78@cc.iut.ac.ir; Abbasi, M.H.; Karimzadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-10

    Thermal stability and structural changes during isothermal heat treatment of nanostructured Al2024 alloy prepared by mechanical milling (MM) were investigated. Al2024 powders were subjected to high-energy milling for various times to produce nanostructured alloy. Nanostructured Al2024 alloy was subsequently annealed at 150-550 deg. C for 1-3 h under argon atmosphere. The as-milled and annealed powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that after 30 h of milling, an Al-Cu-Mg supersaturated solid solution with a grain size of 30 nm was obtained. This structure was then isothermally heat-treated at various temperatures for different times. The CuAl{sub 2} and CuMgAl{sub 2} precipitates formed after heat treatment at T < 350 deg. C. In contrast to CuAl{sub 2} phase, CuMgAl{sub 2} precipitates disappeared on XRD traces taken after annealing at temperatures higher than 350 deg. C. Investigation of grain growth kinetics showed that nanostructured Al2024 had high thermal stability so that Al grain size remained in nanosized scale (about 70 nm) even after heating at 550 deg. C for 3 h. The value of grain growth exponent and activation energy at different annealing temperatures were obtained and discussed in terms of solute and second phase drag effects.

  17. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  18. Oxidative stability of chicken’s breast after vacuum packaging, EDTA, sage and rosemary essential oils treatment

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    Adriana Pavelková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the sage and rosemary essential oils on oxidative stability of chicken breast muscles during chilled storage was investigated. In the experiment were chickens of hybrid combination Cobb 500 after 42 days of the fattening period slaughtered.  All the broiler chickens were fed with the same feed mixtures and were kept under the same conditions. The feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh chicken breast with skin from left half-carcass, which were divided into five groups (n = 5: C - control air-packaged group; A1 - vacuum-packaged experimental group; A2 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w; A3 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Salvia officinalis L. oil 2.0% v/w and A4 - vacuum-packaged experimental group with Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil 2.0% v/w. The sage and rosemary essential oils were applicate on surface chicken breasts and immediately after dipping, each sample was packaged using a vacuum packaging machine and storage in refrigerate at 4  ±0.5 °C. The value of thiobarbituric acid (TBA expressed as amount of malondialdehyde (MDA in 1 kg sample was measured during storage in 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day. The treatments of chicken breasts with sage and rosemary essential oils show statistically significant differences between all testing groups and control group, where higher average value of MDA measured in breast muscle of broiler chickens was in samples of control group (0.396 mg.kg-1 compared to experimental groups A1 (0.060 mg.kg-1, A2 (0.052 mg.kg-1, A3 (0.042 mg.kg-1 and A4 (0.041 mg.kg-1 after 16-day of chilled storage. The results of experiment showed that the treatment of chicken breast with sage and rosemary essential oils had positive effect on the decrease of oxidative processes in breast muscles during chilling storage and use of plant essential oils

  19. Group or Individual treatment: What is More Effective in Childhood and Juvenile Obesity?

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    Rita de Cássia Garcia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective was to compare the efficacy of individual treatment (consulting and group treatment combined with individualized care, in childhood and juvenile obesity situations. Methodology: The study was carried out in 2 different places: in the Nutrition Clinic of the Integrated Health Clinic of UNIARA and in another clinical school. In both places there was a treatment with individual consultations, however, in the Integrated Health Clinic of UNIARA treatment was also done in group care. The target individuals were composed of children and adolescents of both sexes who participated in the consultations, however, only patients who were above the 85th percentile for BMI, according to the international reference population (NCHS, 2000, were included in the sample which was composed of 58 individuals. The choice of clinical records occurred at random in both places. Results: the most effective program in the positive change in dietary habits was group together with individual treatment, where 20 patients (68.96% showed some change in eating behavior. In individual treatment, 11 patients (37.93% showed some change in dietary habits existing before treatment. There was a reduction in the rate of obesity of 24% for patients in groups, however, both types of treatment were favorable to changes in dietary habits and weight reduction. The findings showed that the strategy of individualized care together with group care is an alternative for the treatment of overweight.

  20. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy Compared to the Usual Opioid Dependence Treatment

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    Saeed Imani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU.Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy and control groups (the Usual Treatment.The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program.  Methods:The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results:The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion:The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders.

  1. Developing and piloting community-based self-injury treatment groups for adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, M K; McLagan, Linda; Landell, Susan; Carter, Adrienne; Deshaw, M

    2004-08-01

    Self injurious behaviour is not uncommon in depressed adolescents while little is known about effective treatments for this behaviour in this age group. The objective of this article is to illustrate the development and initial pilot of groups for adolescents who self injure and their parents. Articles and texts derived from a literature search of group treatments for self injuring adolescents were used to develop a pilot group for self injuring adolescents and a separate group for parents. The groups were piloted over the spring of 2004, at a community child and youth mental health clinic. Eight weekly sessions for adolescents and 4 biweekly sessions for parents occurred. The adolescent group was a back to back dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) skills group followed by a therapeutic support group. Two thirds of both the adolescents and parents completed their groups. Overall, adolescents found both theirs and the parent group helpful. Parents reported that their group enabled more balanced and less reactive communication as well as benefit in meeting and talking with other parents facing similar difficulties. Further refinement and formal evaluation of such group therapy approaches to the treatment of self injurious behaviour in adolescents is warranted.

  2. Stability assessment of gas mixtures containing monoterpenes in varying cylinder materials and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Lin, Janice

    2013-05-07

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences exerted by monoterpenes in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates, ozone formation, and oxidizing potential. Measurements of key monoterpenes suggest atmospheric mole fractions ranging from low pmol/mol (parts-per-trillion; ppt) to nmol/mol (parts-per-billion; ppb), depending on location and compound. To accurately establish the mole fraction trends, assess the role of monoterpenes in atmospheric chemistry, and relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have good calibration standards. The feasibility of preparing well-characterized, stable gas cylinder standards for monoterpenes at the nmol/mol level was previously tested using treated (Aculife IV) aluminum gas cylinders at NIST. Results for 4 of the 11 monoterpenes, monitored versus an internal standard of benzene, indicated stability in these treated aluminum gas cylinders for over 6 months and projected long-term (years) stability. However, the mole fraction of the key monoterpene β-pinene decreased, while the mole fractions of α-pinene, d-limonene (R-(+)-limonene), p-cymene, and camphene (a terpene not present in the initial gas mixture) increased, indicating a chemical transformation of β-pinene to these species. A similar pattern of decreasing mole fraction was observed in α-pinene where growth of d-limonene, p-cymene, and camphene has been observed in treated gas cylinders prepared with a mixture of just α-pinene and benzene as the internal standard. The current research discusses the testing of other cylinders and treatments for the potential of long-term stability of monoterpenes in a gas mixture. In this current study, a similar pattern of decreasing mole fraction, although somewhat improved short-term stability, was observed for β-pinene and α-pinene, with growth of d-limonene, p-cymene, and camphene, in nickel-plated carbon steel cylinders. β-Pinene and α-pinene showed

  3. Substance abuse treatment readmission patterns of Asian Americans: comparisons with other ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiang; Warner, Lynn A

    2013-01-01

    According to New York statewide substance abuse treatment and discharge data, Asians are a small minority who differ significantly from other racial-ethnic groups on income, primary language, treatment setting, substance abuse, referral source, and discharge status. The present study further compares alcohol and substance abuse service utilization patterns of Asians with those of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in New York State. Cox regressions were employed to examine the differences in treatment admission patterns among Asians and other ethnic groups, while controlling a number of demographic, treatment-related, and non-treatment-related factors. A sample of 408,158 clients was selected from the Client Data System of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services for the analysis. While Asians in general are less likely to use treatment services and to have multiple treatment admissions compared with other groups, those Asians with multiple admissions tend to show utilization patterns - the period of greatest risk for readmission, the rate at which readmissions occur, and the likelihood of readmission - similar to the other groups at each subsequent admission. These findings suggest both similarities and differences in treatment readmission patterns between Asians and other clients of substance abuse treatment services. Future research on the cultural and linguistic factors related to Asians' recovery and service utilization patterns after the initial treatment experience may be particularly important for systems of care seeking to be responsive to Asians' needs.

  4. Pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy enhance follow-up treatment duration in gambling disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Shin, Young-Chul; Youn, HyunChul; Lim, Se-Won; Ha, Juwon

    2016-01-01

    Longer treatment duration is important for the successful treatment of gambling disorder (GD). This retrospective study investigated the factors and interventions that might enhance treatment duration in GD patients in South Korea. A total of 758 outpatients with a primary diagnosis of GD, who were treated in a clinical practice from 2002 to 2011, were assessed by retrospective chart review. We compared the treatment duration according to pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Pharmacotherapy contributed to a longer duration of treatment maintenance, despite the patients' gambling severity (p gambling severity. The treatment maintenance duration was the longest in those receiving combined antidepressant pharmacotherapy and group CBT (F = 35.79, p prevention and treatment strategies.

  5. Immediate versus delayed loading of strategic mini dental implants for the stabilization of partial removable dental prostheses: a patient cluster randomized, parallel-group 3-year trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Torsten; Al Jaghsi, Ahmad; Schwahn, Bernd; Hilgert, Janina; Lucas, Christian; Biffar, Reiner; Schwahn, Christian; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2016-07-30

    Acceptable short-term survival rates (>90 %) of mini-implants (diameter implants as strategic abutments for a better retention of partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) are not available. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that immediately loaded mini-implants show more bone loss and less success than strategic mini-implants with delayed loading. In this four-center (one university hospital, three dental practices in Germany), parallel-group, controlled clinical trial, which is cluster randomized on patient level, a total of 80 partially edentulous patients with unfavourable number and distribution of remaining abutment teeth in at least one jaw will receive supplementary min-implants to stabilize their PRDP. The mini-implant are either immediately loaded after implant placement (test group) or delayed after four months (control group). Follow-up of the patients will be performed for 36 months. The primary outcome is the radiographic bone level changes at implants. The secondary outcome is the implant success as a composite variable. Tertiary outcomes include clinical, subjective (quality of life, satisfaction, chewing ability) and dental or technical complications. Strategic implants under an existing PRDP are only documented for standard-diameter implants. Mini-implants could be a minimal invasive and low cost solution for this treatment modality. The trial is registered at Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German register of clinical trials) under DRKS-ID: DRKS00007589 ( www.germanctr.de ) on January 13(th), 2015.

  6. Endoscopic treatment with stabilized nonanimal hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel is effective in vesicoureteral reflux associated with bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läckgren, Göran; Sköldenberg, Erik; Stenberg, Arne

    2007-03-01

    Endoscopic injection of stabilized nonanimal hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel is an established treatment for vesicoureteral reflux in children. We performed a subgroup analysis to assess this treatment in reflux associated with bladder dysfunction. Of 308 consecutive children treated endoscopically with stabilized nonanimal hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel for dilating vesicoureteral reflux 54 were observed retrospectively to have bladder dysfunction. Initial followup consisted of voiding cystourethrogram at 3 and 12 months after injection, with positive response defined as reflux grade 0 or I. At 7 to 12 years following treatment patient charts were checked for urinary tract infections and bladder dysfunction, and a followup survey (postal questionnaire) was administered. A positive response to therapy (cure) was observed in 45 children (83%) after 1 to 3 endoscopic treatments. Concurrently, bladder dysfunction had resolved in 32 patients (59%). After the last stabilized nonanimal hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel implantation 45 patients (83%) were free of urinary tract infections. Questionnaire results were similar to chart based findings. Stabilized nonanimal hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel implantation was well tolerated, with no associated complications. Endoscopic treatment with stabilized nonanimal hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel appears to be similarly effective in patients with vesicoureteral reflux with and without bladder dysfunction. These data indicate that bladder dysfunction should not be considered a contraindication to endoscopic treatment for reflux.

  7. Group vs. Individual Treatment for Acute Insomnia: A Pilot Study Evaluating a “One-Shot” Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Boullin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite undeniable evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I, the potential for its widespread dissemination and implementation has yet to be realised. A suggested reason for this is that traditional CBT-I is considered too burdensome for deployment, in its current form, within the context of where it would be most beneficial—Primary Care. One strategy, aimed to address this, has been to develop briefer versions of CBT-I, whilst another has been to deliver CBT-I in a group format. An alternative has been to attempt to address insomnia during its acute phase with a view to circumventing its progression to chronic insomnia. The aim of the present study was to compare a brief version of CBT-I (one-shot when delivered individually or in groups to those with acute insomnia. Method: Twenty-eight individuals with acute insomnia (i.e., meeting full DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder for less than three months self-assigned to either a group or individual treatment arm. Treatment consisted of a single one-hour session accompanied by a self-help pamphlet. Subjects completed measures of insomnia severity, anxiety and depression pre-treatment and at one-month post-treatment. Additionally, daily sleep diaries were compared between pre-treatment and at the one-month follow up. Results: There were no significant between group differences in treatment outcome on any sleep or mood measures although those in the group treatment arm were less adherent than those who received individual treatment. Furthermore, the combined (group and individual treatment arms pre-post test effect size on insomnia symptoms, using the Insomnia Severity Index, was large (d = 2.27. Discussion: It appears that group treatment is as efficacious as individual treatment within the context of a “one shot” intervention for individuals with acute insomnia. The results are discussed with a view to integrating one-shot CBT

  8. Tomography high Resolution CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: Comparison between the first treatment and the re treatment group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Soon Hyuk; Cho, Bum Sang; Jeon, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Ki Man [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To analyze and compare the thin section CT findings of first and re treatment nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. Between January 2005 and April 2010, 121 patients with positive sputum culture for NTM were recruited. We included only 32 patients underwent high resolution chest CT and were confirmed by American Thoracic Society criteria NTM pulmonary infection (first treatment 15, re treatment 17 patients). CT images of 32 patients were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated the frequency and laterality of the followings; nodule, increased density, bronchial change, parenchymal change. The significantly frequent CT findings of the re treatment NTM group were well defined nodules (retreatment 82.4%, first treatment 33.3%, p = 0.00), consolidations (retreatment 88.2%, first treatment 53.3%, p = 0.03), bronchial changes (bronchiectasis; retreatment 100%, first treatment 66.6%, p = 0.01, bronchial narrowing; retreatment 23.5%, first treatment 0%, p = 0.04 and mucoid impaction; retreatment-58.8%, first treatment-20.0%, p = 0.03) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis (retreatment-88.2%, first treatment 26.7%, p = 0.00). However, most of the evaluated thin section CT findings, such as centrilobular and ill defined nodules, lobular, segmental and subpleural consolidations, ground glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening, cavities, pleural lesions, fibrotic band, emphysema and laterality of lesions, have not shown significant differences between first treatment and the re treatment group. Thin section CT findings of well defined nodules, consolidations, bronchial changes (bronchiectasis, bronchial narrowing and mucoid impaction) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis are highly suggestive of re treatment NTM pulmonary disease.

  9. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Treatment Response and Resistance in Psychosis (TRRIP) Working Group Consensus Guidelines on Diagnosis and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; van Beveren, Nico J M; Birnbaum, Michael L; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Buchanan, Robert W; Carpenter, William T; Castle, David J; Citrome, Leslie; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Davidson, Michael; Drake, Richard J; Dursun, Serdar; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Elkis, Helio; Falkai, Peter; Fleischacker, W Wolfgang; Gadelha, Ary; Gaughran, Fiona; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Hallak, Jaime E C; Honer, William G; Kennedy, James; Kinon, Bruce J; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lee, Jimmy; Leweke, F Markus; MacCabe, James H; McNabb, Carolyn B; Meltzer, Herbert; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Nakajima, Shinchiro; Pantelis, Christos; Reis Marques, Tiago; Remington, Gary; Rossell, Susan L; Russell, Bruce R; Siu, Cynthia O; Suzuki, Takefumi; Sommer, Iris E; Taylor, David; Thomas, Neil; Üçok, Alp; Umbricht, Daniel; Walters, James T R; Kane, John; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-03-01

    Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. A systematic review of randomized antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3) meetings to achieve consensus. Of 2,808 studies identified, 42 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 studies (50%) did not provide operationalized criteria. In the remaining studies, criteria varied considerably, particularly regarding symptom severity, prior treatment duration, and antipsychotic dosage thresholds; only two studies (5%) utilized the same criteria. The consensus group identified minimum and optimal criteria, employing the following principles: 1) current symptoms of a minimum duration and severity determined by a standardized rating scale; 2) moderate or worse functional impairment; 3) prior treatment consisting of at least two different antipsychotic trials, each for a minimum duration and dosage; 4) systematic monitoring of adherence and meeting of minimum adherence criteria; 5) ideally at least one prospective treatment trial; and 6) criteria that clearly separate responsive from treatment-resistant patients. There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment, and treatment response, providing a benchmark for research and clinical translation.

  10. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved electrical stability of CdS thin film transistors through Hydrogen-based thermal treatments

    KAUST Repository

    Salas Villaseñor, Ana L.

    2014-06-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated using a photolithography process with chemically bath deposited (CBD) cadmium sulfide (CdS) films as the active channel. Thermal annealing in hydrogen was used to improve electrical stability and performance of the resulting CdS TFTs. Hydrogen thermal treatments results in significant V T instability (V T shift) improvement while increasing the I on/I off ratio without degrading carrier mobility. It is demonstrated that after annealing V T shift and I on/I off improves from 10 V to 4.6 V and from 105 to 10 9, respectively. Carrier mobility remains in the order of 14.5 cm2 V s-1. The reduced V T shift and performance is attributed to a reduction in oxygen species in the CdS after hydrogen annealing, as evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Facebook usage among those who have received treatment for an eating disorder in a group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Kristina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Kass, Andrea E; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, Craig Barr; Trockel, Mickey

    2016-08-01

    This study explored Facebook use among individuals with a history of receiving treatment for an eating disorder (ED) in a group setting (e.g., inpatient, residential, outpatient group), focusing primarily on comparisons individuals make about their bodies, eating, or exercise to those of their peers from treatment on Facebook and the relation between these comparisons and ED pathology. Individuals (N = 415; mean age 28.15 years ± 8.41; 98.1% female) who self-reported receipt of ED treatment in a group setting were recruited via e-mail and social media to complete an online survey. Participants reported having an average of 10-19 Facebook friends from treatment and spending up to 30 min per day interacting on Facebook with individuals from treatment or ED-related organizations. More comparison to treatment peers on Facebook was associated with greater ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Conversely, positive interaction with treatment peers on Facebook was associated with lower ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Individuals who had been in treatment longer, more times, and more recently had more Facebook friends from treatment and ED-related organizations as well as spent more time in ED groups' pages on Facebook. Few participants (19.5%) reported that a therapist asked about the impact of Facebook on pathology. Interactions on Facebook could affect patients' recovery and potential for relapse. It may be helpful for treatment providers to discuss Facebook use and its potential benefits and drawbacks with patients preparing for discharge from group treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:764-777). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optimal caliper width for propensity score matching of three treatment groups: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongji; Cai, Hongwei; Li, Chanjuan; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Song, Jiugang; Xia, Jielai

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score matching is a method to reduce bias in non-randomized and observational studies. Propensity score matching is mainly applied to two treatment groups rather than multiple treatment groups, because some key issues affecting its application to multiple treatment groups remain unsolved, such as the matching distance, the assessment of balance in baseline variables, and the choice of optimal caliper width. The primary objective of this study was to compare propensity score matching methods using different calipers and to choose the optimal caliper width for use with three treatment groups. The authors used caliper widths from 0.1 to 0.8 of the pooled standard deviation of the logit of the propensity score, in increments of 0.1. The balance in baseline variables was assessed by standardized difference. The matching ratio, relative bias, and mean squared error (MSE) of the estimate between groups in different propensity score-matched samples were also reported. The results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that matching using a caliper width of 0.2 of the pooled standard deviation of the logit of the propensity score affords superior performance in the estimation of treatment effects. This study provides practical solutions for the application of propensity score matching of three treatment groups.

  14. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  15. Comparison of stability in the operative treatment of pelvic injuries in a finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzay, Tamás; Flóris, István; Váradi, Károly

    2011-10-01

    The comparison of the stability of four surgical methods for the treatment of vertically and rotationally unstable type C pelvic ring injuries. We produced a type C pelvic ring injury (type Denis II fracture of the sacrum and symphysiolysis) on a finite element model, in the case of standing on both feet. We stabilized the symphysiolysis with a five-hole reconstruction plate; the sacrum fracture was fixed in the first experiment with two, two-hole reconstruction plates on the ventral surface, in the second one we applied dorsally the transsacral, narrow DC plate, in the third one with KFI-H plate, and in the last one with iliosacral screw. Finite element modeling was performed by the use of the ALGOR software. Not only bones and joints, but joints and mechanically important ligaments were modeled as well. We measured the shift between the two surfaces of the fracture gap, compared to the results of measurements accomplished on cadaver models. Larger shift could be elicited after transsacral plating than after direct plating. These results correspond to those of the parallel investigation of the bony ligamentous cadaver pelvis specimens. The shift values after KFI-H plating and iliosacral screw fixation are larger than after direct plating, but smaller than after transsacral plating. The tension created in the implants is less than the allowed values; therefore, the choice of operation should depend on the type of injury. The finite element model may be utilized for the comparison of different methods of osteosynthesis for the treatment of injuries described above. Due to several difficulties in investigations performed on cadaver specimens, this model has undoubted utility.

  16. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Spanish: Culture-Sensitive Manualized Treatment in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2010-01-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-lan...

  17. Treatment integrity of elaborated semantic feature analysis aphasia therapydelivered in individual and group settings

    OpenAIRE

    Kladouchou, V.; Papathanasiou, I.; Efstratiadou, E. A.; Christaki, V.; Hilari, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims\\ud \\ud This study ran within the framework of the Thales Aphasia Project that investigated the efficacy of elaborated semantic feature analysis (ESFA). We evaluated the treatment integrity (TI) of ESFA, i.e., the degree to which therapists implemented treatment as intended by the treatment protocol, in two different formats: individual and group therapy.\\ud \\ud Methods & Procedures\\ud \\ud Based on the ESFA manual, observation of therapy videos and TI literature, we developed...

  18. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  19. Normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in a population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Yilmaz, R B; Oktay, I; Ilhan, D; Fişekçioğlu, E; Özdemir, Fulya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Central Anatolia Region) (mean age ± SD: 12.80 ± 3.57 years) were randomly selected and divided into six age groups (7-8,9-10,11-12,13-14,15-16, and 17-18 year-olds) and categorized according to the dental health component (DHC) of the index for orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Additionally, the patients were asked to indicate the photograph that was most similar to their own dentition from the 10-point scale of the aesthetic component of IOTN. The DHC of IOTN was not significantly different between the six age groups (P > 0.05). However, no/slight need (aesthetic component 1-4) for orthodontic treatment according to AC of IOTN was significantly higher in 13-14,15-16, and 17-18 age groups than 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 age groups (P age groups (P > 0.05). The normative need distribution was homogeneous within all the age groups according to DHC. However, the subjective need for orthodontic treatment was higher in the younger age groups.

  20. An Empirical Investigation of Group Treatment for a Clinical Population of Adult Female Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Brenda J.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Empirically assesses the effectiveness of a group treatment program on intrapersonal symptomatology and interpersonal difficulties in a clinical population of women with a history of incest. Results indicate that a time-limited group, which focuses on the original trauma, is effective in reducing intrapersonal symptomatology for women with a…

  1. Efficacy of two antiplaque and antigingivitis treatments in a group of young mentally retarded patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Company, J M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2002-01-01

    Chemical management of dental plaque for controlling oral hygiene becomes necessary in high-risk patients such as the mentally retarded. Thirty-seven mentally handicapped patients aged 10-19 years and with severe plaque and gingivitis were divided into two treatment groups: Group I (daily mouthrinse with triclosan-zinc for 8 weeks) and Group II (0.2% chlorhexidine spray for 2 weeks). Both groups were evaluated at the start of the study and after 2 and 8 weeks. Significant reductions in plaque were observed in Group I after two weeks, with very significant improvements in both plaque and gingivitis after 8 weeks. In Group II, highly significant reductions in both indices were recorded after two weeks of treatment - significance persisting after 8 weeks. Triclosan-zinc mouthrinse and chlorhexidine spray can be effective adjuncts to tooth brushing for controlling dental plaque and gingivitis in mentally retarded patients.

  2. A mindful eating group as an adjunct to individual treatment for eating disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Natasha S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention using the EAT-26. Significant reductions were found on all subscales of the EAT-26 with large effect sizes. No significant differences were identified between eating disorder diagnoses. Results suggest potential benefits of an adjunct mindfulness group intervention when treating a variety of eating disorders. Limitations are discussed.

  3. Effectiveness of Group-Delivered Cognitive Therapy and Treatment Length in Women Veterans with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Diane T.; Lacefield, Katharine; C’de Baca, Janet; Blankenship, Abby; Qualls, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness and length of group-delivered cognitive treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was examined in a sample of women veterans. The sample included 271 primarily non-Hispanic white (61%) and Hispanic (25%) women veterans treated in 8-, 10-, or 12-group length sessions with manualized cognitive therapy for PTSD. Outcome was measured with the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL) in an intention-to-treat analysis (N = 271), in completer subjects (n = 172), and with group as the ...

  4. Facebook Usage Amongst Those Who Have Received Treatment for an Eating Disorder in a Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Kristina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Kass, Andrea E.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr; Trockel, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study explored Facebook use among individuals with a history of receiving treatment for an eating disorder (ED) in a group setting (e.g., inpatient, residential, outpatient group), focusing primarily on comparisons individuals make about their bodies, eating, or exercise to those of their peers from treatment on Facebook and the relation between these comparisons and ED pathology. Method Individuals (N = 415; mean age 28.15 years ± 8.41; 98.1% female) who self-reported receipt of ED treatment in a group setting were recruited via email and social media to complete an online survey. Results Participants reported having an average of 10–19 Facebook friends from treatment and spending up to 30 minutes per day interacting on Facebook with individuals from treatment or ED-related organizations. More comparison to treatment peers on Facebook was associated with greater ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Conversely, positive interaction with treatment peers on Facebook was associated with lower ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Individuals who had been in treatment longer, more times, and more recently had more Facebook friends from treatment and ED-related organizations as well as spent more time in ED groups’ pages on Facebook. Few participants (19.5%) reported that a therapist asked about the impact of Facebook on pathology. Discussion Interactions on Facebook could affect patients’ recovery and potential for relapse. It may be helpful for treatment providers to discuss Facebook use and its potential benefits and drawbacks with patients preparing for discharge from group treatment. PMID:27302908

  5. Multifamily group treatment in a program for patients with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjell, Anne; Bloch Thorsen, Gerd Ragna; Friis, Svein

    2007-01-01

    to participate and 147 agreed. Patients' reluctance to participate increased with age. Most had to wait between six and 12 months until a sufficient number was gathered to start a group. Treatment was well received by patients and families. Care should be taken to prevent a long delay before group commencement......Psychoeducational multifamily group treatment based on the McFarlane model was implemented for adult patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis and for the families of 301 patients. Patients were participants in a research project in Norway and Denmark. Of 301 patients 246 were invited...

  6. Effectiveness of Group-Delivered Cognitive Therapy and Treatment Length in Women Veterans with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane T. Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and length of group-delivered cognitive treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD was examined in a sample of women veterans. The sample included 271 primarily non-Hispanic white (61% and Hispanic (25% women veterans treated in 8-, 10-, or 12-group length sessions with manualized cognitive therapy for PTSD. Outcome was measured with the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL in an intention-to-treat analysis (N = 271, in completer subjects (n = 172, and with group as the unit of analysis (n = 47 groups. Significant decreases in PTSD were found in the full sample (effect size [ES] range = 0.27 to 0.38, completers (ES range = 0.37 to 0.54, and group as the unit of analysis (ES range = 0.71 to 0.92, suggesting effectiveness of cognitive group treatment for PTSD. PCL scores significantly improved in the 8, 10, and 12 group lengths, with no differences between each. Clinical improvement showed a third decreasing 10 or more PCL points and 22% no longer meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria, with the best results in the 10-session group. The results suggest group-delivered cognitive therapy is an effective, efficient, time-limited treatment for PTSD.

  7. Multinomial logistic regression analysis for differentiating 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups for headache-associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristin Nicole; Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Himawan, Lina

    2011-08-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) identified latent groups based on treatment outcome trajectories of headache disability measures in patients in headache subspecialty treatment clinics. Using a longitudinal design, 219 patients in headache subspecialty clinics in 4 large cities throughout Ohio provided data on their headache disability at pretreatment and 3 follow-up assessments. GMM identified 3 treatment outcome trajectory groups: (1) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (high-disability improvers; 11%); (2) patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability but who reported no reductions in disability (high-disability nonimprovers; 34%); and (3) patients who initiated treatment with moderate disability and who reported statistically significant reductions in headache disability (moderate-disability improvers; 55%). Based on the final multinomial logistic regression model, a dichotomized treatment appointment attendance variable was a statistically significant predictor for differentiating high-disability improvers from high-disability nonimprovers. Three-fourths of patients who initiated treatment with elevated disability levels did not report reductions in disability after 5 months of treatment with new preventive pharmacotherapies. Preventive headache agents may be most efficacious for patients with moderate levels of disability and for patients with high disability levels who attend all treatment appointments. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Spanish: culture-sensitive manualized treatment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-08-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.

  9. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Spanish: Culture-Sensitive Manualized Treatment in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2014-01-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities. PMID:20549680

  10. Association of blood groups with ovarian reserve and outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awartani, Khalid; Al Ghabshi, Rahma; Al Shankiti, Hanan; Al Dossari, Mohamed; Coskun, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The association between ABO blood groups and ovarian reserve in infertile patients has been a point of controversy. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of certain blood groups with ovarian reserve and response to treatment in patients undergoing infertility treatment. Retrospective medical record review. Infertility clinic in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) unit at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. All patients under 40 years of age who attended the infertility clinic at a tertiary care centre in 2010 and underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in 2010 and 2011 were divided into groups according to blood type, and clinical parameters were compared. The association between blood groups and ovarian reserve using day 3 luteinzing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and antral follical count (AFC). In 424 patients who underwent 566 IVF cycles, age, LH, FSH and AFC were similar among the different blood groups (P=.9, .1, .5, respectively). with controlled ovarian stimulation, no difference was observed among the four groups in menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) dose or the duration of stimulation. The number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, and number of embryos transferred were similar. There was no difference in the cancellation rate or pregnancy rate among the groups. There was no significant association between blood type and ovarian reserve or response during IVF treatment in our population. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels are best correlated with ovarian reserve testing. Unavailability of AMH levels. Retrospective design.

  11. A new treatment of capillarity to improve the stability of IMPES two-phase flow formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient numerical method for two-phase immiscible flow in porous media with different capillarity pressures. In highly heterogeneous permeable media, the saturation is discontinuous due to different capillary pressure functions. One popular scheme is to split the system into a pressure and a saturation equation, and to apply IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation (IMPES) approach for time stepping. One disadvantage of IMPES is instability resulting from the explicit treatment for capillary pressure. To improve stability, the capillary pressure is usually incorporated in the saturation equation which gradients of saturation appear. This approach, however, does not apply to the case of different capillary pressure functions for multiple rock-types, because of the discontinuity of saturation across rock interfaces. In this paper, we present a new treatment of capillary pressure, which appears implicitly in the pressure equation. Using an approximation of capillary function, we substitute the implicit saturation equation into the pressure equation. The coupled pressure equation will be solved implicitly and followed by the explicit saturation equation. Five numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the advantages of our approach. Comparison shows that our proposed method is more efficient and stable than the classical IMPES approach. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  13. The Distribution of Microalgae in a Stabilization Pond System of a Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Tropical Environment (Case Study: Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herto Dwi Ariesyady

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP serves to treat domestic wastewater originating from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. An abundant amount of nutrients as a result of waste decomposition increases the number of microalgae populations present in the pond of the wastewater treatment plant, thereby causing a population explosion of microalgae, also called algal blooming. In a stabilization pond system, the presence of algal blooming is not desirable because it can decrease wastewater treatment performance. More knowledge about the relationship between the nutrients concentration and algae blooming conditions, such as microalgae diversity, is needed to control and maintain the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Therefore this study was conducted, in order to reveal the diversity of microalgae in the stabilization pond system and its relationship with the water characteristics of the comprising ponds. The results showed that the water quality in the stabilization pond system of Bojongsoang WWTP supported rapid growth of microalgae, where most rapid microbial growth occurred in the anaerobic pond. The microalgae diversity in the stabilization ponds was very high, with various morphologies, probably affiliated with blue-green algae, green algae, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms. This study has successfully produced information on microalgae diversity and abundance profiles in a stabilization pond system.

  14. Effects of silvicultural treatment on the stability of black pine plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    each intervention on the mensurational and mechanical stability parameters (H/D ratio H/Ddom ratio, are being analyzed. The stability parameters of the pine forest after three interventions (H/D ratio, crown ratio, horizontal crown projection and eccentricity of the crown have been also analyzed on a sample of trees per thesis and compared with those of trees grown in absence of competition. Sampled trees were sorted per social class. Results proved that type, interval and intensity of thinning related to the age of intervention are the main determinants of a successful treatment. Thinnings from below increase individual stability over time only when also trees living in the main crop layer are being removed. The trials showed the improvement of stability parameters following the intermediate thinning applied at the age of 45. The thesis of heavy thinning had the best performance as for the awaited purpose. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  15. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...... volatilized or destabilized with respect to leaching. Pb, in particular, exhibited increased reactivity following the formation of an ordered iron oxide structure at 900 °C. The thermal treatment had a positive effect on Cr release, which was reduced significantly at 900 °C in the presence of organic matter...

  16. A 3-year comparison of dental anxiety treatment outcomes: hypnosis, group therapy and individual desensitization vs. no specialist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rod; Brødsgaard, Inger; Abrahamsen, Randi

    2002-08-01

    Outcomes of hypnotherapy (HT), group therapy (GT) and individual systematic desensitization (SD) on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 yr were compared by regular attendance behaviors, changes in dental anxiety and changes in beliefs about dentists and treatment after 3 yr. Treatment groups were comparable with a static reference control group of 65 anxious patients (Dental Anxiety Scale > or = 15) who were followed for a mean of nearly 6 yr. After 3 yr, 54.5% of HT patients, 69.6% of GT patients and 65.5% of SD patients were maintaining regular dental care habits. This was better than the 46.1% of the reference group, who reported going regularly to the dentist again within the cohort follow-up period, and 38.9% of a control subgroup with observation for 3 yr. Women were better regular attenders than men at 3 yr. Specialist-treated regular attenders were significantly less anxious and had more positive beliefs than regular attenders from reference groups. There were few differences between HT, GT and SD after 3 yr. It was concluded that many patients can, on their own, successfully start and maintain regular dental treatment habits with dentists despite years of avoidance associated with phobic or extreme anxiety. However, it also appears that these patients had less success in reducing dental anxiety and improving beliefs about dentists long-term than did patients who were treated at the specialist clinic with psychological strategies.

  17. Enhancement of the adsorptive property of the amidoxime group containing fiber by alkaline treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko; Sakane, Kohji; Takai, Nobuharu; Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    To improve the uranium adsorption rate of the fibrous adsorbent (AO-fiber), the alkaline treatment of the AO-fiber (A-AO-fiber) was investigated. As increasing duration of alkaline treatment, the content of weak acidic group increased whereas that of weak basic group remained constant. IR spectra of the A-AO-fiber showed the decrease of cyano group whereas the increase of carboxyl group. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) and the adsorption rate of uranium on the A-AO-fiber increased with increasing the duration of alkaline treatment. The A-AO-fiber after alkaline treatment for 48 h adsorbed about 2 mg-U/g-fiber in a week from sea water. On the other hand the single fiber strength of the A-AO-fiber became weaker by alkaline treatment, and the A-AO-fiber after alkaline treatment for 48 h showed about a half of the strength of the AO-fiber. About 90% and 100% of uranium was eluted by 0.1 mol/l from the fibrous adsorbent in 15 min and in 2 h respectively. The A-AO-fiber could be reused for adsorption and desorption of uranium from sea water without any significant decrease in the adsorption rate. (author)

  18. Structures and stabilities of group 17 fluorides EF3 (E = I, At, and element 117) with spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Dong; Wang, Fan

    2012-12-05

    In this work, a recently developed CCSD(T) approach with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) as well as density functional theory (DFT) using various exchange-correlation (XC) functionals are employed to investigate structures and stabilities of group 17 fluorides EF(3) (E = I, At, and element 117). These molecules are predicted to have bent T-shaped C(2v) structures according to the second-order Jahn-Teller (SOJT) effects or the valance shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. For IF(3) and (117)F(3), our results are consistent with previous SOC-DFT calculations. However, different XC functionals provide different results for AtF(3) and our SOC-CCSD(T) calculations show that both the C(2v) and D(3h) structures are minima on the potential energy surface and the C(2v) structure is the global minimum for AtF(3). The performance of XC functionals on structures and stabilities of IF(3) and AtF(3) is found to depend on the fraction of the Hartree-Fock exchange (HFX) included in the XC functionals and the M06-2X functional with 54% of HFX providing results that agree best with CCSD(T) results. In addition, although both the C(2v) and D(3h) structures are minima for AtF(3), the energy barrier between them is only 8 kJ mol(-1) for the C(2v) structure and 0.05 kJ mol(-1) for the D(3h) structure. This indicates that the D(3h) structure could not possibly be observed experimentally and AtF(3) can convert easily between the three C(2v) structures. The SOJT term is shown to be reduced by electron correlation for IF(3) and AtF(3). On the other hand, although SOC decreases the energy difference between the C(2v) and D(3h) structures and reduces the deviation of the C(2v) structure from the D(3h) structure, it decreases the frequency of the bond bending mode, which may indicate that SOC actually increases the SOJT term. This could be related to mixing of spin-singlet E' states to low-energy spin-triplet states due to SOC.

  19. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  20. Group treatment for trichotillomania: cognitive-behavioral therapy versus supportive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Novel Dissonance-Based Group Treatment for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conduct a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Method Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Body Acceptance Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). Conclusions This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

  2. Physicochemical stability of a new topical timolol 0.5% gel formulation for the treatment of infant hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Bohórquez, V; Casas, M; Caracuel, F; Cameán, M; Fernández-Anguita, M J; Ramírez-Soto, G; Lucero, M J

    2015-01-01

    Infant hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor in infants, which affects 5-10% of white children. It is a tumor of vascular origin that appears in the first months of life. The indication for the treatment of the IH is not approved in the datasheet of the product, however it has been used in the infant hemangioma by topical administration as an alternative to oral propranolol, avoiding the main problems of the oral route (bradycardia and hypotension). The objective of this work is to study the physical and chemical (HPLC stability indicating method) stability of a 0.5% timolol gel for topical application during 60 days (considering the stability limit as 90% of initial concentration of timolol maleate). The gel was prepared with a polyacrylic acid derivative and the physical stability of the system was studied by visual control, rheological and mechanical characterization. The studied formulation guarantees the correct dose administering and stability after 60 days stored at 25 ± 2 °C and light protected (tube of aluminum). We have developed an easy topical gel for the treatment of infant hemangioma with physical and chemical stability higher than those provided by the majority of hospitals.

  3. Radioactive EGFR Antibody Cetuximab in Multimodal Cancer Treatment: Stability and Synergistic Effects With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Wolff, Christian; Nadrowitz, Roger; Breunig, Christian; Schild, Steven E.; Baehre, Manfred; Meller, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Systemic therapies when added to whole brain radiotherapy have failed to improve the survival of patients with multiple brain metastases. The epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab is an attractive option, if it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This might be proven with molecular imaging if the radiolabeled antibody is stable long enough to be effective. This study investigated the stability of radiolabeled cetuximab (Erbitux) ( 131 I-Erbi) and potential synergistic effects with radiotherapy in vitro. Methods and Materials: Two cell lines were investigated, A431 with numerous epidermal growth factor receptors, and JIMT without epidermal growth factor receptors. We labeled 0.4 mg cetuximab with 50 MBq of [ 131 I] iodide. Stability was determined for 72 h. The cell cultures were incubated with 131 I-Erbi or cold cetuximab for 72 h. Uptake and cell proliferation were measured every 24 h after no radiotherapy or irradiation with 2, 4, or 10 Gy. Results: The radiolabeling yield of 131 I-Erbi was always >80%. The radiochemical purity was still 93.6% after 72 h. A431 cells showed a 131 I-Erbi uptake about 100-fold greater than the JIMT controls. After 48 h, the A431 cultures showed significantly decreased proliferation. At 72 h after irradiation, 131 I-Erbi resulted in more pronounced inhibition of cell proliferation than the cold antibody in all radiation dose groups. Conclusion: 131 I-Erbi was stable for ≤72 h. Radiotherapy led to increased tumor cell uptake of 131 I-Erbi. Radiotherapy and 131 I-Erbi synergistically inhibited tumor cell proliferation. These results provide the prerequisite data for a planned in vivo study of whole brain radiotherapy plus cetuximab for brain metastases.

  4. A preformulation study of a new medicine for Chagas disease treatment: physicochemical characterization, thermal stability, and compatibility of benznidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Sobrinho, José Lamartine; de La Roca Soares, Mônica Felts; Lopes, Pablo Queiroz; Correia, Lidiane Pinto; de Souza, Fábio Santos; Macêdo, Rui Oliveira; Rolim-Neto, Pedro José

    2010-09-01

    This work aimed the studies of physicochemical characterization, thermal stability, and compatibility of benznidazole (BNZ) drug by spectroscopy (NMR, IR), thermoanalytical (differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry), and chromatographic (HPLC) techniques, beyond the analytical tools of Van't Hoff equation and Ozawa model. The compatibility study was conducted by binary mixtures (1:1, w/w) of the drug with microcrystalline cellulose 102 and 250, anhydrous lactose, and sodium starch glycolate. The physicochemical characterization confirmed data reported in scientific literature, guaranteeing authenticity of the analyzed raw material. The drug melts at 191.68°C (∆H, 119.71 J g(-1)), characteristic of a non-polymorphic raw material, and a main stage decomposition at 233.76-319.35°C (∆m, 43.32%) occurred, ending the study with almost all mass volatilized. The quantification of drug purity demonstrated a correlation of 99.63% between the data obtained by chromatographic (99.20%) and thermoanalytical technique (99.56%). The Arrhenius equation and Ozawa model showed a zero-order kinetic behavior for the drug decomposition, and a calculated provisional validity time was 2.37 years at 25°C. The compatibility study evidenced two possible chemical incompatibilities between BNZ and the tested excipients, both associated by the authors to the reaction of the BNZ's amine and a polymer carbohydrate's carbonile, being maillard reactions. The BNZ reaction with anhydrous lactose is more pronounced than with the sodium starch glycolate because the lactose has more free hydroxyl groups to undergo reduction by the drug. In this sense, this work guides the development of a new solid pharmaceutical product for Chagas disease treatment, with defined quality control parameters and physicochemical stability.

  5. When does anticipating group-based shame lead to lower ingroup favoritism? The role of status and status stability : The role of status and status stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, L.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, A.S.R.

    In two studies we examined whether and when anticipated group-based shame leads to less ingroup favoritism on the part of members of high-status groups in stable hierarchies. In Study 1 (n = 195) we measured anticipated group-based shame and found that it only negatively predicted ingroup favoritism

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF GROUP THERAPY USED IN THE TREATMENT OF STUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka SHOSTER

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stuttering is not a problem of individuals, but it’s a problem in the verbal communication with others. Individual and group treatment is equally important to use while working with people who stutter.Purpose: Group treatment is used to allow the patient adequate adjustment in all problematic situations (situations increasing stuttering in the environment and to gradually inhibit negative emotions.Material and methods: Objective speech tool is used in this testing (evaluation of speech status under Fiedler, PA Standop, R.Stotern-Schwarzenberg, Munchen, 1978 to determine the degree and type of speech disorder. The anxiety feeling is also evaluated, where the subjective assessment of patients' anxiety is expressed in units SUD (subjective units of disturbance or distress - subjective assessment of suffering.Results and Conclusion: The results showed that group stationary treatment has a huge significance in reducing the anxiety of patients who stutter.

  7. Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among nonrevascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2017-01-01

    revascularization. METHODS: Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all.......63; 95% CI 1.17-2.26), 60-69 years (HR=1.22; 95% CI 0.97-1.59, NS), 70-79 years (HR=1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72) and >79 years (HR=1.46; 95% CI 1.22-1.74). Similar tendencies in all four age groups were found in the propensity-matched population. CONCLUSION: Dual anti-platelet treatment use was less likely...... among elderly patients although similar effects regarding both risk and benefit were found in all age groups. Increased focus on initiating dual anti-platelet treatment in elderly, non-invasively treated myocardial infarction patients is warranted....

  8. Differentiating progress in a clinical group of fibromyalgia patients during and following a multicomponent treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Houte, Maaike; Luyckx, Koen; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Bogaerts, Katleen; Van Diest, Ilse; De Bie, Jozef; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-07-01

    Treatments including multiple nonpharmacological components have beneficial effects on the key symptoms of fibromyalgia, although effects are limited and often do not persist. In this study, we examined different patterns of clinical progress and the dynamic interplay between predictors and outcomes over time. Fibromyalgia patients (N=153; 135 women) followed a multidisciplinary group program spanning 12weeks, aimed at "regaining control over daily functioning". Anxiety, depression, pain coping and kinesiophobia were used as predictor variables. Outcome variables were pain severity, pain-related disability, physical functioning and functional interference. All variables were assessed at 3 moments: on the first and last day of treatment, and 12weeks after the last day of treatment. Overall treatment effects were analyzed using mixed model analyses. Latent class growth analysis identifying different treatment trajectory classes was used to investigate individual differences in treatment effects. Finally, cross-lagged structural equation models were used to investigate the dynamic interplay between predictors and outcomes over time. Only a fourth to a third of the total group showed improvement on the outcome variables. These patients had lower baseline anxiety, depression and kinesiophobia, and improved more on anxiety, depression and kinesiophobia. Physical well-being had a stronger effect on anxiety and depression than vice versa. Physical functioning predicted relative changes in kinesiophobia, while kinesiophobia predicted relative changes in pain-related disability. The results emphasize the importance of tailoring treatments to individual needs in order to improve overall effectiveness of treatment programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.

  10. Examination of early group dynamics and treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavior therapy for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Durkin, Nora E; Crosby, Ross D; Berg, Kelly C; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether perceptions of group dynamics early in treatment predicted eating disorder outcomes in a sample of adults (N = 190) with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a 15-session group cognitive behavior therapy (gCBT) treatment with differing levels of therapist involvement (therapist led, therapist assisted, and self-help). The group dynamic variables included the Engaged subscale of the Group Climate Questionnaire--Short Form and the Group Attitude Scale, measured at session 2 and session 6. Treatment outcome was assessed in terms of global eating disorder severity and frequency of binge eating at end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Session 2 engagement and group attitudes were associated with improved outcome at 12-month follow-up. No other group dynamic variables were significantly associated with treatment outcome. Group dynamic variables did not differ by levels of therapist involvement. Results indicate that early engagement and attitudes may be predictive of improved eating disorder psychopathology at 12 month follow-up. However, the pattern of mostly insignificant findings indicates that in gCBT, group process variables may be less influential on outcomes relative to other treatment components. Additionally, participants were able to engage in group treatment regardless of level of therapist involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective sexual harassment: differential treatment of similar groups of women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of "selective sexual harassment." Without this understanding of the nuances of the workplace dynamics, a court could mistake the women of the unharassed group as representing "reasonable women" and the women of the harassed group as simply oversensitive. This paper draws on empirical data to demonstrate such a situation and advocates for a version of the "reasonable victim" standard to facilitate a closer analysis of hostile environment sexual harassment suits.

  12. Evaluating animal-assisted therapy in group treatment for child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child Advocacy Center participated in the study. Results indicate that children in the groups that included therapy dogs showed significant decreases in trauma symptoms including anxiety, depression, anger, post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and sexual concerns. In addition, results show that children who participated in the group with therapeutic stories showed significantly more change than the other groups. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  13. Disparities in completion of substance abuse treatment between and within racial and ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Marsh, Jeanne C; Duan, Lei; Oh, Christine; Perron, Brian; Lee, Benedict

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate disparities in substance abuse treatment completion between and within racial and ethnic groups in publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. The Los Angeles County Participant Reporting System with multicross-sectional annual data (2006-2009) for adult participants (n = 16,637) who received treatment from publicly funded programs (n = 276) for the first time. Retrospective analyses of county discharge and admission data. Hierarchical linear regressions models were used to test the hypotheses. Client data were collected during personal interviews at admission and discharge for most participants. African Americans and Latinos reported lower odds of completing treatment compared with Whites. Within-group analysis revealed significant heterogeneity within racial and ethnic groups, highlighting primary drug problem, days of drug use before admission, and homelessness as significant factors affecting treatment completion. Service factors, such as referral by the criminal justice system, enabled completion among Latinos and Whites only. These findings have implications for reducing health disparities among members of racial and ethnic minorities by identifying individual and service factors associated with treatment adherence, particularly for first-time clients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. [The treatment of social phobias: efficacy of cognitive and and behavioral group therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanget, F

    1999-01-01

    55 patients with social phobias were given group cognitive-behavioural therapy. The study protocol comprised three phases: (1) the pre-inclusion phase with 5 individual consultations before group treatment; (2) the group phase itself, comprising 20 weekly sessions of 2 hours each and (3) the post-therapy phase, comprising a 6 month follow-up group session, and 2 evaluation sessions 6 and 12 months after the end of group therapy. The techniques used were assertiveness training and cognitive therapy. Assessments were carried out using the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (23), Brief standard self rating for phobic patients (Marks) (19) and Beck Depression Inventory Scores (1), at specified times during the study: at the start of the individual phase; at the start, in the middle and at the end of the group phase, as well as at 6 month and 1 year follow-up. The results are interesting. Follow-up was very good, with 54 out of 55 patients finishing the group treatment, and with 50 patients being evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Global analysis of the results showed that at the end of group therapy, there was a statistically significant improvement in the score on the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, on the social sub-score, on the brief standard self rating for phobic patients (Marks). The improvement in these variables was maintained at 6 and 12 month follow-up.

  15. Two-step upflow anaerobic sludge bed system for sewage treatment under subtropical conditions with posttreatment in waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Trupiano, A.P.; Liberal, V.; Todd, P.G.; Figueroa, M.E.; Gutierrez, M.A.; Silva Wilches, Da A.C.; Iribarnegaray, M.; Guerra, R.G.; Arena, A.; Cuevas, C.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale sewage treatment system consisting of two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors followed by five waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in series was studied under subtropical conditions. The first UASB reactor started up in only 1 mo (stable operation, high chemical oxygen demand

  16. Effect of heat treatment and packaging systems on the stability of fish sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaela Dallabona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of sausages produced from mechanically separated fish meat (MSM obtained from Nile tilapia filleting residues. Different heat treatments (pasteurization or smoking and packaging systems (conventional or vacuum were used. The sausages were characterized for chemical composition, weight loss, water activity, instrumental texture and sensorial analysis. Additionally, microbiological analysis, instrumental color, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N were assessed during storage. No presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected; however, the psychrotrophic count in pasteurized sausages exceeded the limits allowed for consumption. pH and lipid oxidation speed (TBARS values were reduced when vacuum packaging was used. Volatile nitrogenous bases remained virtually constant during the storage period, and higher values were observed in smoked products. Pasteurized sausages remain stable for 10 and 15 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively, and smoked sausages remain stable for 25 and 45 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively.

  17. Perfectionism Group Treatment for Eating Disorders in an Inpatient, Partial Hospitalization, and Outpatient Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Brosof, Leigh C; Vanzhula, Irina A; Bumberry, Laura; Zerwas, Stephanie; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-11-01

    Perfectionism is elevated in individuals with eating disorders and is posited to be a risk factor, maintaining factor, and treatment barrier. However, there has been little literature testing the feasibility and effectiveness of perfectionism interventions in individuals specifically with eating disorders in an open group format. In the current study, we tested the feasibility of (a) a short cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism intervention delivered in an inpatient, partial hospitalization, and outpatient for eating disorders setting (combined N = 28; inpatient n = 15; partial hospital n = 9; outpatient n = 4), as well as (b) a training for disseminating the treatment in these settings (N = 9). Overall, we found that it was feasible to implement a perfectionism group in each treatment setting, with both an open and closed group format. This research adds additional support for the implementation of perfectionism group treatment for eating disorders and provides information on the feasibility of implementing such interventions across multiple settings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  19. Manualized-Group Treatment of Eating Disorders: Attunement in Mind, Body, and Relationship (AMBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Beck, Meredith; Kane, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a manualized-group treatment of eating disorders, the attunement in mind, body, and relationship (AMBR) program. The cognitive behavioral and dialectic behavioral research as well as the innovative prevention interventions upon which the program is based (e.g., interactive discourse, yoga, and mediation) are introduced. The…

  20. Effects of Professional Group Membership, Intervention Type, and Diagnostic Label on Treatment Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Larry D.; Stinnett, Terry A.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates professionals' ratings of treatment acceptability for two interventions. Teachers, school psychologists, and school social workers (N=97) viewed a vignette of a student exhibiting disruptive behavior and then rated the intervention's acceptability. Results show that professional group membership produced a significant interaction…

  1. Staff Group Unanimity in the Care of Juveniles in Institutional Treatment: Routines, Rituals, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Lia; Degner, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    One prerequisite for effective institutional care is that staff agree on how to deliver treatment and have a unified view of how to achieve change--in other words, to have staff group unanimity (SGU). This study used the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory (CPAI) 2000, interviews with key staff, and observations of daily activities to…

  2. Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rui; Kim, Bobae V.; van Wely, Madelon; Johnson, Neil P.; Costello, Michael F.; Zhang, Hanwang; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Legro, Richard S.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Robert J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials

  3. STARS experiential group intervention: a complex trauma treatment approach for survivors of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Elizabeth K; Azar, Naomi; Bhattacharyya, Sriya; Malebranche, Dominique A; Brennan, Kelsey E

    2018-01-01

    This is the abstract that was submitted online with the paper: Despite the fact that many survivors of human trafficking have experienced complex trauma, there are no established interventions designed to specifically address these impacts. Leaders in the field of complex trauma have advocated for the need for somatic approaches to intervention. This paper presents STARS Experiential Group treatment, the first structured bodybased group intervention that has been designed to address complex trauma in survivors of human trafficking. Three pilot groups were run in residential settings with adolescent and adult survivors of sex trafficking. Two adaptations were utilized, with one focusing on application of expressive arts modalities and the other incorporating theater games. Qualitative results, using thematic analysis, identified several themes related to challenges and potential benefits of these groups. Potential benefits of the STARS groups were found in the areas of Interpersonal Relationships, Regulation, and Self/ Identity, with fourteen sub-themes further describing positive impacts. Challenges within these areas are explored, to inform the development of group interventions for trafficking survivors. The results of this paper suggest that experiential, somatically-oriented group treatment shows promise as an important element of holistic intervention with trafficking survivors.

  4. (Dis-)solving the Weight Problem in Binge-Eating Disorder: Systemic Insights From Three Treatment Contexts With Weight Stability, Weight Loss, and Weight Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lene Bomholt; Waaddegaard, Mette; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-04-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a severe eating disorder strongly associated with obesity. Treatments struggle to provide safe and effective ways of addressing weight in a BED context. This study explored a two-phased treatment for BED developed at a major out-patient eating disorder service in Denmark. The study used interviews and participant observations to gain insight into experiences and processes related to weight and body issues in three treatment contexts that addressed weight stability, weight acceptance, and weight loss. Using systems theory, the study proposed a relational weight problem that embeds feelings of non-acceptance due to weight, a merge of weight and identity, and an internalized body- and weight-critical gaze of others. Contrary to critical claims that weight acceptance discourages people with obesity from engaging in weight loss efforts, this study suggests that acceptance and a disentanglement of weight and identity are prerequisites for weight loss for this group.

  5. Can music therapy engage patients in group cognitive behaviour therapy for substance abuse treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Gleadhill, Libby; Baker, Felicity A

    2008-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective treatments for substance use disorders, engaging people in treatment remains a challenge. This clinical study describes a 7-week trial of music therapy as an adjunct to group cognitive behaviour therapy with the aim of increasing patient engagement in a private hospital open group programme. Patient attendance rates and perceptions of the music therapy were collected at the end of each music therapy session by means of an anonymous survey, and only data from each patient's first survey were used in the analysis. Twenty-four surveys were analysed, representing feedback from 10 men and 14 women, aged between 17 and 52 years. The average attendance rate over the 7-week trial was 75%. The results indicated that enjoyment and motivation to participate during the sessions was uniformly high (mean ratings of 4.3 and 4.0 out of 5, respectively). The majority (83%) of participants reported that they would attend another music therapy session, and almost half (46%) endorsed that '(music therapy) would help them to feel more a part of the group'. Additional analyses revealed that music therapy was able to engage patients regardless of their age group (25 years and under vs. over-25 years) or substance (alcohol only vs. other drugs). Music therapy is a promising approach to improving engagement in substance abuse treatment groups.

  6. [Stability of orthodontic-maxillofacial surgical treatment of anterior open bite deformities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenreijs, T.J.M.; Freihofer, H.P.M.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 267 patients with maxillary hyperplasia, a Class I or Class II occlusion and anterior open bite, collected from three different institutions, was analysed regarding stability after Le Fort I intrusion osteotomies or bimaxillary osteotomies. Skeletal and dento-alveolar stability of the

  7. Evaluating the cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing iron wastes from drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Tara M; Snyder, Kathryn V; Reddy, Raghav; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Amrose, Susan E; Raskin, Lutgarde; Hayes, Kim F

    2015-12-30

    Cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing wastes is recommended to limit arsenic release from wastes following disposal. Such stabilization has been demonstrated to reduce the arsenic concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), which regulates landfill disposal of arsenic waste. However, few studies have evaluated leaching from actual wastes under conditions similar to ultimate disposal environments. In this study, land disposal in areas where flooding is likely was simulated to test arsenic release from cement stabilized arsenic-bearing iron oxide wastes. After 406 days submersed in chemically simulated rainwater, wastes. Presenting the first characterization of cement stabilized waste using μXRF, these results revealed the majority of arsenic in cement stabilized waste remained associated with iron. This distribution of arsenic differed from previous observations of calcium-arsenic solid phases when arsenic salts were stabilized with cement, illustrating that the initial waste form influences the stabilized form. Overall, cement stabilization is effective for arsenic-bearing wastes when acidic conditions can be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized controlled pilot trial of a novel dissonance-based group treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S; Marti, C Nathan

    2015-02-01

    The authors conducted a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Counter Attitudinal Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ(2)[6] = 34.1, p effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = .79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Are medical treatments for individuals and groups like single-play and multiple-play gambles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. DeKay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available People are often more likely to accept risky monetary gambles with positive expected values when the gambles will be played more than once. We investigated whether this distinction between single-play and multiple-play gambles extends to medical treatments for individual patients and groups of patients. Resident physicians and medical students (extit{n} = 69 and undergraduates (extit{n} = 99 ranked 9 different flu shots and a no-flu-shot option in 1 of 4 combinations of perspective (individual patient vs. group of 1000 patients and uncertainty frame (probability vs. frequency. The rank of the no-flu-shot option (a measure of preference for treatment vs. no treatment was not significantly related to perspective or participant population. The main effect of uncertainty frame and the interaction between perspective and uncertainty frame approached significance (0.1 {extgreater} extit{p} {extgreater} 0.05, with the no-flu-shot option faring particularly poorly (treatment faring particularly well when decisions about many patients were based on frequency information. Undergraduate participants believed that the no-flu-shot option would be less attractive (treatment would be more attractive in decisions about many patients, but these intuitions were inconsistent with the actual ranks. These results and those of other studies suggest that medical treatments for individuals and groups are not analogous to single-play and multiple-play monetary gambles, perhaps because many people are unwilling to aggregate treatment outcomes over patients in the same way that they would compute net gains or losses over monetary gambles.

  10. Exploring the perceived usefulness of practical food groups in day treatment for individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiscombe, Rachel J; Scanlan, Justin Newton; Ross, Jessica; Horsfield, Sarah; Aradas, Jessica; Hart, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Recovery from eating disorders is a challenging process. Emerging literature suggests that occupational therapists may provide a useful contribution in delivering purposeful eating-related interventions as a potential treatment to support sustained cognitive and behavioural changes for individuals with eating disorders. This study aimed to evaluate participants' perceptions of the contribution of occupational therapy practical food groups (food based outings and cooking groups) in supporting their functional recovery. Individuals attended practical food groups as part of standard treatment at an outpatient eating disorders day program. Ninety-nine participants completed questionnaires at discharge and up to three follow-up points (6, 12 and 24 months). Questions related to practical food groups were analysed, exploring participants' experiences and perceived usefulness of groups using rating-scale and open-ended questions. Open-ended responses were analysed using thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for responses to rating-scale questions. At discharge, participants rated the importance and usefulness of practical food groups as high (4.73 and 4.43 on 5-point scales, respectively), but tended to rate their enjoyment of the groups lower (3.50 on a 5-point scale). Some skill transfer was typically reported by participants at discharge (3.92 on a 5-point scale). One core theme, 'success through participation', emerged from qualitative comments. Six subthemes were also identified: helpful components of practical food groups; perceived benefit of exposure; impact of applying cognitive and behavioural skills; challenges affecting participation; facilitating adaptation; and influence of eating disorders on challenging feared foods. This study highlights that participation in practical food groups was perceived as useful in assisting individuals to improve eating behaviours and, in some circumstances, transfer these skills into their lives outside of

  11. [Transpedicular dynamics stabilization in the treatment of lumbar stenosis. Fourth years follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro; Sánchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Zarate-Kalfopulos, Barón; Alpizar-Aguirre, Armando; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Rosales-Olivares, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    We need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the use of dynamic fixation in patients with narrow lumbar through comparing the assessment of two years with 4 years of follow-up. Prospective, longitudinal, autocontrol deliberately and sequential intervention, in lumbar stenosis patients who made treatment with dynamic stabilization posterior type Acuflex. An evaluation of four of final follow-up. 18 patients who completed follow-up two years results as a basis for comparison: 18 patients, 14 female and 4 male, average age 44.05 years. Pain evaluated with numerical visual scale was found in the lower back at 24 months in an average of 2.84 and 48 months in 3.26. We measured the functional level of Oswestry at two years to be 24% and at four years 22.44%, with a p = 0.373. In the magnetic resonance for classification of patients 15 Pfirrmann without changes and three with increase of a degree. According to patients 2 Modic changes one of type 0 to type III and another to type I. We have observed that five patients have required second surgery for removal of material findings. There is no change between 2 and 4 years in the scale of Oswestry and pain with visual numerical scale functionality. The average height in discs had change with statistical significance, in the comparative period. The intervertebral discs had changes in 3 patients with direct relationship between scale of Pfirrmann and Modic. The rest of patients keep rehydration and normal disc height.

  12. The Stability of CI02 as a Product of Gas Phase Decontamination Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    The gas phase decontamination project is investigating the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to produce uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) gas. The potential existence of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) during gas phase decontamination with ClF 3 has been the subject of recent safety discussions. Some of the laboratory data collected during feasibility studies of the gas phase process has been evaluated for the presence of ClO 2 in the product gas stream. The preliminary evidence to date can be summarized as follows: (1) ClO 2 was not detected in the flow loop in the absence of ClF 3 ; (2) ClO 2 was not detected in the static reactors in the absence of both ClF 3 and ClF; and (3) ClO 2 was detected in a static reactor in the absence of all fluorinating gases. The experimental evidence suggests that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClF 3 , ClF, or UF 6 . The data analyzed to date is insufficient to determine the stability of ClO 2 in the presence of ClO 2 F. Thermodynamic calculations of the ClF 3 + H 2 O system support the experimental evidence, and suggest that ClO 2 will not exist in the presence of ClO 2 F. Additional experimental efforts are needed to provide a better understanding of the gas phase ClF 3 treatments and the product gases. However, preliminary evidence to date suggests that ClO 2 should not be present as a product during the normal operations of the gas phase decontamination project

  13. SUBJECTIVE DISTRESS CAUSED BY CO-SPEAKERS’ REACTIONS – REDUCTION DURING STATIONARY GROUP TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena TADIKJ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a disorder that represents multifunctional problem. It probably exists since the beginning of mankind. Its’ frequency and severity are influenced by different factors. Among the most significant ones are the complexity of statement, speaking speed, and speakers’ emotional reaction to the whole speech situation and other co-speakers. Goal: To present the results of two-weeks intensive group stationary treatment of adults who stutter, especially stuttering severity and level of subjective distress caused by co-speakers’ reactions in the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Subjects: A group of 25 adults who stutter. Methodology: At the beginning and at the end of the group stationary treatment speech status was taken, consisting of counting, enumerating, repeating the sentences, reading a 100-word tale, retelling the read text, and conversation on a free subject. In the same time, subjective distress caused by 13 different co-speakers reactions was estimated. Results show that very positive results are achieved in the reduction of speech disfluences, as well as moderate reduction of subjective distress caused by co-speakers’ reactions. In the paper the results are shown in more details, and, subsequently, implications for further research and treatment.

  14. Studies with group treatments required special power calculations, allocation methods, and statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Miriam C; Reelick, Miriam F; Perry, Marieke; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Borm, George F

    2012-02-01

    In some trials, the intervention is delivered to individuals in groups, for example, groups that exercise together. The group structure of such trials has to be taken into consideration in the analysis and has an impact on the power of the trial. Our aim was to provide optimal methods for the design and analysis of such trials. We described various treatment allocation methods and presented a new allocation algorithm: optimal batchwise minimization (OBM). We carried out a simulation study to evaluate the performance of unrestricted randomization, stratification, permuted block randomization, deterministic minimization, and OBM. Furthermore, we described appropriate analysis methods and derived a formula to calculate the study size. Stratification, deterministic minimization, and OBM had considerably less risk of imbalance than unrestricted randomization and permuted block randomization. Furthermore, OBM led to unpredictable treatment allocation. The sample size calculation and the analysis of the study must be based on a multilevel model that takes the group structure of the trial into account. Trials evaluating interventions that are carried out in subsequent groups require adapted treatment allocation, power calculation, and analysis methods. From the perspective of obtaining overall balance, we conclude that minimization is the method of choice. When the number of prognostic factors is low, stratification is an excellent alternative. OBM leads to better balance within the batches, but it is more complicated. It is probably most worthwhile in trials with many prognostic factors. From the perspective of predictability, a treatment allocation method, such as OBM, that allocates several subjects at the same time, is superior to other methods because it leads to the lowest possible predictability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D

    2001-11-01

    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  16. Opportunities for Integrating Physical Health Within Assertive Community Treatment Teams: Results from Practitioner Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Kalos, Piper S; Lee, Michael G; Studer, Lynette M; Line, Tanya A; Fisher, Colleen M

    2017-04-01

    This qualitative study assessed the experiences of assertive community treatment (ACT) team members regarding the integration of physical and mental health self-management for persons with serious mental illness. Three focus groups elicited information from participants concerning barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Findings from inductive analyses revealed six overarching themes: (1) collaboration with primary care, (2) improvements in engagement, (3) team-focused roles, (4) education and training, (5) recommendations for system level barriers, and (6) systems collaboration. Participant recommendations suggest that ACT teams are well positioned to integrate mental and physical health treatment, but further research is needed to support integrated care.

  17. Exploring beliefs of the four major ethnic groups in Melbourne regarding healthcare and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kai'En; Weiland, Tracey J; Dent, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    To explore and compare beliefs about healthcare and treatment of four ethnic groups attending a Melbourne emergency department (ED), and the corresponding perceptions held by emergency clinicians. Prospective survey of ED doctors and patients from Greek, Italian, Vietnamese and Anglo-Saxon backgrounds. Vietnamese patients were least likely to believe their ethnic group received the best available care but less likely to believe in the existence of ethnic healthcare disparities. They were most likely to have an ethnically concordant GP and preferred most strongly to raise sensitive issues with an ethnically concordant doctor. Anglo-Saxon patients placed less importance on family support and older Anglo-Saxons were less likely than other groups to turn to God for comfort. Doctors perceived the existence of ethnic healthcare disparity, which was not perceived by the ethnic groups themselves. They underestimated the extent of patient-perceived disease control, external supports for coping, or use of complementary practitioners. Doctors overestimated patient perceived importance of doctor-patient ethnic concordance for Anglo-Saxons but underestimated the importance this has for Vietnamese patients. They also underestimated importance of clinician-demonstrated cultural understanding. Beliefs about healthcare and treatment differ across the four major ethnic groups attending a Melbourne ED. Doctors' misperceptions of patients' beliefs suggest that cultural competence amongst ED doctors could be improved.

  18. Adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy skills training group for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Rebecca; Sprich, Susan; Safren, Steven; Jacobo, Michelle; Fava, Maurizio

    2008-02-01

    Treatment resistant depression is common, persistent, and results in substantial functional and social impairment. This study describes the development and preliminary outcome evaluation of a dialectical behavior therapy-based skills training group to treat depressive symptoms in adult outpatients for whom antidepressant medication had not produced remission. The 16-session, once-weekly group covered the 4 dialectical behavior therapy skill sets: mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance. Twenty-four patients with ongoing depressive symptoms despite stable, adequate medication treatment for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to either the skills group or a wait-list condition. The depressive symptoms of participants who completed the study (9 wait-list participants, 10 skills group participants) were compared using a clinician-rated Hamilton rating scale for depression and then replicated using a self-report measure Beck depression inventory. Clinician raters were blind to each participant's assigned study condition. Skills group participants showed significantly greater improvements in depressive symptoms compared with the control condition. Effect sizes were large for both measures of depression (Cohen's d = 1.45 for Hamilton rating scale for depression and 1.31 for Beck depression inventory), suggesting that larger scale trials are warranted.

  19. COMPLIANCE WITH TREATMENT GROUPS: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY STRATEGY FOR ASSISTANCE TO HIV/AIDS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. S. Gil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the benefits of adherence group to HIV / AIDS and evaluate the work of an interdisciplinary team of health. It is a descriptive and exploratory study of qualitative approach, with 5 volunteers and 3 professionals who provide care in the Specialized Care Service (SAE of Sinop/MT. Data were collected through semi-structured and recorded interviews. The answers were transcribed and analyzed in categories. The results showed that the participation of people living with HIV / AIDS in the adherence group offered a significant help for their adherence to treatment and improved quality of life, and the work of professionals in the group contributed effectively to patient compliance treatment as an alternative therapy. The group also provided the user of the Unified Health System (SUS assistance of paid way. Thus, it was found that the use of group activities may be a possibility of nursing care, constituting a valuable space for the patient to find the necessary support to adhere to the treatmen

  20. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP AND CREOSOTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's NRMRL conducted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. Formulations developed during these studies wer...

  1. Stability of direct oral anticoagulants in whole blood and plasma from patients in steady state treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGrail, Rie; Revsholm, Jesper; Nissen, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Using functional haemostasis assays, we demonstrated important differences in stability of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in citrated whole blood and plasma from DOAC treated patients. Laboratories and clinicians should take this into consideration and adjust clinical practices accordingly....

  2. Patient education in groups increases knowledge of osteoporosis and adherence to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Ryg, Jesper; Nielsen, Winnie

    2010-01-01

    and 268 women aged 63 ± 8 years), recently diagnosed with osteoporosis, were randomised to either an osteoporosis school programme (four classes of 8-12 participants over four weeks) or a control group. Teaching was multidisciplinary, based on patients' experiences and background and designed to encourage...... empowerment. Patients' knowledge about osteoporosis and adherence to treatment was assessed with self-completed questionnaires at baseline and after 3, 12, and 24 months. RESULTS: There were no significant differences at baseline between the two groups with respect to knowledge score or level of adherence...

  3. Stability of chitosan nanoparticles for L-ascorbic acid during heat treatment in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Keum-Il; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2008-03-26

    This study investigated the stability and characteristics of L-ascorbic acid (AA)-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles during heat processing in aqueous solutions. AA-loaded CS nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation of CS with tripolyphosphate (TPP) anions. The smallest CS nanoparticles (170 nm) were obtained with a CS concentration of 1.5 mg/mL and a TPP concentration of 0.6 mg/mL. As the concentration of AA increased from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/mL, the particle size increased, while the zeta potential decreased, and the encapsulation efficiency of AA remained within a fixed range (10-12%). During heat processing at various temperatures, the size and zeta potential of the particles decreased rapidly in the first 5 min and then slowly fell to the regular range. At the beginning of the release profiles, the burst release-related stability of the surface increased with the temperature. Then, the release of the internal AA was constantly higher with a longer release time. Consequently, it was confirmed that the stability of AA-loaded CS nanoparticles was affected by temperature but that the internal stability was greater than the surface stability. These results demonstrate the stability of CS nanoparticles for AA during heat processing and suggest the possible use of AA-loaded CS nanoparticles to enhance antioxidant effects because of the continuous release of AA from CS nanoparticles in food processing.

  4. The use of resorbable plates in association with dental arch stabilization in the treatment of mandibular fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; David, Ongodia; Li, Zu-Bing

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resorbable plate fixation in association with dental arch stabilization in the treatment of displaced mandibular fractures in children. Thirteen children (5 girls and 8 boys, age range 2 years 5 months to 12 years 2 months) with displaced mandibular fractures were included in this case series. Open reduction by intraoral approach was performed on these patients, and the fractures were fixed using resorbable plates and monocortical screws placed at the lower border of the mandible. At the same time, an arch bar or orthodontic wire splint was anchored using stainless steel wires or resin on the teeth to stabilize the whole mandibular dental arch. Postoperatively, follow-up was undertaken to evaluate the fracture healing, mandible movement, and mandible growth. Postoperatively, all patients achieved uneventful healing; premorbid occlusion restoration and wound healing were achieved, along with unimpaired function and normal growth and development of the mandible. Complications such as damage to tooth buds, infection, malunion, and nonunion were not encountered in these patients. Resorbable plates use in association with dental arch stabilization can provide good stabilization for mandibular fractures and is a promising approach for the treatment of displaced mandibular fractures in children. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve...... functioning in FSS, but their effect on work ability is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term effect of group CBT on work ability in patients with severe FSS. Methods: 120 Patients from a recently published randomised controlled trial comparing group CBT with enhanced usual care (EUC...... before to 3 years after treatment by means of random effects modelling allowing individual levels and slopes. Results: Compared with the general population, FSS patients showed a continuous decline in self-support, leading to markedly reduced work ability at trial entry. In the following years, EUC...

  6. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Fink, Per

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve functioning in FSS, but their effect on work ability is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term effect of group CBT on work ability in patients with severe FSS. Methods: 120 Pa...

  7. Active case finding and treatment adherence in risk groups in the tuberculosis pre-elimination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Lipman, M; Story, A; Hayward, A; de Vries, G; van Hest, R; Erkens, C; Rangaka, M X; Abubakar, I

    2018-05-01

    Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings. Targeted strategies include active case finding (ACF) initiatives and interventions to improve treatment completion, both of which should be tailored to local populations. ACF usually deploys mobile X-ray unit screening, which allows sensitive, high-throughput screening with immediate availability of results. Such initiatives have been found to be effective and cost-effective, and associated with reductions in proxy measures of transmission in hard-to-reach groups. The addition of point-of-care molecular diagnostics and automated X-ray readers may further streamline the screening pathway. There is little evidence to support interventions to improve adherence among these risk groups. Such approaches include enhanced case management and directly observed treatment, while video-observed therapy (currently under evaluation) appears to be a promising tool for the future. Integrating outreach services to include both case detection and case-management interventions that share a resource infrastructure may allow cost-effectiveness to be maximised. Integrating screening and treatment for other diseases that are prevalent among targeted risk groups into TB outreach interventions may further improve cost-effectiveness. This article reviews the existing literature, and highlights priorities for further research.

  8. Effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of Beech (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of beech according to EN113 and ASTM-D1037 standards respectively. The heat treatment with raw cotton seed oil was carried out in the cylinder at the temperatures of 130 and 170oC for 30 and 60 minutes. Oil uptake, density, volumetric swelling, water absorption and weight loss exposed to decay were measured. Oil uptake at 30 and 60 min were determined 10.5 and 13.3 Kg/cm3 respectively. Oil-heat treated samples at 30min and 130°C indicated the maximum density with 87.7% increase. According to results, oil-heat treatment improved water repellency and dimensional stability. Water absorption in 130°C and 60 minutes decreased 76% in comparison with control. Decay resistance of oil soaked samples for 60minutes was 80.2% more than control samples. Oil-heat treatment compared with oil treatment improved decay resistance, this effect was significant at 30 min. The temperature rise of oil–heat treatment at 30 minutes improved decay resistance, but the improvement under same level of temperature with increase time was not significant.

  9. The role of ABO blood groups in Crohn's disease and in monitoring response to infliximab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiao; Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Shenghong; Feng, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Baili; Chen, Minhu

    2016-09-01

    The variation in ABO blood groups is reported to be associated with multiple diseases. Infliximab (IFX) has been widely used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). We aim to investigate the distribution of ABO blood groups in Chinese patients with CD and to explore its impact on response to IFX. Patients with CD were consecutively recruited to the study between 2007 and 2014. CD patients receiving IFX therapy were followed for at least two years. In 293 patients with CD, most patients (40.6%) had blood type O (119/293). The odds ratio (OR) of CD in blood type O patients was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.6-1.86; p=0.84) compared to all other blood types. Among those CD patients, 107 patients received IFX treatment. One year after the first course of IFX, a significant association was found between the overall ABO system and outcomes of IFX treatment (pblood type AB (OR=4.42, 95% CI: 1.04-18.76; p=0.044) were more likely to achieve mucosal healing, while CD patients with blood type A had a high risk of losing response (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.15-0.96; p=0.040). ABO blood groups are not associated with prevalence of CD. Patients with blood type AB had a better response to IFX while those with blood type A appeared to have a risk of losing response to IFX.

  10. Influence of mechanical and thermal treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium stabilized austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhom, H.

    1983-12-01

    Thermal and mechanical treatments for microstructure optimization in titanium stabilized austenitic stainless steels used in nuclear industry are examined. The steels studied Z10CNDT15-15B and Z6CNDT17-13 are of the type 15-15 Ti and 316 Ti. These treatments allow the elimination of casting heterogeneity produced by dendritic solidification, improve mechanical properties particularly creep and the best compromise between grain size solid solution of metal additions is obtained. Secondary precipitation of (TiMo)C on dislocations is improved by a previous strain hardening. The precipitation reinforce the good effect of strain hardening by stabilization of the microstructure producing a better resistance to recrystallization [fr

  11. Characterization of IGF-II isoforms in binge eating disorder and its group psychological treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Tasca

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED affects 3.5% of the population and is characterized by binge eating for at least 2 days a week for 6 months. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy which are associated with varied success. Little is known about the biology of BED. Since there is evidence that the insulin like growth factor system is implicated in regulation of body weight, insulin sensitivity and feeding behavior, we speculated it may be involved in BED.A cross-sectional comparison was made between three groups of women: overweight with BED, overweight without BED and normal weight without BED. Women were assigned to Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Blood was collected before therapy, at completion and at 6 months follow up for evaluation of IGF-II using Western blot.97 overweight women with BED contributed to the cross-sectional comparison. The two control groups comprised 53 overweight women without BED, and 50 age matched normal weight women without BED. Obese women had significantly lower Big IGF-II than normal weight women, p = .028; Overweight women with BED had higher Mature IGF-II than normal weight women, p<.05. Big IGF-II showed a significant decreasing slope from pre- to post- to six months post-group psychological treatment, unrelated to changes in BMI (p = .008.Levels of IGF-II isoforms differed significantly between overweight and normal weight women. Overweight women with BED display abnormal levels of circulating IGF-II isoforms. BED is characterized by elevated mature IGF-II, an isoform shown to carry significant bioactivity. This finding is not related to BMI or to changes in body weight. The results also provide preliminary evidence that BIG IGF-II is sensitive to change due to group psychological treatment. We suggest that abnormalities in IGF-II processing may be involved in the neurobiology of BED.

  12. Comparison of a Psychoanalytic and a Client-Centered Group Treatment Model on Measures of Anxiety and Self-Actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth, Pamela

    1983-01-01

    Compared the effects of a psychoanalytic or group treatment model in promoting self-actualization in 19 counselor trainees. Results showed significant differences between treatment models: psychoanalytic groups reported higher anxiety, and client-centered groups showed greater initial gains on the Personal Orientation Inventory and maintained…

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of participants of support groups for hypersexual disorder

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    Els Tierens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which members of support groups for hypersexual disorder meet the proposed criteria for hypersexual disorder of Kafka, how the diagnosis of hypersexual disorders is made and what treatments are currently given. Methods: In this non-interventional research survey, members of support groups for hypersexual disorder received a questionnaire in which the criteria for hypersexual disorder according to Kafka were included as well as the way the disease was diagnosed and treated. Results: The questionnaire was presented to 32 people but only 10 completed questionnaires were returned. Five of the ten respondents met the criteria of Kafka. For the other five respondents a hypersexual disorder was not confirmed but neither excluded. Only for three respondents the diagnosis was made by a professional healthcare worker. The treatment included – besides the support group in nine cases – also individual psychotherapy. Two respondents took a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI, as recommended in the literature. Conclusions: The members of support groups for sex addiction were difficult to motivate for their participation. The way hypersexual disorders were diagnosed was far from optimal. Only two participants received the recommended medication.

  14. Feldenkrais® therapy as group treatment for chronic pain--a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Ann; Aström, Lena; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt

    2011-04-01

    This qualitative study describes and analyses the experiences and self-reported effects of those participating in a Feldenkrais group intervention. Fourteen women with non-specific neck and shoulder pain participated in a group treatment design using the Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement (ATM) method. Data were collected in two ways: diary notes directly after the sessions and thematic interviews 4-6 months after the intervention. Data were analysed with a Grounded Theory approach. One core category and two sub-categories emerged. The core category "Feldenkrais is wholesome, but difficult" represents the participants' major opinions about the group intervention. The sub-categories "More erect without effort", and "Extended space for myself", represent participants' descriptions of effects of the movement therapy. The women described changes in posture and balance, a feeling of release and increased self-confidence. Some ambivalence about the method was expressed, especially regarding the difficulty to continue the exercises at home. The women feelings of improved body awareness remained after 4-6 months. They were also more aware of their attitudes towards activities in daily life. This resulted in them not "sacrificing themselves" as they did before. In addition, the bodily and psychological changes and the concept of empowerment are discussed. Positive experiences from the Feldenkrais group treatment were reported, especially concerning movement ability and body awareness. The exercises were however regarded as difficult to perform as self-training on a daily basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  16. Intergroup biases of the intermediate-status group: the effect of stability and instability of social stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Monacelli, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, the effect of instability of social stratification on intergroup behaviour of the intermediate-status group was investigated. In both studies, participants were categorised in the intermediate-status group. In Study 1, perceived instability was measured. Results show that the more social stratification was perceived as stable, the more intermediate-status group members were biased against the high-status group. Biases against both high- and low-status groups tended to become similar as social stratification was perceived as more unstable. In Study 2, instability was manipulated in upward and downward conditions. Results showed that, in the upwardly unstable condition, intermediate-status group members were more biased against high-status group, while in the downwardly unstable condition they were more biased against the low-status group.

  17. The influence of individual, group, and relative self-esteem on outcome for patients undergoing group cognitive-behavioural therapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas J; Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoff R

    2013-11-01

    Despite a strong association between individual self-esteem and treatment outcome in group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT), no study has investigated how patient outcomes might be influenced by an individual's self-esteem relative to other group members. The study comprised a retrospective examination of patients' data and used a multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Patients' pre-treatment self-esteem scores were assessed on a continuum and assigned to be low, medium, or high. Therapy groups were assigned to be either low, balanced or high self-esteem groups based on averaged self-esteem scores of participants. In this study, 3,878 patients who had completed a 10-day intensive cognitive behavioural group therapy programme at a private psychiatric facility were included in the study. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem measure was chosen to assess self-esteem. The three subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were used as the outcome measures. Patient outcomes were influenced by pre-treatment self-esteem scores, such that higher initial self-esteem was associated with better treatment outcomes. Low group self-esteem was predictive of significantly better outcomes for depression, relative to higher self-esteem groups. Additionally, the combined influence of high individual self-esteem and low group self-esteem was associated with significantly enhanced depression improvement. High self-esteem patients perform better on outcome measures following completion of GCBT. Low self-esteem groups show greater improvement in depression symptoms. Similar results for depression are achieved when patients with high self-esteem complete treatment in low self-esteem groups. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Orthodontic evolution: an update for the general dental practitioner. Part 2: psychosocial aspects of orthodontic treatment, stability of treatment, and the TMJ-orthodontic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Niall J P

    2008-01-01

    As a result of recent innovations and improvements, orthodontic treatment has become easier and more efficient to carry out, allowing greater numbers of patients to receive treatment. The main result of orthodontic treatment is improved dental alignment and aesthetics. Treatment has no effect on caries or periodontal disease, and the dental health gain is modest, apart from a very small percentage of destructive malocclusions. Psychological improvements using different psychological parameters show differing results and it is not clear that any psychological gains are long lasting. Social gain (greater willingness to smile, feeling good about oneself, satisfaction with dental appearance, etc.), and reported improved quality of life (QoL measures), are now becoming more important as consumer-related outcomes and may, ultimately, contribute to psychosocial and psychological status. Stability of orthodontic treatment results cannot be guaranteed and all patients need to be informed of this, and of the need for long-term retention. Malocclusion has little or no relationship to temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction and orthodontic treatment neither causes nor cures such problems. Extractions as part of orthodontic treatment do not cause TMD, nor do they cause collapse of the vertical dimension. The major improvements in dental health in the last 40 years have been accompanied by a great increase in demand for treatment. In any public health service that is free at the point of use, demand for treatment invariably exceeds the ability of resources to supply this. Indices of treatment need are widely used to determine treatment need and eligibility for treatment in public health systems. Demand for orthodontic treatment among adolescents can be as high as 60% in the general population, while the professionally-assessed need for treatment is approximately half this figure. Age, sex, socio-economic status, perceived unattractiveness of dental appearance, and availability of

  19. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for veterans diagnosed with PTSD: Design of a hybrid efficacy-effectiveness clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Denise M; Unger, William; Gayle Beck, J

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in individual treatment approaches for PTSD, knowledge of group approaches has lagged behind. Much of the reason knowledge about group treatment for PTSD has been limited is due to the complexity of conducting randomized controlled trials in the group treatment context. This limited empirical knowledge is unfortunate given the frequency with which group treatment for PTSD is used in clinical settings, including the Department of Veteran Affairs. The goal of this study is to examine the efficacy of a group cognitive-behavioral treatment (GCBT) for PTSD relative to group supportive counseling approach (i.e. group present centered treatment; GPCT). The sample consists of 196 veterans diagnosed with PTSD who are randomly assigned to either GCBT (n=98) or GPCT (n=98). Both treatments are administered by two therapists over the course of 14 sessions. Assessments take place at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the PTSD symptom severity assessed with a semi-structured diagnostic instrument. Given the substantial rise of veterans presenting for PTSD treatment services, identifying an efficacious group treatment approach is invaluable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability of maxillary anterior crowding treatment Estabilidade do tratamento de apinhamento anterossuperior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leite Quaglio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability and the relapse of maxillary anterior crowding treatment on cases with premolar extraction and evaluate the tendency of the teeth to return to their pretreatment position. METHODS: The experimental sample consisted of 70 patients of both sex with an initial Class I and Class II maloclusion and treated with first premolar extractions. The initial mean age was 13,08 years. Dental casts' measurements were obtained at three stages (pretreatment, posttreatment and posttreatment of 9 years on average and the variables assessed were Little Irregularity Index, maxillary arch length and intercanine. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to know if some studied variable would have influence on the crowding in the three stages (LII1, LII2, LII3 and in each linear displacement of the Little irregularity index (A, B, C, D, E in the initial and post-retention phases. RESULTS: The maxillary crowding relapse ( LII3-2 is influenced by the initial ( LII1, and the teeth tend to return to their pretreatment position. CONCLUSION: The results underline the attention that the orthodontist should be given to the maxillary anterior relapse, primarily on those teeth that are crowded before the treatment.OBJETIVO: avaliar a estabilidade e recidiva do tratamento de apinhamento dos dentes anterossuperiores em casos com extrações de pré-molares e avaliar a tendência dos dentes apinhados, no início do tratamento, a retornar à sua posição original. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 70 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com má oclusão inicial de Classe I e Classe II de Angle, tratados com extrações dos primeiros pré-molares. A idade média inicial foi de 13,08 anos. Foram avaliados os modelos de estudo nas fases inicial (T1, final (T2 e, em média, 9 anos pós-tratamento (T3 de cada paciente. As variáveis da arcada superior avaliadas e comparadas estatisticamente pela Análise de Variância (ANOVA foram: índice de irregularidade

  1. Preformulation stability of Spantide II, a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of psoriasis and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwai, Loice; Babu, R J; Kanikkannan, Narayanasamy; Singh, Mandip

    2004-01-01

    Substance P is readily expressed in skin inflammatory disorders such as psoriasis and contact dermatitis. Spantide II is a peptide (MW 1668.76) that specifically binds to neurokinin-1 receptor (NKR-1) and blocks inflammation associated with substance P. The anti-inflammatory property of Spantide II makes it a suitable candidate to be studied as a topical formulation for the treatment of dermal inflammatory disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pH, temperature, salt concentration and concentration on the aqueous stability of Spantide II. The stability of Spantide II was also assessed by circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The influence of various dermatological vehicles (ethanol, Transcutol, propylene glycol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), ethyl oleate, isopropyl myristate and laurogylcol FCC (LFCC)) on the stability of Spantide II was investigated. A precise high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for analysis of Spantide II. At higher temperature (40 degrees C) the stability of Spantide II decreased with increase in pH (P 0.05). The concentration of Spantide II in the solution had no significant influence on its stability (P > 0.05). CD spectroscopy studies showed that Spantide II has a relatively stable alpha-helix structure in the liquid state. The stability of Spantide II was affected by the type of vehicle used in the study (P < 0.01) at different temperatures (P < 0.05). Spantide II at high temperature undergoes lysine-proline diketopiperazine degradation as evident in MS data. Spantide II was relatively more stable in ethyl oleate-ethanol, ethanol-water, ethanol and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The results of this study indicate that ethyl oleate-ethanol (1:1) and ethanol-water (1:1) could be used as potential vehicles in the development of topical formulations of Spantide II.

  2. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-treatment Effect of Particleboard on Dimensional Stability and Durability Properties of Particleboard Made From Sorghum Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswanto, A. H.; Sucipto, T.; Nadeak, S. S. D.; Fatriasari, W.

    2017-03-01

    In general, the weakness of particleboard using urea formaldehyde (UF) resin has a low dimensional stability. This reasearch intends to improve its properties by post-treatment technique using several water repellent materials. The post-treatment effect on dimensional stability and durability properties of particleboard against to subterranean and dry termites has been evaluated. Sample was dipped into water reppelent solution namely parafin, palm oil, silicon and water proof for 3 minutes. Furthermore, they were oven dried at 50°C for 24 hours. The results showed that the density varied of 0.60 to 0.74 g/cm3. The post-treatment of particleboard increases the density value. Water absorption and thickness swelling of board were varied of 29.35% to 114.99% and 13.23 to 37.31%, respectively. This treatment also improved up the thickness swelling to 65%. The best durability of board to subterranean and dry termite attack has found on silicon and waterproof treatment, respectively.

  4. Effect of core stability exercise on postural stability in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy M. Aly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is one of the commonest causes of developmental delay in children. Postural stability problems often exist with Down syndrome. To investigate the effect of core stability exercises on postural stability in children with down syndrome. Thirty children (21 boys and 9 girls with down syndrome, with ages ranged from 6 to 10 years were participated in this study. They were assigned randomlyinto study and control group. Study group received core stability exercises and conventional physical therapy program while control group received Conventional physical therapy program. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Postural stability was evaluated pre and post treatment by Biodex *Balance System. There was a significant decrease in anteroposterior, mediolateral, and overall stability indices of the study group compared with control group post treatment (p <0.001. Both groups showed a significant decrease in anteroposterior, mediolateral, and overall stability indices post treatment compared with pre treatment (p < 0.001. Eight weeks of core stability exercises is effective in improving postural stabilityand balance of children with Down syndrome. Core stability exercises should be considered as important part of the rehabilitation program for childrenwith Down syndrome.

  5. An international survey of classification and treatment choices for group D retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine H Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine which IIRC scheme was used by retinoblastoma centers worldwide and the percentage of D eyes treated primarily with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies as well as to correlate trends in treatment choice to IIRC version used and geographic region. METHODS: An anonymized electronic survey was offered to 115 physicians at 39 retinoblastoma centers worldwide asking about IIRC classification schemes and treatment patterns used between 2008 and 2012. Participants were asked to record which version of the IIRC was used for classification, how many group D eyes were diagnosed, and how many eyes were treated with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies. Averages of eyes per treatment modality were calculated and stratified by both IIRC version and geographic region. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests using Prism. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 29% of physicians invited to participate. Totally 1807 D eyes were diagnosed. Regarding IIRC system, 27% of centers used the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA version, 33% used the Children’s Oncology Group (COG version, 23% used the Philadelphia version, and 17% were unsure. The rate for primary enucleation varied between 0 and 100% and the mean was 29%. By IIRC version, primary enucleation rates were: Philadelphia, 8%; COG, 34%; and CHLA, 37%. By geographic region, primary enucleation rates were: Latin America, 57%; Asia, 40%; Europe, 36%; Africa, 10%, US, 8%; and Middle East, 8%. However, systemic chemoreduction was used more often than enucleation in all regions except Latin America with a mean of 57% per center (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Worldwide there is no consensus on which IIRC version is used, systemic chemoreduction was the most frequently used initial treatment during the study period followed by enucleation and primary treatment modality, especially enucleation, varied greatly with regards to IIRC version

  6. Fining treatments of white wines by means of polymeric adjuvants for their stabilization against browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, G; Barbagallo, R N; Pifferi, P G

    2000-10-01

    Browning and maderization represent important problems for white wine stability. Essentially, this is due to polyphenol oxidation in the wine. The problem has been remedied by adsorption of polyphenol compounds with polymeric adjuvants (chitosans, scleroprotein, and polylactic acid) not used traditionally in wine-making. In particular, some chitosans reduced the polyphenol content and stabilized two Italian white wines (Trebbiano and Albana) to the same extent as did potassium caseinate, an adjuvant normally used in enology. Moreover, chitosans could be reused after a simple regeneration process.

  7. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarti, E.; Marwan; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm-1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability

  8. Psychometric properties of the adjective rating scale for withdrawal across treatment groups, gender, and over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McPherson, Sterling; Mamey, Mary Rose; Burns, G Leonard; Roll, John

    2014-02-01

    The adjective rating scale for withdrawal (ARSW) is commonly used to assess opiate withdrawal in clinical practice and research. The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure of the ARSW, test measurement invariance across gender and treatment groups, and assess longitudinal measurement invariance across the clinical trial. Secondary data analysis of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network 000-3, a randomized clinical trial comparing two tapering strategies, was performed. The ARSW was analyzed at baseline, end of taper and 1-month follow-up (N=515 opioid-dependent individuals). A 1-factor model of the ARSW fit the data and demonstrated acceptable reliability. Measurement invariance was supported across gender and taper groups. Longitudinal measurement invariance was not found across the course of the trial, with baseline assessment contributing to the lack of invariance. If change over time is of interest, change from post-treatment through follow-up may offer the most valid comparison. © 2013.

  9. Breast cancer incidence, stage, treatment and survival in ethnic groups in South East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R H; Davies, E A; Møller, H

    2009-01-01

    Studies from the US have shown variations in breast cancer incidence, stage distribution, treatment and survival between ethnic groups. Data on 35 631 women diagnosed with breast cancer in South East England between 1998 and 2003 with self-assigned ethnicity information available were analysed. Results are reported for White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese women. Age-standardised breast cancer incidence rate ratios, patterns of stage of disease at diagnosis, treatment, overall and breast cancer-specific survival were examined. All ethnic groups studied had lower age-standardised breast cancer incidence rates than White women, with Bangladeshi women having the lowest rate ratio (0.23, 95% CI: 0.20–0.26). White women were the most likely to have a stage recorded at diagnosis (adjusted proportion 75%), and least likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease (7%). Black African women were the least likely to have a record of cancer surgery (63%) or hormone therapy (32%), and most likely to receive chemotherapy (38%). After fully adjusting for age, socioeconomic deprivation, stage of disease and treatment received, there was no significant variation in breast cancer-specific survival. However, Black African women had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio 1.24, P=0.025). These findings suggest that a strategy of earlier detection should be pursued in Black and South Asian women. PMID:19127253

  10. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  11. The NATO STO Task Group AVT-201 on Extended Assessment of Stability and Control Prediction Methods for NATO Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    tests. 0.8406m (F17) 0.8554m (F19) 06m Figure 2: Planform and geometric parameters of the generic UCAV configuration (Models F-17 and F-19...aerodynamics of SACCON, a generic UCAV . While our overall goal is to determine the state-of-the-art for computational capabilities in predicting...Cummings, R.M. and Schutte, A. "An Integrated Computational/Experimental Approach to UCAV Stability & Control Estimation: Overview ofNA TO RTO A VT -161

  12. Obesity treatment in disadvantaged population groups: where do we stand and what can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jean R; Ogden, Doris E

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is now the second leading cause of death and disease in the United States leading to health care expenditures exceeding $147 billion dollars. The socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority groups are at significantly increased risk for obesity. Despite this, low income and minority individuals are underrepresented in the current obesity treatment literature. Additionally, weight loss outcomes for these high risk groups are well below what is typically produced in standard, well-controlled behavioral interventions and reach and access to treatment is often limited. The use of telecommunications technology may provide a solution to this dilemma by expanding dissemination and allowing for dynamic tailoring. Further gains may be achieved with the use of material incentives to enhance uptake of new behaviors. Regardless of what novel strategies are deployed, the need for further research to improve the health disparities associated with obesity in disadvantaged groups is critical. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the weight loss intervention literature that has targeted socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority populations with an eye toward understanding outcomes, current limitations, areas for improvement and need for further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacterial Toxin-Triggered Drug Release from Gold Nanoparticle-Stabilized Liposomes for the Treatment of Bacterial Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Zhang, Li; Olson, Sage; Aryal, Santosh; Obonyo, Marygorret; Vecchio, Kenneth; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang

    2011-01-01

    We report a new approach to selectively delivering antimicrobials to the sites of bacterial infections by utilizing bacterial toxins to activate drug release from gold nanoparticle-stabilized phospholipid liposomes. The binding of chitosan modified gold nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can effectively prevent them from fusing with one another and from undesirable payload release in regular storage or physiological environments. However, once these protected liposomes “see” bacteria that secrete toxins, the toxins will insert into the liposome membranes and form pores, through which the encapsulated therapeutic agents are released. The released drugs subsequently impose antimicrobial effects on the toxin-secreting bacteria. Using methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus (MRSA) as a model bacterium and vacomycin as a model anti-MRSA antibiotic, we demonstrate that the synthesized gold nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes can completely release the encapsulated vacomycin within 24 h in the presence of MRSA bacteria and lead to inhibition of MRSA growth as effective as an equal amount of vacomycin loaded liposomes (without nanoparticle stabilizers) and free vacomycin. This bacterial toxin enabled drug release from nanoparticle-stabilized liposomes provides a new, safe and effective approach for the treatment of bacterial infections. This technique can be broadly applied to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria that secrete pore-forming toxins. PMID:21344925

  14. Stabilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB Immobilized on Octyl Agarose by Treatment with Polyethyleneimine (PEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peirce

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB was immobilized on octyl agarose (OC and physically modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI in order to confer a strong ion exchange character to the enzyme and thus enable the immobilization of other enzymes on its surface. The enzyme activity was fully maintained during the coating and the thermal stability was marginally improved. The enzyme release from the support by incubation in the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 was more difficult after the PEI-coating, suggesting that some intermolecular physical crosslinking had occurred, making this desorption more difficult. Thermal stability was marginally improved, but the stability of the OCCALB-PEI was significantly better than that of OCCALB during inactivation in mixtures of aqueous buffer and organic cosolvents. SDS-PAGE analysis of the inactivated biocatalyst showed the OCCALB released some enzyme to the medium during inactivation, and this was partially prevented by coating with PEI. This effect was obtained without preventing the possibility of reuse of the support by incubation in 2% ionic detergents. That way, this modified CALB not only has a strong anion exchange nature, while maintaining the activity, but it also shows improved stability under diverse reaction conditions without affecting the reversibility of the immobilization.

  15. Stability of aztreonam in a portable pump reservoir used for home intravenous antibiotic treatment (HIVAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinks, A A; Touw, D J; van Rossen, R C; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    The stability of the monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic aztreonam in portable pump reservoirs was studied during storage at temperatures of -20 degrees C and +5 degrees C and during drug delivery at 37 degrees C. Three 100-ml drug reservoirs and three glass containers containing 60 mg/ml aztreonam

  16. Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloks, H; Hoek, HW; Callewaert, [No Value; van Furth, E

    A longitudinal prospective design with four assessments was used to examine the stability of personality traits and their relation to recovery in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (N = 35), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (N = 37), bulimia nervosa (N = 47), and eating disorder not

  17. Morphological analysis of mouse lungs after treatment with magnetite-based magnetic fluid stabilized with DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Garcia, Monica; Miranda Parca, Renata; Braun Chaves, Sacha; Paulino Silva, Luciano; Djalma Santos, Antonio; Guerrero Marques Lacava, Zulmira; Cesar Morais, Paulo; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2005-01-01

    Mouse lungs injected with magnetic fluids based on magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid were studied. We observed clusters of magnetic nanoparticles inside blood vessels, within the organ parenchyma and cells, as well as increased numbers of leukocytes in the organ. Both the particle concentration and organ inflammation diminished in a time-dependent manner

  18. Lip-to-incisor relationship and postorthodontic long-term stability of cover-bite treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapatki, B.G.; Baustert, D.; Schulte-Monting, J.; Frucht, S.; Jonas, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a persisting high lip line and other potential relapse-inducing factors on long-term stability of orthodontic correction of retroinclined maxillary central incisors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one cover-bite ("Deckbiss") patients with retroinclined

  19. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  20. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  1. Mentalization-based treatment in groups for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or subthreshold BPD versus treatment as usual (M-GAB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Emma; Bo, Sune; Gondan, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    mentalization-based treatment in groups is an efficacious treatment for adolescents with BPD or subthreshold BPD compared to treatment as usual. The trial is a four-center, two-armed, parallel-group, assessor-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. One hundred twelve patients aged 14 to 17 referred...... to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics in Region Zealand are randomized to 1 year of either mentalization-based treatment in groups or treatment as usual. Patients will be included if they meet at least four DSM-5 criteria for BPD. The primary outcome is self-reported borderline features at discharge...... variables. Follow-up assessment will take place at 3 and 12 months after end of treatment. Discussion This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a group-based mentalization-based treatment for adolescents with BPD or subthreshold BPD. If the results confirm our hypothesis...

  2. Role of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring of flavonoids in stabilization of the Hoogsteen paired third strand of Poly(U).Poly(A)*Poly(U) triplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Bhuiya, Sutanwi; Haque, Lucy; Das, Suman

    2018-01-01

    We have reported the interaction of two flavonoids namely quercetin (Q) and morin (M) with double stranded poly(A).poly(U) (herein after A.U) and triple stranded poly(U).poly(A)*poly(U) (herein after U.A*U, dot represents the Watson-Crick and asterisk represents Hoogsteen base pairing respectively) in this article. It has been observed that relative positions of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of the flavonoids affect the stabilization of RNA. The double strand as well as the triple strand of RNA-polymers become more stabilized in presence of Q, however both the duplex and triplex remain unaffected in presence of M. The presence of catechol moiety on the B-ring of Q is supposed to be responsible for the stabilization. Moreover, after exploiting a series of biophysical experiments, it has been found that, triple helical RNA becomes more stabilized over its parent duplex in presence of Q. Fluorescence quenching, viscosity measurement and helix melting results establish the fact that Q binds with both forms of RNA through the mode of intercalation while M does not bind at all to either forms of RNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effectiveness of intensive group psychotherapy in treatment of neurotic and personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielimąka, Michał; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Sobański, Jerzy; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Dembińska, Edyta; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Klasa, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of intensive (150 - 210 sessions), short-term (10 - 14 weeks) group psychotherapy in the treatment of neurotic disorders, and selected personality disorders. The study involved 145 patients treated in day hospital due to neurotic disorders and selected personality disorders. The measurements were performed twice - at the beginning and at the end of hospitalization. The effectiveness of psychotherapy in the reduction of symptoms of neurotic disorders was measured with symptom checklist "0". The change in the severity of personality traits characteristic for neurotic disorders was examined using Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006. A significant reduction in symptoms of neurotic disorders was found in 84% of patients (85,7% women and 80,8% men). 70,3% of the examined patients obtained in the measurement at the end of treatment results indicating the level of severity of neurotic disorders symptoms below the cutoff point separating population of healthy individuals from patients. A significant reduction in the severity of personality traits characteristically occurring in patients suffering from neurotic disorders was found in 76% of patients (74.5% women and 78.7% men). 42.8% of the examined patients obtained in the measurement at the end of the treatment the value of neurotic personality traits index (X-KON) typical for healthy population. Intensive, short-term group psychotherapy with elements of individual therapy is an effective treatment for neurotic disorders. The majority of treated persons obtains a significant symptomatic improvement and a reduction in the severity of neurotic personality traits.

  4. The stability of AQT processing speed, ADAS-Cog and MMSE during acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H; Annas, P; Basun, H; Andreasen, N; Lannfelt, L; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Minthon, L

    2010-03-01

    To explore the longitudinal stability of measures of cognition during treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive status was measured in a cohort of 60 patients at 6 months after initiation of treatment with AchEI (baseline) and after an additional 6 months of treatment (endpoint). A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), and MMSE were administered concurrently. Correlations (rho) between age and AQT processing speed were non-significant, but were significant for ADAS-Cog and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). AQT and ADAS-Cog means did not differ significantly between baseline and endpoint. There was a small, significant reduction in MMSE point scores. Measures of stability (Spearman's rho) were moderate-to-high for all tests. Means for subgroups did not differ as a function of medication type. AQT processing speed, ADAS-Cog, and MMSE measures proved stable during the second 6 months of treatment with AChEI.

  5. A Substance Called Food: Long-Term Psychodynamic Group Treatment for Compulsive Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah C; Nickow, Marcia S; Arseneau, Ric; Gisslow, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Obesity has proven difficult to treat. Many approaches neglect to address the deep-rooted underlying psychological issues. This paper describes a psychodynamically oriented approach to treating compulsive overeating as an addiction. Common to all addictions is a compulsion to consume a substance or engage in a behavior, a preoccupation with using behavior and rituals, and a lifestyle marked by an inability to manage the behavior and its harmful consequences. The approach represents a shift away from primarily medical models of intervention to integrated models focusing on the psychological underpinnings of obesity. Long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy is recommended as a primary treatment.

  6. Experience from a group of adolescents with severe allergy asthma treatment with omalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofbauer, Anne Marie Bro; Agertoft, Lone

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Theme: Complex health care and chronic disease management. BACKGROUND: Evidence supports that group educational interventions improve self-perception, self-confidence and attack management in asthma care. AIM: To evaluate education and structured dialogue in enhancing knowledge...... and insight in the asthma disease, treatment with omalizumab and social behaviour. METHOD: A group of four 13-16-year-olds received education using question and answer cards, and were informed about the effects and adverse effects of omalizumab. The dialogue included life before and after, relation to family...... and friends, ability and lack of ability to perform physical activities, and dreams of the future. One week later there was a telephone interview. RESULTS: All four adolescents experienced a positive change in everyday life and ability to manage the asthma disease. Furthermore, they all experienced...

  7. Group-analytic epistemology and the articulation of group-treatment setting in a Department of Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Della Torre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of multi-level projects of care to mental disorders patients in the context of the Mental Health Centre, proposing an epistemological point of view on groups inspired to the epistemology of complexity.Keywords: Multi-level projects of care; Mental Health Centre; Epistemology of Complexity

  8. Characterization of IGF-II isoforms in binge eating disorder and its group psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio; Lelievre, Julien Yockell; Qiu, Qing; Ritchie, Kerri; Little, Julian; Little, John; Trinneer, Anne; Barber, Ann; Chyurlia, Livia; Bissada, Hany; Gruslin, Andreé

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) affects 3.5% of the population and is characterized by binge eating for at least 2 days a week for 6 months. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy which are associated with varied success. Little is known about the biology of BED. Since there is evidence that the insulin like growth factor system is implicated in regulation of body weight, insulin sensitivity and feeding behavior, we speculated it may be involved in BED. A cross-sectional comparison was made between three groups of women: overweight with BED, overweight without BED and normal weight without BED. Women were assigned to Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Blood was collected before therapy, at completion and at 6 months follow up for evaluation of IGF-II using Western blot. 97 overweight women with BED contributed to the cross-sectional comparison. The two control groups comprised 53 overweight women without BED, and 50 age matched normal weight women without BED. Obese women had significantly lower Big IGF-II than normal weight women, p = .028; Overweight women with BED had higher Mature IGF-II than normal weight women, poverweight and normal weight women. Overweight women with BED display abnormal levels of circulating IGF-II isoforms. BED is characterized by elevated mature IGF-II, an isoform shown to carry significant bioactivity. This finding is not related to BMI or to changes in body weight. The results also provide preliminary evidence that BIG IGF-II is sensitive to change due to group psychological treatment. We suggest that abnormalities in IGF-II processing may be involved in the neurobiology of BED.

  9. Treatment of two-part fractures of the surgical neck of the humerus using a locked metaphyseal intramedullary nail proximally with angular stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Viecili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional results from patients with surgical neck fractures treated with a locked metaphyseal intramedullary nail and angular stability.METHODS: Twenty-two patients between the ages of 21 and 69 years were evaluated prospectively between January 2010 and January 2011. Their time taken for consolidation, age, sex, complications and functional results were correlated using the modified protocol of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA.RESULTS: The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.26 weeks ± confidence interval (CI of 0.40 weeks. One case (4.5% did not become consolidated. There were no cases of infection. There was one case (4.5% of adhesive capsulitis with good evolution through clinical treatment. Five patients (22.7% presented occasional mild pain and one case (4.5% reported medium-intensity pain associated with the subacromial impact of the implant. The mean score on the modified UCLA scale was 30.4 ± CI 1.6 points, obtained at the end of 12 weeks of evaluation: 18 cases (81.8% with "excellent" and "good" scores, three cases (13.6% with "fair" scores and one case (4.5% with a "poor" score.CONCLUSION: In the group of patients evaluated, treatment of two-part surgical neck fractures by means of a locked metaphyseal intramedullary nail and angular stability demonstrated satisfactory functional results and a low complication rate, similar to what is seen in the literature.

  10. UV Treatment of the Stabilizing Shell for Improving the Photostability of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rinaldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles or nanoclusters are quite sensitive to light exposure. In particular, irradiation in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR region brings about a drastic modification of their optical properties due to growth and reshaping of the nanoparticles. In order to obtain luminescent colloids, small silver colloidal nanoparticles were prepared in chloroform using vinylpyrrolidone oligomers as capping agent and their luminescence properties were used to control their stability upon prolonged exposure to visible light. The polymeric shell around the metal clusters was hardened through photo-cross-linking by UV light. This process did not alter the morphology and the optical properties of the nanoparticles but greatly improved the particle photostability as confirmed also by confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements. The data clearly show that UV curing of the stabilizing layer could be a simple postsynthetic procedure to obtain materials with stable properties.

  11. Stability of magnetic fields in non-barotropic stars: an analytic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Akgün, Taner; Reisenegger, Andreas; Mastrano, Alpha; Marchant, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields in upper main-sequence stars, white dwarfs, and neutron stars are known to persist for timescales comparable to their lifetimes. From a theoretical perspective this is problematic, as it can be shown that simple magnetic field configurations are always unstable. In non-barotropic stars, stable stratification allows for a much wider range of magnetic field structures than in barotropic stars, and helps stabilize them by making it harder to induce radial displacements. Recent si...

  12. The Vitiligo Working Group recommendations for narrowband ultraviolet B light phototherapy treatment of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Al-Jamal, Mohammed; Hamzavi, Iltefat H; Harris, John E; Leone, Giovanni; Cabrera, Raúl; Lim, Henry W; Pandya, Amit G; Esmat, Samia M

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of vitiligo with narrowband ultraviolet B light (NBUVB) is an important component of the current standard of care. However, there are no consistent guidelines regarding the dosing and administration of NBUVB in vitiligo, reflected by varied treatment practices around the world. To create phototherapy recommendations to facilitate clinical management and identify areas requiring future research. The Vitiligo Working Group (VWG) Phototherapy Committee addressed 19 questions regarding the administration of phototherapy over 3 conference calls. Members of the Photomedicine Society and a group of phototherapy experts were surveyed regarding their phototherapy practices. Based on comparison and analysis of survey results, expert opinion, and discussion held during conference calls, expert recommendations for the administration of NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo were created. There were several areas that required further research before final recommendations could be made. In addition, no standardized methodology was used during literature review and to assess the strength of evidence during the development of these recommendations. This set of expert recommendations by the VWG is based on the prescribing practices of phototherapy experts from around the world to create a unified, broadly applicable set of recommendations on the use of NBUVB in vitiligo. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brick tunnel randomization for unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2011-04-15

    Studies with unequal allocation to two or more treatment groups often require a large block size for permuted block allocation. This could present a problem in small studies, multi-center studies, or adaptive design dose-finding studies. In this paper, an allocation procedure, which generalizes the maximal procedure by Berger, Ivanova, and Knoll to the case of K≥2 treatment groups and any allocation ratio, is offered. Brick tunnel (BT) randomization requires the allocation path drawn in the k-dimensional space to stay close to the allocation ray that corresponds to the targeted allocation ratio. Specifically, it requires the allocation path to be confined to the set of the k-dimensional unitary cubes that are pierced by the allocation ray (the 'brick tunnel'). The important property of the BT randomization is that the transition probabilities at each node within the tunnel are defined in such a way that the unconditional allocation ratio is the same for every allocation step. This property is not necessarily met by other allocation procedures that implement unequal allocation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Preliminary study of treatment mechanism and stability in deep overbite malocclusion with hyperdivergent and hypodivergent skeletal pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Tian-min; Yang, Min-zhi; Lin, Jiu-xiang

    2005-08-18

    Comparison of structural characteristic changes between deep overbite malocclusions with hyper- and hypodivergent skeletal pattern during treatment and follow-up stages. To discuss the difference between both in treatment mechanism and characteristic of relapse. 59 cases out of 162 finished patients with deep overbite malocclusion followed for more than 2 years, selected from orthodontic clinic in school of stomatology Peking University, were filtered by cephalometrics (MP-SN>40 degrees or 40 degrees) comprised 10 cases and the hypodivergent group (MP-SNoverbite didn't show any statistically significant difference between two groups during the follow-up stage. Also in this stage the change of overbite in the hyperdivergent group was mainly due to the lingual inclination of upper incisors during the treatment stage and in the hypodivergent group it was due to the molar extrusion during treatment. The ramus showed great potential of growth in the hyperdivergent group during the treatment stage, which maintained the inclination of mandibular plane. The relapse of overbite was correlated with the changes of teeth during the treatment and follow-up stages.

  15. Group art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia: multicentre pragmatic randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mike J; Killaspy, Helen; Barnes, Thomas R E; Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Clayton, Katie; Dinsmore, John; Floyd, Siobhan; Hoadley, Angela; Johnson, Tony; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; King, Michael; Leurent, Baptiste; Maratos, Anna; O'Neill, Francis A; Osborn, David P; Patterson, Sue; Soteriou, Tony; Tyrer, Peter; Waller, Diane

    2012-02-28

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia and to test whether any benefits exceed those of an active control treatment. Three arm, rater blinded, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Secondary care services across 15 sites in the United Kingdom. 417 people aged 18 or over, who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia and provided written informed consent to take part in the study. Participants, stratified by site, were randomised to 12 months of weekly group art therapy plus standard care, 12 months of weekly activity groups plus standard care, or standard care alone. Art therapy and activity groups had up to eight members and lasted for 90 minutes. In art therapy, members were given access to a range of art materials and encouraged to use these to express themselves freely. Members of activity groups were offered various activities that did not involve use of art or craft materials and were encouraged to collectively select those they wanted to pursue. The primary outcomes were global functioning, measured using the global assessment of functioning scale, and mental health symptoms, measured using the positive and negative syndrome scale, 24 months after randomisation. Main secondary outcomes were levels of group attendance, social functioning, and satisfaction with care at 12 and 24 months. 417 participants were assigned to either art therapy (n=140), activity groups (n=140), or standard care alone (n=137). Primary outcomes between the three study arms did not differ. The adjusted mean difference between art therapy and standard care at 24 months on the global assessment of functioning scale was -0.9 (95% confidence interval -3.8 to 2.1), and on the positive and negative syndrome scale was 0.7 (-3.1 to 4.6). Secondary outcomes did not differ between those referred to art therapy or those referred to standard care at 12 or 24 months. Referring people with established schizophrenia to group art therapy as delivered in this

  16. Core stability exercise principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Venu; Ferreiro, Andrea; Moore, Tamara; Fredericson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Core stability is essential for proper load balance within the spine, pelvis, and kinetic chain. The so-called core is the group of trunk muscles that surround the spine and abdominal viscera. Abdominal, gluteal, hip girdle, paraspinal, and other muscles work in concert to provide spinal stability. Core stability and its motor control have been shown to be imperative for initiation of functional limb movements, as needed in athletics. Sports medicine practitioners use core strengthening techniques to improve performance and prevent injury. Core strengthening, often called lumbar stabilization, also has been used as a therapeutic exercise treatment regimen for low back pain conditions. This article summarizes the anatomy of the core, the progression of core strengthening, the available evidence for its theoretical construct, and its efficacy in musculoskeletal conditions.

  17. A Comparison of Cognitive and Interpersonal-Process Group Therapies in the Treatment of Depression among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, James A.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    Compared cognitive and interpersonal-process group therapies in treatment of depression among college students to each other and to waiting-list control group. Both treatments led to significant reductions in depression and depressed thinking and to increments in self-esteem at midtreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up assessments but did not…

  18. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis cases by risk groups, Japan, 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Ito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We studied the characteristics and treatment outcomes of the following risk groups for tuberculosis (TB: those with HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM, contact cases, the homeless, foreigners, health care workers (HCW and the elderly. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by analysing the Japanese TB surveillance data of all cases registered between 2007 and 2010 (N = 96 689. Results: The annual proportion of TB cases by risk group was stable over the study period, although there was a slight but significant increase observed for foreigner and elderly cases. Homeless and elderly TB cases had the highest DM co-morbidity (16.6% and 15.3%, respectively. HIV co-infection was low in all TB cases (0.2% yet highest in foreigners (1.3%. HIV status of 45% of TB cases was unknown. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB was similar among all risk groups (0.0%–0.9% except foreigner, at 3.4%. Males in most risk groups had higher mortality than females; the mortality of all TB cases in all age groups for both males and females was 3.6–24 times higher than the general population. Discussion: Reasons for the high proportion of “HIV status unknown” should be investigated and improved. Contact tracing among foreign cases with MDR-TB should be a priority. Homeless persons should be screened for DM together with TB. Programmes to enhance health and nutrition status may benefit TB prevention among the elderly. Tuberculosis screening and TB education are important for HCW.

  19. Pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid deseases treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Миколаївна Владимирова

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the increase of endocrine diseases is observed worldwide. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid gland pathologies are the most widespread. Endocrine diseases can be acute or chronic. In some cases, they are life threatening.There are different reasons of thyroid gland pathologies development. Both poor nutrition and poor quality water use, and unfavorable environmental conditions, including radiation, are among them. Iodine deficiency is determined to be one of the main reasons of these diseases.Aim. Determination of the pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid diseases treatment.Methods. Thyroid stimulating action determination (primary screening and model pathology has been carried out by the method of “goiter reaction” in rats at the Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of National University of Pharmacy. Determination of thyroid hormone blood level in rats has been carried out at the Laboratory of Radioactive Endocrinology of the State Institution “Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology NAMS of Ukraine”.Results. According to the research results generalization, correctness of developed algorithms was confirmed; peculiarities of the influence on pathological processes in thyroid, and prospects of implementation and use of herbs and herbal remedies for thyroid diseases prevention and treatment were determined.Conclusion. Obtained experimental data are actual for the modern medicine, and new scientific research, specifying their place in etiology, pathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical course of many diseases, will improve the efficiency of treatment and prevention of thyroid diseases

  20. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...... distributed between the 3 treatment groups. In the subgroup of patients with a CD4 count

  1. Consequences of Misspecifying the Number of Latent Treatment Attendance Classes in Modeling Group Membership Turnover within Ecologically-Valid Behavioral Treatment Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2015-01-01

    Historically, difficulties in analyzing treatment outcome data from open enrollment groups have led to their avoidance in use in federally-funded treatment trials, despite the fact that 79% of treatment programs use open enrollment groups. Recently, latent class pattern mixture models (LCPMM) have shown promise as a defensible approach for making overall (and attendance class-specific) inferences from open enrollment groups with membership turnover. We present a statistical simulation study comparing LCPMMs to longitudinal growth models (LGM) to understand when both frameworks are likely to produce conflicting inferences concerning overall treatment efficacy. LCPMMs performed well under all conditions examined; meanwhile LGMs produced problematic levels of bias and Type I errors under two joint conditions: moderate-to-high dropout (30–50%) and treatment by attendance class interactions exceeding Cohen's d ≈.2. This study highlights key concerns about using LGM for open enrollment data: treatment effect overestimation and advocacy for treatments that may be ineffective in reality. PMID:18513917

  2. Consequences of misspecifying the number of latent treatment attendance classes in modeling group membership turnover within ecologically valid behavioral treatment trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Fals-Stewart, William

    2008-12-01

    Historically, difficulties in analyzing treatment outcome data from open-enrollment groups have led to their avoidance in use in federally funded treatment trials despite the fact that 79% of treatment programs use open-enrollment groups. Recently, latent class pattern mixture models (LCPMM) have shown promise as a defensible approach for making overall (and attendance-class-specific) inferences from open-enrollment groups with membership turnover. We present a statistical simulation study comparing LCPMMs to longitudinal growth models (LGM) to understand when both frameworks are likely to produce conflicting inferences concerning overall treatment efficacy. LCPMMs performed well under all conditions examined; meanwhile, LGMs produced problematic levels of bias and Type I errors under two joint conditions: moderate to high dropout (30%-50%) and treatment by attendance class interactions exceeding Cohen's d approximately .2. This study highlights key concerns about using LGM for open-enrollment data: treatment effect overestimation and advocacy for treatments that may be ineffective in reality.

  3. Feasibility of Marine Microalgae Immobilization in Alginate Bead for Marine Water Treatment: Bead Stability, Cell Growth, and Ammonia Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Lin Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate is the most commonly used polymer matrix in microalgae immobilization for water treatment. However, the susceptibility of alginate matrixes to cation chelating agents and antigelling cation limits the use of alginates in estuarine and marine systems. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the stability of alginate bead in marine water and the feasibility of microalgae to grow when immobilized in alginate bead for marine water treatment. Different concentrations of alginate and hardening cation calcium were used to formulate beads. The beads were incubated in Guillard’s f/2 medium and shaken vigorously by using orbital shaker for 15 days. The results indicated that bead stability was enhanced by increasing alginate and CaCl2 concentrations. Subsequently, the marine microalga, Nannochloropsis sp., was immobilized in calcium alginate bead. The growth and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4+-N uptake by immobilized cell were compared with free cell culture in f/2 medium. Specific growth rate of immobilized cell (0.063 hr−1 was significantly higher than free cell (0.027 hr−1. There was no significant difference on specific uptake rate of free cell and immobilized cell; but immobilized cell removed significantly more NH4+-N (82.2% than free cell (47.3% culture at the end of the experiment. The present study demonstrated the potential use of alginate immobilization technique in marine microalgae culture and water treatment simultaneously.

  4. Treatment of a patient with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) with chiropractic manipulation and Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francio, Vinicius T; Boesch, Ron; Tunning, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative syndrome which unusual symptoms include deficits of balance, bodily orientation, chronic pain syndrome and dysfunctional motor patterns. Current research provides minimal guidance on support, education and recommended evidence-based patient care. This case reports the utilization of chiropractic spinal manipulation, dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS), and other adjunctive procedures along with medical treatment of PCA. A 54-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with non-specific back pain associated with visual disturbances, slight memory loss, and inappropriate cognitive motor control. After physical examination, brain MRI and PET scan, the diagnosis of PCA was recognized. Chiropractic spinal manipulation and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization were utilized as adjunctive care to conservative pharmacological treatment of PCA. Outcome measurements showed a 60% improvement in the patient's perception of health with restored functional neuromuscular pattern, improvements in locomotion, posture, pain control, mood, tolerance to activities of daily living (ADLs) and overall satisfactory progress in quality of life. Yet, no changes on memory loss progression, visual space orientation, and speech were observed. PCA is a progressive and debilitating condition. Because of poor awareness of PCA by physicians, patients usually receive incomplete care. Additional efforts must be centered on the musculoskeletal features of PCA, aiming enhancement in quality of life and functional improvements (FI). Adjunctive rehabilitative treatment is considered essential for individuals with cognitive and motor disturbances, and manual medicine procedures may be consider a viable option.

  5. Mind-body group treatment for women coping with infertility: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaros, Christina; Kagan, Leslee; Shifren, Jan L; Willett, Jessica; Jacquart, Jolene; Alert, Marissa D; Macklin, Eric A; Styer, Aaron K; Denninger, John W; LaRoche, Katie L; Park, Elyse R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a 10-week mind-body intervention (MBI) for women coping with fertility challenges, examine the impact of an MBI on psychological distress and cortisol levels, and assess adherence to MBI skills 12-months after completion of the intervention. Prospective open pilot study of 51 women with infertility enrolled in a group MBI. Psychological variables and salivary cortisol levels were obtained pre- and post-intervention; a 12-month follow-up survey assessed MBI skill adherence. Participants completed practice logs throughout the intervention. Participants attended an average of eight sessions (SD = 2.0), and practiced mind-body techniques which elicited the relaxation response (RR) an average of 5.9 (SD = 0.8) days/week and 20.1 (SD = 9.9) min/day; 80% completed the post-treatment assessment. The intervention resulted in a significant increase in perceived social support and a decrease in depressive symptoms and perceived stress; however, there were no significant changes in cortisol levels. Sixty-eight percent of the participants completed the 12-month follow-up, with 51% reporting continuation of RR-eliciting practice. This group of women with infertility provided with an MBI showed decreased symptoms of depression and stress and increased perceived social support. The protocol was feasible and participants reported a high degree of adherence and maintenance to the skills taught during the intervention. The findings indicate the value of appropriate evaluation against a control group.

  6. Development of the Technologies for Stabilization Treatment of the Water of the Recycling Cooling Systems at Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, S. M.; Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Vlasova, A. Yu.; Filimonova, A. A.; Prosvirnina, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    A turbine-condensate cooling system is one of the less stable and most hard-to-control systems of maintaining optimal water chemistry. A laboratory recycling cooling water test facility, UVO-0.3, was developed for physical simulation of innovative zero-discharge water chemistry conditions and improvement of technological flowcharts of stabilization treatment of the initial and circulating water of the recycling cooling systems at thermal power plants. Experiments were conducted in the UVO-0.3 facility to investigate the processes that occur in the recycling water supply system and master new technologies of stabilization of the initial and circulating water. It is shown that, when using untreated initial water, scaling cannot be prevented even under low concentration levels. The main reason for the activation of scale depositing is the desorption of carbon dioxide that results in alkalization of the circulating water and, as a consequence, a displacement of the chemical reaction equilibrium towards the formation of slightly soluble hardness ions. Some techniques, viz., liming and alkalization of the initial water and the by-pass treatment of the circulating water, are considered. New engineering solutions have been developed for reducing the amount of scale-forming substances in the initial and circulating water. The best results were obtained by pretreating the initial water with alkalizing agents and simultaneously bypassing and treating part of the circulating water. The obtained experimental data underlie the process flowcharts of stabilization treatment of the initial and circulating TPP water that ensure scale-free and noncorrosive operation and meet the corresponding environmental requirements. Under the bypassing, the specific rates of the agents and the residual hardness are reduced compared with the conventional pretreatment.

  7. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  8. A true 3D physical model test study on the stability of an underground cavern group in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weishen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qianbing

    2010-03-01

    Taking the underground caverns of Shuangjiangkou (SJK) Hydropower Station as an engineering background, a largescale true 3D physical model test is performed to study the stability of the enclosing rock masses, including the analogous material, the steel structure frame, fabrications of rock bolts and cables, development of the measuring techniques, fabrication of the physical model, excavations and the overload test. The developed steel structure can simulate the complicated circumstances just like high in-situ stress and high overburden depth. It also can apply the true 3D loading on six surfaces of the physical model. Many combinational ball sliding blocks are installed between model surface and the structural wall to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces. During the model construction, precast blocks are used and monitoring holes are predefined before the analogous material is piled up. A unique grouting technique and prestressed cables are adopted in the model test. A digital photogrammetric technique, displacement sensing bars based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) technology, and mini extensometers are developed and adopted for measuring the deformation in the process of excavations. The overload tests are accomplished under the conditions of different overburden depths. The results of this research will make certain guiding significance to the practical engineering.

  9. Dimensional Stability of Poplar Wood by Paraffin Emulsion, Quaternary Ammonium and Hydrated Starch using Full-cell Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mansouryar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the dimensional stabilization of poplar wood (Populus Alba by applying emulsion of paraffin, quaternary ammonium and starch was investigated. Paraffin at three levels of 0%, 3%, 5%, quaternary ammonium at three levels of 0%, 1.5%, 2.5% and starch at three levels of 0%, 1% and 2% were selected as variables. Some physical characteristics including longitudinal, tangential and radial swelling were determined. Based on the results, for optimizing physical properties, the treatment of 5% paraffin, 0-1.5% quaternary ammonium and 0-1% starch was recommended.

  10. Modified Latarjet Procedure Without Capsulolabral Repair for the Treatment of Failed Previous Operative Stabilizations in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Bertona, Agustin; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L

    2018-02-03

    To analyze time to return to sport, functional outcomes, and recurrences of the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair in athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after a failed previous operative stabilization. We included athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a previous failed operative stabilization treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Return to sports, range of motion, the Rowe score, a visual analog scale for pain in sport activity, and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System were used to assess functional outcomes. Recurrences were also evaluated. The postoperative bone block position and consolidation were assessed with computed tomography. Between June 2008 and June 2015, 68 athletes were treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability after a previous failed stabilization surgery. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range, 24-108 months), and the mean age at the time of operation was 26.8 years (range, 17-35 years). All the patients returned to sports, and 95% returned to the same sport they practiced before the surgery, all to the same level. No significant difference in shoulder range of motion was found between preoperative and postoperative results. The Rowe score, visual analog scale, and Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System showed statistical improvement after operation (P Latarjet without capsulolabral repair produced excellent functional outcomes with most athletes returning to sport at the same level they had before the surgery without recurrences. Level IV, therapeutic, case series study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...... stream that may be utilized as a secondary road construction material. Scanning electron microscope analysis and grain size distribution analysis indicated that sintering of the particles did not occur. Batch leaching tests at liquid/solid 10 I/kg at a range of pH-values (6-10) quantified with respect...

  12. Thermal Stability of Woolly Erionite-K and Considerations about the Heat-Induced Behaviour of the Erionite Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ballirano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of a woolly erionite-K sample (Lander County, NV, USA, chemical formula (Ca2.03Na0.73K2.52Mg0.26[Al8.22Si27.78O71.80]·35.94H2O, was investigated in the 303–1173 K thermal range by in situ X-ray powder diffraction. Present data suggest a general thermally-induced volume contraction whose magnitude increases as S i S i + A l ratio becomes smaller. An inverse correlation between S i S i + A l ratio and Tdehydr is observed because higher S i S i + A l ratio values are associated to lower dehydration temperatures. A positive dependence exists between S i S i + A l ratio and Tbreak. A higher Si content results in a greater thermal stability, in agreement with the general trend observed in zeolites. On the contrary, no correlation has been found between Tbreak and weighted ionic potential (Z/rwt as suggested by reference data. Heating produces a general depletion of the Ca1, Ca2, Ca3, and K1 sites, which is counterbalanced by an increase of the K2 site scattering, even though the latter is not populated at RT. No “internal ion exchange” mechanism was apparently acting in the present sample differently from other erionite samples analysed in the past. At 303 K approximately 20 e− allocated at the OW H2O sites might be assigned to (extra-framework EF cations. Such fraction increases due to their migration from the extra-framework cation sites following the same mechanism reported in reference data.

  13. Perioperative treatment of hemophilia A patients: blood group O patients are at risk of bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, H C A M; Lock, J; Mathôt, R A A; Meijer, K; Peters, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; van der Meer, F J M; Driessens, M H E; Leebeek, F W G; Fijnvandraat, K; Cnossen, M H

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Targeting of factor VIII values is a challenge during perioperative replacement therapy in hemophilia. This study aims to identify the extent and predictors of factor VIII underdosing and overdosing. Blood group O predicts underdosing and is associated with perioperative bleeding. To increase quality of care and cost-effectiveness of treatment, refining of dosing is obligatory. Perioperative administration of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A may result in both underdosing and overdosing, leading to respectively a risk of bleeding complications and unnecessary costs. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the extent and predictors of underdosing and overdosing in perioperative hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels < 0.05 IU mL(-1)). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing 198 elective, minor, or major surgical procedures were included (median age 40 years, median body weight 75 kg). Perioperative management was evaluated by quantification of perioperative infusion of FVIII concentrate and achieved FVIII levels. Predictors of underdosing and (excessive) overdosing were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Excessive overdosing was defined as upper target level plus ≥ 0.20 IU mL(-1). Depending on postoperative day, 7-45% of achieved FVIII levels were under and 33-75% were above predefined target ranges as stated by national guidelines. A potential reduction of FVIII consumption of 44% would have been attained if FVIII levels had been maintained within target ranges. Blood group O and major surgery were predictive of underdosing (odds ratio [OR] 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-14.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.9). Blood group O patients had more bleeding complications in comparison to patients with blood group non-O (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00-4.09). Patients with blood group non-O were at higher risk of overdosing (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Additionally, patients treated with bolus infusions were at higher risk of excessive

  14. Heavy metal stabilization in contaminated soil by treatment with calcined cockle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Taki, Golam; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Jo, Young-Tae; Kim, Jun; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-03-01

    In several previous studies, the efficacy of various liming waste materials on the immobilization of heavy metals has been tested and it was found that soils contaminated with heavy metals can be stabilized using this technique. Since lime (CaO) has been identified as the main phase of calcined cockle shell (CCS), it was hypothesized that CCS could be used as a soil amendment to immobilize heavy metals in soil. However, to date, no studies have been conducted using CCS. In this study, the effectiveness of CCS powder on the immobilization of Cd, Pb, and Zn in mine tailing soil was evaluated. After 28 days of incubation, the treated soil samples were exposed to weathering (four cycles of freezing-thawing and four cycles of wetting-drying) for 8 days before being subjected to a leaching test. The results of this study revealed that the soil pH increased from 7.5 to 12.2 with the addition of 5% CCS. A similar soil pH was obtained when the soil was amended with 5% pure CaO. By leaching with 0.1 M HCl, extracted Cd, Pb, and Zn were reduced by up to 85, 85, and 91%, respectively. Therefore, CCS is suggested as a low-cost lime-based soil amendment for stabilizing heavy metals in abandoned mining sites.

  15. New nanomicelle curcumin formulation for ocular delivery: improved stability, solubility, and ocular anti-inflammatory treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengshuang; Xin, Meng; Guo, Chuanlong; Lin, Guiming; Wu, Xianggen

    2017-11-01

    A stable topical ophthalmic curcumin formulation with high solubility, stability, and efficacy is needed for pharmaceutical use in clinics. The objective of this article was to describe a novel curcumin containing a nanomicelle formulation using a polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol (PVCL-PVA-PEG) graft copolymer. Nanomicelle curcumin was formulated and optimized and then further evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity/in vivo ocular irritation, in vitro cellular uptake/in vivo corneal permeation, and in vitro antioxidant activity/in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy. The solubility, chemical stability, and antioxidant activity were greatly improved after the encapsulation of the PVCL-PVA-PEG nanomicelles. The nanomicelle curcumin ophthalmic solution was simple to prepare and the nanomicelles are stable to the storage conditions, and it had good cellular tolerance. Nanomicelle curcumin also had excellent ocular tolerance in rabbits. The use of nanomicelles significantly improved in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo corneal permeation as well as improved anti-inflammatory efficacy when compared with a free curcumin solution. These findings indicate that nanomicelles could be promising topical delivery systems for the ocular administration of curcumin.

  16. Influence of Syringe Volume on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy for Varicose Vein Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taoping; Jiang, Wentao; Fan, Yubo

    2017-11-14

    Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders. To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics. Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid-gas ratios. Foam decay process experiments were performed 5 times and recorded by video. The stability indices used include drainage time, half-life, bubble diameter, bubble surface density, and drainage rate. The 30 and 2-mL syringes, respectively, recorded the highest and lowest drainage speeds. Foam drainage time and half-life, differences varied between 15 and 70 seconds, and 20 and 100 seconds, respectively. Foam bubble diameters were distributed over 0.1 to 2.0 mm with roughly 200 to 700 bubbles per square centimeter. Increased syringe volume causes the bubble diameter to increase. Thus, foam dispersion increases and foam half-life decreases; hence, foam becomes unstable. It is, thus, better to use a small syringe several times to prepare foam in clinics using segmented injections.

  17. Correlation between Thermal Treatment and Phase Transformation in Nanocrystalline Stabilized Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudeen Oladele AHMED

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stabilized zirconia produced via wet chemistry has chemically higher uniformity and purity. However, the grain size, particle shape, agglomerate size and specific surface area can be modified within certain degree by controlling the precipitation and sintering conditions. Generally, any physical or chemical difference between phases or effect occurring on the appearance or disappearance of a phase can be determined via thermal analysis and X-ray Diffractometry coupled with electron microscopy. In the last few decades, these materials have received tremendous attention globally in the field of defect solid-state devices. However, the challenge in this field of research has been to study thermal behaviour of these electrolytes during phase transformations and develop improved electrolytes with low activation temperature in the range of 600°C-800°C. In this paper, we report the wet chemistry of bismuth oxide stabilized zirconia having high experimental yield and low transformation temperature. Thus, the phase transformation from amorphous Zirconia to monoclinic is reported to begin above 600oC to an optimum temperature of 700oC. After calcination at 800oC for 4h, the powder have narrow particle size distribution in the range of 63-101µm. The average crystallite sizes of the synthesized powders range from 8-33nm.

  18. Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipids stability: Non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions of marine PL in the presence or in the absence of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids. Marine phospholipids liposomal dispersions were prepared from two authent...... the formation of pyrroles, generated Strecker derived volatiles, decreased the YI development and lowered lipid oxidation. The lower degree of lipid oxidation in liposomal dispersions containing amino acids might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles or amino acids....

  19. Cockayne syndrome group B protein promotes mitochondrial DNA stability by supporting the DNA repair association with the mitochondrial membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Maria Diget; Sorensen, Martin M; Hvitby, Christina Poulsen

    2010-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human premature aging disorder associated with severe developmental deficiencies and neurodegeneration, and phenotypically it resembles some mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases. Most patients belong to complementation group B, and the CS group B (CSB) protein plays a role...... in genomic maintenance and transcriptome regulation. By immunocytochemistry, mitochondrial fractionation, and Western blotting, we demonstrate that CSB localizes to mitochondria in different types of cells, with increased mitochondrial distribution following menadione-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, our...... association of the BER activities with the mitochondrial inner membrane, suggesting that CSB may participate in the anchoring of the DNA repair complex. Increased mutation frequency in mtDNA of CSB-deficient cells demonstrates functional significance of the presence of CSB in the mitochondria. The results...

  20. Storage Stability Improvement of Copolymer Grafted Polypropylene-AcrylicAcid (PP-AA), by means of Various After Treatment Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitopadmojo, Isminingsih

    2000-01-01

    Polypropylene yams that have been subjected to irradiation induced graftco-polymerization with acrylic acid, have gained its moisture regain and dyeability, that fulfilled the requirement as textile material for garment.However, the copolymer grafted PP-AA has suffered from degradation in thestorage, which was indicated in the previous study that the strengthretention has dropped tremendously by photo-oxidation or photo-degradation.After treatments of PP-AA yams with chemical compound that was able toprevent further photo-oxidation, will be expected to improve the stability ofPP-AA in storage. In this research activity, the polypropylene (PP) yams weresubjected to irradiation induced graft co-polymerization by means ofγ-Ray Co-60 as irradiation source with acrylic acid (AA) as monomer.Various after treatments were subjected to the grafted PP-AA yams such asalkalisation process; dyeing (anionic dyes, cationic dyes and nonionic dyes);as well as processing with optical brightening agent and UV stabilizer,separately. The PP-AA yams (before and after treatment) were subjected tostorage from 1 month up to 42 months, and then being tested for theirmoisture regain, strength retention and elongation at breaks. The samplesbeing stored for 12 months were subjected to radical analysis. It isconcluded from the experiment that after treatment of grafted PP-AA by meansof those various processes were able to improve the stability of copolymergrafted PP-AA in storage. The presence of peroxide radical in the ESR(electron spin resonance) spectrum on PP-AA yams before treatment and theones after treated with alkaline and being stored for 12 months haveindicated the presence of photo oxidation or photo degradation, while thepresence of poly enyl radical in the ESR spectrum of after treated PP-AA withdyes having azo and azine compound as chromophore, as well as with UVstabilizer with carbonyl as chromophore and being stored for 12 months haveproved that its presence have protected such

  1. Occlusal stability in Class II, Division 1, deep bite cases followed up for many years after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, E

    1998-12-01

    This case report analyzes long-term occlusal stability that can be achieved in Class II, Division 1, deep bite cases with active treatment finished during the period of maxillomandibular growth. The analysis was designed to identify occlusal features common to two cases at the end of active treatment and to study how the occlusion changed with growth and jaw movement to achieve stability. The following occlusal features were shared by the two cases at the end of active treatment: (1) AB plane and axes of the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth were perpendicular to functional occlusal plane; (2) the axis of the lower incisor was almost perpendicular to DC-L1i line; (3) the anterior occlusion was overcorrected to or near an edge-to-edge relationship. Items 1 and 2 remained unchanged throughout the follow-up periods, regardless of growth status, and the overjet and overbite increased during maxillomandibular growth after treatment. During the period of mandibular growth alone, after the end of retention, the axes of maxillary incisors tipped labially; as a result, F line became parallel to CDM line by the end of growth. The labial tipping of maxillary incisors brought the lower incisal edge into contact with or extremely near the inflection point (Bp).1 By the end of growth, the tangent of Bp became parallel to or coincident with DC-L1i line and perpendicular to the axis of the lower incisor, and the DC-L1i lines at various times posttreatment were almost parallel to each other in the two cases. Overjet increased as the maxillary incisors tipped labially, providing proper protrusive and retrusive paths for mandibular guidance. The angle between the functional occlusal plane and CDM line stayed almost the same as at the end of active treatment in the two cases, suggesting a possible change in the angle of eminence in harmony with the functional occlusal plane. These factors apparently contributed to the long-term occlusal stability in the two cases.

  2. Study of the formation and thermal stability of Mg2Co obtained by mechanical alloying and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Carola; Ordoñez, Stella; Serafini, Daniel; Guzmán, Danny; Rojas, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of phase evolution of elemental powders Mg and Co by MA and heat treatment. • The activation energies and apparent enthalpies for crystallization were obtained. • The phase transformation during the mechanical alloying process was determined. • The feasibility to obtain Mg 2 Co by MA plus heat treatment has been established. -- Abstract: The microstructural evolution of Mg and Co in a 2:1 atomic ratio was investigated during mechanical alloying and subsequent heat treatments. Microstructural characterization was determined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, while thermal stability was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that mechanical alloying produces amorphization and promotes greater microstructural refinement. Formation of Mg 2 Co requires an additional heat treatment at temperatures between 679 and 705 K, depending on milling time. Additionally, it was determined that the activation energy for Mg 2 Co crystallization decreases from 206 to 184 kJ/mol when the milling time increases from 12 to 36 h, respectively. Finally, a combination of the mechanical alloying process and heat treatment phase evolutions was proposed as an optimal processing route in order to obtain the Mg 2 Co compound

  3. Study of the formation and thermal stability of Mg{sub 2}Co obtained by mechanical alloying and heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Carola, E-mail: carola.martinezu@usach.cl [Escuela de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Los Carrera 01567, Casilla de correo 4059, Quilpué (Chile); Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Casilla de correo 10233, Santiago (Chile); Ordoñez, Stella, E-mail: stella.ordonez@usach.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Casilla de correo 10233, Santiago (Chile); Serafini, Daniel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O’Higgins 3363, Casilla de correo 307, Santiago (Chile); Guzmán, Danny [Departamento de Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Atacama y CRIDESAT, Av. Copayapu 485, Casilla de correo 240, Copiapó (Chile); Rojas, Paula [Escuela de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Los Carrera 01567, Casilla de correo 4059, Quilpué (Chile)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Study of phase evolution of elemental powders Mg and Co by MA and heat treatment. • The activation energies and apparent enthalpies for crystallization were obtained. • The phase transformation during the mechanical alloying process was determined. • The feasibility to obtain Mg{sub 2}Co by MA plus heat treatment has been established. -- Abstract: The microstructural evolution of Mg and Co in a 2:1 atomic ratio was investigated during mechanical alloying and subsequent heat treatments. Microstructural characterization was determined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, while thermal stability was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that mechanical alloying produces amorphization and promotes greater microstructural refinement. Formation of Mg{sub 2}Co requires an additional heat treatment at temperatures between 679 and 705 K, depending on milling time. Additionally, it was determined that the activation energy for Mg{sub 2}Co crystallization decreases from 206 to 184 kJ/mol when the milling time increases from 12 to 36 h, respectively. Finally, a combination of the mechanical alloying process and heat treatment phase evolutions was proposed as an optimal processing route in order to obtain the Mg{sub 2}Co compound.

  4. Results of Surgical Treatment of Lung Cancer in Patients of Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei L. Charyshkin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The main objective of our study was to analyze the results of the surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in patients of different age groups. Methods and Results: We examined 280 patients (262/93.6% men and 18/6.4% women aged from 39 to 75 years with NSCLC who underwent surgical treatment in the Ulyanovsk Regional Oncology Center in the period from 2010 to 2016. The mean age of patients was 64.9±10.1 years. Concomitant diseases were identified in 256(91.4% patients: cardiovascular diseases in 170(60.7%, COPD in 147 (52.5%, lower extremity peripheral artery disease (stages II and III chronic ischemia in 49(17.5%, a combination of concomitant pathology in 110(39.3% patients. A total of 85(30.4% pneumonectomies were performed, 56 of them in patients of young and middle age. Among early postoperative complications, the most frequent complications were purulent-inflammatory complications of the soft tissues of wounds (38.5% and bronchopleural fistula (31.1%. The most severe complications, such as myocardial infarction, acute stroke, and acute limb ischemia, developed in patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases, which caused the postoperative mortality of 4.6%. Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences in the structure of complications depending on sex and age.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of family-based group treatment for child and parental obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Paluch, Rocco A; Wrotniak, Brian H; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Kilanowski, Colleen; Wilfley, Denise; Finkelstein, Eric

    2014-04-01

    Obesity runs in families, and family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) is associated with weight loss in overweight/obese children and their overweight/obese parents. This study was designed to estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of FBT compared to separate group treatments of the overweight/obese parent and child (PC). Fifty overweight/obese 8- to 12-year-old children with overweight/obese parents were randomly assigned to 12 months of either FBT or PC treatment program. Assessment of societal costs (payer plus opportunity costs) were completed based on two assumptions: (1) programs for parent and child were available on separate days (PC-1) or (2) interventions for parent and child were available in the same location at sequential times on the same day (PC-2). Cost-effectiveness was calculated based on societal cost per unit of change using percent overBMI for children and weight for parents. The average societal cost per family was $1,448 for FBT and $2,260 for PC-1 (p Child cost-effectiveness for FBT was $209.17/percent overBMI, compared to $1,036.50/percent overBMI for PC-1 and $973.98/percent overBMI for PC-2. Parent cost-effectiveness was $132.97/pound (lb) for FBT and $373.53/lb (PC-1) or $351.00/lb (PC-2). For families with overweight/obese children and parents, FBT presents a lower cost per unit of weight loss for parents and children than treating the parent and child separately. Given the high rates of pediatric and adult obesity, FBT may provide a unique cost-effective platform for obesity intervention that alters weight in overweight/obese parents and their overweight/obese children.

  6. Emotional and social mind training: a randomised controlled trial of a new group-based treatment for bulimia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lavender

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is a need to improve treatment for individuals with bulimic disorders. It was hypothesised that a focus in treatment on broader emotional and social/interpersonal issues underlying eating disorders would increase treatment efficacy. This study tested a novel treatment based on the above hypothesis, an Emotional and Social Mind Training Group (ESM, against a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Group (CBT treatment. METHOD: 74 participants were randomised to either ESM or CBT Group treatment programmes. All participants were offered 13 group and 4 individual sessions. The primary outcome measure was the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE Global score. Assessments were carried out at baseline, end of treatment (four months and follow-up (six months. RESULTS: There were no differences in outcome between the two treatments. No moderators of treatment outcome were identified. Adherence rates were higher for participants in the ESM group. DISCUSSION: This suggests that ESM may be a viable alternative to CBT for some individuals. Further research will be required to identify and preferentially allocate suitable individuals accordingly. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN61115988.

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization, and thermal stability studies of heteroleptic cadmium(II) dithiocarbamate with different pyridyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Hosten, Eric C.

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of three chloroform solvated adducts of cadmium with mixed ligands of N-alkyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate and pyridine, 2,2-bipyridine and 1, 10 phenanthroline represented as [CdL1L2 (py)2]·CHCl3(1), [CdL1L2bpy]•CHCl3(2), and [CdL1L2phen]•CHCl3(3) (LI = N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate, L2 = N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate, py = pyridine, bpy = 2,2-bipyridine and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) respectively are reported. Complex 1, which crystallized in the monoclinic space group P-1, is a centrosymmetric dimeric structure where each Cd center is bonded to two monodentate pyridine, a bidentate terminal dithiocarbamate, and another bidentate bridging dithiocarbamate to form a four-membered ring. Complex 2 crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with four discrete monomeric molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure presents a cadmium atom coordinated by two sulphur atoms of a dithiocarbamate ligand and two nitrogen atoms of the 2,2‧-bipyridine to form a CdS4N2 fragment, thus giving the structure around the Cd atom a distorted trigonal prism geometry. Complex 3 contains two discrete monomeric molecules of (phenanthroline) (N, N-methyl phenyl-N, N-ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamato)cadmium (II) per unit cell, and the complex crystallized in the triclinic space group P-1. The structure showed that the Cd atom is bonded to two bidentate dithiocarbamate ligands and to one bidentate phenanthroline ligand in a distorted trigonal prism geometry. All the compounds resulted in CdS as residue upon thermal decomposition process conducted under inert atmosphere.

  8. Semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate treatment by ion exchange resin: isotherm and kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Foo, Keng Yuen

    2017-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the treatability of ion exchange resin (Indion MB 6 SR) for the removal of chromium (VI), aluminium (III), zinc (II), copper (II), iron (II), and phosphate (PO4)3-, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and colour from semi-aerobic stabilized leachate by batch test. A range of ion exchange resin dosage was tested towards the removal efficiency of leachate parameters. It was observed that equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir model for metal ions and Freundlich was ideally fit for COD, NH3-N and colour. Intra particle diffusion model, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order isotherm models were found ideally fit with correlation of the experimental data. The findings revealed that the models could describe the ion exchange kinetic behaviour efficiently, which further suggests comprehensive outlook for the future research in this field.

  9. Individual and group-based parenting programmes for the treatment of physical child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J; Johnston, I; Kendrick, D; Polnay, L; Stewart-Brown, S

    2006-07-19

    Child physical abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realised. Many of the risk factors for child abuse and neglect are not amenable to change in the short term. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in its treatment. Parenting programmes are focused, short-term interventions aimed at improving parenting practices in addition to other outcomes (many of which are risk factors for child abuse e.g. parental psychopathology, and parenting attitudes and practices), and may therefore be useful in the treatment of physically abusive or neglectful parents. To assess the efficacy of group-based or one-to-one parenting programmes in addressing child physical abuse or neglect. A range of biomedical and social science databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, the Cochrane Library, Campbell Library (including SPECTR and CENTRAL), National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC, from inception to May 2005. Only randomised controlled trials or randomised studies that compared two treatments were included. Studies had to include at least one standardised instrument measuring some aspect of abusive or neglectful parenting. In the absence of studies using objective assessments of child abuse, studies reporting proxy measures of abusive parenting were included. Only studies evaluating the effectiveness of standardised group-based or one-to-one parenting programmes aimed at the treatment of physical child abuse or neglect were included. Studies were also only eligible for inclusion if they had targeted parents of children aged 0-19 years who had been investigated for physical abuse or neglect. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment

  10. Effects of mechanical-thermal treatments on the creep behaviour of a niobium stabilized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of microstructural variables controlled by mechanical-thermal treatments on the creep behavior of DIN-Werkstoff Nr. 1,4981 stainless steel a material candidate for use as cladding of fast breeder reactor fuel elements, was studied. The effect of the solution treatment, predeformation, predeformation plus aging and cycles of predeformation-aging, on the creep results obtained at 990 K, for applied stresses in the range 70 MPa - 310 MPa, are analysed. The results show: this material presents a creep strength superior to that show by AISI 316 stainless steel; a transition on the creep behavior is observed at a certain stress; the mechanical-thermal treatments were seen to be ineffective on the improvement of the creep strength; the pre-deformation and pre-deformation plus aging treatments were seen to induce material embrittlement whereas the cyclic treatments induced increased ductility. Transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction of extracted precipitates, and microanalysis were use to characterize the microstructure of this material. (author)

  11. [Comparative study of less invasive stabilization system (LISS) and the condylar support plates for the treatment of AO type C distal femoral fractures in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-tao; Yang, Jiang-wei; Hou, Hai-bin; Wang, Chun-sheng; Wang, Kun-zheng

    2015-02-01

    To summarize the complications and the early clinical effect of less invasive stabilization system and the femoral condylar support plates in the treatment of AO type C distal femoral fractures. From September 2007 to February 2012, 46 patients with AO type C distal femoral fractures were retrospectively studied. Of all patients 25 were treated with less invasive stabilization system including 14 males and 11 females with a mean age of (56.3±4.2) years old; according to AO classification, there were 14 cases of C1, 8 cases of C2 and 3 cases of C3 with a mean hospital stay of (15.6±1.7) days. While 21 cases were treated with femoral condylar support plates fixation including 12 males and 9 females with a mean age of (53.8±5.1) years old;there were 13 cases of C1, 6 cases of C2 and 2 cases of C3 with a mean hospital stay of (17.8±2.2) days. Comparative analysis was performed from the operation related index,postoperative complications and Evanich score of the knee joint function between the two groups at follow-up. All 46 patients were followed up from 13 to 38 months with a mean time of 19.6 months after surgery. Complications included 1 case with infection,3 cases with internal fixation failure, 1 case with nonunion and 1 case with activity limitation of the affected knee. The differences in the incision length, blood loss, fracture healing time were significant between two groups (P0.05). The statistical significance was also found in the Evanich score at last follow-up between two groups (PAO type C distal femoral fractures.

  12. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Treger; Feliks Matusiak; Maciej Pilecki; Monika Rogoż

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Methods Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents a...

  13. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  14. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...... in the leachate from an amended, slightly polluted soil (255 mg/kg As and 27 mg/kg Cr) did not at any time exceed 50 μg/L, which means that the soil can be reused for construction e.g. roads and baffle walls as described by the Danish Reuse Act. Ageing of ferrihydrite, the main constituent of Fe...

  15. The Effect of Homogenization Heat Treatment on Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Dimensional Stability of Low Thermal Expansion Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hao; Liu, Zong-Pei; Pan, Yung-Ning

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of homogenization heat treatment on α value [coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 K-1)] of low thermal expansion cast irons was studied. In addition, constrained thermal cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate the dimensional stability of the low thermal expansion cast irons with various heat treatment conditions. The results indicate that when the alloys were homogenized at a relatively low temperature, e.g., 1023 K (750 °C), the elimination of Ni segregation was not very effective, but the C concentration in the matrix was moderately reduced. On the other hand, if the alloys were homogenized at a relatively high temperature, e.g., 1473 K (1200 °C), opposite results were obtained. Consequently, not much improvement (reduction) in α value was achieved in both cases. Therefore, a compound homogenization heat treatment procedure was designed, namely 1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ, in which a relatively high homogenization temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C) can effectively eliminate the Ni segregation, and a subsequent holding stage at 1023.15 K (750 °C) can reduce the C content in the matrix. As a result, very low α values of around (1 to 2) × 10-6 K-1 were obtained. Regarding the constrained thermal cyclic testing in 303 K to 473 K (30 °C to 200 °C), the results indicate that regardless of heat treatment condition, low thermal expansion cast irons exhibit exceedingly higher dimensional stability than either the regular ductile cast iron or the 304 stainless steel. Furthermore, positive correlation exists between the α 303.15 K to 473.15 K value and the amount of shape change after the thermal cyclic testing. Among the alloys investigated, Heat I-T3B (1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ) exhibits the lowest α 303 K to 473 K value (1.72 × 10-6 K-1), and hence has the least shape change (7.41 μm) or the best dimensional stability.

  16. Stability and Change in In-Group Mate Preferences among Young People in Ethiopia Are Predicted by Food Security and Gender Attitudes, but Not by Expected Pathogen Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; Hruschka, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    There is broad anthropological interest in understanding how people define "insiders" and "outsiders" and how this shapes their attitudes and behaviors toward others. As such, a suite of hypotheses has been proposed to account for the varying degrees of in-group preference between individuals and societies. We test three hypotheses related to material insecurity, pathogen stress, and views of gender equality among cross-sectional (n = 1896) and longitudinal (n = 1002) samples of young people in Ethiopia (aged 13-17 years at baseline) to explore stability and change in their preferences for coethnic spouses. We show that food insecurity is associated with a greater likelihood of intolerant mate preferences. We also find that young people who hold more gender equitable attitudes tended to hold more tolerant mate preferences. Finally, we find no support for the hypothesis that expected pathogen exposure is associated with intolerant mate preferences. Our results most strongly support a material insecurity hypothesis of in-group bias, which assumes that uncertainty over meeting basic needs leads people to favor those in their in-group. As such, our findings join a small but growing group of studies that highlight the importance of material insecurity for understanding tolerance, xenophobia, in-group bias, and favoritism.

  17. [Family-oriented group therapy in the treatment of female patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa--a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbach, Harriet; Bohnekamp, Inga; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Korte, Alexander

    2006-07-01

    Family therapy has proven effective in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescence. While cognitive-behavioural treatment has been shown to be effective in adult patients suffering from BN, there have been few studies on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the treatment of adolescents. Since in the majority of AN patients their illness starts in mid-adolescence, and in late adolescence in BN patients, it is crucial to develop and evaluate treatment programmes for these disorders and age groups. In view of these arguments, a programme of group psychotherapy was set up for eating-disordered patients and their parents, combining disorder-specific psychoeducational components with a family group psychotherapy approach that is more open with regard to individual treatment goals. Patients participated together with their parents in the same group. The treatment programme was evaluated within the framework of a naturalistic single-group study design. Pre-post changes were assessed. 32 female patients (29 with AN, 3 with BN) and their parents took part in the treatment programme. All of the families completed the programme, which was interpreted as a high rate of acceptance. Pre-post analysis revealed a decrease in the degree of eating-disorder symptoms. The advantages and disadvantages of this treatment programme, as well as the limitations of the pilot study are critically discussed.

  18. Color stability of a resin composite: Effect of the immersion method and surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L L Miotti

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Specimens totally immersed in staining solutions could in somehow overestimate the color change, once that in most clinical conditions not all of the restoration surfaces are exposed to the oral environment. Moreover, as the surface sealant application produces color change values that are clinically acceptable, it might be used in esthetic restorations as an adjunct treatment.

  19. Plant wide chemical water stability modelling with PHREEQC for drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Hooft, J.F.M.; De Moel, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In practice, drinking water technologists use simplified calculation methods for aquatic chemistry calculations. Recently, the database stimela.dat is developed especially for aquatic chemistry for drinking water treatment processes. The database is used in PHREEQC, the standard in geohydrology for

  20. Polarity and air-stability transitions in field-effect transistors based on fullerenes with different solubilizing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hojeong; Cho, Han-Hee; Cho, Chul-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Kim, Bumjoon J; Oh, Joon Hak

    2013-06-12

    A series of o-xylene and indene fullerene derivatives with varying frontier molecular orbital energy levels were utilized for assessing the impact of the number of solubilizing groups on the electrical performance of fullerene-based organic-field-effect transistors (OFETs). The charge-carrier polarity was found to be strongly dependent upon the energy levels of fullerene derivatives. The o-xylene C60 monoadduct (OXCMA) and indene C60 monoadduct (ICMA) exhibited unipolar n-channel behaviors with high electron mobilities, whereas the bis- and trisadducts of indene and o-xylene C60 derivatives showed ambipolar charge transport. The OXCMA OFETs fabricated by solution shearing and molecular n-type doping showed an electron mobility of up to 2.28 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is one of the highest electron mobilities obtained from solution-processed fullerene thin-film devices. Our findings systematically demonstrate the relationship between the energy level and charge-carrier polarity and provide insight into molecular design and processing strategies toward high-performance fullerene-based OFETs.

  1. Risk factors for treatment related clinical fluctuations in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dutch Guillain-Barré study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H. Visser (Leendert); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); J. Meulstee (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe risk factors for treatment related clinical fluctuations, relapses occurring after initial therapeutic induced stabilisation or improvement, were evaluated in a group of 172 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features

  2. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Group Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Depression and Obsessive Rumination among Women under Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S taimory

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy in reducing depression and obsessive rumination among women under methadone treatment. Method: A quasi-experimental research design along with pretest-posttest design and a control group were employed to conduct this study. Considering inclusion criteria, a total of 24 female substance abusers who were under methadone treatment were selected from Omide Farda and Javeneh Sabz clinics in Mashhad via purposive sampling method. The experimental group received eight training sessions of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Two scales, namely obsessive rumination scale and Beck’s depression questionnaire were used for data collection purposes. Results: Results of analysis of covariance showed that mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy has reduced obsessive rumination and depression scores. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy can be included in intervention programs for substance abusers.

  3. Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Lin, Deng-Fong

    2009-02-15

    In this study, incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is mixed with cement in a fixed ratio of 4:1 for use as a stabilizer to improve the strength of soft, cohesive, subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in wt%: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%) of ISSA/cement admixture are mixed with cohesive soil to make soil samples. In order to understand the influences of admixtures on the soil properties, tests of the pH value, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength, and triaxial compression were performed on those samples. The study shows that the unconfined compressive strength of specimens with the ISSA/cement addition was improved to approximately 3-7 times better than that of the untreated soil; furthermore, the swelling behavior was also effectively reduced as much as 10-60% for those samples. In some samples, the ISSA/cement additive improved the CBR values by up to 30 times that of untreated soil. This suggests that ISSA/cement has many potential applications in the field of geotechnical engineering.

  4. The Effectiveness of Silica Sand in Semi-Aerobic Stabilized Landfill Leachate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezlina Othman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the suitability of natural silica sand as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and heavy metals, particularly iron and zinc, from semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate. Leachate samples were collected from the Pulau Burung landfill site (PBLS in Penang, Malaysia. The above-mentioned contaminants are highlighted in this study because of their unsafe concentrations at PBLS. The effects of shaking time, settling time, and silica sand dosage on the study parameter removal efficiencies were investigated to predict the performance of the process. The adsorptions of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc were judiciously described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum removal efficiencies of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc obtained were 51%, 44.4%, and 39.2%, respectively, with a shaking time of 90 min, a settling time of 60 min, and with a dosage of 60 g (0.5 kg/L of silica sand. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2 values obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc adsorption were better fitted to the Freundlich model.

  5. Stabilization of Pb and As in soils by applying combined treatment with phosphates and ferrous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidis, Anthimos; Stouraiti, Christina; Papassiopi, Nymphodora

    2010-05-15

    The chemical immobilization of Pb and As in contaminated soil from Lavrion, Greece, using monocalcium phosphate and ferrous sulfate as stabilizing agents was investigated. Monocalcium phosphate was added to contaminated soil at PO(4) to Pb molar ratios equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5, whereas ferrous sulfate was added at Fe to As molar ratios equal to 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20. Phosphates addition to contaminated soil decreased Pb leachability, but resulted in significant mobilization of As. Simultaneous immobilization of Pb and As was obtained only when soil was treated with mixtures of phosphates and ferrous sulfate. Arsenic uptake by plants was also seen to increase when soil was treated only with phosphates, but co-addition of ferrous sulfate was efficient in maintaining As phytoaccumulation at low levels. The addition of at least 1.5M/M phosphates and 10M/M iron sulfate to soil reduced the dissolved levels of Pb and As in the water extracts to values in compliance with the EU drinking water standards. However, both additives contributed in the acidification of soil, decreasing pH from 7.8 to values as low as 5.6 and induced the mobilization of pH sensitive elements, such as Zn and Cd. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intensive weekend group treatment for panic disorder and its impact on co-occurring PTSD: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ellen J; Barrera, Terri L; Hiatt, Emily L; Chaison, Angelic D; Dunn, Nancy Jo; Petersen, Nancy J; Stanley, Melinda A

    2015-06-01

    This pilot study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of delivering an intensive weekend group treatment for panic disorder (PD) to Veterans returning from deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The treatment program lasted 6h each day and was delivered by two experienced therapists. Patients received core components of panic treatment, including psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, and interoceptive exposure. The interoceptive exposure exercises directly targeted anxiety sensitivity, a psychological construct also implicated in the maintenance of PTSD. Eighty-nine percent of patients who expressed interest in the treatment attended a baseline evaluation, and 63% of those who were study eligible initiated treatment. Treatment retention was high, with all 10 patients who initiated treatment completing the program. Veterans reported finding the treatment and delivery format highly acceptable and reported high levels of satisfaction. Panic symptoms improved significantly following the treatment and were maintained at a 7-month follow-up, with 71.4% of the sample reporting being panic free. Co-occurring PTSD symptoms also improved along with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Preliminary findings suggest that brief and intensive group treatments for PD/PTSD are a promising method of delivering cognitive behavioral therapy that may rapidly improve symptoms. This innovative treatment delivery format also may be a cost-effective way of increasing treatment engagement through increased access to quality care. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparison of amphotericin B with fluconazole in the treatment of acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, M S; Powderly, W G; Cloud, G A; Robinson, P; Grieco, M H; Sharkey, P K; Thompson, S E; Sugar, A M; Tuazon, C U; Fisher, J F

    1992-01-09

    Intravenous amphotericin B, with or without flucytosine, is usually standard therapy for cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Fluconazole, an oral triazole agent, represents a promising new approach to the treatment of cryptococcal disease. In a randomized multicenter trial, we compared intravenous amphotericin B with oral fluconazole as primary therapy for AIDS-associated acute cryptococcal meningitis. Eligible patients, in all of whom the diagnosis had been confirmed by culture, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either fluconazole (200 mg per day) or amphotericin B. Treatment was considered successful if the patient had had two consecutive negative cerebrospinal fluid cultures by the end of the 10-week treatment period. Of the 194 eligible patients, 131 received fluconazole and 63 received amphotericin B (mean daily dose, 0.4 mg per kilogram of body weight in patients with successful treatment and 0.5 mg per kilogram in patients with treatment failure; P = 0.34). Treatment was successful in 25 of the 63 amphotericin B recipients (40 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 26 percent to 53 percent) and in 44 of the 131 fluconazole recipients (34 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 25 percent to 42 percent) (P = 0.40). There was no significant difference between the groups in overall mortality due to cryptococcosis (amphotericin vs. fluconazole, 9 of 63 [14 percent] vs. 24 of 131 [18 percent]; P = 0.48); however, mortality during the first two weeks of therapy was higher in the fluconazole group (15 percent vs. 8 percent; P = 0.25). The median length of time to the first negative cerebrospinal fluid culture was 42 days (95 percent confidence interval, 28 to 71) in the amphotericin B group and 64 days (95 percent confidence interval, 53 to 67) in the fluconazole group (P = 0.25). Multivariate analyses identified abnormal mental status (lethargy, somnolence, or obtundation) as the most important

  8. The composition, structure and stability of a group II chaperonin are temperature regulated in a hyperthermophilic archaeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Hiromi K; Yaoi, Takuro; Brocchieri, Luciano; McMillan, R Andrew; Alton, Thomas; Trent, Jonathan D

    2003-04-01

    The hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae contains group II chaperonins, known as rosettasomes, which are two nine-membered rings composed of three different 60 kDa subunits (TF55 alpha, beta and gamma). We sequenced the gene for the gamma subunit and studied the temperature-dependent changes in alpha, beta and gamma expression, their association into rosettasomes and their phylogenetic relationships. Alpha and beta gene expression was increased by heat shock (30 min, 86 degrees C) and decreased by cold shock (30 min, 60 degrees C). Gamma expression was undetectable at heat shock temperatures and low at normal temperatures (75-79 degrees C), but induced by cold shock. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that in vitro alpha and beta subunits form homo-oligomeric rosettasomes, and mixtures of alpha, beta and gamma form hetero-oligomeric rosettasomes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that beta homo-oligomeric rosettasomes and all hetero-oligomeric rosettasomes associate into filaments. In vivo rosettasomes were hetero-oligomeric with an average subunit ratio of 1alpha:1beta:0.1gamma in cultures grown at 75 degrees C, a ratio of 1alpha:3beta:1gamma in cultures grown at 60 degrees C and a ratio of 2alpha:3beta:0gamma after 86 degrees C heat shock. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we determined denaturation temperatures (Tm) for alpha, beta and gamma subunits of 95.7 degrees C, 96.7 degrees C and 80.5 degrees C, respectively, and observed that rosettasomes containing gamma were relatively less stable than those with alpha and/or beta only. We propose that, in vivo, the rosettasome structure is determined by the relative abundance of subunits and not by a fixed geometry. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses indicate that archaeal chaperonin subunits underwent multiple duplication events within species (paralogy). The independent evolution of these paralogues raises the possibility that chaperonins have functionally diversified between

  9. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  10. Plant wide chemical water stability modelling with PHREEQC for drinking water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Hooft, J.F.M.; De Moel, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In practice, drinking water technologists use simplified calculation methods for aquatic chemistry calculations. Recently, the database stimela.dat is developed especially for aquatic chemistry for drinking water treatment processes. The database is used in PHREEQC, the standard in geohydrology for calculating chemical equilibria in groundwater. The development of a graphical user interface for PHREEQC in Microsoft Excel has made it possible to easily incorporate complicated chemical calculat...

  11. Microbiological stabilization of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan E; Guanoquiza, Manuel I; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Vega-Galvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2012-09-03

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 1 and 3 min at 20 °C) on the microbiological shelf-life and microbiota composition of Aloe vera gel during 90 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. Aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, as well as moulds and yeasts, were enumerated after HHP treatment and through cold storage. Randomly selected isolates from the count plates were identified by standard methods and the API identification system. Results showed that HHP treatment at or over 400 MPa for 3 min were effective to keep the microbial counts to undetectable levels during the whole storage period, and consequently the microbiological shelf-life of A. vera gel was extended for more than 90 days at 4 °C. The microbiota in the untreated A. vera gel was dominated by Gram-negative bacteria (mostly Rahnella aquatilis) and yeasts (mostly Rhodotorula mucilaginosa). In contrast, Gram-positive bacteria tentatively identified as Arthrobacter spp. and Micrococcus/Kocuria spp. were the predominant microorganisms in samples pressurized at 300 MPa for 1 and 3 min, while Bacillus megaterium predominating in samples treated at 400 MPa for 1 min. At 400 MPa for 3 min and above, the microbial growth was completely suppressed during at least 90 days; however, viable spore-formers were detected by enrichment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mapping QTLs associated to germination stability following dry-heat treatment in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yeob; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Gang-Seob

    2017-07-01

    Using 164 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Milyang 23 (indica/japonica) and Gihobyeo (japonica) in rice, dry-heat tolerance was evaluated for the seeds of parents and RILs, whose dormancy was naturally broken in six months after harvesting. Mapping QTLs associated to dry-heat tolerance was carried out through interval mapping using Qgene 3.0. Seed germination after dry-heat treatments (90 °C for 24 h) showed a significant difference between the two parents, when evaluated for percentage germination and mean germination time. Milyang 23 was highly tolerant to the dry-heat treatment, while Gihobyeo was sensitive. Three QTLs (qDHT 1, qDHT 5, and qDHT 7) conferring the dry-heat tolerance were mapped to chromosomes 1, 5 and 7, respectively. qDHT 1 on chromosome 1 was tightly linked at 4 cM from ME1-1. The phenotypic variation explained by the three QTLs was 27.18% of the total variance in the 164 RIL populations, and the parental additive effects of three QTLs affected the Milyang 23 allele increased dry-heat tolerance. The detection of new QTLs associated with dry-heat tolerance will provide important information for disease and insect control, using dry-heat treatment in organic or low input sustainable agriculture.

  13. Effects of a brief education and treatment-planning group on evidence-based PTSD treatment utilization and completion among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeViva, Jason C; Bassett, Gwendolyn A; Santoro, Gia M; Fenton, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presenting for care with Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VA) tend not to engage in evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) despite widespread availability of these treatments. Though there is little evidence that "readiness for treatment" affects treatment choice, many VA providers believe that interventions to increase readiness would be helpful. This naturalistic study examined the effects of a 4-session education/treatment-planning group on treatment choice among veterans in a VA outpatient PTSD treatment program. Treatment choices and completion rates of 114 veterans who received at least 1 session of the group (EG) were compared with those of 68 veterans who did not receive the group and received PTSD program treatment as usual (TAU). TAU and EG cases were matched on gender and service era. Of 114 EG cases, 52 (45.6%) chose to receive EBPs, compared with 10 of 68 TAU cases (14.7%). These rates were significantly different, χ2(1) = 18.1, p < .0001. Among cases choosing EBPs, 52.2% of EG cases completed the EBPs as planned, compared with 60% of TAU cases. These percentages were not significantly different. Among EG cases choosing EBPs, lower likelihood of treatment completion was related to psychiatric medication prescription, presence of PTSD service connection, and higher overall service-connection level. The education/treatment-planning group was associated with higher likelihood of selecting but not completing EBPs for PTSD. The decision to engage in trauma-focused treatment may be a different process from the decision to complete such treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Albrecht Ender

    Full Text Available A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study.Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix® is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF. Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated.During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4. All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA. Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle and CT.There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1% as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS (7,7 to 1,4 after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4° after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%. We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage.Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation.

  15. Metal sulfide nanoparticles synthesized via enzyme treatment of biopolymer stabilized nanosuspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Walsh, Dominic

    2010-02-01

    Nanoparticles of CuS, CuxS, Ag2S and CdS were successfully prepared using a novel general and green synthetic process to give dextran biopolymer stabilised metal sulfifde nanosuspensions. Following preparation, dextranase enzyme was used to remove the bulk of the bound dextran to give pure stable metal sulfide nanocrystals for application in for example aspects of medicine, photonics and solar cells. Particles of good homogeneity were obtained and the CuS nanoparticle size was controlled to 9-27 nm by adjusting the reaction conditions. Cu2S nanoparticles were 14 nm, Ag2S nanoparticles were 20-50 nm and CdS nanoparticles were 9 nm is size. The complexing mechanism of nanoparticle sulfides to dextrans was further studied using carboxylmethyl dextran as a complexing agent and crosslinked Sephadex (dextran) `beads as substrate. Particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, TGA, FT-IR and zeta-potential measurement, and their UV-vis spectroscopic absorption properties were determined. Stabilization of the sulfide nanoparticles with soluble hydroxylated biopolymers such as dextran is previously unreported and is here interpreted in terms of viscosity, pH of the system and weak polar S-H or S(metal)OH2+ interactions with dextran depending on the material. Notably, the complexing mechanism appears to differ significantly from that taking place in known dextran-metal oxide systems. The process shown here has good potential for scale-up as a biosynthetic route for a range of functional sulfide nanoparticles.Nanoparticles of CuS, CuxS, Ag2S and CdS were successfully prepared using a novel general and green synthetic process to give dextran biopolymer stabilised metal sulfifde nanosuspensions. Following preparation, dextranase enzyme was used to remove the bulk of the bound dextran to give pure stable metal sulfide nanocrystals for application in for example aspects of medicine, photonics and solar cells. Particles of good homogeneity were obtained and the CuS nanoparticle size

  16. [Costs of appendicitis treatment by diagnosis-related groups in a third-level pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Hernández-Hernández, Araceli; Venegas-Dávalos, Martha; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Guevara-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Ambriz-González, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are widely used in Europe. They allow performing comparisons in hospitals and incurrent hospital payment systems, defining the payment categories. We undertook this study to classify children who underwent appendectomy according to DRGs. Cross-sectional study. Comorbidities, length of hospitalization, histopathologic classification, and DRG classifications were analyzed. We included 313 patients, 62% males, with an average age of 8 ± 3 years; 91% were referred by another hospital and 67% were treated at night. Average length of hospitalization was 4 ± 3 days. There were comorbidities in 8% and surgical complications in 11%. According to histopathology, appendicitis was edematous (11%), suppurative (36%), gangrenous (22%), perforated (29%), and abscessed (2%). At discharge, 97% of the patients were healthy. Total cost for DRG 343 was $10,470,173.00 (Mexican pesos), DRG 342 was $1,227,592.00 and DRG 340 was $511,521.00. The global amount was $12,209,286.00 (Mexican pesos). The unitary cost for treatment of appendectomy for DRG 343 was $37,935.00, for DRG 342 was $49,103.00 and for DRG 340 was $42,626.00 (Mexican pesos). Because 88% of the cases of appendicitis were uncomplicated, this amount of money could be spent to treat these patients in a second-level hospital, using reimbursement 343 without generating additional expenses.

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  18. 40 CFR 63.138 - Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-performance standards for treatment processes managing Group 1 wastewater streams and/or residuals removed from Group 1 wastewater streams. 63.138 Section 63.138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. Treatment strategy for rectal cancer with synchronous metastasis: 65 consecutive Italian cases from the Bologna Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carmine; Pini, Sara; Di Fabio, Francesca; Cuicchi, Dajana; Iacopino, Bruno; Lecce, Ferdinando; Ercolani, Giorgio; Rojas Llimpe, Fabiola Lorena; De Raffele, Emilio; Stella, Franco; Di Tullio, PierGiorgio; Giaquinta, Stefania; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Cola, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Twenty percent of rectal cancer patients have synchronous distant metastasis at diagnosis. At present, the treatment strategy in this patient setting is not well defined. This study in one institution evaluates the treatment strategy of three different patient groups. Between January 2000 and July 2011, 65 patients with M1 rectal cancer were evaluated. Three different groups were defined: rectal cancer with resectable metastatic disease (group A); rectal cancer with potentially resectable metastatic disease (group B), and rectal cancer with unresectable metastatic disease (group C). Group A included 11 patients (16.9%), group B 28 patients (43.1%) and group C 26 patients (40%). Forty-three (66.2%) patients underwent surgery for primary rectal cancer, and 30 (46.2%) patients for metastasis resection (23 liver, 4 lung and 3 ovary). Median overall survival (OS) by group was: 51 (5-86; group A), 32 (24-40; group B) and 16 (7-26; group C) months. Patients undergoing metastasis resection have higher median OS than unresected patients (44 vs. 15 months; p cancer must consider the possibility of distant metastasis resection. Long-term survival can be achieved using an integrated approach.

  20. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-06

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log β110 = 43.1 ± 0.6 and 43.5 ± 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions.

  1. Fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers during wastewater treatment/polishing and sludge stabilization/disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Teske, Sondra; Tomanek, Matt; Engstrom, Jason; Leung, Cary; Zhang, Jianmin; Banihani, Qais; Quanrud, David; Ela, Wendell P; Sáez, A Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Large quantities of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in clothing and plastic products since the 1970s. A small fraction of the PBDEs in manufactured products subsequently enters municipal wastewater. Nevertheless, the resistance of these compounds to chemical and biochemical transformations provides opportunities for accumulation in sediments that are in contact with wastewater effluent and agricultural soils that are amended with biosolids derived from wastewater treatment. Balances developed for PBDE congeners indicate that conventional wastewater treatment processes and soil infiltration of treated wastewater in recharge operations do not discriminate significantly among the major congeners in commercially available PBDE products. Accumulation of PBDEs at near part-per-million levels was measured in the surface sediments at the Sweetwater Recharge Facility in Tucson, Arizona, during 10-15 years of operation. Half-lives for loss of major PBDE congeners from sediments were decades or longer. Local agricultural soils amended with biosolids over a 20-year period showed similar accumulation of PBDEs. The widespread use of PBDEs in commercial products, compound persistence, and toxicity indicate that additional effort is warranted to better understand fate-determining processes for PBDEs in the environment.

  2. The perceived treatment of employees from designated groups in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Coetzee

    2015-03-01

    This study represents a vital step towards a better understanding of the dimensionality of perceptions of fair and just treatment and should ultimately contribute to more effective treatment of all employees in the workplace.

  3. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-01

    Over 1,140 yd 3 of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations (approximately 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system

  4. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  5. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  6. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  7. Comparison of Operant Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith A.; Clancy, Steve

    1988-01-01

    Assigned chronic low back pain patients to operant behavioral (OB) treatment, cognitive-behavioral (CB) treatment, or waiting-list (WL) condition. Both treatments resulted in decreased physical and psychosocial disability. OB patients' greater improvement leveled off at followup; CB patients continued to improve over the 12 months following…

  8. Treatment Integrity of Elaborated Semantic Feature Analysis Aphasia Therapy Delivered in Individual and Group Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladouchou, Vasiliki; Papathanasiou, Ilias; Efstratiadou, Eva A.; Christaki, Vasiliki; Hilari, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims: This study ran within the framework of the Thales Aphasia Project that investigated the efficacy of elaborated semantic feature analysis (ESFA). We evaluated the treatment integrity (TI) of ESFA, i.e., the degree to which therapists implemented treatment as intended by the treatment protocol, in two different formats:…

  9. A Spiderless Arachnophobia Therapy: Comparison between Placebo and Treatment Groups and Six-Month Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Carmilo Granado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new arachnophobia therapy that is specially suited for those individuals with severe arachnophobia who are reluctant to undergo direct or even virtual exposure treatments. In this therapy, patients attend a computer presentation of images that, while not being spiders, have a subset of the characteristics of spiders. The Atomium of Brussels is an example of such an image. The treatment group (n=13 exhibited a significant improvement (time × group interaction: P=.0026 when compared to the placebo group (n=12 in a repeated measures multivariate ANOVA. A k-means clustering algorithm revealed that, after 4 weeks of treatment, 42% of the patients moved from the arachnophobic to the nonarachnophobic cluster. Six months after concluding the treatment, a follow-up study showed a substantial consolidation of the recovery process where 92% of the arachnophobic patients moved to the nonarachnophobic cluster.

  10. Influence of surface treatment of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium oxides and cement type on crown retention after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipour-Saryazdi, Mehdi; Sadid-Zadeh, Ramtin; Givan, Daniel; Burgess, John O; Ramp, Lance C; Liu, Perng-Ru

    2014-05-01

    Information about the influence of zirconia crown surface treatment and cement type on the retention of zirconia crowns is limited. It is unclear whether zirconia crowns require surface treatment to enhance their retention. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatment on the retention of zirconia crowns cemented with 3 different adhesive resin cements after artificial aging. Ninety extracted human molars were prepared for ceramic crowns (approximately 20-degree taper, approximately 4-mm axial length) and were divided into 3 groups (n=30). Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing zirconia copings were fabricated. Three surface treatments were applied to the intaglio surface of the copings. The control group received no treatment, the second group was airborne-particle abraded with 50 μm Al2O3, and the third group was treated with 30 μm silica-modified Al2O3, The copings were luted with a self-etch (RelyX Unicem 2), a total-etch (Duo-Link), or a self-etch primer (Panavia F 2.0) adhesive cement. They were stored for 24 hours at 37°C before being artificially aged with 5000 (5°C-55°C) thermal cycles and 100,000 cycles of 70 N dynamic loading. Retention was measured on a universal testing machine under tension, with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed with 1-way and 2-way ANOVA. Mean retention values ranged from 0.72 to 3.7 MPa. Surface treatment increased crown retention, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>.05), except for the Duo-Link cement group (Pcement resulted in significantly lower crown retention (Pcements. For zirconia crowns, retention seems to be dependent on cement type rather than surface treatment. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in symptom severity, schemas and modes in heterogeneous psychiatric patient groups following short-term schema cognitive-behavioural group therapy: a naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design in an outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vreeswijk, M F; Spinhoven, P; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E H M; Broersen, J

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. However, little is known of its merits in other psychiatric (personality) disorders. This study investigated whether schema therapy in a group setting (group schema cognitive-behavioural therapy [SCBT-g]) was associated with changes in symptom and schema and mode severity. Furthermore, the aim was to search for baseline predictors and possible mediators of treatment outcome. Sixty-three heterogeneous psychiatric outpatients who attended the SCBT-g were included as participants. In this naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design, data were available on the Symptom Checklist 90, the Schema Questionnaire and the Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory. All outcome measurements showed changes with moderate to high effect sizes, with 53.2% of the patients showing a significant reduction in severity of psychiatric symptoms and schemas and modes. Higher pre-treatment levels of the schema domain Other Directedness predicted greater symptom reduction. Pre-treatment to mid-treatment changes in schema severity predicted subsequent symptom improvement, but change in symptoms and schemas proved to be strongly correlated. In this naturalistic study, SCBT-g was associated with reduced symptom and schema and mode severity in more than half of the psychiatric outpatients. Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in schemas and symptomatology mutually reinforce each other. Over 50% of ambulatory patients show clinical improvement after treatment in a short-term schema therapy group. Other Directedness seems to be a predictor of schema group therapy success. More randomized controlled trial studies and prediction and mediation studies on (short-term) schema group therapy are sorely needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Localized but unresectable neuroblastoma: treatment and outcome of 145 cases. Italian Cooperative Group for Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaventa, A; De Bernardi, B; Pianca, C; Donfrancesco, A; Cordero di Montezemolo, L; Di Tullio, M T; Bagnulo, S; Mancini, A; Carli, M; Pession, A; Arrighini, A; Di Cataldo, A; Tamaro, P; Iasonni, V; Taccone, A; Rogers, D; Boni, L

    1993-09-01

    To define factors that influence outcome in children with localized but unresectable neuroblastoma by retrospective investigation of response to therapy and outcome in 21 Italian institutions. Of 145 assessable children diagnosed between 1979 and 1990, 77 were treated between 1979 and 1984 with three consecutive standard-dose (SD) protocols, and 68 between 1985 and 1990 with a high-dose (HD) protocol. All protocols included chemotherapy, followed by resection of primary tumor if feasible. If at least partial resection was achieved, consolidation therapy followed, except that from 1985 onward, patients considered disease-free following surgery received no further treatment. Ninety-four of 145 patients (65%) achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) with chemotherapy and 75 (52%) subsequently underwent complete resection of the primary tumor. Eighty-one patients are alive (73 without disease, eight with disease), 63 have died, and one is lost to follow-up. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate is 55% and progression-free survival (PFS) rate 50%. Both OS and PFS correlated with response to chemotherapy, removal of primary tumor, HD therapy, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Infants (< 1 year), independent of primary tumor site, and children aged 1 to 15 years with a nonabdominal primary tumor, did better compared with children aged 1 to 15 years with an abdominal primary tumor (PFS, 72% and 64% v 30%; P < .001 and < .01, respectively). Outcome of this last group improved with the HD protocol (PFS, 40% v 23%; P = .01). In children with unresectable neuroblastoma, risk categories can be defined by age and primary tumor site. HD chemotherapy should be investigated for the poor-risk category age 1 to 15 years with an abdominal primary tumor.

  13. Operative modalities and exposure to pesticides during open field treatments among a group of agricultural subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Matteo; Protano, Carmela; Del Monte, Annalisa; Ensabella, Francesca; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a field study of occupational pesticide exposure (respiratory and dermal) among a group of Italian agricultural subcontractors. These workers consistently use pesticides during much of the year, thus resulting in a high exposure risk. Ten complete treatments were monitored during spring/summer. Pesticides that were applied included azinphos-methyl, dicamba, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, and alachlor. Several observations were made on worker operative modalities and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during work. Total potential and actual exposure ranged from 14 to 5700 microg and from 0.04 to 4600 microg, respectively. Dermal exposure contributed substantially more than inhalation to the total exposure (93.9-100%). Hand contamination ranged from 0.04 to 4600 microg and was the major contributor to dermal exposure. Penetration through specific protective garments was less than 2.4% in all cases, although penetration through general work clothing was as high as 26.8%. The risk evaluation, based on comparison between acceptable daily intake and total absorbed doses, demonstrates that it is presumable to expect possible health effects for workers regularly operating without PPE and improper tractors. Comparisons between exposure levels and operative modalities highlighted that complete PPE and properly equipped tractors contributed to a significant reduction in total exposure to pesticides during agricultural activities. In conclusion, monitored agricultural subcontractors presented very different levels of pesticide exposure due to the high variability of operative modalities and use of PPE. These results indicate the need to critically evaluate the efficacy of training programs required for obtaining a pesticide license in Italy.

  14. “It’s not like a fat camp” — A focus group study of adolescents’ experiences on group-based obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Engström

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. Methods: In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. Results: We identified four major themes: 1 motivation, 2 body experience and self-image, 3 relationships and sense of belonging, and 4 the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Conclusion: Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.

  15. Perceived Self-Disclosure, Mental Health, and Who Is Liked in Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Richard G.

    1972-01-01

    Conclusions are: (a) group members' and therapists' role image of clients are in agreement and (b) group members perceive therapists' self-disclosures as a negative indicator of mental health. (Author)

  16. Potential of tin (IV) chloride for treatment in Alor Pongsu as stabilized landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Sharifah Farah Fariza Syed; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Leachate production from landfilling contributes crucial pollutants to the environment. This study examined the potential of tin (IV) chloride as coagulant that involved charge neutralization and sweep flocculation mechanisms. The negative charge of leachate is neutralized by adding tin (IV) chloride as cationic coagulant which resulted precipitation and swept most of the colloids and dissolved solids that entrapped in the settling as hydrous oxide floc. Parameters such as suspended solid (SS) content, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard jar test procedures. The best condition was observed at pH 8, with removal efficiencies of 75.99 %, 99.29 % and 98.36 % for COD, SS, and color, respectively. At optimum dosage, tin (IV) chloride successfully removed 98.40 % for color, 99.54 % for SS and 71.53 % for COD. These results indicated the satisfactory performance of tin (IV) chloride. Hence, tin (IV) chloride is a potential coagulant for the treatment of Alor Pongsu Landfill leachate.

  17. Lectin Digestibility and Stability of Elderberry Antioxidants to Heat Treatment In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderberry contains healthy low molecular weight nutraceuticals and lectins which are sequence-related to the elderberry allergen Sam n1. Some of these lectins are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins. The sensitivity of native lectins present in elderberry fruits and bark to the proteolysis triggered by in vitro simulated gastric and duodenal fluids has been investigated. It was found that these lectins are refractory to proteolysis. Nonetheless, incubation for 5–10 min in a boiling water bath completely sensitized them to the hydrolytic enzymes in vitro. Under these conditions neither total Folin-Ciocalteau’s reagent reactive compounds, total anthocyanins and the mixture of cyanidin-3-glucoside plus cyanidin-3-sambubioside, nor antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities were affected by more than 10% for incubations of up to 20 min. Therefore, short-time heat treatment reduces potential allergy-related risks deriving from elderberry consumption without seriously affecting its properties as an antioxidant and free-radical scavenging food.

  18. [External stability of the elbow after surgical treatment of epicondylitis. Presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop-Corbacho, A; Romero-Ruiz, J; Denia-Alarcón, N

    2014-01-01

    Elbow instability is a difficult to diagnose condition in certain cases, and could lead to some problems that limit daily functioning, such as joint blocks, bumps, projections, muscle weakness, and persistent pain. A case is presented of a patient with a clinical picture of epicondylitis, with a previous history of a fall on the affected arm. As there was no improvement after performing conventional non-aggressive treatment, surgery was performed on the affected tendon. The outcome of this was persistent pain and clinical instability of the elbow that ended up requiring surgery to reconstruct the ligament over the external complex. In follow-up 6 months after the operation, the clinical instability had disappeared, but there was still external discomfort and a 30° extension deficit. When faced with a picture of epicondylitis with a previous injury that does not respond to conventional therapies, it is important to take into account the possibility of an underlying elbow instability, ruling this out with a correct physical examination and, where necessary, with the appropriate complementary tests. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Issues in the Analysis of Focus Groups: Generalisability, Quantifiability, Treatment of Context and Quotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicsek, Lilla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some concerns related to the analysis of focus groups: (a) the issue of generalisation; (b) the problems of using numbers and quantifying in the analysis; (c) how the concrete situation of the focus groups could be included in the analysis, and (d) what formats can be used when quoting from focus groups. Problems with…

  20. Toilet School for Children with Failure to Toilet Train: Comparing a Group Therapy Model with Individual Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Evelyn; Yang, Jeffrey H; Coit, Margaret H; Chan, Eugenia

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the toileting outcomes of children participating in Toilet School group therapy with children in individual treatment. All children in this study failed conventional toilet training and were 4 to 6 year, 11 month old. Cases were 63 children who attended a 6-week Toilet School group therapy with their parents. Controls were 62 children who were seen in individual treatment in the same tertiary care program and were matched to cases based on treatment dates. We analyzed the number of toileting benchmarks met for cases and controls. We used a stepwise linear regression model to investigate the contribution of child and family factors in predicting the number of toileting benchmarks met. Compared to controls, cases achieved significantly more toileting benchmarks (p Toilet School, were more likely to have bowel movements in the toilet (p = .001), and required fewer subsequent visits until completion of toilet training (p = .013). Similarly, at the seventh provider encounter for both controls and cases, the cases continued to achieve significantly more toileting benchmarks (p toilet (p = .002) compared to controls. After adjusting for age, gender, neighborhood poverty level, and number of total clinical visits for fecal incontinence, treatment grouping was the only independent variable that predicted toileting progress. For children with failure to toilet train, group treatment involving both the child and the family results in greater improvement in toileting outcomes than individual treatment.

  1. Propensity scores as a basis for equating groups: basic principles and application in clinical treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G; Cham, Heining; Thoemmes, Felix; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Julian; Weiler, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A propensity score is the probability that a participant is assigned to the treatment group based on a set of baseline covariates. Propensity scores provide an excellent basis for equating treatment groups on a large set of covariates when randomization is not possible. This article provides a nontechnical introduction to propensity scores for clinical researchers. If all important covariates are measured, then methods that equate on propensity scores can achieve balance on a large set of covariates that mimics that achieved by a randomized experiment. We present an illustration of the steps in the construction and checking of propensity scores in a study of the effectiveness of a health coach versus treatment as usual on the well-being of seriously ill individuals. We then consider alternative methods of equating groups on propensity scores and estimating treatment effects including matching, stratification, weighting, and analysis of covariance. We illustrate a sensitivity analysis that can probe for the potential effects of omitted covariates on the estimate of the causal effect. Finally, we briefly consider several practical and theoretical issues in the use of propensity scores in applied settings. Propensity score methods have advantages over alternative approaches to equating groups particularly when the treatment and control groups do not fully overlap, and there are nonlinear relationships between covariates and the outcome. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Change of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale subscales with treatment and placebo: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell UH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike H Mitchell,1 Sterling C Hilton2 1Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences, 2Department of Educational Leadership and Foundations, Provo, UT, USA Background: In 2003, the 10-question International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS was developed as a means of assessing the severity of restless legs syndrome. Two subscales were identified: symptom severity (SS 1 and symptom impact (SS 2. Only one study has investigated the subscales' responsiveness to a 12-week treatment with ropinirole. This current study was undertaken to assess the impact of a 4-week, non-pharmaceutical treatment on the two subscales and to explore whether or not both subscales were impacted by the observed placebo effect. Methods: The pooled data from questionnaires of 58 patients (41 from both treatment groups and 17 from the sham treatment control group, who participated in two clinical studies, were reviewed. Their change in score over a 4-week trial was computed. The average change in both subscales in both groups was computed and t-tests were performed. Results: In the treatment group, the average scores of both subscales changed significantly from baseline to week 4 (P<0.005 for both. Compared to the control, SS 1 changed (P<0.001, but not SS 2 (P=0.18. In the sham treatment group, the scores for SS 1 changed significantly (P=0.002, but not for SS 2 (P=0.2. Conclusion: This study corroborated findings from an earlier study in which both subscales changed with a 12-week drug treatment. It also showed that the observed placebo effect is attributed to a small but significant change in symptom severity, but not symptom impact. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, RLS severity scale, IRLS subscales, symptom impact, symptom severity

  3. Time limited psychodynamic group therapy: Predictors of patients seeking additional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    for psychological or psychiatric problems; the percentage was 41.6 when further treatment was defined as participating in more than 5 sessions. The majority (94.8 was treated within the public health services. Participation in additional treatment was predicted by improvement on the MCMI Antisocial personality...... disorder scale and a higher SCL-90-R Somatization end-state score. When additional treatment was defined as receiving more than 5 sessions, lack of paid work before treatment (odds ratio 8.0), lack of social network support (odds ratio 2.9), and the Antisocial pre-post difference score (odds ratio 1...

  4. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  5. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  6. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. Method An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. Results A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. Conclusions This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to

  7. Generation and Stability of the gem-Diol Forms in Imidazole Derivatives Containing Carbonyl Groups. Solid-State NMR and Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Ayelén Florencia; Byrne, Agustín Jesús; Vega, Daniel; Chattah, Ana Karina; Monti, Gustavo Alberto; Lázaro-Martínez, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-18

    The stability of gem-diol forms in imidazolecarboxaldehyde isomers was studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ss-NMR) combined with single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These methodologies also allowed determining the factors governing the occurrence of such rare functionalization in carbonyl moieties. Results indicated that the position of the carbonyl group is the main factor that governs the generation of geminal diols, having a clear and direct effect on hydration, since, under the same experimental conditions, only 36% of 5-imidazolecarboxaldehydes and 5% of 4-imidazolecarboxaldehydes were hydrated, as compared to 2-imidazolecarboxaldehydes, with which a 100% hydration was achieved. Not only did trifluoroacetic acid favor the addition of water to the carbonyl group but also it allowed obtaining single crystals. Single crystals of the gem-diol and the hemiacetal forms 2-imidazolecarboxaldehyde and N-methyl-2-imidazolecarboxaldehyde, respectively, were isolated and studied through 1 H ss-NMR. Mass spectrometry and solution-state NMR experiments were also performed to study the hydration process.

  8. Cognitive behavioural group treatment for Chinese parents with children with developmental disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fu Keung Daniel; Poon, Ada

    2010-08-01

    This study attempted to test the efficacy of a culturally attuned cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group for Chinese parents with children with developmental disabilities at risk of developing mental health problems in Melbourne, Australia. It was hypothesized that the participants in the experimental group would have less parenting stress and fewer dysfunctional attitudes, rules, and values, and better mental health and quality of life than the participants in the control group post-test. A total of 58 participants were randomly assigned into CBT and waiting list control groups. While ANCOVAs were used to compare the differences in General Health Questionnaires-12 (GHQ-12), Parenting Stress Index- Parent Domain (PSI-PD), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnnaire-18 (Q-LES-Q-18) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) between participants of the experiemental and control groups, effect size statistics were performed to measure the magnitude of changes in the above instruments at post treatment. After ten weeks of treatment, the participants in the CBT group showed significant improvement in GHQ-12, Parenting Stress Index (PSI)-Parent Domain and Q-LES-Q-18 scores, but not in DAS scores. The effect size statistics revealed large differences in GHQ-12, PSI-Parent Domain and Q-LES-Q-18 scores between the participants in the experimental and control groups at post-treatment. When a GHQ score of 4 or greater was used as the recommended cut-off score, about 89% and 10% of the participants in the experimental and control groups, respectively, were classified as not at-risk cases at post-treatment. The initial findings suggest that a culturally attuned CBT group may help Chinese parents with children with developmental disabilities to reduce their parenting stress and improve their general mental health and quality of life.

  9. A comparison of two treatments for childhood apraxia of speech: methods and treatment protocol for a parallel group randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood Apraxia of Speech is an impairment of speech motor planning that manifests as difficulty producing the sounds (articulation and melody (prosody of speech. These difficulties may persist through life and are detrimental to academic, social, and vocational development. A number of published single subject and case series studies of speech treatments are available. There are currently no randomised control trials or other well designed group trials available to guide clinical practice. Methods/Design A parallel group, fixed size randomised control trial will be conducted in Sydney, Australia to determine the efficacy of two treatments for Childhood Apraxia of Speech: 1 Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the 2 Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme – Third edition. Eligible children will be English speaking, aged 4–12 years with a diagnosis of suspected CAS, normal or adjusted hearing and vision, and no comprehension difficulties or other developmental diagnoses. At least 20 children will be randomised to receive one of the two treatments in parallel. Treatments will be delivered by trained and supervised speech pathology clinicians using operationalised manuals. Treatment will be administered in 1-hour sessions, 4 times per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcomes are speech sound and prosodic accuracy on a customised 292 item probe and the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology inconsistency subtest administered prior to treatment and 1 week, 1 month and 4 months post-treatment. All post assessments will be completed by blinded assessors. Our hypotheses are: 1 treatment effects at 1 week post will be similar for both treatments, 2 maintenance of treatment effects at 1 and 4 months post will be greater for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment than Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme treatment, and 3 generalisation of treatment effects to untrained related speech behaviours will be greater for Rapid

  10. Fate and biotransformation of phytosterols during treatment of pulp and paper wastewater in a simulated aerated stabilization basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Christy M; Giles, Hamilton D; Banerjee, Sujit; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper wastewater (PPW) contains significant concentrations of phytosterols, suspected of inducing endocrine disruption in aquatic species. Aerated stabilization basins (ASBs) are commonly used for the treatment of PPW, but phytosterol removal varies among treatment systems. The objective of this study was to better understand the removal processes and biotransformation of phytosterols within an ASB treatment system fed with untreated PPW. PPW settled solids and supernatant fractions showed that phytosterols are primarily associated with settleable solids, which carry phytosterols to ASB sediment where anoxic/anaerobic conditions prevail. Bioassays with supernatant and settled PPW fractions of the raw wastewater conducted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, showed that solids disintegration and hydrolysis results in phytosterol release in ASBs. A simulated ASB, fed with PPW and operated for 2.4 years at three hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 22.2, 11.1 and 5.6 d) with total phytosterol and solids loading rates from 10 to 42 μg/L-d and 44-178 mg/L-d, respectively, was used to determine the steady-state effluent quality and sediment characteristics. Although effluent COD and phytosterol concentrations were relatively low and stable (84-88% total COD removal; 82-94% total phytosterol removal) across the range of HRTs tested, sediment COD and phytosterol concentrations increased with increasing loading rate. On average, 51% of the phytosterols entering the ASB were removed via biotransformation, 40% were retained in the sediment, and the remaining 9% exited with the effluent. This study demonstrates the role of sediment as a source of phytosterol release in ASBs and highlights the importance of HRT and the PPW characteristics for predicting phytosterol fate in ASBs.

  11. Radiation pre-treatment of seed imparts metabolic stability and quality protection during storage under accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of seed is known to deteriorate due to unfavoured temperature and relative humidity during accelerated aging. Protecting the seed quality during storage is thus a priority challenge for the seed industry till the seeds end up with the end user. Gamma radiation treatment has been shown to improve source to sink transport of photosynthates during terminal heat stress in cereals. An experiment was conducted to measure seed irradiation induced biochemical changes in groundnut cultivar TG-37A stored under accelerated aging at 45±2 ℃ and 95-100 % humidity for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 days to aging. The gamma irradiation doses were control (0), 0.005, 0.025, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Seed samples were periodically evaluated for oil and fatty acid profile by the soxhlet extraction method and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy respectively. Here alike earlier studies variation in fatty acid profile of seed was used as an indicator of seed health under harsh storage conditions of accelerated aging. In the majority of plant species having oil rich seeds, the lipids that are at risk of auto-oxidation contain oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) fatty acid chain. Degree of unsaturation has a significant influence on degree of degradation. Decreased total lipid content in aged sunflower seeds have been reported. Auto-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids was noticed, especially for linoleic acid in seed of oil crop after seven years of storage. Our results showed radiation treatment did not cause any significant change in oleic (C18:1), linoleic acids (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acid content of seeds. This shows that gamma radiation essentially slows down the lipid peroxidation which essentially protects membrane permeability and reduces the rate of seed deterioration at high temperature and RH. Radiation treatment imparts metabolic stability in seeds during storage under accelerated aging conditions. (author)

  12. Integrating empirically supported therapies for treating personality disorders: a synthesis of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Margo; Darke, Juliet L

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the theoretical foundations and components of an intensive group treatment program for individuals diagnosed with personality disorders. The Chrysalis Community Day Treatment Program integrates aspects of three empirically supported therapies: Transference-Focused Psychotherapy and Mentalization-Based Therapy, both psychodynamic psychotherapies, and Dialectical Behavior Therapy, a cognitive-behavioral therapy. Each of these modalities is structured for the treatment of individuals suffering from the symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and each of the treatments addresses problems that occur across a wide spectra of beliefs, capacities, and behaviors. The program is comprised of expressive, psycho-educational and skills-training groups, and participants attend three days per week, for 15 weeks. Preliminary evaluation is promising, reflecting decreases in self-injurious behavior, suicide attempts, psychiatric hospitalizations, and psychiatric symptoms at a one-year follow-up.

  13. Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Randomized Control Trial for the Treatment of Conduct Problems in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Prewett, Matthew S.; Shanley, Jenelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Methods Eighty-one families with three- to six-year-old children (71.6% male; 85.2% Caucasian) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children’s conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and six-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Results Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children’s conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Conclusions Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of group PCIT in community settings. PMID:27018531

  14. Group parent-child interaction therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niec, Larissa N; Barnett, Miya L; Prewett, Matthew S; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R

    2016-08-01

    Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Eighty-one families with 3- to 6-year-old children (71.6% boys, 85.2% White) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, Group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children's conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children's conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in Group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of Group PCIT in community settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Human serum albumin as protecting agent of silver nanoparticles: role of the protein conformation and amine groups in the nanoparticle stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Emilio I.; Bueno-Alejo, Carlos J.; Noel, Christopher W.; Stamplecoskie, Kevin G. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Pacioni, Natalia L. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, INFIQC, Departamento de Quimica Organica (Argentina); Poblete, Horacio [Center for Bioinformatics and Molecular Simulations, Universidad de Talca (Chile); Scaiano, J. C., E-mail: tito@photo.chem.uottawa.ca [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Department of Chemistry (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Thermally denatured human serum albumin interacts with {approx}3.0 nm spherical AgNP enhancing the fluorescence of Trp-214 at large protein/nanoparticle ratios. However, using native HSA, no changes in the emission were observed. The observation is likely due to differences between native and denatured protein packing resulting from protein corona formation. We have also found that NH{sub 2} blocking of the protein strongly affects the ability of the protein to protect AgNP from different salts/ions such as NaCl, PBS, Hank's buffer, Tris-HCl, MES, and DMEM. Additionally, AgNP can be readily prepared in aqueous solutions by a photochemical approach employing HSA as an in situ protecting agent. The role of the protein in this case is beyond that of protecting agent; thus, Ag{sup +} ions and I-2959 complexation within the protein structure also affects the efficiency of AgNP formation. Blocking NH{sub 2} in HSA modified the AgNP growth profile, surface plasmon band shape, and long-term stability suggesting that amine groups are directly involved in the formation and post-stabilization of AgNP. In particular, AgNP size and shape are extensively influenced by NH{sub 2} blocking, leading primarily to cubes and plates with sizes around 5-15 nm; in contrast, spherical monodisperse 4.0 nm AgNP are observed for native HSA. The nanoparticles prepared by this protocol are non-toxic in primary cells and have remarkable antibacterial properties. Finally, surface plasmon excitation of native HSA-AgNP promoted loss of protein conformation in just 5 min, suggesting that plasmon heating causes protein denaturation using continuous light sources such as commercial LED.

  16. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Clinical Trials Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, C M; Saag, M S; Cloud, G A; Hamill, R J; Graybill, J R; Sobel, J D; Johnson, P C; Tuazon, C U; Kerkering, T; Moskovitz, B L; Powderly, W G; Dismukes, W E

    1997-07-03

    Treatment with low-dose amphotericin B (0.4 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) or oral azole therapy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cryptococcal meningitis has been associated with high mortality and low rates of cerebrospinal fluid sterilization. In a double-blind multicenter trial we randomly assigned patients with a first episode of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis to treatment with higher-dose amphotericin B (0.7 mg per kilogram per day) with or without flucytosine (100 mg per kilogram per day) for two weeks (step one), followed by eight weeks of treatment with itraconazole (400 mg per day) or fluconazole (400 mg per day) (step two). Treatment was considered successful if cerebrospinal fluid cultures were negative at 2 and 10 weeks or if the patient was clinically stable at 2 weeks and asymptomatic at 10 weeks. At two weeks, the cerebrospinal fluid cultures were negative in 60 percent of the 202 patients receiving amphotericin B plus flucytosine and in 51 percent of the 179 receiving amphotericin B alone (P=0.06). Elevated intracranial pressure was associated with death in 13 of 14 patients during step one. The clinical outcome did not differ significantly between the two groups. Seventy-two percent of the 151 fluconazole recipients and 60 percent of the 155 itraconazole recipients had negative cultures at 10 weeks (95 percent confidence interval for the difference in percentages, -100 to 21). The proportion of patients who had clinical responses was similar with fluconazole (68 percent) and itraconazole (70 percent). Overall mortality was 5.5 percent in the first two weeks and 3.9 percent in the next eight weeks, with no significant difference between the groups. In a multivariate analysis, the addition of flucytosine during the initial two weeks and treatment with fluconazole for the next eight weeks were independently associated with cerebrospinal fluid sterilization. For the initial treatment of AIDS

  17. Autogenic training and cognitive self-hypnosis for the treatment of recurrent headaches in three different subject groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, M M; Spinhoven, P; Linssen, A C; Zitman, F G; Van Dyck, R; Rooijmans, H G

    1994-09-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of autogenic training (AT) and cognitive self-hypnosis training (CSH) for the treatment of chronic headaches in comparison with a waiting-list control (WLC) condition, (b) investigate the influence of subject recruitment on treatment outcome and (c) explore whether the level of hypnotizability is related to therapy outcome. Three different subjects groups (group 1, patients (n = 58) who were referred by a neurological outpatient clinic; group 2, members (n = 48) of the community who responded to an advertisement in a newspaper; and group 3, students (n = 40) who responded to an advertisement in a university newspaper) were allocated at random to a therapy or WLC condition. During treatment, there was a significant reduction in the Headache Index scores of the subjects in contrast with the controls. At post-treatment and follow-up almost no significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment conditions or the 3 referral sources regarding the Headache Index, psychological distress (SCL-90) scores and medication use. Follow-up measurements indicated that therapeutic improvement was maintained. In both treatment conditions, the high-hypnotizable subjects achieved a greater reduction in headache pain at post-treatment and follow-up than did the low-hypnotizable subjects. It is concluded that a relatively simple and highly structured relaxation technique for the treatment of chronic headache subjects may be preferable to more complex cognitive hypnotherapeutic procedures, irrespective of the source of recruitment. The level of hypnotic susceptibility seems to be a subject characteristic which is associated with a more favourable outcome in subjects treated with AT or CSH.

  18. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  19. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  20. Carefully designed oxygen-containing functional groups and defects of porous carbon spheres with UV-O3 treatment and their enhanced catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiliang; Huang, Xiaosheng; Lu, Gongxuan; Tang, Zhicheng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the support surface properties (surface oxygen-containing functional groups and structure defects) of porous carbon spheres (PCSs) were carefully designed by as UV assisted O3 technology. CO catalytic oxidation reactions performed over the supported Pd-Ce catalysts on modified porous carbon spheres. Results illustrated that the Pd-Ce/PCSs catalysts exhibited high CO catalytic activity, which were increased at first, and then decreased with UV assistant-O3 treatment time. The Pd-Ce/PCSs-30 catalyst exhibited superior activity and T100 was only 15 °C. Moreover, the Pd-Ce/PCSs-30 catalyst obtained an excellent stability, and 100% CO conversion could be maintained as the time on stream evolutes up to 16h in the presence of H2O in the feed. Based on characterization results, there were two main factors: (a) the surface area and pore volume were decreased with UV-O3 treatment, leading to the enhancement of Pd-Ce particle size, and the decrease of Pd-Ce nanoparticle dispersion and mass transfer efficiency, as well as the decrease of catalytic activity of Pd-Ce/PCSs, (b) the surface oxygen content and defect sites of PCSs were raised by UV-O3 treatment, which could improve surface loading of Pd, Ce and enhance Pdsbnd Osbnd Ce bonding interactions, thereby increasing the activity of Pd-Ce/PCSs.

  1. Adolescent Substance-Use Frequency following Self-Help Group Attendance and Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…

  2. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Gordana Mandić

    2013-11-01

    The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original "Synallactic collective image technique" (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.). The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  3. Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The schizophrenics are frequently disinterested and resistant to standard care. Case report. We presented clinical observations of group art therapy of two schizophrenic patients during integrative therapy in Day Hospital. We modified the original “Synallactic collective image technique” (Vassiliou G, Vassiliou V.. The group is open, heterogeneous, meets once a week and discusses on exhibited drawings, drawn by free associations. The patients' drawings and group protocols showed clinical improvement by lowering depressive themes, more human figures and self-confidence. The obvious severity of markedly impairment on Clinical Global Impression (CGI and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scales on admission with minimal improvement at discharge was rated. Conclusion. Group art therapy enables visual expression of emotions, perceptions and cognitions, develops creative potentials and support within the group, thus facilitating the integrative therapeutic process of schizophrenics. It may be useful adjunctive therapy for schizoprenic patients.

  4. Investigation of the kinetics of the change in the group composition of the anthracene fraction on heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Lur' e, M.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, an investigation has been made of the kinetics of the change in the group composition of the anthracene fraction during heat treatment under various conditions. On the basis of the results obtained, a kinetic model of the process has been developed which permits rational conditions for obtaining a heat-treated product of the necessary group composition to be found. 6 refs.

  5. Adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment: a meta-analysis, interviews, and focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of tyrosinemia type I: a US and Canadian consensus group review and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinsky, Jeffrey M.; Singh, Rani; Ficicioglu, Can; van Karnebeek, Clara D. M.; Grompe, Markus; Mitchell, Grant; Waisbren, Susan E.; Gucsavas-Calikoglu, Muge; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Coakley, Katie; Scott, C. Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type I (hepatorenal tyrosinemia, HT-1) is an autosomal recessive condition resulting in hepatic failure with comorbidities involving the renal and neurologic systems and long term risks for hepatocellular carcinoma. An effective medical treatment with

  7. Pulse pressure and diabetes treatments: Blood pressure and pulse pressure difference among glucose lowering modality groups in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Hamid; Khaloo, Pegah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rabizadeh, Soghra; Salehi, Salome Sadat; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Meftah, Neda; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher pulse pressure. In this study, we assessed and compared effects of classic diabetes treatments on pulse pressure (PP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes.In a retrospective cohort study, 718 non-hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes were selected and divided into 4 groups including metformin, insulin, glibenclamide+metformin, and metformin+insulin. They were followed for 4 consecutive visits lasting about 45.5 months. Effects of drug regimens on pulse and blood pressure over time were assessed separately and compared in regression models with generalized estimating equation method and were adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, sex, smoking, and body mass index (BMI).Studied groups had no significant change in PP, SBP, and DBP over time. No significant difference in PP and DBP among studied groups was observed (PP:P = 0.090; DBP:P = 0.063). Pairwise comparisons of PP, SBP, and DBP showed no statistically significant contrast between any 2 studied groups. Interactions of time and treatment were not different among groups.Our results demonstrate patients using metformin got higher PP and SBP over time. Averagely, pulse and blood pressure among groups were not different. Trends of variation in pulse and blood pressure were not different among studied diabetes treatments.

  8. Group art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia: a randomised controlled trial (MATISSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M J; Killaspy, H; Barnes, T R; Barrett, B; Byford, S; Clayton, K; Dinsmore, J; Floyd, S; Hoadley, A; Johnson, T; Kalaitzaki, E; King, M; Leurent, B; Maratos, A; O'Neill, F A; Osborn, D; Patterson, S; Soteriou, T; Tyrer, P; Waller, D

    2012-01-01

    To examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of referral to group art therapy plus standard care, compared with referral to an activity group plus standard care and standard care alone, among people with schizophrenia. A three-arm, parallel group, single-blind, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomised via an independent and remote telephone randomisation service using permuted blocks, stratified by study centre. Study participants were recruited from secondary care mental health and social services in four UK centres. Potential participants were aged 18 years or over, had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, confirmed by an examination of case notes, and provided written informed consent. We excluded those who were unable to speak sufficient English to complete the baseline assessment, those with severe cognitive impairment and those already receiving arts therapy. Group art therapy was delivered by registered art therapists according to nationally agreed standards. Groups had up to eight members, lasted for 90 minutes and ran for 12 months. Members were given access to a range of art materials and encouraged to use these to express themselves freely. Activity groups were designed to control for the non-specific effects of group art therapy. Group facilitators offered various activities and encouraged participants to collectively select those they wanted to pursue. Standard care involved follow-up from secondary care mental health services and the option of referral to other services, except arts therapies, as required. Our co-primary outcomes were global functioning (measured using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale - GAF) and mental health symptoms (measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - PANSS) at 24 months. The main secondary outcomes were level of group attendance, social functioning, well-being, health-related quality of life, service utilisation and other costs measured 12 and 24 months

  9. A HOLISTIC GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME AND ITS COMORBID DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Bush

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of a holistic short-term group intervention in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (/BS with comorbid depression and anxiety. The sample consisted of 24 South African women who had been diagnosed with severe IBS. Furthermore, each participant had to have associated moderate to severe depression and anxiety. The group design was a pre-test, post-test control group design where the experimental group (n = 12 received group intervention and the members of the control group (n = 12 received no intervention until after completion of the research. All the participants completed the Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index and the Depression and Anxiety subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory before commencement of group therapy for Group 1 and one month after completion of this intervention. The effect of the intervention was determined by utilising comparative statistics. The findings indicate that holistic short-term group therapy results in significant improvement in terms of depreSSion and anxiety scores, but that IBS symptom severity remains unchanged. It is recommended that further research be conducted to ascertain whether holistic group therapy of a longer duration has a greater impact on the IBS symptom severity.

  10. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treger, Bartosz; Matusiak, Feliks; Pilecki, Maciej; Rogoż, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents attending upper secondary school. The Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ-40 and the Offer Self Image Questionnaire were used in the study. Results showed no differences, in the maturity levels of the defence mechanisms, between the two groups. Subjects from the clinical group had a significantly lower self-image of themselves than subjects from the control group.. In both groups, the use of mature defence mechanisms was accompanied by a positive self-image, while the use of less mature defence mechanisms was associated with a lower self-image. Comparison of the groups revealed different relationships between the aspects of self-image and used defence mechanisms, in particular the mechanism of projection. Number of significant correlations was greater in the clinical group. In the context of lower self-image, the study revealed the importance of such defence mechanisms as projection, acting out, somatization or schizoid fantasies. The obtained results seem to confirm a hypothesis that the assessment of the maturity of defence mechanisms in the period of adolescence is less clear and clinically useful.

  11. Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among non-revascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lamberts, Morten; Hansen, Morten Lock; Karasoy, Deniz; Christiansen, Christine Benn; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Sorensen, Rikke

    2017-09-01

    Dual anti-platelet treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated for most patients after myocardial infarction. We examined the risk/benefit relationship of dual anti-platelet treatment according to age in a nationwide cohort of 30,532 myocardial infarction patients without revascularization. Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all-cause mortality and a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke was analysed by Cox proportional-hazard models and tested in a propensity-score matched population. A total of 21,302 users and 9230 non-users of dual anti-platelet treatment were included (mean age 67.02 (±13.8) years and 64.7% males). Use of dual anti-platelet treatment decreased with age: 80% (79 years). We found a reduced risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in users 79 years (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.84-1.01, NS). Risk of bleeding increased with dual anti-platelet treatment use in patients aged 79 years (HR=1.46; 95% CI 1.22-1.74). Similar tendencies in all four age groups were found in the propensity-matched population. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was less likely among elderly patients although similar effects regarding both risk and benefit were found in all age groups. Increased focus on initiating dual anti-platelet treatment in elderly, non-invasively treated myocardial infarction patients is warranted.

  12. National trends of incidence, treatment, and hospital charges of isolated C-2 fractures in three different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil; Kalakoti, Piyush; Murray, Richard; Nixon, Menarvia; Missios, Symeon; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2015-04-01

    Incidence of C-2 fracture is increasing in elderly patients. Patient age also influences decision making in the management of these fractures. There are very limited data on the national trends of incidence, treatment interventions, and resource utilization in patients in different age groups with isolated C-2 fractures. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, treatment, complications, length of stay, and hospital charges of isolated C-2 fracture in patients in 3 different age groups by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. The data were obtained from NIS from 2002 to 2011. Data on patients with closed fractures of C-2 without spinal cord injury were extracted using ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 805.02. Patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified by excluding patients with other associated injuries. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: 80 years. Incidence, treatment characteristics, inpatient/postoperative complications, and hospital charges (mean and total annual charges) were compared between the 3 age groups. A total of 10,336 patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified. The majority of the patients were in the very elderly age group (> 80 years; 42.3%) followed by 29.7% in the 65- to 80-year age group and 28% in age group. From 2002 to 2011, the incidence of hospitalization significantly increased in the 65- to 80-year and > 80-year age groups (p age group (p = 0.287). Overall, 21% of the patients were treated surgically, and 12.2% of the patients underwent nonoperative interventions (halo and spinal traction). The rate of nonoperative interventions significantly decreased over time in all age groups (p age groups had a greater risk of inpatient/postoperative complications, nonroutine discharges, and longer hospitalization. The mean hospital charges were significantly higher in older age groups (p age groups. Simultaneously, there has been a steadily decreasing trend in the preference for nonoperative

  13. Novel biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK): transporter recognition, tissue stability and antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Earla, Ravinder; Sirimulla, Suman; Bailey, Jake Brain; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-08-01

    Biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were designed to target the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) on the cornea to facilitate enhanced cellular absorption of ACV. All the prodrugs were screened for in vitro cellular uptake, interaction with SMVT, docking analysis, cytotoxicity, enzymatic stability and antiviral activity. Uptake of biotinylated lipid prodrugs of ACV (B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV) was significantly higher than biotinylated prodrug (B-ACV), lipid prodrugs (R-ACV and 12HS-ACV) and ACV in corneal cells. Transepithelial transport across rabbit corneas indicated the recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT. Average Vina scores obtained from docking studies further confirmed that biotinylated lipid prodrugs possess enhanced affinity towards SMVT. All the prodrugs studied did not cause any cytotoxicity and were found to be safe and non-toxic. B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV were found to be relatively more stable in ocular tissue homogenates and exhibited excellent antiviral activity. Biotinylated lipid prodrugs demonstrated synergistic improvement in cellular uptake due to recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT on the cornea and lipid mediated transcellular diffusion. These biotinylated lipid prodrugs appear to be promising drug candidates for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK) and may lower ACV resistance in patients with poor clinical response.

  14. Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Antonio; Guarino, Vincenzo; Cirillo, Valentina; Oliviero, Olimpia; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2017-10-16

    Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin), strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents-(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) (EDC), glyceraldehyde (GC), and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE)-to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA) and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays) morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs.

  15. Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Papa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin, strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents—(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC, glyceraldehyde (GC, and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE—to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS and bicinchoninic acid (BCA assays morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs.

  16. A comparative study of dentoskeletal changes of herbst appliance treatment among different skeletal maturity groups based on cervical vertebral maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodore K Albaker

    2012-01-01

    exhibited more proclination of the lower incisors than the pre-peak and peak groups (P <0.05. The results suggest that treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion with the Herbst appliance is best during the peak growth spurt corresponding to CVM Stage 3-4.

  17. Can Addiction-Related Self-Help/Mutual Aid Groups Lower Demand for Professional Substance Abuse Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential of self-help/mutual-aid groups as a way to reduce the demand for professional substance-abuse treatment and proposes a model that combines the two approaches for cost-effective and therapeutically effective networks of services. (SLD)

  18. The association between retrospective outcome evaluations and pre-post-treatment changes in psychodynamic group-psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In the present study of 203 patients in psychodynamic group psychotherapy, we explore associations between patient and therapist global retrospective outcome evaluations (ROE), and pre-post-treatment changes on the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) and non-symptomatic focus of therapy. The......, and associated with personality factors or domains not captured by standard questionnaires....

  19. Addiction treatment in deprived urban areas in EU countries: Accessibility of care for people from socially marginalized groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbel, Marta; Matanov, Aleksandra; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Barros, Henrique; Canavan, Reamonn; Gabor, Edina; Gaddini, Andrea; Greacen, Tim; Kluge, Ulrike; Lorant, Vincent; Esteban Pena, Mercedes; Schene, Aart H.; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Strassmayr, Christa; Vondrackova, Petra; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study examines the accessibility of addiction treatment within services providing mental health care and support for people from socially marginalized groups in deprived urban areas across EU countries. Methods: Services providing mental health care and support in deprived areas of 14 EU

  20. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Rachel; Edwards, Katie; King, John; Luzon, Olga; Evangeli, Michael; Stark, Daniel; McFarlane, Fiona; Heyman, Isobel; İnce, Başak; Kodric, Jana; Murphy, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Charge stabilization by reaction center protein immobilized to carbon nanotubes functionalized by amine groups and poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, T.; Magyar, M.; Nagy, L. [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Nemeth, Z.; Hernadi, K. [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Endrodi, B.; Bencsik, G.; Visy, Cs. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Horvath, E.; Magrez, A.; Forro, L. [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A large number of studies have indicated recently that photosynthetic reaction center proteins (RC) bind successfully to nanostructures and their functional activity is largely retained. The major goal of current research is to find the most efficient systems and conditions for the photoelectric energy conversion and for the stability of this bio-nanocomposite. In our studies, we immobilized the RC protein on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through specific chemical binding to amine functional groups and through conducting polymer (poly(3-thiophene acetic acid), PTAA). Both structural (TEM, AFM) and functional (absorption change and conductivity) measurements has shown that RCs could be bound effectively to functionalized CNTs. The kinetics of the light induced absorption change indicated that RCs were still active in the composite and there was an interaction between the protein cofactors and the CNTs. The light generated photocurrent was measured in an electrochemical cell with transparent CNT electrode designed specially for this experiment. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Molybdenum(0) Dihapto-Coordination of Benzene and Trifluorotoluene: The Stabilizing and Chemo-Directing Influence of a CF3Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeffery T; Smith, Jacob A; Dakermanji, Steven J; Wilde, Justin H; Wilson, Katy B; Shivokevich, Philip J; Harman, W Dean

    2017-08-23

    The preparation of the complexes TpMo(NO)(DMAP)(η 2 -PhCF 3 ) (5) and TpMo(NO)(DMAP)(η 2 -benzene) (3) is described. The CF 3 group is found to stabilize the metal-arene bond strength in 5 by roughly 3 kcal/mol compared to that in 3, allowing the large-scale synthesis and isolation of the trifluorotoluene analogue (5, 37 g, 70%). When a benzene solution of 5 is allowed to stand, clean conversion to the benzene analogue 3 occurs, and this complex may be precipitated from solution upon the addition of pentane and isolated. The trifluorotoluene complex is shown to be a synthetic precursor to functionalized cyclohexadienes: In solution, it selectively protonates at the ortho position, and the resulting η 2 -arenium species undergoes reactions with nucleophiles at the adjacent meta carbon. Thus, reactions of 5, triflic acid, and either N-methylpyrrole or 1-methoxy-2-methyl-1-(trimethylsilyloxy)-1-propene result in 5-substituted-1,3-cyclohexadienes after removal of the metal.

  3. ALGORITHM OF TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL CLUBFOOT IN CHILDREN OF YOUNGER AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Юрьевна Клычкова

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital clubfoot requires complete correction before the period of verticalization. Conservative methods are priority in treatment. The most effective method is Ponseti method that allows correcting all the deformations even in severe clubfoot. However, if clubfoot is accompanied with abnormal anatomy of foot or significant changes in functional ability of muscles, operative treatment is inevitable. The extent of surgical intervention depends on the severity of detected abnormalities and is determined individually. The use of ultasound, radiographic, and CT investigations, according to indications, contributes to the diagnostics. The indication for surgery is the lack of effect of conservative treatment after 10-12 cast correction in children over the age of 4 months. Diagnostic criteria for deciding in favor of surgery are: availability of fibrous coalition, the deformation of the talar or the sphenoid bone, the anomaly in the point of attachment of the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle, lack of the repositioning of navicular bone on the talar head. Orthosis supply and rehabilitation treatment depend on the extent of surgical intervention.

  4. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  5. Effectiveness of Cognitive, Exposure, and Skills Group Manualized Treatments in OIF/OEF Female Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Donna Lisansky, and Maria Rodriguez , staff in the Women’s Stress Disorder Treatment Team, for their help in administering the clinical instruments...Diane T. Castillo1,2 Marina Bornovalova1 Clifford Qualls3 1Behavioral Health Care Line (116) New Mexico VA Health Care System Albuquerque, New

  6. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Exposure & Skills Group Manualized Treatments in OIF/OEF Female Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Rocco, Donna Lisansky, and Maria Rodriguez , staff in the Women’s Stress Disorder Treatment Team, for their help in administering the clinical...Diane T. Castillo1,2 Marina Bornovalova1 Clifford Qualls3 1Behavioral Health Care Line (116) New Mexico VA Health Care System Albuquerque

  7. Peculiarities of cellular structure formation during thermomechanical treatment of 6a group refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panovko, V.M.; Kuznetsov, V.S.; Repina, L.P.; Sokolov, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of molybdenum and its alloys the mechanisms and the peculiarities of cellular structures during thermoplastic treatment are considered. Recommendations are given on selection of temperature - strain conditions, ensuring the formation of perfect cellular structures and minimum temperature values of cold brittleness in halffinished products and items

  8. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were…

  9. Parental Homework Completion and Treatment Knowledge during Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosmary; Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how parental homework completion, session attendance, and treatment knowledge influenced parenting practices and confidence in using learned skills during behavioral parent training (BPT). Parents of 54 preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.07, 82% Hispanic/Latino) with externalizing behavior problems…

  10. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  11. The importance of 'Group Social Support' in treatment and re-union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... unknown for sometimes. Some may be assisted by good Samaritans while others might fell under the circumstances of criminals. Social support and medical treatment may be required to reunite some of these subjects as illustrated by this case report. KeyWords : Paranoid Schizophrenia, Homelessness, Social support ...

  12. The Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia: A Multidimensional Group Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. Scott

    This paper defines the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and bulimia nervosa, a bulimic subtype of anorexia nervosa. The diagnosis of these disorders is discussed and similarities and differences among the three disorders are reviewed. Etiological factors are considered and current trends in treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and…

  13. Recommendations for the long-term treatment of psoriasis with infliximab: A dermatology expert group consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reich, K.; Griffiths, C.; Barker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims: Infliximab has been approved for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis for only a few years. As physicians gain confidence in initiating and maintaining this therapy, guidance on the management of patients beyond several months or years is needed. To date, there is little or ...

  14. Recommendations for the treatment of ulcerative colitis with infliximab: A gastroenterology expert group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinisch, Walter; van Assche, Gert; Befrits, Ragnar; Connell, William; D'Haens, Geert; Ghosh, Subrata; Michetti, Pierre; Ochsenkühn, Thomas; Panaccione, Remo; Schreiber, Stefan; Silverberg, Mark S.; Sorrentino, Dario; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Vermeire, Séverine; Panes, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: Infliximab is currently the only biologic approved for treatment of adults with moderate to severe, active ulcerative colitis (UC) unresponsive to conventional therapies. It rapidly controls symptoms, induces and sustains steroid-free remission, stimulates mucosal healing, and

  15. Early and Late Results of the Nuss Procedure in Surgical Treatment of Pectus Excavatum in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Krystian; Gąsiorowski, Łukasz; Gabryel, Piotr; Gałęcki, Bartłomiej; Zieliński, Paweł; Dyszkiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was a comparison of early and late results in surgical treatment of funnel chest using the Nuss method in patients in various age groups to find the optimal age to perform the corrective procedure. Six hundred eighty patients operated on from June 2002 to October 2012 were included in the retrospective analysis. Patients were divided into 3 different age groups: group A = 156 patients from 7 to 14 years, group B = 328 patients aged 15 to 20 years, and group C = 196 patients older than 20 years of age. The mean follow-up was 33 months. Early non-life-threatening complications developed in 238 (35.0%) patients and frequency increased with age (group A, 24.3%; group B, 37.8%; group C, 38.8%; p = 0.0063). Good and very good corrective effects were achieved in 97.7 % of the entire patient population. Recurrence of the deformity was observed more often in younger patients (group A, 3.2 %) than in the other patients (group B, 1.2%; group C, 1.5%), although the difference between the studied groups was not significant (p = 0.3251). Good cosmetic results obtained with the use of the Nuss operation were not related to the age of the patients. The high incidence of minor complications in older patients seems to be an acceptable cost of a good cosmetic outcome and stable correction. Surgical morbidity is lowest in younger patients; however, the frequency of the recurrence of deformation is higher than in other groups. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke B. Snijder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%; only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.

  17. Mindfulness-and body-psychotherapy-based group treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Methods Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22. Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Results ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010. Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p  Conclusions Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540357.

  18. [Should obesity in the elderly be treated? Sparse scientific evidence to support treatment of overweight in this age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, Stephan

    Mean body weight increases with age up to about ago 60 and then levels off. Information about the association between body weight and mortality at old age is sparse, since most studies are cross-sectional. Some studies even suggest a protective effect of overweight at old age. Weight loss treatment may be indicated even at old age to relieve mechanical problems, reduce the need for pharmacotherapy and improve self-esteem. As regards treatment, most clinical drug trials actively exclude older people, and hence little is known about the effects in this age group. However, physical activity, even at old age, has documented beneficial effects, in spite of modest effects on weight. Bariatric surgery, although obviously debatable in this age group, has been safely performed. With an increased segment of the population of higher age under way, strategies to manage obesity, also in this age group, need to be developed.

  19. Group psychotherapy for eating disorders: A randomized clinical trial and a pre-treatment moderator and mediator analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir

    English summary The aim of this thesis was twofold. First, I wanted to examine the effect of client feedback on treatment attendance and outcome in group psychotherapy for eating disorders. Second, I wanted to contribute to the relatively scarce body of research on the consequences of an eating...... disorder on functionality. Group psychotherapy of various types is widely used to treat individuals with eating disorders. Dropout is, however, an important problem in the treatment of these patients, and it is therefore important to find ways to increase attendance. One of the means to address...... disorders in group therapy. We conducted a randomized clinical trial and included 159 adult participants, 156 females and 3 males, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental...

  20. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Improving Quality of Life in Opiate Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.

  1. Adverse Renal, Endocrine, Hepatic, and Metabolic Events during Maintenance Mood Stabilizer Treatment for Bipolar Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Hayes

    2016-08-01

    to lithium. However, rates of greater than 15% weight gain on valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine were higher (valproate HR 1.62; 95% CI 1.31-2.01; p < 0.001, olanzapine HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.47-2.30; p < 0.001, quetiapine HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.24-2.20; p < 0.001 than in individuals prescribed lithium, as were rates of hypertension in the olanzapine treated group (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.87; p = 0.017. We found no significant difference in rates of chronic kidney disease stage 4 or more severe, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, or hepatotoxicity. Despite estimates being robust following sensitivity analyses, limitations include the potential for residual confounding and ascertainment bias and an inability to examine dosage effects.Lithium use is associated with more renal and endocrine adverse events but less weight gain than commonly used alternative mood stabilizers. Risks need to be offset with the effectiveness and anti-suicidal benefits of lithium and the potential metabolic side effects of alternative treatment options.

  2. Long-term Evaluation of Treatment Planning Decisions for Nonhealing Endodontic Cases by Different Groups of Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lorel E; Visbal, Luz Desiree; Kohli, Meetu R; Karabucak, Bekir; Setzer, Frank C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in treatment planning decisions among different practitioner groups over 7 years for teeth with apical periodontitis and a history of endodontic treatment. A Web-based survey was sent to dentists in Pennsylvania in 2009 consisting of 14 cases with nonhealing periapical lesions and intact restorations without evidence of recurrent caries. Participants selected among 5 treatment options: wait and observe, nonsurgical retreatment (NSRTX), surgical retreatment (SRTX), extraction and fixed partial denture, or extraction and implant (EXIMP). In 2016, the identical survey was resent to the original 2009 participants. In 2009, 262 dentists participated in the survey. Two hundred one participants were general practitioners (GPs: 76.7%), 26 endodontists (ENDOs: 9.9%), and 35 other specialists (prosthodontics, periodontics, and oral surgery [SPECs]: 13.4%) (n = 262). EXIMP, NSRTX, and SRTX were fairly equally selected but with great variation between practitioner groups (χ 2  = 173.49, P treatment planning choices for all practitioners (GPs, ENDOs, or SPECs). Intrapractitioner reliability showed many treatment planning decision changes on an individual level. Chances that individuals changed their original decision were 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 45.2%-50.4%) and were significantly different among the 3 practitioner groups (GPs > SPECs > ENDOs [χ 2  = 11.2792, P treatment options (P = .520). No significant differences were noted between current and past treatment planning decisions in regard to tooth preservation by endodontic retreatment versus tooth extraction and replacement. However, individual practitioners lacked consistency in their decision making over time. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Creative Model for a Post-Treatment Group for Women with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakov, June; Leslie, Mary

    2003-01-01

    A four-week experiential group for women at the British Columbia Cancer Agency offers the creative tools of art, meditation, and journal writing to help focus the inner work of healing in the presence of others. Using comments from the participants, a brief history, framework, and overview are outlined. (Contains 24 references.) (GCP)

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral and Psychodynamic Group Psychotherapy in Treatment of Geriatric Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Joanne L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed whether depressed geriatric patients (N=33) would respond to group psychotherapy and, if they would respond differently to cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic modes. Results indicated that patients showed statistically and clinically significant reductions on observer-rated measures of depression and anxiety, as well as on self-report…

  5. Group Counseling for Eating Disorders: A Two-Phase Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Cherie R.; Orysh, Leslie K.

    1994-01-01

    University counseling centers have reported an increase in the number of eating-disordered clients at a time when counseling resources have been shrinking. This article describes a group counseling program designed to meet the varied needs of eating-disordered clients and manage the demand for services more efficiently. (Author/BF)

  6. No Differences between Group versus Individual Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders in a Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Van Der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Van Gastel, Willemijn; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The present study compares an individual versus a group format in the delivery of manualised cognitive-behavioural therapy (FRIENDS) for children with anxiety disorders. Clinically referred children (aged 8 to 12) diagnosed with Separation Anxiety Disorder (n = 52), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (n = 37), Social Phobia (n = 22) or…

  7. The effects of physiotherapy for female urinary incontinence: individual compared with group treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.C.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Felling, A.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a randomized trial, the effects of individual and group physiotherapy for urinary incontinence in women referred by their general practitioner (GP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included women of all ages (mean 47.8 years) with stress, urge or mixed incontinence; 126

  8. The effects of physiotherapy for female urinary incontinence: individual compared with group treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.C.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Felling, A.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a randomized trial, the effects of individual and group physiotherapy for urinary incontinence in women referred by their general practitioner (GP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included women of all ages (mean 47.8 years) with stress, urge or mixed incontinence; 126

  9. Treatment fairness and group norms in times of turmoil : Implications for employee well-beini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, P.

    2010-01-01

    Employee well-being is important for individual employees and for the organizations they work for. However, current difficult economic times cause employees to experience unfavorable conditions (e.g., uncertainty, unfair outcomes and low cohesive groups) and this thesis attempts to provide

  10. Removal of pendant groups of vinyl polymers by argon plasma treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, L.M.H.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were treated with an argon plasma to create unsaturated bonds at the surface. By use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared measurements, it was shown that the pendant groups of these polymers are removed by the

  11. Complete Neoadjuvant Treatment for Rectal Cancer: The Brown University Oncology Group CONTRE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kimberly; Safran, Howard; Sikov, William; Vrees, Matthew; Klipfel, Adam; Shah, Nishit; Schechter, Steven; Oldenburg, Nicklas; Pricolo, Victor; Rosati, Kayla; Dipetrillo, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Following preoperative chemoradiation and surgery, many patients with stage II to III rectal cancer are unable to tolerate full-dose adjuvant chemotherapy. BrUOG R-224 was designed to assess the impact of COmplete Neoadjuvant Treatment for REctal cancer (CONTRE), primary chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and surgery, on treatment delivery, toxicities, and pathologic response at surgery. Patients with c