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Sample records for stabilized zirconium oxide

  1. Obtainment of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconium oxide with yttrium and rare earth oxides, from Brazilian zirconite, for ceramic aim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.

    1991-05-01

    This work presents experimental results for processing of brazilian zirconite in order to obtain zirconium oxide with Yttrium and Rare Earth oxide by mutual coprecipitation for ceramics purposes. Due to analysis of experimental results was possible to obtain the optimum conditions for each one of technological route stage, such as: alkaline fusion; acid leaching; sulfactation and coprecipitation. (author)

  2. Rheological and technological properties of zirconium suspensions stabilized with various amounts of calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulik, I.G.; Usatikov, I.F.; Alekseenko, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A complex research of properties of zirconium dioxide-based suspensions with various amounts of calcium oxide up to calcium zirconate is carried out. Aqueous suspensions are used when preparing a complex form of ZrO 2 -based ceramics by the method of slip casting. Phase composition effect on the nature of rheologic curves ie found. The role of organic alcohol additions in the improvement of suspension flowability and reduction of casting porosity is noted

  3. Preferable removal of phosphate from water using hydrous zirconium oxide-based nanocomposite of high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Xin; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weixian; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2015-03-02

    In this study, we employed a new nanocomposite adsorbent HZO-201, which featured high stability under varying solution chemistry, for preferable removal of phosphate from synthetic solution and a real effluent. An anion exchange resin (D-201) was employed as the host of HZO-201, where nano-hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) was encapsulated as the active species. D-201 binds phosphate through nonspecific electrostatic affinity, whereas the loaded HZO nanoparticles capture phosphate through formation of the inner-sphere complexes. Quantitative contribution of both species to phosphate adsorption was predicted based on the double-Langmuir model. Preferable removal of phosphate by HZO-201 was observed in the presence of the competing anions at higher levels (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-)). Fixed-bed adsorption indicated that the effective volume capacity of a synthetic water (2.0 mg P-PO4(3-)/L) by using HZO-201 was ∼1600 BV in the first run (<0.5mg P-PO4(3-)/L), comparable to Fe(III)-based nanocomposite HFO-201 (∼1500 BV) and much larger than D-201 (<250 BV). The exhausted HZO-201 can be in situ regenerated by using a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for cyclic runs, whether fed with the synthetic solution or real effluent. In general, HZO-201 is a promising alternative to Fe(III)-based adsorbents for trace phosphate removal from effluent particularly at acidic pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preferable removal of phosphate from water using hydrous zirconium oxide-based nanocomposite of high stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Xin; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weixian; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposite HZO-201 was stable under varying solution chemistry. • HZO-201 exhibited preferable phosphate removal over other ubiquitous anions. • Selective sorption mechanism was probed and discussed. • HZO-201 could be regenerated for cyclic use with constant efficiency. - Abstract: In this study, we employed a new nanocomposite adsorbent HZO-201, which featured high stability under varying solution chemistry, for preferable removal of phosphate from synthetic solution and a real effluent. An anion exchange resin (D-201) was employed as the host of HZO-201, where nano-hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) was encapsulated as the active species. D-201 binds phosphate through nonspecific electrostatic affinity, whereas the loaded HZO nanoparticles capture phosphate through formation of the inner-sphere complexes. Quantitative contribution of both species to phosphate adsorption was predicted based on the double-Langmuir model. Preferable removal of phosphate by HZO-201 was observed in the presence of the competing anions at higher levels (Cl − , NO 3 − , SO 4 2− , HCO 3 − ). Fixed-bed adsorption indicated that the effective volume capacity of a synthetic water (2.0 mg P-PO 4 3− /L) by using HZO-201 was ∼1600 BV in the first run (<0.5 mg P-PO 4 3− /L), comparable to Fe(III)-based nanocomposite HFO-201 (∼1500 BV) and much larger than D-201 (<250 BV). The exhausted HZO-201 can be in situ regenerated by using a binary NaOH–NaCl solution for cyclic runs, whether fed with the synthetic solution or real effluent. In general, HZO-201 is a promising alternative to Fe(III)-based adsorbents for trace phosphate removal from effluent particularly at acidic pH

  5. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.; Martins, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  6. Thin zirconium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Polycrystalline Zr and two pure Zr single-crystal samples, one oriented with the normal to the surface parallel to the c-axis of the hcp structure (Z1) and the other with the normal perpendicular to c (Z2), were oxidised at 10 -8 , 10 -7 and 10 -6 Torr and room temperature. Oxidation kinetics, composition and thicknesses of the oxide films formed in each case were analyzed using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as the main technique. The oxidation kinetics followed logarithmic laws in all cases. The deconvolution of XPS Zr3d peaks indicated the formation of two Zr-O compounds before the formation of ZrO 2 . Varying the photoelectrons take-off angle, the compound distribution inside the oxide films could be established. Thus, it was confirmed that the most external oxide, in contact with the gas, was ZrO 2 . The thickness of the films grown at the different pressures was determined. In the polycrystalline samples, thicknesses between 15 and 19 ± 2Angstroem were obtained for pressures between 10 -8 and 10 -6 Torr, in close coincidence with the determined ones for Z2. The thicknesses measured in Z1 were smaller, reaching 13 ± 2Angstroem for the oxidations performed at 10 -6 Torr. (author)

  7. Phase stability of zirconium oxide films during focused ion beam milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Felicity; Garner, Alistair; Topping, Matthew; Hulme, Helen; Preuss, Michael; Frankel, Philipp

    2018-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) is a widely used technique for preparation of electron transparent samples and so it is vital to understand the potential for introduction of FIB-induced microstructural artefacts. The bombardment of both Xe+ and Ga+ ions is observed to cause extensive monoclinic to tetragonal phase transformation in ZrO2 corrosion films, however, this effect is diminished with reduced energy and is not observed below 5 KeV. This study emphasises the importance of careful FIB sample preparation with a low energy cleaning step, and also gives insight into the stabilisation mechanism of the tetragonal phase during oxidation.

  8. Oxidized zirconium on ceramic; Catastrophic coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, V E; Saglam, N; Dikmen, G; Tozun, I R

    2017-02-01

    Oxidized zirconium (Oxinium™; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) articulated with polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty (THA) appeared to have the potential to reduce wear dramatically. The thermally oxidized metal zirconium surface is transformed into ceramic-like hard surface that is resistant to abrasion. The exposure of soft zirconium metal under hard coverage surface after the damage of oxidized zirconium femoral head has been described. It occurred following joint dislocation or in situ succeeding disengagement of polyethylene liner. We reported three cases of misuse of Oxinium™ (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) heads. These three cases resulted in catastrophic in situ wear and inevitable failure although there was no advice, indication or recommendation for this use from the manufacturer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Standard Specification for Nuclear Grade Zirconium Oxide Pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets of stabilized zirconium oxide used in nuclear reactors. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

  10. Study for the chlorination of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.; Takiishi, H.; Paschoal, J.O.A.; Andreoli, M.

    1990-12-01

    In the development of new ceramic and metallic materials the chlorination process constitutes step in the formation of several intermediate compounds, such as metallic chlorides, used for the production of high, purity raw materials. Chlorination studies with the aim of fabrication special zirconium-base alloys have been carried out at IPEN. Within this program the chlorination technique has been used for zirconium tetrachloride production from zirconium oxide. In this paper some relevant parameters such as: time and temperature of reaction, flow rate of chloride gas and percentage of the reducing agent which influence the efficiency of chlorination of zirconium oxide are evaluated. Thermodynamical aspects about the reactions involved in the process are also presented. (author)

  11. Investigation of Zirconium Oxide Films in Different Dissolved Hydrogen Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeho; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that in pre-transition zirconium oxide, the volume fraction of tetragonal zirconium oxide increased near the oxide/metal (O/M) interface, and the sub-stoichiometric zirconium oxide layer was observed. The diffusion of oxygen ion through the oxide layer is the rate-limiting process during the pre-transition oxidation process, and this diffusion mainly occurs in the grain boundaries. The two layered oxide structure is formed in pre-transition oxide for the zirconium alloy in high-temperature water environment. It is known that the corrosion rate is related to the volume fraction of zirconium oxide and the pores in the oxides; therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the oxidation behavior in the pre-transition zirconium oxide in high-temperature water chemistry. In this study, in situ Raman and TEM analysis were conducted for investigating the phase transformation of zirconium alloy in primary water. From this study, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The zirconium alloy was oxidized in primary water chemistry for 100 d, and Raman and TEM were measured after 30, 50, 80, and 100 d from start-up. 2. TEM and FFT analysis showed that the zirconium oxide mostly consisted of the monoclinic phase. The tetragonal zirconium oxide was just found near the O/M interface

  12. Preparation and thermochemical stability of uranium-zirconium-carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouhsen, C.

    1975-08-01

    This investigation deals with the preparation and the thermochemical stability of uranium-zirconium-carbonitrides as well as with the mechanism of (U,Zr) (C,N)-preparation by carbothermic reduction of uranium-zirconium-oxide. Single-phase (U,Zr) (C,N)-solid solutions with U:Zr-propertions of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were prepared from oxide powder. The thermochemical stability of the (U,Zr) (C,N)-solid solutions against carbon was measured for varying Zr- and N-contents and for several temperatures; the results indicate an increase of the uranium carbide stability potential by the formation of (U,Zr) (C,N)-solid solutions. The thermodynamic properties ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔS 0 were calculated and the correlation between the M(C,N)-lattice constant and the N-content was evaluated. Through an intensive investigation of the reaction mechanism, several different reaction paths were found; for each of them the characteristical diffusion of matter was explained by means of the microsections. It was shown that the Zr-concentration of the oxide reactant and the heating rate during the carbothermic reduction influence the species of the reaction product, especially the homogeneity of the (U,Zr) (C,N)-solid solution. (orig.) [de

  13. Investigation of anodic oxide coatings on zirconium after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Maciej; Dercz, Grzegorz; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Simka, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxide layers prepared via PEO of zirconium were subjected to heat treatment. • Surface characteristics were determined for the obtained oxide coatings. • Heat treatment led to the partial destruction of the anodic oxide layer. • Pitting corrosion resistance of zirconium was improved after the modification. - Abstract: Herein, results of heat treatment of zirconium anodised under plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) conditions at 500–800 °C are presented. The obtained oxide films were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the zirconium specimens was evaluated in Ringer's solution. A bilayer oxide coatings generated in the course of PEO of zirconium were not observed after the heat treatment. The resulting oxide layers contained a new sublayer located at the metal/oxide interface is suggested to originate from the thermal oxidation of zirconium. The corrosion resistance of the anodised metal was improved after the heat treatment

  14. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Zirconium -Oxide Materials presented at/published to the Journal of General Dentistry with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local file #16208. 2...Zirconia-Oxide Materials 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...OBSOLETE 48. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials

  15. Traps in Zirconium Alloys Oxide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxide films long-time grown on tubes of three types of zirconium alloys in water and in steam were investigated, by analysing I-V characteristic measured at constant voltages with various temperatures. Using theoretical concepts of Rose [3] and Gould [5], ZryNbSn(Fe proved to have an exponential distribution of trapping centers below the conduction band edge, wheras Zr1Nb and IMP Zry-4 proved to have single energy trap levels.

  16. Radiation stability of proton irradiated zirconium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Dickerson, Clayton A.; Allen, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for the deep burn (DB)-TRISO fuel as a replacement for the silicon carbide coating. The radiation stability of ZrC was studied using 2.6 MeV protons, across the irradiation temperature range from 600 to 900degC and to doses up to 1.75 dpa. The microstructural characterization shows that the irradiated microstructure is comprised of a high density of nanometer-sized dislocation loops, while no irradiation induced amorphization or voids are observed. The lattice expansion induced by point defects is found to increase as the dose increases for the samples irradiated at 600 and 800degC, while for the 900degC irradiation, a slight lattice contraction is observed. The radiation hardening is also quantified using a micro indentation technique for the temperature and doses studies. (author)

  17. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  18. Swelling of a Zirconium Oxide Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Mark; Hawley, Adrian; White, John; Rennie, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The structural changes that cause the change in the interlayer spacing of a surfactanttemplated zirconium oxide film have been studied using neutron diffractometry. We report that the film after drying on a glass substrate swells slightly through the addition of benzene by up to 4 Aangstroem on a lattice parameter of about 36 Aangstroem. The (001) and (002) diffraction peaks positions, widths and areas of a swollen film were then monitored by neutron diffraction as a function of benzene desorption. Disorder of the lamellar mesophase is considered as a cause of the observed effects on the diffraction signals. (authors)

  19. Swelling of a mesostructured zirconium oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M.J. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Rennie, A.R. [Uppsala University, Studsvik Neutron Research Laboratory, S-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Hawley, A.M. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); White, J.W. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)]. E-mail: jww@rsc.anu.edu.au

    2006-11-15

    The structural changes that cause the change in interlayer spacing of a surfactant-templated zirconium oxide film have been studied using neutron diffractometry. We report that the film after drying on a glass substrate swells slightly through the addition of benzene by up to 4 A on a lattice parameter of about 36 A. The (0 0 1) and (0 0 2) diffraction peak widths, positions and areas of a swollen film were monitored as a function of benzene desorption. Disorder of the lamellar mesophase is considered as a cause of the observed effects on the diffraction signals.

  20. Reaction of hydrogen peroxide with uranium zirconium oxide solid solution - Zirconium hinders oxidative uranium dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yuta; Takano, Masahide; Watanabe, Masayuki

    2017-12-01

    We studied oxidative dissolution of uranium and zirconium oxide [(U,Zr)O2] in aqueous H2O2 solution to estimate (U,Zr)O2 stability to interfacial reactions with H2O2. Studies on the interfacial reactions are essential for anticipating how a (U,Zr)O2-based molten fuel may chemically degrade after a severe accident. The fuel's high radioactivity induces water radiolysis and continuous H2O2 generation. Subsequent reaction of the fuel with H2O2 may oxidize the fuel surface and facilitate U dissolution. We conducted our experiments with (U,Zr)O2 powder (comprising Zr:U mole ratios of 25:75, 40:60, and 50:50) and quantitated the H2O2 reaction via dissolved U and H2O2 concentrations. Although (U,Zr)O2 reacted more quickly than UO2, the dissolution yield relative to H2O2 consumption was far less for (U,Zr)O2 compared to that of UO2. The reaction kinetics indicates that most of the H2O2 catalytically decomposed to O2 at the surface of (U,Zr)O2. We confirmed the H2O2 catalytic decomposition via O2 production (quantitative stoichiometric agreement). In addition, post-reaction Raman scattering spectra of the undissolved (U,Zr)O2 showed no additional peaks (indicating a lack of secondary phase formation). The (U,Zr)O2 matrix is much more stable than UO2 against H2O2-induced oxidative dissolution. Our findings will improve understanding on the molten fuels and provide an insight into decommissioning activities after a severe accident.

  1. Oxidation of zirconium-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1967-10-01

    Examination of the processes occurring during the oxidation of Zr-1% A1, Zr-3% A1, and Zr-1.5% A1-0.5% Mo alloys has shown that in steam rapid oxidation occurs predominantly around the Zr 3 A1 particles, which at low temperatures appear to be relatively unattacked. The unoxidised particles become incorporated in the oxide, and become fully oxidised as the film thickens. This rapid localised oxidation is preceded by a short period of uniform film growth, during which the oxide film thickness does not exceed ∼200A-o. Thus the high oxidation rates can probably be ascribed to aluminum in solution in the zirconium matrix, although its precise mode of operation has not been determined. Once the solubility limit of aluminum is exceeded, the size, distribution and number of intermetallic particles affects the oxidation rate merely by altering the distribution of regions of metal giving high oxidation rates. The controlling process during the early stages of oxidation is electron transport and not ionic transport. Thus, the aluminum in the oxide film is presumably increasing the ionic conductivity more than the electronic. The oxidation rates in atmospheric pressure steam are very high and their irregular temperature dependence suggests that the oxidation rate will be pressure dependent. This was confirmed, in part, by a comparison with oxidation in moist air. It was found that the rate of development of white oxide around intermetallic particles was considerably reduced by the decrease in the partial pressure of H 2 O; the incubation period was not much different, however. (author)

  2. Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Capt Todd D. Church APPROVED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials C~t) Kraig/[ Vandewalle Date...copyrighted material in the thesis/dissertation manuscript entitled: "Translucency arid Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials manufacturers have developed more translucent monolithic zirconium oxide

  3. Characterization of zirconium alloy oxidation films by alternating current impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Kinetics of zirconium alloy oxidation are highly nonlinear. The results of electrochemical measurements and electron microscopy support the existence of porosity in oxide films formed on zirconium alloys in high temperature aqueous environments. Analytical treatment is presented relating oxidation kinetics to the thickness and distribution of nonporous elements within the oxide. This analysis illustrates that both the level and distribution of porosity within the oxide factor into oxidation kinetics. The barrier layer model can provide a basis for predicting the effect of environmental changes on oxidation rate. In addition, it demonstrates the need for further research into porosity generation mechanisms in oxide films

  4. Long-time corrosion and high-temperature oxidation of zirconium alloys applied on NPP like fuel elements cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtilkova, V.; Novotny, L.; Lingart, S.; Doukha, R.; Yarosh, Ya.; Kolenchik, Ya.

    2007-01-01

    Zirconium is applying in nuclear energy since 50-th of last century in capacity of material for cover production for fuel elements, reactor fuel and structural parts, and mainly due to both corrosion stability and low effective cross section for thermal neutrons capture. Impurities in doping elements form and alloy production technology has influence on mechanical and corrosion properties of finite alloy. Long-time corrosion tests for several zirconium alloys in forcing autoclave under different reaction conditions were carried out. After that process kinetics was studied, mass increase, hydrogen formation, zirconium hydride forming morphology, zirconium oxide layer thickness have been determined as well

  5. Properties of zirconium ceramics and film stabilized by yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobova, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Unstable zirconium dioxide phase transformation can be eliminated by stabilization of the cubic phase with an addition of a selected alkaline earth or rare-earth oxide. Stabilized ZrO 2 has been widely utilized in various high-temperature refractory applications. These stabilized ZrO 2 -base solid solutions also possess rather unique electrical properties, and as a result have considerable potential as solid electrolytes in galvanic and fuel cells and, possibly, as heating elements in high-temperature furnaces. The complex study of synthesis processes, structure and properties of metal alkoxide organic sols have been developed. These have allowed to create main principles of their formation and to show the practical realization of obtained theoretical and experimental results. The correlation between hydrolysis conditions of (Zr+Y) metal alkoxide sols and synthesis of stable colloid multi-component systems has been established. Systematic research of zirconium and yttrium bi-alkoxide electrophoretic deposition was conducted for the first time. The formation mechanism of electrophoretic deposits has been offered and general scientific principles of the electrophoretic process have been formulated. The model of gel deposits structure was proposed. It has enabled to analyze the main (for example, cluster) effects, which have been exhibited in technological procedure for thin film preparation. The structure investigation of stabilized zirconium dioxide thin films and ceramics has been studied. The researches were based on the comparative analysis of the initial gel microstructure and dried gel by the various drying methods. The new approach for drying of gel electrophoretic deposits was formulated theoretically and experimentally has been proved. The modeling of the aggregate kinetics as a type of 'cluster-cluster' has been proposed like a qualitative description of the process. The data of fractal dimensions of aggregates which have been formed at the

  6. Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-05

    of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison Is...Uniformed Services University Date: 02/20/2015 Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison By...the thesis manuscript entitled: Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison Is appropriately acknowledged

  7. Corrosion evaluation of zirconium doped oxide coatings on aluminum formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajat, Jelena; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Vasilić, Rastko; Stojadinović, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminum in sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O) and Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O doped with Zr was analyzed in order to obtain oxide coatings with improved corrosion resistance. The influence of current density in PEO process and anodization time was investigated, as well as the influence of Zr, with the aim to find out how they affect the chemical content, morphology, surface roughness, and corrosion stability of oxide coatings. It was shown that the presence of Zr increases the corrosion stability of oxide coatings for all investigated PEO times. Evolution of EIS spectra during the exposure to 3% NaCl, as a strong corrosive agent, indicated the highest corrosion stability for PEO coating formed on aluminum at 70 mA/cm(2) for 2 min in a zirconium containing electrolyte.

  8. A microstuctural study on accelerated zirconium alloy oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Seung Bum; Oh, Seung Jun; Jang, Jung Nam; Kim, Yong Soo; Jung, Yong Hwan; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Park, Jung Yong

    2005-01-01

    It has been reported that the effect of thermal redistribution of hydrides across the zirconium metaloxide interface, coupled with thermal feedback on the metal-oxide interface, is a dominating factor in the accelerated oxidation in zirconium alloys cladding PWR fuel. Basically this influence determines characteristic of oxide layer. Influence estimation for corrosion oxide layer due to hydrogen / hydride carried out because of investigation on the kinetic on accelerated oxidation due to hydride precipitation was preceded. Generally, it is known that ZrO 2 tetragonal layer structures play an important role as a barrier layer. So analysing the ZrO 2 monoclinic and tetragonal structure distribution is our main aim. Especially, this study focused on the hydride effects. In other words, the difference of crystal structure distribution between pre-hydrided and without hydrided specimen is just expected results. Experimental results of microstructure at zirconium metal-oxide interface through TEM and EBSD analysis was confirmed

  9. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Clay C.

    1999-01-01

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

  10. Sintering nanodisperse zirconium powders with various stabilizing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsiferov V.N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of various stabilizing additives on sintering kinetics of nanodisperse powders was studied by thermomechanical analysis. Temperature ranges of the most intense shrinking, characteristic points of shrinking rate changes were established. Peaks characterizing the most intense shrinking of nanodisperse zirconium powder samples were shown to allow to arrange the stabilizing additives as follows: Y2O3→CeO2→TiO2.

  11. Characterization of zirconium alloy oxidation films by alternating current impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1983-11-01

    Kinetics of zirocnium alloy oxidation are highly nonlinear. The results of electrochemical measurements and electron microscopy support the existence of porosity in oxide films formed on zirconium alloys in high temperature aqueous environments. Analytical treatment is presented relating oxidation kinetics to the thickness and distribution of nonporous elements within the oxide. This analysis illustrates that both the level and distribution of porosity within the oxide factor into oxidation kinetics. The barrier layer model can provide a basis for predicting the effect of environmental changes on oxidation rate. In addition, it demonstrates the need for further research into porosity generation mechanisms in oxide films

  12. Microstructural aspects of the oxidation of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proff, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the microstructural characterisation of precipitates in the oxide of binary zirconium alloys (1 wt.% Fe, Cr or Ni or 0.6 wt.% Nb) under different oxidation conditions at 415 C. The samples were oxidised in autoclave in air and steam and in an environmental scanning electron microscope in water vapour. The microstructural evolution of the precipitates during oxidation was characterised using electron microscopy. The findings from the analysis are the following: -Two types of oxidation behaviour are observed for precipitates. -Pilling Bedworth ratio of precipitates is higher than that of the zirconium matrix. -Formation of pure iron oxide crystals on the surface for iron bearing precipitates close to or at the surface. From these observations it is concluded that the precipitate oxidation behaviour can be correlated to precipitate composition and oxidation tendency of the elements in the precipitates. Iron exhibits clearly different behaviour. (author)

  13. Enhanced low-temperature oxidation of zirconium alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Fidleris, V.

    1989-01-01

    The linear growth of relatively thick (>300 nm) interference-colored oxide films on zirconium alloy specimens exposed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) coolant at ≤55 o C was unexpected. Initial ideas were that this was a photoconduction effect. Experiments to study photoconduction in thin anodic zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) films in the laboratory were initiated to provide background data. It was found that, in the laboratory, provided a high electric field was maintained across the oxide during ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, enhanced growth of oxide occurred in the irradiated area. Similarly enhanced growth could be obtained on thin thermally formed oxide films that were immersed in an electrolyte with a high electric field superimposed. This enhanced growth was found to be caused by the development of porosity in the barrier oxide layer by an enhanced local dissolution and reprecipitation process during UV irradiation. Similar porosity was observed in the oxide films on the ATR specimens. Since it is not thought that a high electric field could have been present in this instance, localized dissolution of fast-neutron primary recoil tracks may be the operative mechanism. In all instances, the specimens attempt to maintain the normal barrier-layer oxide thickness, which causes the additional oxide growth. Similar mechanisms may have operated during the formation of thick loosely adherent, porous oxides in homogeneous reactor solutions under irradiation, and may be the cause of enhanced oxidation of zirconium alloys in high-temperature water-cooled reactors in some water chemistries. (author)

  14. Influence of protecting gel film on oxidation of zirconium alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, H.; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Vrtílková, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 3 (2007), s. 282-292 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/0043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fuel cladding * corrosion * Zirconium oxide Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2007

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a mesoporous hydrous zirconium oxide used for arsenic removal from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortun, Anatoly; Bortun, Mila; Pardini, James; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Garcia, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Powder (20-50 μm) mesoporous hydrous zirconium oxide was prepared from a zirconium salt granular precursor. The effect of some process parameters on product morphology, porous structure and adsorption performance has been studied. The use of hydrous zirconium oxide for selective arsenic removal from drinking water is discussed.

  16. Films of double oxides of zirconium and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozik, V.V.; Borilo, L.P.; Shul'pekov, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Films of double oxides of zirconium and iron were prepared by the method of precipitation from film-forming alcohol solutions of zirconium oxychloride and iron chloride with subsequent thermal treatment. Using the methods of X-ray phase and differential thermal analyses, conductometry and optical spectroscopy, basic chemical processes occurring in the film-forming solutions and during thermal treatment are studied alongside with phase composition and optical characteristics of the films prepared. The composition-property diagrams of the given system in a thin-film state are plotted [ru

  17. Study of the pelletizing process zirconium oxide and zircon sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.; Paschoal, J.O.A.; Acevedo, M.T.P.

    1990-12-01

    The study of the process to obtain zirconium tetrachloride under development at IPEN, can be divide into two steps: pelletizing and chlorination. Pelletizing is an important step in the overall process as it facilitates greater contact between the particles and permits the production of pellets with dimensional uniformity and mechanical strength. In this paper, the results of the study of pelletizing zirconium oxide and zircon sand are presented. The influence of some variables related to the process and the equipment on the physical characteristics of the pellets are discussed. (author)

  18. Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zrsub(1-x)Tisub(x))sub(2-u)(Vsub(1-y)Fesub(y))Osub(z) where x = 0.0 to 0.9, y = 0.01 to 0.9, z = 0.25 to 0.5 and u = 0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196 deg C to 200 deg C at pressures down to 10 - 6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices, and the iron content may be substituted by nickel, cobalt or manganese. (author)

  19. Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zrsub(1-x)Tisub(x))sub(2-u)(Vsub(1-y)Fesub(y))Osub(z) where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196 0 C to 200 0 C at pressures down to 10 - 6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices, and the iron content may be substituted by nickel, cobalt or manganese. (author)

  20. Extraction of zirconium from raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant raffinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Garima; Chinchale, R.; Renjith, A.U.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of metals from dilute streams is a major task in nuclear industry in the view of environmental remediation and value recovery. Presently solvent extraction process is employed on the commercial scale to recover nuclear pure zirconium using TBP as extractant. The waste stream of TBP extraction process contains about 1.2 gpl of Zirconium in nitrate form. At present there is no process to recover Zirconium from this raffinate stream. Hence, under the present study recovery of zirconium from the raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant Raffinate has been investigated. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry is not suitable for the extraction of zirconium from lean solution at low acidity as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In search of a suitable extractant Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) was investigated as potential carrier. Parametric batch studies for various equilibrium data like extractant concentration, strippant concentration, solvent reusability, equilibration time, acidity etc. were done to optimize the process condition. For the distribution studies, equal volumes of the raffinate and organic phase were shaken at room temperature in digital wrist action shaker for 10 minutes to ensure complete equilibrium. It was found that 0.1 M MAPO in 80:20 dodecane: isodecanol is suitable for extraction of Zr at 2 N acidity. 0.1 M MAPO gives distribution coefficient in the range of 12-15 for Zr. The slope of log-log plot between MAPO concentration and K, suggests involvement of 3 molecules of MAPO in the formation of extracting species. 0.2 M Oxalic acid was able to completely back extract Zr from the organic phase into aqueous phase. Also good regeneration capacity of MAPO projects its potential to be used as extractant for the process. Based on the equilibrium studies, Dispersion Liquid Membrane configuration in hollow fiber contactor was explored for the extraction of Zirconium from Zirconium Nitrate Pure

  1. In situ Raman Spectroscopy of Oxide Films on Zirconium Alloy in Simulated PWR Primary Water Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The two layered oxide structure is formed in pre-transition oxide for the zirconium alloy in high temperature water environment. It is known that the corrosion rate is related to the volume fraction of zirconium oxide and the pores in the oxides; therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the oxidation behavior in the pretransition zirconium oxide in high-temperature water chemistry. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was used for in situ investigations for characterizing the phase of zirconium oxide. In situ Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for investigating in detail the characteristics of oxide films in a high-temperature corrosion environment. In previous studies, an in situ Raman system was developed for investigating the oxides on nickel-based alloys and low alloy steels in high-temperature water environment. Also, the early stage oxidation behavior of zirconium alloy with different dissolved hydrogen concentration environments in high temperature water was treated in the authors' previous study. In this study, a specific zirconium alloy was oxidized and investigated with in situ Raman spectroscopy for 100 d oxidation, which is close to the first transition time of the zirconium alloy oxidation. The ex situ investigation methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to further characterize the zirconium oxide structure. As oxidation time increased, the Raman peaks of tetragonal zirconium oxide were merged or became weaker. However, the monoclinic zirconium oxide peaks became distinct. The tetragonal zirconium oxide was just found near the O/M interface and this could explain the Raman spectra difference between the 30 d result and others.

  2. Standard specification for nuclear-grade zirconium oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines the physical and chemical requirements for zirconium oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes, either entirely or partially of zirconia, for use in a nuclear reactor core. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  3. Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It occurs in a variety of rock types and geologic environments but most often in igneous rocks in the form of zircon (ZrSiO4). Zircon is recovered as a coproduct of the mining and processing of heavy mineral sands for the titanium minerals ilmenite and rutile. The sands are formed by the weathering and erosion of rock containing zircon and titanium heavy minerals and their subsequent concentration in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. A small quantity of zirconium, less than 10 kt/a (11,000 stpy), compared with total world production of 1.4 Mt (1.5 million st) in 2012, was derived from the mineral baddeleyite (ZrO2), produced from a single source in Kovdor, Russia.

  4. Oxidation of zirconium alloys in steam: influence of tetragonal zirconia on oxide growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, J.

    1990-07-01

    The oxidation of zirconium alloys in presence of steam, presents after a 'parabolic' growth law, an acceleration of the oxidation velocity. This phenomenon limits the use of zirconium alloys as nuclear fuel cladding element. In order to determine the physico-chemical process leading to this kinetic transition, two approaches have been carried out: the first one has consisted to determine the composition of the oxide layer and its evolution with the oxidation time; and the second one to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxide layers of pre- and post-transition as well as their evolution with the oxidation time. The composition of the oxide layers has been determined by two analyses techniques: the X-ray diffraction and the laser Raman spectroscopy. This last method has allowed to confirm the presence of tetragonal zirconium oxide in the oxide layers. Analyses carried out by laser Raman spectroscopy on oxides oblique cuttings have revealed that the tetragonal zirconium oxide is transformed in monoclinic phase during the kinetic transition. A quantitative approach has allowed to corroborate the results obtained by these two techniques. In order to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxides layers, two diffusion treatments have been carried out: 1)under low pressure with D 2 18 O 2 ) under high pressure in an autoclave with H 2 18 O. The oxygen 18 concentration profiles have been obtained by two analyses techniques: the nuclear microprobe and the secondary ions emission spectroscopy. The obtained profiles show that the mass transport is made by the volume and particularly by the grain boundaries. The corresponding diffusion coefficients have been calculated with the WHIPPLE and LE CLAIRE solution. The presence of tetragonal zirconium oxide, its relation with the kinetic transition, and the evolution of the diffusion coefficients with the oxidation time, are discussed in terms of internal stresses in the oxide layer and of the oxide layer

  5. Raman spectroscopy analysis of air grown oxide scale developed on pure zirconium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpaska, L., E-mail: lukasz.kurpaska@ncbj.gov.pl [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); National Center for Nuclear Research, St. A. Soltana 7/23, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Favergeon, J. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); Lahoche, L. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); Laboratoire des Technologies Innovantes, Université de Picardie Jules-Verne, EA 3899, Avenue des Facultés – Le Bailly, 80025 Amiens Cedex (France); El-Marssi, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules-Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex (France); Grosseau Poussard, J.-L. [LaSIE UMR-CNRS 7356, Pole Sciences et Technologie, Universite de La Rochelle, av. M Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle, Cedex (France); Moulin, G.; Roelandt, J.-M. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    Using Raman spectroscopy technique, external and internal parts of zirconia oxide films developed at 500 °C and 600 °C on pure zirconium substrate under air at normal atmospheric pressure have been examined. Comparison of Raman peak positions of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia phases, recorded during the oxide growth at elevated temperature, and after cooling at room temperature have been presented. Subsequently, Raman peak positions (or shifts) were interpreted in relation with the stress evolution in the growing zirconia scale, especially closed to the metal/oxide interface, where the influence of compressive stress in the oxide is the biggest. Reported results, for the first time show the presence of a continuous layer of tetragonal zirconia phase developed in the proximity of pure zirconium substrate. Based on the Raman peak positions we prove that this tetragonal layer is stabilized by the high compressive stress and sub-stoichiometry level. Presence of the tetragonal phase located in the outer part of the scale have been confirmed, yet its Raman characteristics suggest a stress-free tetragonal phase, therefore different type of stabilization mechanism. Presented study suggest that its stabilization could be related to the lattice defects introduced by highstoichiometry of zirconia or presence of heterovalent cations. - Highlights: • The oxide layer consists of a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases, clearly distinguishable by Raman spectroscopy. • The layer located close to the metal/oxide interphase consists mainly of the tetragonal phase. • Small amount of tetragonal layer located in the external oxide scale have been observed. • Stabilization mechanism of the tetragonal phase located in the external part of the oxide have been proposed.

  6. Growth and characterization of oxide layers on zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, A.J.G.; Bordoni, R.; Villegas, M.; Blesa, M.A.; Olmedo, A.M.; Iglesias, A.; Rigotti, G.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour in aqueous media at high temperature of zirconium alloys has been extensively studied in order to elucidate the corrosion mechanism and kinetics. The characterization of the morphology and microstructure of these oxides through the different stages of oxide growth may contribute to understand their corrosion mechanism. Argentina has initiated a research program to correlate long term in and out-reactor corrosion of these alloys. This paper reports a comparative study of out of pile oxidation of Zr-2.5Nb and Zry-4, which are structural materials of in-core components of nuclear power plants. Kinetic data at different temperatures and microstructural characterization of the oxide films are presented. (author). 25 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  7. Growth and characterization of oxide layers on zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, A J.G.; Bordoni, R; Villegas, M; Blesa, M A; Olmedo, A M; Iglesias, A; Rigotti, G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion behaviour in aqueous media at high temperature of zirconium alloys has been extensively studied in order to elucidate the corrosion mechanism and kinetics. The characterization of the morphology and microstructure of these oxides through the different stages of oxide growth may contribute to understand their corrosion mechanism. Argentina has initiated a research program to correlate long term in and out-reactor corrosion of these alloys. This paper reports a comparative study of out of pile oxidation of Zr-2.5Nb and Zry-4, which are structural materials of in-core components of nuclear power plants. Kinetic data at different temperatures and microstructural characterization of the oxide films are presented. (author). 25 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Synthesis of Zirconium-Containing Polyhedral Oligometallasilsesquioxane as an Efficient Thermal Stabilizer for Silicone Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiedong Qiu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals play a negative role during the thermal degradation of silicone rubber (SR. Quenching free radicals is proposed to be an efficient way to improve the thermal-oxidative stability of SR. In this work, a novel zirconium-containing polyhedral oligometallasilsesquioxane (Zr-POSS with free-radical quenching capability was synthesized and characterized. The incorporation of Zr-POSS effectively improved the thermal-oxidative stability of SR. The T5 (temperature at 5% weight loss of SR/Zr-POSS significantly increased by 31.7 °C when compared to the unmodified SR. Notably, after aging 12 h at 280 °C, SR/Zr-POSS was still retaining about 65%, 60%, 75%, and 100% of the tensile strength, tear strength, elongation at break, and hardness before aging, respectively, while the mechanical properties of the unmodified SR were significantly decreased. The possible mechanism of Zr-POSS for improving the thermal-oxidative stability of SR was intensively studied and it was revealed that the POSS structure could act as a limiting point to suppress the random scission reaction of backbone. Furthermore, Zr could quench the free radicals by its empty orbital and transformation of valence states. Therefore, it effectively suppressed the thermal-oxidative degradation and crosslinking reaction of the side chains.

  10. Extensive Bone Reaction From Catastrophic Oxidized Zirconium Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar-Gheiti, Adrian J; Collins, Dennis; McCarthy, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The use of alternative bearing surfaces for total hip arthroplasty has become popular to minimize wear and increase longevity, especially in young patients. Oxidized zirconium (Oxinium; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tennessee) femoral heads were introduced in the past decade for use in total hip arthroplasty. The advantages of oxidized zirconium include less risk of fracture compared with traditional ceramic heads. This case report describes a patient with a history of bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nonoperative management of avascular necrosis failed, and the patient was treated with bilateral total hip arthroplasty. The patient was followed at regular intervals and had slow eccentric polyethylene wear during a 10-year period. After 10 years, the patient had accelerated wear, with femoral and acetabular bone changes as a result of Oxinium and ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene wear during a 6-month period. This article highlights the unusual accelerated bone changes that occurred as a result of Oxinium wear particles. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Zirconium metal-water oxidation kinetics. I. Thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathcart, J.V.; McElroy, D.L.; Pawel, R.E.; Perkins, R.A.; Williams, R.K.; Yurek, G.J.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of the thermometry techniques used in the Zirconium Metal--Water Oxidation Kinetics Program. Temperature measurements in the range 900 to 1500 0 C are made in three experimental systems: two oxidation apparatuses and the annealing furnace used in a corollary study of the diffusion of oxygen in β-Zircaloy. Carefully calibrated Pt vs Pt--10 percent Rh thermocouples are employed in all three apparatuses, while a Pt--6 percent Rh vs Pt-- 30 percent Rh thermocouple and an optical pyrometer are used in addition in the annealing furnace. Features of the experimental systems pertaining to thermocouple installation, temperature control, emf measurements, etc. are described, and potential temperature-measurement error sources are discussed in detail. The accuracy of the temperature measurements is analyzed

  12. Oxidized zirconium: a potentially longer lasting hip implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, V.; Widding, K.; Hunter, G.; Heuer, D.

    2005-01-01

    Because younger, more active patients are receiving total hip replacements, it is necessary to develop materials, which would increase the life span of the implants and challenge their wear potential under adverse conditions. Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is a metal with the surface transformed to ceramic by oxidation that offers low fracture risk and excellent abrasion resistance. This study compared wear of polyethylene (non-irradiated and highly crosslinked) with OxZr and CoCr heads under smooth and rough (clinically relevant) conditions. Wear was up to 15-fold less and up to 4-fold fewer particles were produced when coupled with OxZr than with CoCr, demonstrating that OxZr heads should increase clinical implant longevity

  13. Variation on wettability of anodic zirconium oxide nanotube surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Shen, Chen; Shinbine, Alyssa; Luo, Jing-Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of fabrication conditions and environmental conditions, such as anodization voltage and aging period, on the wetting of zirconium dioxide nanotube (ZrNT) surfaces. Comparing with intact zirconium foil, which was inherently less hydrophilic, possessing an approximate contact angle of 60–70°, the as-formed ZrNT surfaces were much hydrophilic with an approximate contact angle of 18°. However, the hydrophilicity of the surfaces exhibited a decrease when the nanotubular opening diameters decreased while maintaining the nanotubular layer thickness. This phenomenon was attributed to the balance of capillary force and force generated by compressed air in the ZrNTs. The annealing treatment further increased the hydrophilic property of the ZrNTs. In addition, it was found that the wettability of ZrNTs, when aged in air over a period of 105 days, demonstrated a decrease in hydrophilic characteristics and exhibited, to some extent, an increase in hydrophobic characteristics. It was believed that the surface wettability was able to be changed due to the decreasing content of hydroxyl groups in ambient atmosphere. This work can provide guidelines for improving the structural and environmental conditions responsible for changing surface wettability of ZrNT surfaces for biomedical application. - Highlights: ► Wettability of zirconium oxide nanotubes (ZrNTs) was observed and characterized. ► Increasing of nanotubular diameter decreased the hydrophilicity of ZrNTs. ► Annealing processes enhanced the hydrophilicity of ZrNTs. ► Long term aging resulted in the hydrophobicity of ZrNTs

  14. Synthesis of amorphous zirconium oxide with luminescent characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera S, M.; Chavez G, M.; Soto E, A.M.; Velasquez O, C.; Garcia S, M.A.; Olvera T, L.; Rivera M, T.

    2004-01-01

    It was prepared zirconium oxide, ZrO 2 , by means of hydrolysis-condensation reactions (sol-gel method), using zirconium propoxide, Zr(C 3 H 7 O) 4 , as precursor and nitric acid, HNO 3 , as catalyst of the hydrolysis reaction. In this synthesis it was used a molar ratio water-alkoxide, r=n H2O /n Zr (C 3 H 7 0) 4 , high, similar to 200, so that the hydrolysis happens quickly and the nucleation and growth are completed in very little time. The solid was characterized with Ftir spectrophotometry, Differential thermal analysis (Dta), Thermal gravimetric analysis (T G), X-ray diffraction of powders, Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and X-ray Dispersion energy (EDX). The ZrO 2 obtained by this way is amorphous even to 300 C and it consists of big aggregates. The amorphous ZrO 2 , presents thermoluminescent behavior, after it was irradiated with UV radiation and beta particles of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and it was thermally stimulated. (Author)

  15. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic simulation of the uranium oxide-zirconium oxide-iron oxide system in air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrov, Y. B.; Udalov, Y. P.; Šubrt, Jan; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Sázavský, P.; Kiselová, M.; Selucký, P.; Bezdička, Petr; Joumeau, C.; Piluso, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2011), s. 212-229 ISSN 1087-6596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : uranium oxide * zirconium oxide * iron oxide * fusibility curve * oxygen partial pressure * crystallization * phase composition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.492, year: 2011

  16. Ligand exchange chromatography of free amino acids and proteins on porous microparticulate zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, J.A.; Carr, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Lewis acid sites present on the underlying zirconium oxide particles are responsible for the unusual elution sequence for amino acids on copper loaded, phosphated zirconium oxide supports reported in an earlier study. To more thoroughly examine the effect of these strong Lewis acid sites in this paper. The authors have studied ligand exchange chromatography on copper loaded zirconium oxide particles. It is shown here that carboxylate functional groups on amino acid solutes strongly interact with surface Lewis acid sites. Addition of competing hard Lewis bases to the eluent attenuates these specific interactions. The result is a chromatographic system with high selectivity which is also suitable for ligand exchange chromatography of proteins

  17. Hydrogenation and high temperature oxidation of Zirconium claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, T.; Perez-Feró, E.; Horváth, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years a new series of experiments started for supporting the new LOCA criteria, considering the proposals of US NRC. The effects which can cause the embrittlement of VVER fuel claddings were reviewed and evaluated in the framework of the project. The purpose of the work was to determine how the fuel cladding’s hydrogen uptake under normal operating conditions, effect the behavior of the cladding under LOCA conditions. As a first step a gas system equipment with gas valves and pressure gauge was built, in which the zirconium alloy can absorb hydrogen under controlled conditions. In this apparatus E110 (produced by electrolytic method, currently used at Paks NPP) and E110G (produced by a new technology) alloys were hydrogenated to predetermined hydrogen contents. According the results of ring compression tests the E110G alloys lose their ductility above 3200 ppm hydrogen content. This limit can be applied to determine the ductile-brittle transition of the nuclear fuel claddings. After the hydrogenation, high temperature oxidation experiments were carried out on the E110G and E110 samples at 1000 °C and 1200 °C. 16 pieces of E110G and 8 samples of E110 with 300 ppm and 600 ppm hydrogen content were tested. The oxidation of the specimens was performed in steam, under isothermal conditions. Based on the ring compression tests load-displacement curves were recorded. The main objective of the compression tests was to determine the ductile-brittle transition. These results were compared to the results of our previous experiments where the samples did not contain hydrogen. The original claddings showed more ductile behavior than the samples with hydrogen content. The higher hydrogen content resulted in a more brittle mechanical behavior. However no significant difference was observed in the oxidation kinetics of the same cladding types with different hydrogen content. The experiments showed that the normal operating hydrogen uptake of the fuel claddings

  18. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  19. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  20. In situ Investigation of Oxide Films on Zirconium Alloy in PWR Primary Water Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeho; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Zirconium alloys are used as fuel cladding materials in nuclear power reactors, because these materials have a very low thermal neutron capture cross section as well as desirable mechanical properties. However, the Fukushima accident shows that the oxidation behavior of zirconium alloy is an important issue because the zirconium alloy functions as a shield of nuclear material (i.e., uranium, fission gas), and the degradation on zirconium cladding directly causes severe accident on nuclear power plant. Therefore, to ensure the safety of nuclear power reactors, the performance and sustainability of nuclear fuel should be understood. Currently, the water-metal interface is regarded as the rate-controlling site governing the rapid oxidation transition in high-burn-up fuels. Zirconium oxide is formed at the water-metal interface, and its structure and phase play an important role in determining its mechanical properties. In the early stage of the oxidation process, zirconium oxide with both tetragonal and monoclinic phases is formed. With an increase in the oxidation time to 150 h, the unstable tetragonal phase disappears and the monoclinic phase is dominant and possibly because of the stress relaxation according to previous and present results.

  1. The impact of zirconium oxide radiopacifier on the early hydration behaviour of white Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Nichola J; Li, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium oxide has been identified as a candidate radiopacifying agent for use in Portland cement-based biomaterials. During this study, the impact of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide on the hydration and setting reactions of white Portland cement (WPC) was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), (29)Si and (27)Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vicat apparatus. The presence of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide particles in the size-range of 0.2 to 5 μm was found to reduce the initial and final setting times of WPC from 172 to 147 min and 213 to 191 min, respectively. Zirconium oxide did not formally participate in the chemical reactions of the hydrating cement; however, the surface of the zirconium oxide particles presented heterogeneous nucleation sites for the precipitation and growth of the early C-S-H gel products which accelerated the initial setting reactions. The presence of zirconium oxide was found to have little impact on the development of the calcium (sulpho)aluminate hydrate phases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Zirconium phosphate waste forms for low-temperature stabilization of cesium-137-containing waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Tlustochowicz.

    1996-04-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of waste streams that are not amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes because volatiles are present in the wastes. A composite of zirconium-magnesium phosphate has been developed and shown to stabilize ash waste contaminated with a radioactive surrogate of 137 Cs. Excellent retainment of cesium in the phosphate matrix system was observed in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests. This was attributed to the capture of cesium in the layered zirconium phosphate structure by intercalation ion-exchange reaction. But because zirconium phosphate has low strength, a novel zirconium/magnesium phosphate composite waste form system was developed. The performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfy the regulatory criteria. Test results indicate that zirconium-magnesium-phosphate-based final waste forms present a viable technology for treatment and solidification of cesium-contaminated wastes

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Formed by Homogeneous Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva G.L.J.P. da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preparation, characterization and study of the ion exchange behavior of hydrous zirconium oxides formed by homogeneous precipitation from zirconium oxychloride. The precipitants used were obtained by thermal decomposition of urea, sodium nitrite or ammonium carbonate. Seven compounds were prepared and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and by surface area measurements. Amorphous forms were obtained in each case, a result that agrees with those obtained by conventional gel precipitation methodology. All these materials present surface area values of >148 m².g-1, determined after heat treatment at 50 °C. The ion exchange behavior of each hydrous zirconium oxide prepared was studied using K+ as the exchanged species and the results compared with those obtained for hydrous zirconium oxide originally precipitated by the sol gel method.

  4. Zirconium-cerin solid solutions: thermodynamic model and thermal stability at high temperature; Solutions solides de zirconium dans la cerine: modele thermodynamique et stabilite thermique a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janvier, C.

    1998-04-02

    The oxides-gaseous dioxygen equilibria and the textural thermal stability of six zirconium-cerin solutions Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} (0zirconium concentration. A kinetic study (by calcination at 950 degrees Celsius of the solid solutions) of the specific surface area decrease has revealed a minima (0

  5. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidan, S.; Muhaffel, F. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Sariyer, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Riool, M. [Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cempura, G. [International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, PL, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Boer, L. de; Zaat, S.A.J. [Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filemonowicz, A. Czyrska - [International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, PL, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Cimenoglu, H., E-mail: cimenogluh@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Sariyer, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}). Addition of AgC{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2} into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidation process was applied on zirconium in an electrolyte containing silver acetate. • Silver incorporated in the oxide layer in the form of nanoparticles. • 0.45 wt.% silver incorporation provided excellent antibacterial activity.

  6. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidan, S.; Muhaffel, F.; Riool, M.; Cempura, G.; Boer, L. de; Zaat, S.A.J.; Filemonowicz, A. Czyrska -; Cimenoglu, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ). Addition of AgC 2 H 3 O 2 into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidation process was applied on zirconium in an electrolyte containing silver acetate. • Silver incorporated in the oxide layer in the form of nanoparticles. • 0.45 wt.% silver incorporation provided excellent antibacterial activity.

  7. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, S; Muhaffel, F; Riool, M; Cempura, G; de Boer, L; Zaat, S A J; Filemonowicz, A Czyrska-; Cimenoglu, H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ). Addition of AgC 2 H 3 O 2 into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidation kinetics and auger microprobe analysis of some oxidized zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics at 300 o C in dry oxygen of 0.5 wt% binary alloys of iron, nickel, and chromium in zirconium were determined for several surface preparations. Further, chemical profiles of the oxides as they existed on the matrix and on the precipitates were obtained by sputtering and Auger electron analysis. The appearance of 'breakaway' oxidation was controlled by the surface finish of the alloy, a variable that could be used to eliminate the phenomenon for all alloys except the Zr/Ni binary, which required β-quenching to accomplish the same purpose. (author)

  9. Influence of oxazolidines and zirconium oxalate crosslinkers on the hydrothermal, enzymatic, and thermo mechanical stability of type 1 collagen fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroun, Mahdi A.; Khirstova, Palmina K.; Gasmelseed, Gurashi A.; Covington, Antony D.

    2009-01-01

    Stabilization of type I rat tail tendon (RTT) collagen by crosslink agent oxazolidine and zirconium oxalate was studied to understand the effect on the thermal, enzymatic and mechanical stability of collagen. The results show that both oxazolidine and zirconium oxalate imparts thermal stability to collagen, and oxazolidine exhibits a marked increase in the peak temperature and enthalpy changes when compared to both native and zirconium oxalate tanned RTT. There is a decrease in the peak temperature and the enthalpy changes of oxazolidine tanned RTT fibers after treatment with urea, suggesting the possibility of alterations in the secondary structure of collagen after tanning. Oxazolidine, which forms carbocationic intermediates species in solution, have better crosslinking with collagen as seen from viscometry studies and hence provides better enzymatic stability to collagen than zirconium, which largely forms monomeric species in solution. Zirconium does not seem to change the tensile strength of RTT fibers significantly in wet condition as well as oxazolidine

  10. Influence of oxazolidines and zirconium oxalate crosslinkers on the hydrothermal, enzymatic, and thermo mechanical stability of type 1 collagen fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haroun, Mahdi A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang (Malaysia)], E-mail: Mahdiupm@hotmail.com; Khirstova, Palmina K. [People' s Hall 11113, P.O. Box 6272, Khartoum (Sudan); Gasmelseed, Gurashi A. [Juba University, Leather Dept. P.O. Box 12327 Khartoum (Sudan); Covington, Antony D. [Leather Centre, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-20

    Stabilization of type I rat tail tendon (RTT) collagen by crosslink agent oxazolidine and zirconium oxalate was studied to understand the effect on the thermal, enzymatic and mechanical stability of collagen. The results show that both oxazolidine and zirconium oxalate imparts thermal stability to collagen, and oxazolidine exhibits a marked increase in the peak temperature and enthalpy changes when compared to both native and zirconium oxalate tanned RTT. There is a decrease in the peak temperature and the enthalpy changes of oxazolidine tanned RTT fibers after treatment with urea, suggesting the possibility of alterations in the secondary structure of collagen after tanning. Oxazolidine, which forms carbocationic intermediates species in solution, have better crosslinking with collagen as seen from viscometry studies and hence provides better enzymatic stability to collagen than zirconium, which largely forms monomeric species in solution. Zirconium does not seem to change the tensile strength of RTT fibers significantly in wet condition as well as oxazolidine.

  11. Bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic coatings on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktuğ, Salim Levent, E-mail: saktug@gtu.edu.tr [The Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Durdu, Salih, E-mail: durdusalih@gmail.com [The Department of Industrial Engineering, Giresun University, Merkez, Giresun 28200 (Turkey); Yalçın, Emine, E-mail: emine.yalcin@giresun.edu.tr [The Department of Biology, Giresun University, Merkez, Giresun 28200 (Turkey); Çavuşoğlu, Kültigin, E-mail: kultigin.cavusoglu@giresun.edu.tr [The Department of Biology, Giresun University, Merkez, Giresun 28200 (Turkey); Usta, Metin, E-mail: ustam@gtu.edu.tr [The Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze, Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAP)-based plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO) coatings were produced on zirconium at different current densities in a solution containing calcium acetate and β-calcium glycerophosphate by a single step. The phase structure, surface morphology, functional groups, thickness and roughness of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), eddy current method and surface profilometer, respectively. The phases of cubic-zirconia, calcium zirconate and HAP were detected by XRD. The amount of HAP and calcium zirconate increased with increasing current density. The surface of the coatings was very porous and rough. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the coatings were analyzed in vitro immersion simulated body fluid (SBF) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, hemolysis assay and bacterial formation. The apatite-forming ability of the coatings was evaluated after immersion in SBF up to 28 days. After immersion, the bioactivity of HAP-based coatings on zirconium was greater than the ones of uncoated zirconium and zirconium oxide-based surface. The bioactivity of PEO surface on zirconium was significantly improved under SBF conditions. The bacterial adhesion of the coatings decreased with increasing current density. The bacterial adhesion of the coating produced at 0.370 A/cm{sup 2} was minimum compared to uncoated zirconium coated at 0.260 and 0.292 A/cm{sup 2}. The hemocompatibility of HAP-based surfaces was improved by PEO. The cell attachment and proliferation of the PEO coatings were better than the one of uncoated zirconium according to MTT assay results. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was formed on zirconium at different current densities by single-step plasma electrolytic oxidation. • The amount of hydroxyapatite and calcium-based phases increased with

  12. Fabrication of NiO/zirconium oxide nanofibers by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundarrajan, Subramanian, E-mail: sundarnus1@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NUS, 117576 (Singapore); Venkatesan, Arunachalam; Agarwal, Satya R.; Shaik Anwar Ahamed, Nabeela Nasreen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NUS, 117576 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram, E-mail: seeram@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NUS, 117576 (Singapore); King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 117602 (Singapore)

    2014-12-01

    The electrospinning technique has been used to fabricate 1D inorganic–organic composite nanofibers from solutions containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and suitable aqueous precursors of nickel and zirconium ions. Upon calcination, nickel oxide/zirconia nanofibers retained the original morphological features of as-spun nanofibers. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystalline nature of the final product and analytical tools such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to elucidate the pathway of ceramic phase formation and the systematic evolution of morphological features in the as-spun and calcined fibers. These fibers will find potential applications in biomedical field. - Highlights: • PVA/NiO/zirconia composite nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning. • Green processing of nanofibers using only water as solvent. • Calcination of composite nanofibers to yield ceramic nanofibers. • High aspect ratio nanofibers with diameters 106 ± 25 nm • The application of these fibers as dental composites and bone tissue engineering.

  13. Analysis of zirconium and nickel based alloys and zirconium oxides by relative and internal monostandard neutron activation analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Acharya, Raghunath; Reddy, Annareddy V. R.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical characterization of metallic alloys and oxides is conventionally carried out by wet chemical analytical methods and/or instrumental methods. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is capable of analyzing samples nondestructively. As a part of a chemical quality control exercise, Zircaloys 2 and 4, nimonic alloy, and zirconium oxide samples were analyzed by two INAA methods. The samples of alloys and oxides were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and direct current Arc OES methods, respectively, for quality assurance purposes. The samples are important in various fields including nuclear technology. Samples were neutron irradiated using nuclear reactors, and the radioactive assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Major to trace mass fractions were determined using both relative and internal monostandard (IM) NAA methods as well as OES methods. In the case of alloys, compositional analyses as well as concentrations of some trace elements were determined, whereas in the case of zirconium oxides, six trace elements were determined. For method validation, British Chemical Standard (BCS)-certified reference material 310/1 (a nimonic alloy) was analyzed using both relative INAA and IM-NAA methods. The results showed that IM-NAA and relative INAA methods can be used for nondestructive chemical quality control of alloys and oxide samples

  14. Analysis of zirconium and nickel based alloys and zirconium oxides by relative and internal monostandard neutron activation analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Acharya, Raghunath; Reddy, Annareddy V. R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    The chemical characterization of metallic alloys and oxides is conventionally carried out by wet chemical analytical methods and/or instrumental methods. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is capable of analyzing samples nondestructively. As a part of a chemical quality control exercise, Zircaloys 2 and 4, nimonic alloy, and zirconium oxide samples were analyzed by two INAA methods. The samples of alloys and oxides were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and direct current Arc OES methods, respectively, for quality assurance purposes. The samples are important in various fields including nuclear technology. Samples were neutron irradiated using nuclear reactors, and the radioactive assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Major to trace mass fractions were determined using both relative and internal monostandard (IM) NAA methods as well as OES methods. In the case of alloys, compositional analyses as well as concentrations of some trace elements were determined, whereas in the case of zirconium oxides, six trace elements were determined. For method validation, British Chemical Standard (BCS)-certified reference material 310/1 (a nimonic alloy) was analyzed using both relative INAA and IM-NAA methods. The results showed that IM-NAA and relative INAA methods can be used for nondestructive chemical quality control of alloys and oxide samples.

  15. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md Rakibul

    2016-06-29

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075-10 µM and 10-55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  16. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Monica Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE. Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, and Cyclic voltamogram (CV. The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  17. The effect of crystal textures on the anodic oxidization of zirconium in a boiling nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Chiaki; Ishijima, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The effects of crystal textures and the potentials in the anodic oxidation of zirconium in a boiling nitric acid solution were investigated to study the stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nitric acid solutions. The test specimen was machined such that the specimen surface was parallel to the rolling surface, arranged with a (0002) crystal texture. The potentials applied for the anodic oxidation of zirconium were set at 1.2, 1.4, and 1.5 V against a saturated KCl–Ag/AgCl electrode (SSE) in boiling 6 M HNO_3. The growth of the zirconium oxide film dramatically changed depending on the applied potential at a closed depassivation potential (1.47 V vs. SSE in this study). At 1.5 V, the zirconium oxide film rapidly grows, and its growth exhibits cyclic oxidation kinetics in accordance with a nearly cubic rate law. The zirconium oxide film grows according to the quantity of electric charge and the growth rate does not depend on the crystal texture in the pretransition region before the cyclic oxidation kinetics. However, the growth and cracking under the thick oxide film depend on the crystal texture in the transition region. On the normal direction side, the oxide film thickness decreases on average since some areas of the thick oxide film are separated from the specimen surface owing to the cracks in the thick oxide. On the rolling direction (RD) side, no cracks in the thick oxide film are observed, but cracks are found under the thick oxide film, which deeply propagate in metal matrix along the RD without an external stress. The cracks under the thick oxide film propagate to the center of the oxide layer. The crystal orientation relationship between the oxide layer and the zirconium matrix is (0002)_Z_r//(111)_Z_r_O_2, and the cracks in the oxide layer propagate in the (0002)_Z_r plane in the zirconium matrix. The oxide layer consists of string-like zirconium oxide and zirconium hydride. The string-like zirconium oxide contains orthorhombic ZrO_2 in addition

  18. Effect of additions of cerium, lanthanum, and zirconium on the state of plantinum and the activity of aluminoplatinum catalysts for the complete oxidation of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, V.A.; Davydov, A.A.; Popovskii, V.V.; Tsyrul'nikov, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown from an analysis of the diffuse reflectance spectra that additions of cerium, lanthanum or zirconium to aluminoplatinum catalyst stabilize the platinum in an oxidized state. This leads to a change in the specific catalytic activity (SCA) towards the total oxidation of methane and butane. The SCA of modified, reduced samples is greater than the SCA of samples that were calcined in air. This is because of the greater activity of metallic platinum compared to the ionic form

  19. Study of the production of Zirconium tetracheoride by chlorination of its oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.; Abrao, A.

    1987-08-01

    This work describes the studies carried out on the production of zirconium tetrachloride by chlorianation of pure zirconium oxide with (a) carbon tetrachloride and (b) chlorine in the presence of carbon. In the process of chlorination with carbon tetrachloride it has been determined that efficiency increases with the rising of temperature between 450 and 750 0 C. The flow rate of the carbon tetrachloride vapour used was 1.50L/min. For the zirconium oxide chlorination in the presence of carbon, the study has been carried out at temperatures between 700 and 850 0 C and the flow rate of the chlorine gas used in the process was 0,50/Lmin. Pure zirconium oxide chlorination as well as zirconium oxide-carbon mixture chlrorination have been studied in connection with the time of reaction at different temperatures and the apparent rate constants, the activation energies, the order of reaction in relation to the concentration of the gases (CCl 4 and Cl 2 ) and the content of carbon in the pellet have all been determined. (Author) [pt

  20. Study of the production of zirconium tetrachloride by chlorination of its oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The studies carried out on the production of zirconium tetrachloride by chlorination of pure zirconium oxide with carbon tetrachloride and chlorine in the presence of carbon. In the process of chlorination with carbon tetrachloride, the chlorination efficiency increases with the rise in temperature at intervals between 450 and 750 0 C. The flow of the carbon tetrachloride vapour was 1.50l/min. Higher temperatures of 700 to 850 0 C were used for the zirconium oxide chlorination in the presence of carbon, and the flowrate of the chlorine gas used in the process was 0.50 l/min. Pure zirconium oxide chlorination as well as zirconium oxide - carbon misture chlorination have been studied in connection with the time of reaction at different temperatures and the apparent rate constant, the activation energies, the order of reaction in relation to the concentration of the gases (CCl 4 and Cl 2 ) and the content of carbon in the pellet have all been determined. (Author) [pt

  1. Size and temperature dependent stability and phase transformation in single-crystal zirconium nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrakar, Vijay Kumar; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2011-01-01

    A novel size dependent FCC (face-centered-cubic) → HCP (hexagonally-closed-pack) phase transformation and stability of an initial FCC zirconium nanowire are studied. FCC zirconium nanowires with cross-sectional dimensions 20 Å, in which surface stresses are not enough to drive the phase transformation, show meta-stability. In such a case, an external kinetic energy in the form of thermal heating is required to overcome the energy barrier and achieve FCC → HCP phase transformation. The FCC-HCP transition pathway is also studied using Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method, to further confirm the size dependent stability/metastability of Zr nanowires. We also show size dependent critical temperature, which is required for complete phase transformation of a metastable-FCC nanowire.

  2. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Herbert, F. William; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr 1+ , Zr 2+ , and Zr 3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr 4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO 2 . This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr 0 and Zr 4+ at the metal-oxide interface. The presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr

  3. Separation of sup(99m)Tc from 99Mo through a hydrous zirconium oxide column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengatti, J.

    1980-01-01

    The preparation of 99 Mo-,sup(99m)Tc generator based on the adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide column, employing the in exchange technique, is described. The adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) and the separation of sup(99m)Tc, generated by the decay of 99 Mo with saline solution, are analised. The sup(99m)Tc separation yield, pH of the eluted solution, aspect of the elution curve and the adsorption of 99 Mo on hydrous zirconium oxide calcined at 800 0 C are studied. The chemical and radioactive purities of the final product are analysed and the variation of the elution yield for successive elutions is studied. (Author) [pt

  4. Oxidative stability of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Exnerová, Milena; Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Hromádková, Jiřina; Prokeš, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2012), s. 1026-1033 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * nanotubes * oxidation stability Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2012

  5. The impact of zirconium oxide radiopacifier on the early hydration behaviour of white Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Nichola J.; Li, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium oxide has been identified as a candidate radiopacifying agent for use in Portland cement-based biomaterials. During this study, the impact of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide on the hydration and setting reactions of white Portland cement (WPC) was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), 29 Si and 27 Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vicat apparatus. The presence of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide particles in the size-range of 0.2 to 5 μm was found to reduce the initial and final setting times of WPC from 172 to 147 min and 213 to 191 min, respectively. Zirconium oxide did not formally participate in the chemical reactions of the hydrating cement; however, the surface of the zirconium oxide particles presented heterogeneous nucleation sites for the precipitation and growth of the early C-S-H gel products which accelerated the initial setting reactions. The presence of zirconium oxide was found to have little impact on the development of the calcium (sulpho)aluminate hydrate phases. - Highlights: ► This is the first study of Portland cement-based biomaterials by 27 Al and 29 Si NMR. ► 20 wt.% ZrO 2 radiopacifier accelerates the early cement hydration reactions. ► Extent of hydration after 6 h is increased from 5.7% to 15% in the presence of ZrO 2 . ► Initial and final setting times are reduced by 25 and 22 min, respectively. ► ZrO 2 provides nucleation sites for the precipitation of early hydration products.

  6. Structural and microstructural changes in the zirconium-indium mixed oxide system during the thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefanić, G.; Štefanić, I. I.; Musić, S.; Ivanda, M.

    2011-05-01

    The zirconium-indium mixed oxide systems on both the zirconium- and the indium-rich side of the concentration range were prepared by co-precipitation from aqueous solutions of the corresponding salts, followed by washing and heat-treatment. The thermal behavior (up to 1000 °C) of the dried samples was examined by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric measurements. The obtained results show that the increase in the amount of the second phase causes an increase of both the crystallization temperature of the amorphous precursors of ZrO 2, from 435 °C (0 mol.% of InO 1.5) to 476 °C (˜62 mol.% of InO 1.5), and of the topotactic transition temperature of cubic In(OH) 3 to cubic In 2O 3, from 259 °C (0 mol.% of ZrO 2) to 290 °C (˜25 mol.% of ZrO 2). The amorphous precursors of ZrO 2 phase exhibit an extended capability to incorporate In 3+ ions (more than 60 mol.%). With a rise in temperature the maximum solubility of In 3+ ions in the ZrO 2 lattice decreases from ˜55 mol.% in the crystallization products obtained after calcination at 400 °C to ˜10 mol.% after calcination at 1000 °C. The results of phase analysis indicate that the incorporation of In 3+ ions partially stabilized both the tetragonal and cubic ZrO 2 polymorphs. The maximum solubility of Zr 4+ ions in the starting In(OH) 3 lattice was estimated at ˜10 mol.%. Thermal treatment causes a small increase of Zr 4+ ion solubility limits, estimated at ˜15 mol.% in the cubic In 2O 3 lattice after calcination at 1000 °C. Precise lattice parameter measurements, by using Le Bail refinements of the powder diffraction patterns with added silicon as an internal standard, show that the incorporation of In 3+ ions caused a very small decrease of the cubic ZrO 2 lattice, while the incorporation of Zr 4+ ions had a negligible

  7. Bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic coatings on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuğ, Salim Levent; Durdu, Salih; Yalçın, Emine; Çavuşoğlu, Kültigin; Usta, Metin

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAP)-based plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO) coatings were produced on zirconium at different current densities in a solution containing calcium acetate and β-calcium glycerophosphate by a single step. The phase structure, surface morphology, functional groups, thickness and roughness of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), eddy current method and surface profilometer, respectively. The phases of cubic-zirconia, calcium zirconate and HAP were detected by XRD. The amount of HAP and calcium zirconate increased with increasing current density. The surface of the coatings was very porous and rough. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the coatings were analyzed in vitro immersion simulated body fluid (SBF) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, hemolysis assay and bacterial formation. The apatite-forming ability of the coatings was evaluated after immersion in SBF up to 28days. After immersion, the bioactivity of HAP-based coatings on zirconium was greater than the ones of uncoated zirconium and zirconium oxide-based surface. The bioactivity of PEO surface on zirconium was significantly improved under SBF conditions. The bacterial adhesion of the coatings decreased with increasing current density. The bacterial adhesion of the coating produced at 0.370A/cm 2 was minimum compared to uncoated zirconium coated at 0.260 and 0.292A/cm 2 . The hemocompatibility of HAP-based surfaces was improved by PEO. The cell attachment and proliferation of the PEO coatings were better than the one of uncoated zirconium according to MTT assay results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The air oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zirconium at 500 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, D Q; Chen, X W; Zhou, Q G

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of lanthanum ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zirconium at 500 deg. C has been studied. Zirconium specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions using a MEVVA source at energy of 40 keV with a fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at maximum temperature of 130 deg. C, The weight gain curves were measured after being oxidized in air at 500 deg. C for 100 min, which showed that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of zirconium ion implanted with lanthanum compared with that of the as-received zirconium. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; and then the depth distributions of the elements in the surface of the samples were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3 deg. incident angles was employed to examine the modification of its phase transformation because of the lanthanum ion implantation in the oxide films. It was obviously fou...

  9. Do oxidized zirconium femoral heads reduce polyethylene wear in cemented THAs? A blinded randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaoui, Amine; Hage, Samer El; Langlois, Jean; Scemama, Caroline; Courpied, Jean Pierre; Hamadouche, Moussa

    2015-12-01

    Charnley low-friction torque total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains the gold standard in THA. The main cause for failure is wear of the socket. Highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) has been associated with reduced wear rates. Also, oxidized zirconium has shown in vitro reduced wear rates. However, to our knowledge, there are no data comparing oxidized zirconium femoral heads with metal heads against HXLPE or ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) when 22.25-mm bearings were used, which was the same size that performed so well in Charnley-type THAs. We hypothesized that after a minimal 4-year followup (1) use of HXLPE would result in lower radiographic wear than UHMWPE when articulating with a stainless steel head or with an oxidized zirconium head; (2) use of oxidized zirconium would result in lower radiographic wear than stainless steel when articulating with UHMWPE and HXLPE; and (3) there would be no difference in terms of Merle d'Aubigné scores between the bearing couple combinations. One hundred patients were randomized to receive cemented THA with either oxidized zirconium or a stainless steel femoral head. UHMWPE was used in the first 50 patients, whereas HXLPE was used in the next 50 patients. There were 25 patients in each of the four bearing couple combinations. All other parameters were identical in both groups. Complete followup was available in 86 of these patients. Femoral head penetration was measured using a validated computer-assisted method dedicated to all-polyethylene sockets. Clinical results were compared between the groups using the Merle d'Aubigné score. In the UHMWPE series, the median steady-state penetration rate from 1 year onward was 0.03 mm/year (range, 0.003-0.25 mm/year) in the oxidized zirconium group versus 0.11 mm/year (range, 0.03-0.29 mm/year) in the metal group (difference of medians 0.08, p zirconium group versus 0.05 mm/year (range, -0.39 to 0.11 mm/year) in the metal group (difference of medians 0.03, p

  10. Effect of carbon on the oxidation of zirconium; Influence du carbone sur l'oxygenation du zirconium a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, G; Boudouresques, B; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The study of specimens contaminated by different amounts of carbon shows a deleterious effect of this element in the resistance of zirconium to high temperature oxidation (700 to 900 deg. C). We drew the following results: a) the white spots or 'pimples' observed by numerous authors seem to be caused by the oxidation of precipitated carbides. We suggest a mechanism of formation and growth of these pimples; b) for a certain carbon content, the resistance to oxidation is increased by an uniform dispersion of the carbide phase and decreased, for instance, by extrusion textures. In this case, for the more marked textures, the more oriented corrosion was observed; c) by burning of the carbide phase it can result a second reaction increasing the corrosion rate; d) thin zirconium foils undergoes dimensional changes when scaling in oxygen. This unusual feature is also subordinated to carbon content and specially to the carbide phase dispersion. (author) [French] L'etude d'echantillons differemment contamines par le carbone nous a permis de mettre en evidence l'action particulierement nocive de cet element sur la resistance du zirconium a la corrosion par l'oxygene a haute temperature (700 a 900 deg. C). Nous avons pu degager les resultats essentiels suivants: a) l'origine des pustules d'oxyde blanc signalees par de nombreux auteurs doit etre recherchee dans l'oxydation des carbures precipites. Nous suggerons un mecanisme de formation et de croissance de ces pustules, b) la tenue du metal est d'autant meilleure que, pour une meme teneur en carbone, la phase 'carbure' est plus uniformement dispersee. En consequence, si la dispersion est mauvaise, on observe selon l'axe des textures de filage, par exemple, une corrosion preferentielle d'autant plus accentuee que les textures sont plus marquees, c) la combustion de la phase 'carbure' peut engendrer une reaction secondaire susceptible d'accroitre la cinetique de corrosion, d) l'expansion des grandes faces d

  11. Change in the work function of zirconium by oxidation at high temperatures and low oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Naito, Shizuo; Mabuchi, Mahito; Hashino, Tomoyasu

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the work function of zirconium on oxidation are measured at oxygen pressures of 3.0 x 10 -6 - 3.0 x 10 -4 Pa and at temperatures in the range 426-775 K. The work function first decreases then increases until a final saturation stage is reached. Use of secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) shows that the changes correspond to oxygen adsorption, oxide nucleation and oxide growth, respectively. The initial decrease in work function is interpreted by the incorporation of oxygen adatoms into the subsurface. The oxygen adsorption potential of zirconium is evaluated by an effective medium theory, and the physical origin of the incorporation of oxygen adatoms is discussed. The positive change in the work function caused by oxide formation and the temperature and pressure dependences of the change in the work function by oxidation are explained qualitatively. (author)

  12. Zirconium oxide nanotube-Nafion composite as high performance membrane for all vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Md. Abdul; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2017-01-01

    A high-performance composite membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) consisting of ZrO2 nanotubes (ZrNT) and perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion) was fabricated. The VRB operated with a composite (Nafion-ZrNT) membrane showed the improved ion-selectivity (ratio of proton conductivity to permeability), low self-discharge rate, high discharge capacity and high energy efficiency in comparison with a pristine commercial Nafion-117 membrane. The incorporation of zirconium oxide nanotubes in the Nafion matrix exhibits high proton conductivity (95.2 mS cm-1) and high oxidative stability (99.9%). The Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane exhibited low vanadium ion permeability (3.2 × 10-9 cm2 min-1) and superior ion selectivity (2.95 × 107 S min cm-3). The VRB constructed with a Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane has lower self-discharge rate maintaining an open-circuit voltage of 1.3 V for 330 h relative to a pristine Nafion membrane (29 h). The discharge capacity of Nafion-ZrNT membrane (987 mAh) was 3.5-times higher than Nafion-117 membrane (280 mAh) after 100 charge-discharge cycles. These superior properties resulted in higher coulombic and voltage efficiencies with Nafion-ZrNT membranes compared to VRB with Nafion-117 membrane at a 40 mA cm-2 current density.

  13. Joint Test Protocol: Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and compliance issues associated with the use of zinc phosphate and chromate/ chrome containing conversion coatings while maintaining military...safety, and occupational health risks associated with the use of zinc phosphate and chromate/ chrome -containing conversion coatings. There is a need to...zirconium-based pretreatment will be shown to be both environmentally acceptable (no hazardous air pollutants or heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium

  14. Behaviour of zirconium oxidation and is oxide films in alkali halide solutions as studied by electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Study of the properties of Zr electrode and the oxide films that cover the metal surface is of extreme importance due to their wide applications in chemical and nuclear industry. In this thesis the electrochemical behaviour of Zr electrode in alkali halide solutions and with various surface conditions was studied, Also the galvanostatic oxidation of the metal in addition to the open circuit and impedance measurements were employed. Chapter I is a literature survey of the electrochemistry of Zr metal with particular emphasis on the stability and growth process of Zr in different media. Chapter II contains the experimental part, including details of the electrochemical techniques used in the measurements. The electrode impedance was always balanced as a series capacitance Cs and resistance Rs.Chapter III includes the experimental results and discussion. It is divide into sections, A and B. Section A includes the results of some experimental parameters which affect the reactivity of the oxide growth process on the zirconium surface, such as surface pre - treatment, electrolyte composition, the effect of different alkali halide anions, as well as the triiodide ion. 9 tabs.,26 figs.,67 refs

  15. Clinical Outcomes of Zirconium-Oxide Posts: Up-to-Date Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the clinical outcomes of the use of zirconium-oxide posts in the past 20 years. The addressed question was: Do zirconium-oxide posts maintain the long-term survival rate of endodontically treated teeth? A database search was made of articles from January 1995 to December 2014; it included combinations of the following keywords: "zirconia," "zirconium oxide," "dowel/dowels," "post/posts," and "post and core." Exclusion criteria included review articles, experimental studies, case reports, commentaries, and articles published in a language other than English. Articles were reviewed by the titles, followed by the abstracts, and, finally, the full text of the selected studies. Four studies were included after filtering the selected studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In one study, the prefabricated zirconia posts with indirect glass-ceramic cores had significantly higher failure rates than other posts with direct composite cores. In two studies, no failure of the cemented posts was observed throughout the follow-up period. Due to the limited number of clinical studies, it can be concluded that the long-term success rate of prefabricated zirconium-oxide posts is unclear.

  16. The oxidation kinetics of zirconium alloys applicable to loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.D.; Miller, W.N.

    1977-10-01

    A review is presented of the available published measurements of the rate of reaction between zirconium alloys and steam and, in some cases, oxygen. Attempts are made to define from all the experimental data a suitable rate equation which is appropriate over the range of temperatures relevant to LOCA conditions. The data reviewed encompass a temperature range 910 0 C to the melting point of zirconium, 1852 0 C. It can be concluded that within 910 to 1577 0 C, Zircaloy-2, Zircaloy-4 and Zr/2 1/2%Nb alloys have the same response to oxidation. (author)

  17. The 5-year Results of an Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Component for TKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Massimo; Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio; Villano, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Osteolysis secondary to polyethylene wear is one of the major factors limiting long-term performance of TKA. Oxidized zirconium is a new material that combines the strength of a metal with the wear properties of a ceramic. It remains unknown whether implants with a zirconium femoral component can be used safely in TKA. To answer that question, we reviewed, at a minimum of 5 years, the clinical outcome and survivorship of a ceramic-surfaced oxidized zirconium femoral component implanted during 98 primary TKAs between April 2001 and December 2003. Survivorship was 98.7% at 7 years postoperatively. No revision was necessary and only one component failed because of aseptic loosening. Mean Knee Society score improved from 36 to 89. No adverse events were observed clinically or radiologically. These results justify pursuing the use of oxidized zirconium as an alternative bearing surface for a femoral component in TKA. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19798541

  18. Fabrication and formation of bioactive anodic zirconium oxide nanotubes containing presynthesized hydroxyapatite via alternative immersion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luning; Luo Jingli

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating has been widely applied on metallic biomedical implants to enhance their biocompatibility. It has been reported that HA coating can be formed on annealed zirconium with anodic zirconium oxide nanotubular arrays after immersion in simulated biological fluid (SBF) for about 14 days. In the present study, we apply an alternative immersion method (AIM) to form presynthesized HA on ZrO 2 nanotubes. The AIM-treated specimen was then moved to the SBF to evaluate the capability for the formation of HA on it. The HA coating formed after only 2 days immersion and thickened after 5 days in the SBF. The HA coating is the carbonated HA with a ratio of Ca to P of about 1.4, similar to the physiological HA containing other minor elements such as Mg and Na. The results demonstrate that the AIM treatment is indeed suitable for the zirconium oxide nanotubes and highly accelerates the formation of HA coating in comparison with the existing methods, i.e. the annealing of the as-formed zirconium oxide nanotubular arrays.

  19. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of zirconium oxide and niobium oxide modified Portland cement-based experimental endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viapiana, R; Flumignan, D L; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, J M; Camilleri, J; Tanomaru-Filho, M

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties of Portland cement-based experimental sealers (ES) with different radiopacifying agents (zirconium oxide and niobium oxide micro- and nanoparticles) in comparison with the following conventional sealers: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex. The materials were tested for setting time, compressive strength, flow, film thickness, radiopacity, solubility, dimensional stability and formaldehyde release. Data were subjected to anova and Tukey tests (P 0.05) and lower solubility when compared with MTA Fillapex and Sealapex (P Portland cement-based experimental endodontic sealers presented physicochemical properties according to the specifications no 57 ANSI/ADA (ADA Professional Product Review, 2008) and ISO 6876 (Dentistry - Root Canal Sealing Materials, 2012, British Standards Institution, London, UK). The sealers had setting times and flow ability that was adequate for clinical use, satisfactory compressive strength and low solubility. Additional studies should be carried out with the purpose of decreasing the film thickness and to determine the ideal ratio of radiopacifying agents in Portland cement-based root canal sealers. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. MOCVD of zirconium oxide thin films: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Ramirez-Meneses, E.; Vargas-Garcia, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of thin films of zirconia often produces tetragonal or cubic phases, which are stable at high temperatures, but that can be transformed into the monoclinic form by cooling. In the present study, we report the deposition of thin zirconium dioxide films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using zirconium (IV)-acetylacetonate as precursor. Colorless, porous, homogeneous and well adherent ZrO 2 thin films in the cubic phase were obtained within the temperature range going from 873 to 973 K. The deposits presented a preferential orientation towards the (1 1 1) and (2 2 0) planes as the substrate temperature was increased, and a crystal size ranging between 20 and 25 nm. The kinetics is believed to result from film growth involving the deposition and aggregation of nanosized primary particles produced during the CVD process. A mismatch between the experimental results obtained here and the thermodynamic prediction was found, which can be associated with the intrinsic nature of the nanostructured materials, which present a high density of interfaces.

  1. MOCVD of zirconium oxide thin films: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atohuer@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Ramirez-Meneses, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Vargas-Garcia, J.R. [ESIQIE, Departamento de Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional. A.P. 75-876, 07300 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    The synthesis of thin films of zirconia often produces tetragonal or cubic phases, which are stable at high temperatures, but that can be transformed into the monoclinic form by cooling. In the present study, we report the deposition of thin zirconium dioxide films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using zirconium (IV)-acetylacetonate as precursor. Colorless, porous, homogeneous and well adherent ZrO{sub 2} thin films in the cubic phase were obtained within the temperature range going from 873 to 973 K. The deposits presented a preferential orientation towards the (1 1 1) and (2 2 0) planes as the substrate temperature was increased, and a crystal size ranging between 20 and 25 nm. The kinetics is believed to result from film growth involving the deposition and aggregation of nanosized primary particles produced during the CVD process. A mismatch between the experimental results obtained here and the thermodynamic prediction was found, which can be associated with the intrinsic nature of the nanostructured materials, which present a high density of interfaces.

  2. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  3. Creep behavior under internal pressure of zirconium alloy cladding oxidized in steam at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chosson, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    During hypothetical Loss-Of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA) scenarios, zirconium alloy fuel cladding tubes creep under internal pressure and are oxidized on their outer surface at high temperature (HT). Claddings become stratified materials: zirconia and oxygen-stabilized α phase, called α(O), are formed on the outer surface of the cladding whereas the inner part remains in the β domain. The strengthening effect of oxidation on the cladding creep behavior under internal pressure has been highlighted at HT. In order to model this effect, the creep behavior of each layer had to be determined. This study focused on the characterization of the creep behavior of the α(O) phase at HT, through axial creep tests performed under vacuum on model materials, containing from 2 to 7 wt.% of oxygen and representative of the α(O) phase. For the first time, two creep flow regimes have been observed in this phase. Underlying physical mechanisms and relevant microstructural parameters have been discussed for each regime. The strengthening effect due to oxygen on the α(O) phase creep behavior at HT has been quantified and creep flow equations have been identified. A ductile to brittle transition criterion has been also suggested as a function of temperature and oxygen content. Relevance of the creep flow equations for each layer, identified in this study or from the literature, has been discussed. Then, a finite element model, describing the oxidized cladding as a stratified material, has been built. Based on this model, a fraction of the experimental strengthening during creep is predicted. (author) [fr

  4. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr 4+ dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr 4+ converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  5. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  6. Methods of studying oxide scales grown on zirconium alloys in autoclaves and in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, H.; Bart, G.; Thiele, H.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of water-side corrosion of zirconium alloys has been a field of research for more than 25 years, but the details of the mechanisms involved still cannot be put into a coherent picture. Improved methods are required to establish the details of the microstructure of the oxide scales. A new approach has been made for a general analysis of oxide specimens from scales grown on the zirconium-based cladding alloys of PWR rods in order to analyse the morphology of these scales, the topography of the oxide/metal interface and the crystal structures close to this interface: a) Instead of using the conventional pickling solutions, the Zr-alloys are dissolved using a 'softer' solution (Br 2 in an organic solvent) in order to avoid damage to the oxide at the oxide/metal interface to be analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). A second advantage of this method is easy etching of the grain structure of Zr-alloys for SEM analysis; b) By using the particular properties of the oxide scales, the corrosion-rate-determining innermost part of the oxide layer at the oxide/metal interface can be separated from the rest of the oxide scale and then analysed by SEM, STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and electron diffraction after dissolution of the alloy. Examples are given from oxides grown on Zr-alloys in a pressurized water reactor and in autoclaves. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs., 9 refs

  7. Fracture properties and heat resistance of ceramics consisting of microspheres of stabilized zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasulin, Yu.L.; Barinov, S.M.; Ivanov, A.B.; Timofeev, V.N.; Grevtsev, S.N.; Ivanov, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Determined were effective specific fracture work, critical coefficient of stress intensity in the upper point of the fracture, strength and heat resistance during heat changes (20-1300 deg C) of the material produced by sintering stabilized zirconium dioxide microspheres. Dependence of these characteristics on granulometric composition of microspheres was determined. It was ascertained that the additional introduction of large microspheres into the bulk of small microspheres increased the metal fracture work. Specific work of material fracture progress exceeded specific work of fracture motion initiation. High value of fracture work together with high strength permits to use the material formed of microspheres as structural ceramics

  8. Zirconium oxide based ceramic solid electrolytes for oxygen detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caproni, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Taking advantage of the high thermal shock resistance of zirconia-magnesia ceramics and the high oxide ion conductivity of zirconia-yttria ceramics, composites of these ceramics were prepared by mixing, pressing and sintering different relative concentrations of ZrO 2 : 8.6 mol% MgO and ZrO 2 : 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 solid electrolytes. Microstructural analysis of the composites was carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The thermal behavior was studied by dilatometric analysis. The electrical behavior was evaluated by the impedance spectroscopy technique. An experimental setup was designed for measurement the electrical signal generated as a function of the amount of oxygen at high temperatures. The main results show that these composites are partially stabilized (monoclinic, cubic and tetragonal) and the thermal behavior is similar to that of ZrO 2 : 8.6 mol% MgO materials used in disposable high temperature oxygen sensors. Moreover, the results of analysis of impedance spectroscopy show that the electrical conductivity of zirconia:magnesia is improved with zirconia-yttria addition and that the electrical signal depends on the amount of oxygen at 1000 deg C, showing that the ceramic composites can be used in oxygen sensors. (author)

  9. Quantum Mechanical Calculations Of Elastic Properties Of Doped Tetragonal Yttria-Stabilized Zirconium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Natanzon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report first principles calculations of the electronic and elastic properties of yttriastabilized tetragonal zirconium dioxide doped with metal oxides like: GeO2, TiO2, SiO2,MgO and Al2O3. It is shown that addition of such dopants affects selected elastic propertiesof ZrO2, which is driven by the attraction of electron density by dopant atom and creationof stronger dopant–oxygen bonds. This effect contributes to the increase of superplasticityof doped material.

  10. Photoelectrochemical properties and band structure of oxide films on zirconium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuo; Uno, Masayoshi; Okui, Mihoko; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    The microalloying effects of 4d and 5d transition metals, M (M: Nb, Mo, Ta, W) on the photoelectrochemical properties, the flat band potential (U fb ) and the band gap energy (E g ), for zirconium oxide films were investigated by photoelectrochemical measurements and band calculation. Button ingots of zirconium-5 mol% M (M: Nb, Mo, Ta, W) were made from high-purity metals (99.9% purity) by arc melting in a purified argon atmosphere. These plate specimens were sealed into silica tubes in vacuum, and then homogenized at 1273 K for 24 h. Subsequently, these specimens were oxidized up to 1173 K. The photocurrent of each specimen was evaluated at room temperature under the irradiation of Xe lamp (500 W) through grating monochrometer and cut-off filter. 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 solution was used as the electrolyte. The value of the flat band potential was higher and the value of the band gap energy was smaller than that of pure zirconium oxide film in all sample. It was found from the calculation by CASTEP code that the decreases in band gap energy of these oxide films was due to formation of 4d or 5d orbital of transition metals

  11. Cation incorporation into zirconium oxide in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Kim, K.H.; Baek, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the cation incorporation into zirconium oxide, SIMS analysis was performed on the specimens prepared to have an equal oxide thickness in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions. Even though they have an equal oxide thickness in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions, the penetration depth of cation into the oxide decreased with an increase in the ionic radius of cation. The cation is considered to control the corrosion in alkali hydroxide solutions and its effect is dependent on the concentration of alkali and the oxide thickness. The slight enhancement of the corrosion rate at a low concentration is thought to be caused by cation incorporation into oxide, while the significant acceleration at a high concentration is due to the transformation of oxide microstructures that would be also induced by cation incorporation into oxide. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis of mesoporous cerium-zirconium mixed oxides by hydrothermal templating method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous cerium-zirconium mixed oxides were prepared by hydrothermal method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template.The effects of amount of template,pH value of solution and hydrothermal temperature on mesostructure of samples were systematically investigated.The final products were characterized by XRD,TEM,FT-IR,and BET.The results indicate that all the cerium-zirconium mixed oxides present a meso-structure.At molar ratio of n(CTAB)/n((Ce)+(Zr))=0.15,pH value of 9,and hydrothermal temperature of 120 ℃,the samples obtained possess a specific surface area of 207.9 m2/g with pore diameter of 3.70 nm and pore volume of 0.19 cm3/g.

  13. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M.; Zhang, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 μm in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  14. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Zhang, B. [Dou Yee Technologies Pte Ltd, Bedok Industrial Park C (Singapore)

    2005-07-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 {mu}m in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  15. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2014-11-01

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal-oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations.

  16. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, P.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal–oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations

  17. Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, P., E-mail: Philip.Platt@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Frankel, P. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gass, M.; Howells, R. [AMEC, Walton House, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Corrosion is a key limiting factor in the degradation of zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process offers a route towards improving safety and efficiency as demand increases for higher burn-up of fuel. Oxides formed on zirconium alloys are composed of both monoclinic and meta-stable tetragonal phases, and are subject to a number of potential mechanical degradation mechanisms. The work presented investigates the link between the tetragonal to monoclinic oxide phase transformation and degradation of the protective character of the oxide layer. To achieve this, Abaqus finite element analysis of the oxide phase transformation has been carried out. Study of the change in transformation strain energy shows how relaxation of oxidation induced stress and fast fracture at the metal–oxide interface could destabilise the tetragonal phase. Central to this is the identification of the transformation variant most likely to form, and understanding why twinning of the transformed grain is likely to occur. Development of transformation strain tensors and analysis of the strain components allows some separation of dilatation and shear effects. Maximum principal stress is used as an indication of fracture in the surrounding oxide layer. Study of the stress distributions shows the way oxide fracture is likely to occur and the differing effects of dilatation and shape change. Comparison with literature provides qualitative validation of the finite element simulations.

  18. Retention of implant-supported zirconium oxide ceramic restorations using different luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Savabi, Omid; Shahtoosi, Mojtaba

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention value of implant-supported zirconium oxide ceramic copings using different luting agents. Twenty ITI solid abutments of 5.5 mm height and ITI implant analogs were mounted vertically into autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks. Ninety zirconium oxide copings (Cercon, Degudent) with a loop on the occlusal portion were made. All samples were airborne particle abraded with 110 μm Al₂O₃ and luted using different types of luting agents: resin cements (Clearfil SA, Panavia F2.0, Fuji Plus), conventional cements (Fleck's, Poly F, Fuji I), and temporary cements (Temp Bond, GC free eugenol, TempSpan) with a load of 5 Kg. (N = 10) All copings were incubated at 37°C for 24 h and conditioned in artificial saliva for 1 week, and thermal cycled for 5000 cycles 5-55°C with a 30-s dwell time. The dislodging force of the copings along the long axis of the implant-abutment complex was recorded using universal testing machine with 5 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis (α = 0.05) and Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni step down correction (α = 0.001). There was significant difference between the mean rank retention values of different luting agents (P zirconium oxide restorations. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Study of diffusion processes in the oxide layer of zirconium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sialini P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the active zone of a nuclear reactor where zirconium alloys are used as a coating material, this material is subject to various harmful impacts. During water decomposition reactions, hydrogen and oxygen are evolved that may diffuse through the oxidic layer either through zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 crystals or along ZrO2 grains. The diffusion mechanism can be studied using the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA method where nuclear reaction 18O(p,α15N is used. A tube made of zirconium alloy E110 (with 1 wt. % of Nb was used for making samples that were pre-exposed in UJP PRAHA a.s. and subsequently exposed to isotopically cleansed environment of H2 18O medium in an autoclave. The samples were analysed with gravimetric methods and IBA methods performed at the electrostatic particle accelerator Tandetron 4130 MC in the Nucler Physics Institute of the CAS, Řež. With IBA methods, the overall thicknesses of corrosion layers on the samples, element composition of the alloy and distribution of oxygen isotope 18O in the corrosion layer and its penetration in the alloy were identified. The retrieved data shows at the oxygen diffusion along ZrO2 grains because there are two peaks of 18O isotope concentrations in the corrosion layer. These peaks occur at the environment-oxide and oxide-metal interface. The element analysis identified the presence of undesirable hafnium.

  20. Experimental Calcium Silicate-Based Cement with and without Zirconium Oxide Modulates Fibroblasts Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slompo, Camila; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the use of zirconium oxide as a radiopacifier of an experimental calcium silicate-based cement (WPCZO) leads to cytotoxicity. Fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations (10 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL) of the cements diluted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for periods of 12, 24, and 48 h. Groups tested were white Portland cement (WPC), white Portland cement with zirconium oxide (WPCZO), and white mineral trioxide aggregate Angelus (MTA). Control group cells were not treated. The cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial-activity (MTT) and cell-density (crystal violet) assays. All cements showed low cytotoxicity. In general, at the concentration of 10 mg/mL there was an increase in viability of those groups treated with WPC and WPCZO when compared to the control group (pcement with 20% zirconium oxide as the radiopacifier showed low cytotoxicity as a promising material to be exploited for root-end filling.

  1. The effect of substrate texture and oxidation temperature on oxide texture development in zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, A., E-mail: alistair.garner@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester, M17HS (United Kingdom); Frankel, P. [Materials Performance Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester, M17HS (United Kingdom); Partezana, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1332 Beulah Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States); Preuss, M. [Materials Performance Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester, M17HS (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    During corrosion of zirconium alloys a highly textured oxide is formed, the degree of this preferred orientation has previously been shown to be an important factor in determining the corrosion behaviour of these alloys. Two distinct experiments were designed in order to investigate the origin of this oxide texture development on two commercial alloys. Firstly, sheet samples of Zircaloy-4 were oxidised between 500 and 800 °C in air. The resulting monoclinic oxide texture strength was observed to decrease with increasing oxidation temperature. In a second experiment, orthogonal faces of Low Tin ZIRLO{sub ™} were oxidised in 360 °C water, providing different substrate textures but identical microstructures. The substrate texture was observed to have a negligible effect on the corrosion performance whilst the major orientation of both oxide phases was found to be independent of substrate orientation. It is concluded that the main driving force for oxide texture development in single-phase zirconium alloys is the compressive stress caused by the Zr−ZrO{sub 2} transformation. - Highlights: • Substrate orientation does not significantly affect oxide texture development. • Corrosion performance is independent of substrate texture. • Monoclinic oxide texture strength decreases with increasing oxidation temperature. • The main driving force for texture development is the oxidation-induced stress.

  2. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of zirconium alloy oxide conductivity: Relationship to hydrogen pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couet, Adrien; Motta, Arthur T.; Ambard, Antoine; Livigni, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ electrochemistry on zirconium alloys in 360 °C pure water show oxide layer resistivity changes during corrosion. • A linear relationship is observed between oxide resistivity and instantaneous hydrogen pickup fraction. • The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 (and thus its hydrogen pickup fraction) is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb. - Abstract: Hydrogen pickup during nuclear fuel cladding corrosion is a critical life-limiting degradation mechanism for nuclear fuel. Following a program dedicated to zirconium alloys, corrosion, it has been hypothesized that oxide electronic resistivity determines hydrogen pickup. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 and Zr-2.5Nb alloys in 360 °C water. The oxide resistivity was measured as function of time. The results show that as the oxide resistivity increases so does the hydrogen pickup fraction. The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb, resulting in a higher hydrogen pickup fraction of Zircaloy-4, compared to Zr-2.5Nb.

  3. Formation and dissolution of the anodic oxide film on zirconium in alcoholic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogoda, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The dissolution behavior of the anodic oxide film formed in alcoholic aqueous solutions was studied. Results indicated the dissolution mechanism of the duplex oxide film followed a zero-order rate equation. The increase in methanol concentration in the formation medium (phosphoric acid [H 3 PO 4 ]) resulted in formation of an oxide film that incorporated little phosphate ion and that dissolved at a low rate. The dissolution rate of the oxide film decreased with increasing methanol concentration in the dissolution medium. This was attributed to the increase in the viscosity of the medium, which led to a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the dissolution product of the zirconium oxide film. Dissolution of the anodic oxide film also was investigated as a function of the chain length of alcohols

  4. Oxidized zirconium versus cobalt-chromium against the native patella in total knee arthroplasty: Patellofemoral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassi, Fabrizio; Paoli, Tommaso; Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) has demonstrated excellent mechanical properties in vitro when used against articular cartilage; less coefficient of friction and less chondral damage have been found when compared with cobalt-chromium (CoCr) implants. However, controversy exists as to whether implants with a zirconium femoral component articulate safely with a native patella in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To answer this question, the clinical and radiographic results were analysed from a group of patients who underwent a TKA with patella retention; the OxZr versus CoCr femoral components were compared. The present study prospectively evaluated 83 knees of 74 patients from 2009 to 2010. Each patient was evaluated clinically (visual analogue scale, Knee Society score, patellar score) and radiographically (long leg standing radiograph, anterior-posterior and latero-lateral projections, axial view of the patella) pre-operatively and postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 4.47years. The patellar tilt and shift, and progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis were calculated with the axial view. There were no patient reported adverse reactions and none of the evaluated prostheses failed. Both the clinical and radiographic evaluations showed no statistically significant between-group differences. No adverse events were observed clinically or radiologically. These results justify pursuing the use of oxidized zirconium as an alternative bearing surface for a femoral component associated with patellar retention in TKA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Frutis, M.; Araiza, J.J.; Falcony, C.; Garcia, M.

    2002-01-01

    The optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on silicon substrates are reported. The films were deposited from a spraying solution of zirconium acetylacetonate in N,N-dimethylformamide using an ultrasonic mist generator on (100) Si substrates. The substrate temperature during deposition was in the range of 400 to 600 grad C. Deposition rates up to 16 A/sec were obtained depending on the spraying solution concentration and on the substrate temperature. A refraction index of the order of 2.0 was measured on these films by ellipsometry. The electrical characteristics of the films were determined from the capacitance and current versus voltage measurements. The addition of water mist during the spraying deposition process was also studied in the characteristics of the films. (Authors)

  6. Preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment influence on electrophysical properties of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.; Aliyev, A.G.; Agayev, T.N.; Ismailov, S.S.; Aliyev, S.M.; Velibekova, G.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The dependences of resistivity (ρ), thermoelectromotive force (α) voltage-current characteristics of thin zirconium film 80-200 mkm of thick from adsorbed dose of γ-quantum have been investigated. It has been found out that when initial meanings of absorbed dose are insignificant (D ≤ 20 kGy) in Zr-ZrO 2 system ρ is decreased at the expense of formation of point defects (biographic protective oxide film). The further increase of absorbed dose (up to definite value) leads to radiation-heterogeneous processes of protective oxide film formation with high vacancy concentration that is accompanied with ρ increase. (author)

  7. Growth and characterization of oxide layers on zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, A.J.G.; Bordoni, R.; Villegas, M.; Olmedo, A.M.; Blesa, M.A.; Iglesias, A.; Koenig, P.

    1996-01-01

    In the range 265-435 C Zr-2.5Nb corrosion takes place in two stages, as opposed to the cyclic behaviour of Zry-4. The Zry-4 corrosion stages are described by a single equation, in terms of the dense oxide layer thickness that decreases sharply at each transition. Tetragonal zirconia is present in the oxide layers of both alloys. In Zry-4, its volume fraction decreases as the oxide grows; it is barely discernible in Zr-2.5Nb in films below 1 μm, to later increase up to the transition. In both alloys, compressive stresses are developed associated with the oxide growth. Their relaxation at the transition correlates with the transformation of ZrO 2 (t) to ZrO 2 (m) and with the decrease of the dense oxide layer. In Zr-2.5Nb, oxide ridges form on the β-Zr phase filaments, at the very onset of film growth. The cyclic behaviour associated with the periodical breakdown of the dense oxide layer is therefore blurred, although optical microscopy shows that the scale retains the multilayered structure typical of Zry-4. (orig.)

  8. Zirconium Micro-Arc Oxidation as a Method for Producing Heat Insulation Elements in Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Shatalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of coatings on the surface of materials as well as their composition and structure control in the near-surface layer enables us to use properties of base material and modified layers in the most rational and profitable way and save expensive and rare metals and alloys.The space telescope of T-170M will be the main tool of the international space observatory "Spektr-UF".It is being understood that the main mirror shade, which is in the outer space and has a considerable height will act as a radiator cooling a unit (cage of the main mirror. Therefore it is necessary to create heat insulation between the shade of the main mirror and the frame of the main mirror unit. From the thermal calculations a detail to provide heat insulation must possess thermal conductivity, at most, 2,5 and a conditional limit of fluidity for compression, at least, 125 MPas to ensure that the shade diaphragms position of the main mirror is stable with respect to the optical system of telescope.Considering that oxide of zirconium possesses one of the lowest thermal conductivities among oxides of metals, it is offered to use zirconium, as a material of base, and to put the MAO-covering (micro-arc oxide on its surface.As a result of studying the features of MAO-coverings on zirconium it is:1 found that the composite material consisting of zirconium and MAO-covering on it, has low thermal conductivity (less than 2 , and thus, because of small oxide layer thickness against the thickness of base material, possesses the mechanical properties which are slightly different from the pure zirconium ones;2 found that the composite material possesses the low gas release, allowing its use in the outer space conditions; the material processed in two electrolytes i.e. phosphate and acid ones has the lowest gas release;3 found that with growing thickness of MAO-covering its porosity decreases, thus the average pore diameter grows thereby leading to increasing thermal

  9. Oxidation behaviour of zirconium alloys and their precipitates – A mechanistic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proff, C.; Abolhassani, S.; Lemaignan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The precipitate oxidation behaviour of binary zirconium alloys containing 1 wt.% Fe, Ni, Cr or 0.6 wt.% Nb was characterised in TEM on FIB prepared transverse sections of the oxide and reported in previous studies [1,2]. In the present study the following alloys: Zr1%Cu, Zr0.5%Cu0.5%Mo and pure Zr are analysed to add to the available information. In all cases, the observed precipitate oxidation behaviour in the oxide close to the metal-oxide interface could be described either with delayed oxidation with respect to the matrix or simultaneous oxidation as the surrounding zirconium matrix. Attempt was made to explain these observations, with different parameters such as precipitate size and structure, composition and thermodynamic properties. It was concluded that the thermodynamics with the new approach presented could explain most precisely their behaviour, considering the precipitate stoichiometry and the free energy of oxidation of the constituting elements. The surface topography of the oxidised materials, as well as the microstructure of the oxide presenting microcracks have been examined. A systematic presence of microcracks above the precipitates exhibiting delayed oxidation has been found; the height of these crack calculated using the Pilling–Bedworth ratios of different phases present, can explain their origin. The protrusions at the surface in the case of materials containing large precipitates can be unambiguously correlated to the presence of these latter, and the height can be correlated to the Pilling–Bedworth ratios of the phases present as well as the diffusion of the alloying elements to the surface and their subsequent oxidation. This latter behaviour was much more considerable in the case of Fe and Cu with Fe showing systematically diffusion to the outer surface.

  10. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 3 (2011), s. 1491-1504 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : warfare agents * nanodispersive oxides * homogeneous hydrolysis * urea Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  11. The Effect of Luting Cement and Titanium Base on the Final Color of Zirconium Oxide Core Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Nuray; Tuncel, Ilkin; Tak, Onjen; Usumez, Aslihan

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of different types of luting cements and different colors of zirconium cores on the final color of the restoration that simulates implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) by using a titanium base on the bottom. One hundred and twenty zirconium oxide core plates (Zr-Zahn; 10 mm in width, 5 mm in length, 0.5 mm in height) were prepared in different shades (n = 20; noncolored, A2, A3, B1, C2, D2). The specimens were subdivided into two subgroups for the two types of luting cements (n = 10). The initial color measurements were made on zirconium oxide core plates using a spectrometer. To create the cement thicknesses, stretch strips with holes in the middle (5 mm in diameter, 70 μm in height) were used. The second measurement was done on the zirconium oxide core plates after the application of the resin cement (U-200, A2 Shade) or polycarboxylate cement (Lumicon). The final measurement was done after placing the titanium discs (5 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height) in the bottom. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant differences (HSD) tests (α = 0.05). The ∆E* ab value was higher in the resin cement-applied group than in the polycarboxylate cement-applied group (p zirconium oxide core-resin cement-titanium base, and the lowest was recorded for the polycarboxylate cement-zirconium oxide core (p zirconium are all important factors that determine the final shade of zirconia cores in implant-supported FPDs. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Experimental study of the zirconium alloy oxidation under high pressure of steam and modelling of the mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dali, Yacoub

    2007-01-01

    pure zirconium increase drastically with the steam pressure and could be controlled by an interface reaction, associated to a degradation of the oxide favoured by the increase of the oxidant pressure. Finally, we have proposed an oxidation mechanism of the Zr(Fe,Cr) 2 precipitates, during which the iron is dissolved in the oxide around the precipitate and probably stabilizes by this way the quadratic zirconia. This process could ensure the integrity of the oxide layer and annihilate the degradation of the layer. Concerning the Zr-Nb alloys and specially the Zr-1%Nb, the oxidation rate is dependant on the steam pressure. Moreover, the segregated niobium content grows with the pressure of water vapour, the niobium concentration in the alloy and is not observed under oxygen. We have proposed a corrosion mechanism able to describe the oxidation and the segregation processes. Finally, a rate limiting step of the diffusion of adsorbed hydroxide ions in the external oxide layer is consistent with our experimental results. (author)

  13. Structure, stability and mobility of point defects in hexagonal close packed zirconium: an ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, G.

    2007-09-01

    This research aims at determining, by means of DFT (density functional theory) electronic structure computations, the structure, the stability, and the mobility of isolated point defects, lack defects, auto-interstitial defects, or small aggregate defects in the compact hexagonal zirconium (hc Zr). After a literature survey on the studied materials and a review of computer simulation methods in material science, the author presents and comments the available results from experiments or simulations on point defects in hc Zr. He presents the growth phenomenon under radiation. Then, he briefly described the computing techniques used in this study, reports the determination of the network parameters and elastic constants of each material. He reports and comments the results obtained with the SIESTA code and with a Monte Carlo kinetic simulation. The different types of defects are investigated

  14. Entropy-Stabilized Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    antiferroelectrics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 017603 (2013). 22. Cantor , B., Chang, I., Knight, P. & Vincent, A. Microstructural development in equiatomic...Science 345, 1153–1158 (2014). 24. Gali, A. & George , E. Tensile properties of high- and medium-entropy alloys. Intermetallics 39, 74–78 (2013). 25...148–153 (2014). 26. Otto, F., Yang, Y., Bei, H. & George , E. Relative effects of enthalpy and entropy on the phase stability of equiatomic high-entropy

  15. Quantum chemical study of the elementary reactions in zirconium oxide atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Yuniarto; Musgrave, Charles B.

    2002-01-01

    Elementary reactions in atomic layer deposition of zirconia using zirconium tetrachloride and water are investigated using the density functional theory. The atomistic mechanisms of the two deposition half cycles on the Zr-OH and Zr-Cl surface sites are investigated. Both half reactions proceed through the formation of stable intermediates, resulting in high barriers for HCl formation. We find that the intermediate stability is lowered as the surface temperature is raised. However, increasing temperature also increases the dissociation free-energy barrier, which in turn results in increased desorption of adsorbed precursors

  16. Oxidation kinetics of zirconium nitride. I. Planar symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, Jean; Billy, Michel

    1976-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of ZrNsub(0.93) plates was investigated at temperatures in the range 625-800 deg C in oxygen over the pressure range 10-730 torr. The reaction product consists of monoclinic zirconia accompanied with trace amounts of cubic or tetragonal zirconia. Although the kinetic results are well interpreted by a Prout and Tompkins type model. The morphological observations suggest a transformation governed by a phase boundary reaction, this being confirmed by the oxygen pressure dependence on the rate law [fr

  17. Physicochemical study of zirconium oxides and of the alumina-zirconia dispersoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlans, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the physicochemical characterization of different zirconium oxides, but also their synthesis in laboratory by using a gel precipitation method. Various techniques are used to characterize gels and powders: electro-kinetic potential measurement, study of rheological properties, granulometry, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermo-luminescence, differential thermal analysis, specific surface measurements, scanning electronic microscopy. This process is then extended to the synthesis of an alumina-zirconia dispersoid. The measurement of mechanical properties allowed the synthesis to be modulated in order to obtain powders with properties as close as possible to defined properties [fr

  18. Characterization of the sorption behavior of trivalent actinides on zirconium(IV) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibl, Manuel; Huittinen, Nina [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Virtanen, S.; Merilaeinen, S.; Lehto, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Rabung, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2017-06-01

    The uptake of trivalent Eu and Cm on zirconium(IV) oxide was investigated in batch sorption and TRLFS studies, respectively. Sorption of Eu{sup 3+} was found to start at a pH-value of 4. Based on TRLFS results, sorption of Cm{sup 3+} was assigned to occur through innersphere complex formation at the zirconia surface. A deconvolution of the TRLFS emission spectra gave three different sorption species with strong red-shifts of the peak positions (600.3 nm, 604.3 nm and 608.2 nm) compared to similar systems.

  19. Investigation of anodizing parameter effect on barrier layer of anodic zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Eh.P.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of fluoride concentration and forming direction upon kinetics of barrier layer transformations in the process of preparation of phase anodic zirconium oxide in acid fluorine-containing solutions is considered. Suppositions are made on the mechanism of barrier layer transformation under the effect of the parameters mentioned. The thickness of the barrier layer is determined by two methods and it is shown that coefficient of the layer thickess growth at the voltage increase by 1 V is much lower than during formation of the barrier films in non-agressive electrolytes

  20. Contribution of in situ acoustic emission analysis coupled with thermogravimetry to study zirconium alloy oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Haj, O.; Peres, V.; Serris, E.; Cournil, M.; Grosjean, F.; Kittel, J.; Ropital, F.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium alloy (zircaloy-4) corrosion behavior under oxidizing atmosphere at high temperature was studied using thermogravimetric experiment associated with acoustic emission analysis. Under a mixture of oxygen and air in helium, an acceleration of the corrosion is observed due to the detrimental effect of nitrogen which produces zirconium nitride. The kinetic rate increases significantly after a kinetic transition (breakaway). This acceleration is accompanied by an acoustic emission (AE) activity. Most of the acoustic emission bursts were recorded after the kinetic transition or during the cooling of the sample. Acoustic emission signals analysis allows us to distinguish different populations of cracks in the ZrO 2 layer. These cracks have also been observed by SEM on post mortem cross section of oxidized samples and by in-situ microscopy observations on the top surface of the sample during oxidation. The numerous small convoluted thin cracks observed deeper in the zirconia scale are not detected by the AE technique. From these studies we can conclude that mechanisms as irreversible mechanisms, as cracks initiation and propagation, generate AE signals

  1. Hydration characteristics of zirconium oxide replaced Portland cement for use as a root-end filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J; Cutajar, A; Mallia, B

    2011-08-01

    Zirconium oxide can be added to dental materials rendering them sufficiently radiopaque. It can thus be used to replace the bismuth oxide in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Replacement of Portland cement with 30% zirconium oxide mixed at a water/cement ratio of 0.3 resulted in a material with adequate physical properties. This study aimed at investigating the microstructure, pH and leaching in physiological solution of Portland cement replaced zirconium oxide at either water-powder or water-cement ratios of 0.3 for use as a root-end filling material. The hydration characteristics of the materials which exhibited optimal behavior were evaluated. Portland cement replaced by zirconium oxide in varying amounts ranging from 0 to 50% in increments of 10 was prepared and divided into two sets. One set was prepared at a constant water/cement ratio while the other set at a constant water/powder ratio of 0.3. Portland cement and MTA were used as controls. The materials were analyzed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the hydration products were determined. X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX) was used to analyze the elemental composition of the hydration products. The pH and the amount of leachate in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) were evaluated. A material that had optimal properties that satisfied set criteria and could replace MTA was selected. The microstructure of the prototype material and Portland cement used as a control was assessed after 30 days using SEM and atomic ratio diagrams of Al/Ca versus Si/Ca and S/Ca versus Al/Ca were plotted. The hydration products of Portland cement replaced with 30% zirconium oxide mixed at water/cement ratio of 0.3 were calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide and minimal amounts of ettringite and monosulphate. The calcium hydroxide leached in HBSS solution resulted in an increase in the pH value. The zirconium oxide acted as inert filler and exhibited no reaction with the hydration by-products of Portland

  2. Reliability and failure modes of implant-supported zirconium-oxide fixed dental prostheses related to veneering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Thompson, Van P.; Rekow, Elizabeth D.; Stappert, Christian F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives To compare fatigue failure modes and reliability of hand-veneered and over-pressed implant-supported three-unit zirconium-oxide fixed-dental-prostheses(FDPs). Methods Sixty-four custom-made zirconium-oxide abutments (n=32/group) and thirty-two zirconium-oxide FDP-frameworks were CAD/CAM manufactured. Frameworks were veneered with hand-built up or over-pressed porcelain (n=16/group). Step-stress-accelerated-life-testing (SSALT) was performed in water applying a distributed contact load at the buccal cusp-pontic-area. Post failure examinations were carried out using optical (polarized-reflected-light) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize crack propagation and failure modes. Reliability was compared using cumulative-damage step-stress analysis (Alta-7-Pro, Reliasoft). Results Crack propagation was observed in the veneering porcelain during fatigue. The majority of zirconium-oxide FDPs demonstrated porcelain chipping as the dominant failure mode. Nevertheless, fracture of the zirconium-oxide frameworks was also observed. Over-pressed FDPs failed earlier at a mean failure load of 696 ± 149 N relative to hand-veneered at 882 ± 61 N (profile I). Weibull-stress-number of cycles-unreliability-curves were generated. The reliability (2-sided at 90% confidence bounds) for a 400N load at 100K cycles indicated values of 0.84 (0.98-0.24) for the hand-veneered FDPs and 0.50 (0.82-0.09) for their over-pressed counterparts. Conclusions Both zirconium-oxide FDP systems were resistant under accelerated-life-time-testing. Over-pressed specimens were more susceptible to fatigue loading with earlier veneer chipping. PMID:21557985

  3. Modeling of mechanical behavior of quenched zirconium-based nuclear fuel claddings after a high temperature oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera-Salcedo, A.

    2012-01-01

    During the second stage of Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) zirconium-based fuel claddings undergo a high temperature oxidation (up to 1200 C), then a water quench. After a single-side steam oxidation followed by a direct quench, the cladding is composed of three layers: an oxide (Zirconia) outer layer (formed at HT), always brittle at Room Temperature (RT), an intermediate oxygen stabilized alpha layer, always brittle at RT, called alpha(O), and an inner 'prior-beta' layer, which is the only layer able to keep some significant Post Quench (PQ) ductility at RT. However, hydrogen absorbed because of service exposure or during the LOCA transient, concentrates in this layer and may leads to its embrittlement. To estimate the PQ mechanical properties of these materials, Ring Compression Tests (RCT) are widely used because of their simplicity. Small sample size makes RCTs advantageous when a comparison with irradiated samples is required. Despite their good reproducibility, these tests are difficult to interpret as they often present two or more load drops on the engineering load-displacement curve. Laboratories disagree about their interpretation. This study proposes an original fracture scenario for a stratified PQ cladding tested by RCT, and its associated FE model. Strong oxygen content gradient effect on layers mechanical properties is taken into account in the model. PQ thermal stresses resulting from water quench of HT oxidized cladding are investigated, as well as progressive damage of three layers during an RCT. The proposed scenario is based on interrupted RCT analysis, post- RCT sample's outer layers observation for damage evaluation, RCTs of prior-beta single-layer rings, and mechanical behavior of especially chemically adjusted samples. The force displacement curves appearance is correctly reproduced using the obtained FE model. The proposed fracture scenario elucidates RCTs of quenched zirconium-based nuclear fuel

  4. High performance solution processed zirconium oxide gate dielectric appropriate for low temperature device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Musarrat; Nguyen, Manh-Cuong; Kim, Hyojin; You, Seung-Won; Jeon, Yoon-Seok; Tong, Duc-Tai; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Choi, Rino, E-mail: rino.choi@inha.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    This paper reports a solution processed electrical device with zirconium oxide gate dielectric that was fabricated at a low enough temperature appropriate for flexible electronics. Both inorganic dielectric and channel materials were synthesized in the same organic solvent. The dielectric constant achieved was 13 at 250 °C with a reasonably low leakage current. The bottom gate transistor devices showed the highest mobility of 75 cm{sup 2}/V s. The device is operated at low voltage with high-k dielectric with excellent transconductance and low threshold voltage. Overall, the results highlight the potential of low temperature solution based deposition in fabricating more complicated circuits for a range of applications. - Highlights: • We develop a low temperature inorganic dielectric deposition process. • We fabricate oxide semiconductor channel devices using all-solution processes. • Same solvent is used for dielectric and oxide semiconductor deposition.

  5. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO_2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770 mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660 mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO_2. The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645 mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10–160 nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25 nM (based on 3S_b/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Graphical abstract: A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A composite electrode was prepared using nanoparticles of ZrO_2 and MWCNTs. • The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of terbutaline • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 2.25 nM. • The proposed electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long

  6. Experimental and numerical study of the effects of a nanocrystallisation treatment on high-temperature oxidation of a zirconium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panicaud, B.; Retraint, D.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.-L.; Li, L.; Guérain, M.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Kunz, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SMAT leads to a modification of surface properties of an M5 zirconium alloy (grain size and roughness. ► SMAT induces a change in the oxidation kinetics during high temperature oxidation. ► A diffusion model is able to reproduce kinetics and emphasise the consequences of SMAT on dissolution of oxygen in Zr. - Abstract: In the present work, the effects of a nanocrystallisation treatment on the high-temperature oxidation of a zirconium alloy are investigated. Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent process designed to nanocrystallise the surface of materials. The particular effects of this treatment on an M5 zirconium alloy are studied using different experimental techniques at several scales. This material is of considerable interest, especially to the nuclear industry where very stringent conditions apply. High temperature oxidation was performed in order to show the benefits of this type of nanocrystallisation on the corrosion resistance of the alloy concerned. Microstructure development mechanisms, which improve the oxidation resistance of zirconium alloys have been identified during high-temperature corrosion. Those mechanisms have been discussed in further detail in relation to numerical calculations concerning the oxidation kinetics.

  7. Oxidative stability of marine phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (MPL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). The objective...... of this study is to investigate the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of chemical composition of MPL and Maillard reaction (interaction between lipids oxidation products with the residue of amino acids) on MPL emulsions’ stability. Firstly, MPL were...... was further investigated through measurement of secondary volatile compounds by Solid Phase Microextraction at several time intervals. On the other hand, the Maillard reaction was investigated through the measurement of color changes and pyrrole content before and after 32 days storage. Preliminary result...

  8. Removal of methylene blue and rhodamine B from water by zirconium oxide/graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Rani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue (MB and rhodamine B dyes (RB were degraded from water using zirconium oxide (ZrO2 and zirconium oxide/graphene composites (ZrO2/GR as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic efficiency was calculated from absorption spectra obtained using UV–visible spectroscopy. It has been observed that photodegradation time as well as photocatalytic efficiency increase with the concentration of catalyst up to a certain limit after which effect was reversed. The degradation was studied as a function of pH also. It was found that photocatalytic efficiency was more in alkaline medium than acidic medium. Degradation of RB takes place at higher value of pH as compared to MB. The degradation time for MB was 1 h using ZrO2 which get reduced to 32 min using ZrO2/GR composite and for RB it reduced to 40 min (using ZrO2/GR from 80 min (ZrO2.

  9. Thermoluminescence of magnesium doped zirconium oxide (ZrO2:Mg) UV irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Montalvo, Teodoro; Furetta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The monitoring of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) different thermoluminescent (TL) materials have been used to measure UVR. UV dosimetry using thermoluminescence phenomena has been suggested in the past by several authors. This technique has an advantage over others methods due to the readout of the samples. Other advantages of these phosphors are their small size, portability, lack of any power requirements, linear response to increasing radiation dose and high sensitivity. Zirconium oxide, recently received full attention in view of their possible use as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), if doped with suitable activators, in radiation dosimetry. In the present investigation thermoluminescent (TL) properties of magnesium doped zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 :Mg) under ultraviolet radiation (UVR) were studied. The ZrO 2 :Mg powder of size 30-40 nm, having mono clinical structure, exhibit a thermoluminescent glow curve with one peak centered at 180 C degrees. The TL response of ZrO 2 :Mg as a function ultraviolet radiation exhibits four maxima centered at 230, 260, 310 and 350 nmn. TL response of ZrO 2 :Mg as a function of spectral irradiance of UV Light was linear in a wide range. Fading and reusability of the phosphor were also studied. The results showed that ZrO 2 :Mg nano powder has the potential to be used as a UV dosemeter in UVR dosimetry. (author)

  10. Kinetic study of Cs+ and Eu3+ ions sorption by zirconium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafi, H.A.; Hassan, H.S.; Hamed, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Zirconium oxide powder was chemically synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using infrared spectra and x-ray diffraction. The sorptive removal of cesium and europium ions from aqueous waste solution using synthetic zirconium oxide powder was investigated using batch technique. Experiments were carried out as a function of pH, time and temperature. The uptake of europium was found to be greater than that of cesium. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the sorption process of each ion was evaluated for the pseudo first order, the pseudo second order, and homogeneous particle diffusion kinetic models, respectively. The results showed that both the pseudo second order and the homogeneous particle diffusion models (HPDM) were found to best correlate the experimental rate data. The numerical values of the rate constants and particle diffusion coefficients were determined from the graphical representation of the proposed models. Activation energy (Ea) and entropy (Δ S*) of activation for each sorption process were also calculated from the linearized form of Arrhenius equation. (author)

  11. Analysis of the deconvolution of the thermoluminescent curve of the zirconium oxide doped with graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas C, P.; Estrada G, R.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Mendoza A, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical analysis of the behavior of the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) induced by gamma radiation in samples made of zirconium oxide doped with different amounts of graphite. In accordance with the results gamma radiation induces a Tl curve with two maximum of emission localized in the temperatures at 139 and 250 C, the area under the curve is increasing as a function of the time of exposition to the radiation. The analysis of curve deconvolution, in accordance with the theory which indicates that this behavior must be obey a Boltzmann distribution, we found that each one of them has a different growth velocity as the time of exposition increase. In the same way, we observed that after the irradiation was suspended each one of the maximum decrease with different velocity. The behaviour observed in the samples is very interesting because the zirconium oxide has attracted the interest of many research groups, this material has demonstrated to have many applications in thermoluminescent dosimetry and it can be used in the quantification of radiation. (Author)

  12. Dielectric properties of zirconium dioxide-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, O.S.; Gruzdev, A.I.; Koposova, Z.L.; Lyutsareva, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the dielectric properties of materials based on stabilized zirconium dioxide with Co 3 O 4 additions possessing a high temperature-coefficient of resistance. These materials are promising for manufacturing resistance temperature gages that work under an oxidizing atmosphere at 370-1270 degrees K. The obtained results indicate the possibility of developing temperature gases possessing highsensitivity from stabilized zirconium dioxide with Co 3 O 4 additions

  13. On the stabilization of niobium(V) solutions by zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as chloride and sulphate. This is ascribed to the co-polymerization of niobium(V) and the hydrolysed ionic species of zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) to form colloidal...

  14. Determination of the composition of surface optical layers prepared with the use of rare earth and zirconium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, V.T.; Shilova, L.P.; Shkol'nikova, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Simple titrimetric and gravimetric methods for determination of optical oxide layers (rare earth and zirconium oxides), sputtered on glass or quartz sublayer, have been developed. The minimal determined oxide mass in surface layers is equal to 0.01 mg in titrimetric determination and 0.1 mg - in gravimetric one. It is shown that composition of films and pellets, used for film sputtering, is identical

  15. High-resolution characterization of oxidation mechanism of zirconium nuclear fuel cladding alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Grovenor, C.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Zirconium alloys are used extensively as cladding materials in modern light water reactors to separate the uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel rods and the coolant water in order to prevent the escape of radioactive fission products whilst maintaining heat transfer to the coolant. With increasing demand for high burn-up in modern nuclear reactors, environmental degradation of these alloys is now the life limiting factor for fuel assemblies. As part of the MUZIC-2 collaboration studying oxidation and hydrogen pickup in Zr alloys, several high resolution analysis techniques have been used to study the microstructure of a range of commercial and developmental Zr alloys. The sample used for this investigation was prepared from a Westinghouse TM developmental alloy with composition of Zr-0.9Nb-0.01Sn-0.08Fe (wt %) in the recrystallized condition. The sample was oxidised in an autoclave at EDF Energy under simulated PWR water conditions at 360 C. degrees for 360 days. Using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), we have studied the development of the equiaxed-columnar-equiaxed grain structure, and observe that the columnar grains are both longer and show a stronger preferred texture in more corrosion-resistant alloys. Fresnel imaging revealed the existence of both parallel interconnected pores and some vertically interconnected pores along the columnar oxide grain boundaries, which become more disconnected near the metal-oxide interface. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) provided accurate quantitative analysis of the oxygen concentration across the interface, identifying the existence of local regions of stoichiometric ZrO and Zr 3 O 2 with varying thickness. These observations will be discussed in the context of current models for oxidation in zirconium alloys. (authors)

  16. Irradiation effects of the zirconium oxidation and the uranium diffusion in zirconia; Effets d'irradiation sur l'oxydation du zirconium et la diffusion de l'uranium dans la zircone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bererd, N

    2003-07-01

    The context of this study is the direct storage of spent fuel assemblies after operation in reactor. In order to obtain data on the capacities of the can as the uranium diffusion barrier, a fundamental study has been carried out for modelling the internal cladding surface under and without irradiation. The behaviour of zirconium in reactor conditions has at first been studied. A thin uranium target enriched with fissile isotope has been put on a zirconium sample, the set being irradiated by a thermal neutrons flux leading to the fission of the deposited uranium. The energetic history of the formed fission products has revealed two steps: 1)the zirconium oxidation and 2)the diffusion of uranium in the zirconia formed at 480 degrees C. A diffusion coefficient under irradiation has been measured. Its value is 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}.s{sup -1}. In order to be able to reveal clearly the effect of the irradiation by the fission products on the zirconium oxidation, measurements of thermal oxidation and under {sup 129}Xe irradiation have been carried out. They have shown that the oxidation is strongly accelerated by the irradiation and that the temperature is negligible until 480 degrees C. On the other hand, the thermal diffusion of the uranium in zirconium and in zirconia has been studied by coupling ion implantation and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. This study shows that the uranium diffuses in zirconium and is trapped in zirconia in a UO{sub 3} shape. (O.M.)

  17. In vitro adsorption of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid onto activated charcoal, resins and hydrous zirconium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Scholten, J.; de Koning, H. W.; Tijssen, J.; ten Hoopen, H. W.; Olthuis, F. M.; Feijen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Patients suffering from primary hyperoxaluria show elevated plasma concentrations of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid. The in vitro adsorption of these compounds into activated charcoal, a series of neutral and ion exchange resins and onto hydrous zirconium oxide has been investigated. Hydrous

  18. Weight of Polyethylene Wear Particles is Similar in TKAs with Oxidized Zirconium and Cobalt-chrome Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Shik; Huh, Wansoo; Lee, Kwang-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Background The greater lubricity and resistance to scratching of oxidized zirconium femoral components are expected to result in less polyethylene wear than cobalt-chrome femoral components. Questions/purposes We examined polyethylene wear particles in synovial fluid and compared the weight, size (equivalent circle diameter), and shape (aspect ratio) of polyethylene wear particles in knees with an oxidized zirconium femoral component with those in knees with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Patients and Methods One hundred patients received an oxidized zirconium femoral component in one knee and a cobalt-chrome femoral component in the other. There were 73 women and 27 men with a mean age of 55.6 years (range, 44–60 years). The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 5.5 years; range, 5–6 years). Polyethylene wear particles were analyzed using thermogravimetric methods and scanning electron microscopy. Results The weight of polyethylene wear particles produced at the bearing surface was 0.0223 ± 0.0054 g in 1 g synovial fluid in patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.0228 ± 0.0062 g in patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Size and shape of polyethylene wear particles were 0.59 ± 0.05 μm and 1.21 ± 0.24, respectively, in the patients with an oxidized zirconium femoral component and 0.52 ± 0.03 μm and 1.27 ± 0.31, respectively, in the patients with a cobalt-chrome femoral component. Knee Society knee and function scores, radiographic results, and complication rate were similar between the knees with an oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chrome femoral component. Conclusions The weight, size, and shape of polyethylene wear particles were similar in the knees with an oxidized zirconium and a cobalt-chrome femoral component. We found the theoretical advantages of this surface did not provide the actual advantage. Level of Evidence Level I, therapeutic study. See the guidelines for Authors for a complete

  19. Mid-term survivorship and clinical outcomes of cobalt-chrome and oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petis, Stephen M; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; Lanting, Brent A; Howard, James L; Naudie, Douglas D R; Somerville, Lyndsay E; McCalden, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    The choice of bearing articulation for total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is amenable to debate. We compared mid-term patient-reported outcomes and survivorship across 2 different bearing articulations in a young patient cohort. We reviewed patients with cobalt-chrome or oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene who were followed prospectively between 2004 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine predicted cumulative survivorship at 5 years with all-cause and aseptic revisions as the outcome. We compared patient-reported outcomes, including the Harris hip score (HHS), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short-form 12 (SF-12) scores. A total of 622 patients were followed during the study period. Mean follow-up was 8.2 (range 2.0-10.6) years for cobalt-chrome and 7.8 (range 2.1-10.7) years for oxidized zirconium. Mean age was 54.9 ± 10.6 years for cobalt-chrome and 54.8 ± 10.7 years for oxidized zirconium. Implant survivorship was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.9%-97.1%) for cobalt-chrome and 98.7% (95% CI 98.0%-99.4%) for oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene for all-cause revisions, and 97.2% (95% CI 96.2%-98.2%) for cobalt-chrome and 99.0% (95% CI 98.4%-99.6%) for oxidized zirconium for aseptic revisions. An age-, sex- and diagnosis-matched comparison of the HHS, WOMAC and SF-12 scores demonstrated no significant changes in clinical outcomes across the groups. Both bearing surface couples demonstrated excellent mid-term survivorship and outcomes in young patient cohorts. Future analyses on wear and costs are warranted to elicit differences between the groups at long-term follow-up.

  20. Oxidation kinetics of some zirconium alloys in flowing carbon dioxide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, R.

    1980-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of three zirconium alloys (Zr-2.2 wt% Hf, Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, and Zr-3 wt% Nb-1 wt% Sn) have been measured in flowing carbon dioxide in the temperature range from 873 to 1173 K to 120 ks (2000 min). At all oxidation temperatures, Zr-2.5 Nb and Zr-3 Nb-1 Sn showed a transition to rapid linear kinetics after initial parabolic oxidation. The Zr-2.2 Hf showed this transition at temperatures in the range from 973 to 1173 K; at 873 K, no transition was observed within the oxidation times reported. The Zr-2.2 Hf showed the smallest weight gains, followed in order by Zr-2.5 Nb and Zr-3 Nb-1 Sn. Increased oxidation rates and shorter times-to-rate-transition of Zr-2.2 Nb and Zr-1 Sn as compared with Zr-2.2 Hf can be attributed to the presence of niobium, tin, and hafnium in the alloys. This is considered in terms of the Nomura-Akutsu model, according to which hafnium should delay the rate transition, while niobium and tin lead to shorter times-to-rate-transition. The scale on Zr-2.2 Hf was identified as monoclinic zirconia, while the tetragonal phase, 6ZrO 2 .Nb 2 O 5 , was contained in the monoclinic zirconia scales on both other alloys

  1. Critical assessment of finite element analysis applied to metal–oxide interface roughness in oxidising zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, P., E-mail: Philip.Platt@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Frankel, P. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gass, M. [AMEC, Walton House, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    As a nuclear fuel cladding material, zirconium alloys act as a barrier between the fuel and pressurised steam or lithiated water environment. Controlling degradation mechanisms such as oxidation is essential to extending the in-service lifetime of the fuel. At temperatures of ∼360 °C zirconium alloys are known to exhibit cyclical, approximately cubic corrosion kinetics. With acceleration in the oxidation kinetics occurring every ∼2 μm of oxide growth, and being associated with the formation of a network of lateral cracks. Finite element analysis has been used previously to explain the lateral crack formation by the development of localised out-of-plane tensile stresses at the metal–oxide interface. This work uses the Abaqus finite element code to assess critically current approaches to representing the oxidation of zirconium alloys, with relation to undulations at the metal–oxide interface and localised stress generation. This includes comparison of axisymmetric and 3D quartered modelling approaches, and investigates the effect of interface geometry and plasticity in the metal substrate. Particular focus is placed on the application of the anisotropic strain tensor used to represent the oxidation mechanism, which is typically applied with a fixed coordinate system. Assessment of the impact of the tensor showed that 99% of the localised tensile stresses originated from the out-of-plane component of the strain tensor, rather than the in-plane expansion as was previously thought. Discussion is given to the difficulties associated with this modelling approach and the requirements for future simulations of the oxidation of zirconium alloys.

  2. Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, M.B.; Shenoi, M.R.K.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author)

  3. In Vivo Wear Performance of Cobalt-Chromium Versus Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Total Knee Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Teeter, Matthew G; Guenther, Leah E; Burnell, Colin D; Bohm, Eric R; Naudie, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the damage and wear on the polyethylene (PE) inserts from 52 retrieved Genesis II total knee replacements to identify differences in tribological performance between matched pairs of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral components. Observer damage scoring and microcomputed tomography were used to quantify PE damage and wear, respectively. No significant differences were found between CoCr and OxZr groups in terms of PE insert damage, surface penetration, or wear. No severe damage such as cracking or delamination was noted on any of the 52 PE inserts. Observer damage scoring did not correlate with penetrative or volumetric PE wear. The more costly OxZr femoral component does not demonstrate clear tribological benefit over the standard CoCr component in the short term with this total knee replacement design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, M B; Shenoi, M R.K.; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y_2O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 oxides and body-centered cubic Y_2O_3 oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 particles is much smaller than that of Y_2O_3. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10"2"3/m"3 with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time

  6. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-02-15

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y{sub 2}O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} oxides and body-centered cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} particles is much smaller than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10{sup 23}/m{sup 3} with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time.

  7. Concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste using sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, A. V.; Noskova, A. Y.; Gritskevich, E. Y.; Mashkovtsev, M. A.; Semenishchev, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of use of sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides (T-3A, T-35, NPF-HTD) for concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste of various chemical composition (fresh water, seawater, solutions containing NaNO3, ammonium acetate, EDTA) was evaluated. It was shown that the NPF-HTD and T-35 sorbents separate 137Cs from fresh water and seawater with distribution coefficients as high as 6.2.104 and 6.1.104, 4.0.105 and 1.6.105 L kg-1 respectively; in 1 M ammonium acetate these values were 2.0.103 and 1.0.103 L kg-1. The NPF-HTD sorbent showed the highest selectivity for cesium in NaNO3 solution: cesium distribution coefficients in 1M NaNO3 was 1.4.106 L kg-1. All studied sorbents are suitable for deactivation of solutions containing EDTA. Cesium distribution coefficients were around 102-103 L kg-1 depending on EDTA concentration. Chemical stability of the sorbents was also studied. It was shown that 137Cs leaching rate from all sorbents meet the requirements for matrix materials.

  8. Zirconium(IV) oxide: New coating material for nanoresonators for shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Abdulrahman, Heman Burhanalden; Kołątaj, Karol; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    One tool that can be used for determining the structure and composition of surfaces of various materials (even in in situ conditions) is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). In SHINERS measurements, the surface under investigation is covered with a layer of surface-protected plasmonic nanoparticles, and then the Raman spectrum of the surface analysed is recorded. The plasmonic cores of the used core-shell structures act as electromagnetic nanoresonators, significantly locally enhancing the intensity of the electric field of the incident radiation, leading to a large increase in the efficiency of the generation of the Raman signal from molecules in the close proximity to the deposited SHINERS nanoresonators. A protective layer (from transparent dielectrics such as SiO2, Al2O3 or TiO2) prevents direct interaction between the plasmonic metal and the analysed surface (such interactions may lead to changes in the structure of the surface) and, in the case of plasmonic cores other than gold cores, the dielectric layer increases the chemical stability of the metal core. In this contribution, we show for the first time that core-shell nanoparticles having a silver core (both a solid and hollow one) and a shell of zirconium(IV) oxide are very efficient SHINERS nanoresonators that are significantly more stable in acidic and alkaline media than the silver-silica core-shell structures typically used for SHINERS experiments.

  9. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO2. The ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10-160nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25nM (based on 3Sb/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment influence on radiation-catalytic activity of zirconium during water decomposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.; Aliyev, A.G.; Agayev, T.N.; Aliyev, S.M.; Velibekova, G.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The study of physical-chemical processes proceeding in contact of metal constructional materials nuclear reactors with water at simultaneous influence of temperature and radiation represents the large interest at the decision of problems material authority and safety of work of nuclear -power installations [1-2]. One of the widely widespread materials of active zone nuclear reactors is metal zirconium and its alloys. The influence of preliminary radiation processing on radiation, radiation -thermal and thermal processes of accumulation of molecular hydrogen and oxidation zirconium in contact with water is investigated at T=673 K and ρ=5mg/sm 3 [3-4]. Initial samples zirconium previously has been exposed by an irradiation in medium H 2 O 2 at D=20-410 kGy. The contribution of radiation processes in these contacts in process thermo-radiation decomposition of water and oxidation of materials of zirconium is revealed. It is established that the interaction of Zr metal, preliminary treated by radiation, with water at radiation -heterogeneous processes leads to passivity of a surface. The rate meanings of thermal, radiation -thermal processes and radiation-chemical yields of hydrogen are determined. It is revealed, that at radiation-heterogeneous processes in system Zr +H 2 O (ρ =5mg/sm 3 T=673 K) the increase of the absorbed doze up to 123 kGy results to reduction of a radiation -chemical yield of molecular hydrogen. The further increase of the absorbed doze results to increase of a radiation -chemical yield of hydrogen. The observable effect at the preliminary radiation of zirconium is connected to formation of oxide phase on a surface. The mechanism of radiation -heterogeneous processes proceeding in system Zr+H 2 O is suggested. (author)

  11. Annealing of a ferritic stainless steel 409 stabilized with titanium and zirconium additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano, P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferritic stainless steel 409 stabilized with titanium and zirconium was subject to thermomechanical processing. It was heated at 1210 °C for one hour, followed by a 75 % hot reduction in three passes, this rolling schedule ended at 980 °C. Samples were cooled to 600 °C by water spraying followed by air-cooling. The alloy was pickled, and was reduced 80 % by cold rolling. The alloy was annealed at different temperatures for 105 s. Additional annealing treatments were carried out at temperatures of 800, 850 and 900 °C for different times. Mechanical testing and texture were made to corroborate the degree of annealing and formability. Mechanical properties and Texture analyses showed that the alloy annealed at 850 °C for 14 min was both completely recrystallized and a very good formability.

    Un acero inoxidable ferrítico 409 estabilizado con titanio y zirconio fue sujeto a procesos termomecánicos. El acero fue calentado a 1210 ºC durante una hora, seguido por un laminado en caliente del 75 % en tres pases, el proceso terminó a los 980 ºC. Las muestras fueron enfriadas hasta 600 ºC por agua atomizada seguido de enfriamiento al aire. La aleación fue decapada y laminada en frío un 80 %. Posteriormente de desarrollaron tratamientos térmicos de recocido a diferentes temperaturas por un tiempo de 105 s. Adicionalmente se desarrollaron tratamientos de recocido a temperaturas de 800, 850 y 900 ºC a diferentes tiempos. Pruebas mecánicas y textura fueron realizadas para corroborar el grado de recocido y su formalidad. El análisis de las propiedades mecánicas y la Textura mostraron que la aleación recocida a 850 ºC por 14 min (840 s fue completamente recristalizada obteniendo la mejor formabilidad.

  12. Bond strength of selected composite resin-cements to zirconium-oxide ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fons-Font, Antonio; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente; Granell-Ruiz, María; Busquets-Mataix, David; Panadero, Rubén A.; Solá-Ruiz, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strengths of zirconium-oxide (zirconia) ceramic and a selection of different composite resin cements. Study Design: 130 Lava TM cylinders were fabricated. The cylinders were sandblasted with 80 µm aluminium oxide or silica coated with CoJet Sand. Silane, and bonding agent and/or Clearfil Ceramic Primer were applied. One hundred thirty composite cement cylinders, comprising two dual-polymerizing (Variolink II and Panavia F) and two autopolymerizing (Rely X and Multilink) resins were bonded to the ceramic samples. A shear test was conducted, followed by an optical microscopy study to identify the location and type of failure, an electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) and statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test for more than two independent samples and Mann-Whitney for two independent samples. Given the large number of combinations, Bonferroni correction was applied (α=0.001). Results: Dual-polymerizing cements provided better adhesion values (11.7 MPa) than the autopolymerizing (7.47 MPa) (p-value M-Wzirconium-oxide ceramic, creating a more rough and retentive surface, thus providing an improved micromechanical interlocking between the cement and the ceramic. Key words:Shear bond strength, silica coating, surface treatment, zirconia ceramics, phosphate monomer. PMID:22926485

  13. Effect of surface treatment and type of cement on push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almufleh, Balqees S; Aleisa, Khalil I; Morgano, Steven M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of the surface treatment of zirconium oxide posts on their push-out bond strength is controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 surface treatments on the bond strength of zirconium oxide posts cemented with different cements and to assess the failure mode. Seventy extracted human teeth were divided into 7 groups (n=10). Custom zirconium oxide posts (Cercon; Degudent) were fabricated for 6 groups. Posts in 3 groups were airborne-particle abraded (A). Posts in the other 3 groups were tribochemical silica coated (T). Three cements were used. Zinc phosphate cement was used to cement the zirconium oxide posts in groups AZ and TZ, RelyX ARC cement was used in groups ARA and TRA, and RelyX Unicem cement was used in groups ARU and TRU. Group C contained custom metal posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement. Specimens were horizontally sectioned into 3 sections and subjected to a push-out test. A mixed model analysis of variance, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey multiple comparison tests were used for statistical analysis. The highest push-out bond strength was recorded for Group ARU (21.03 MPa), and the lowest was recorded for Group ARA (7.57 MPa). No significant difference in push-out bond strength was found among the different surface treatments and root regions (P>.05). The type of cement had a significant effect on the push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts (P=.049). RelyX Unicem cement recorded (19.57 ±8.83 MPa) significantly higher push-out bond strength compared with zinc phosphate (9.95 ±6.31 MPa) and RelyX ARC cements (9.39 ±5.45 MPa). Adhesive failure at the post-cement interface was recorded for 75% of the posts cemented with zinc phosphate and RelyX ARC cements, while mixed failure was recorded for 75% of the posts cemented with RelyX Unicem cement. The type of cement used resulted in a statistically significant difference in the push-out bond strength of zirconium oxide posts, while both the surface treatment

  14. Zr{sub 2}N{sub 2}Se. The first zirconium(IV) nitride selenide by the oxidation of zirconium(III) nitride with selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissner, Falk; Hack, Bettina; Schleid, Thomas [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Lerch, Martin [Institute for Chemistry, Technical University of Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The oxidation of zirconium(III) nitride (ZrN) with suitable amounts of selenium (Se) in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) as flux yields small yellow brownish platelets of the first zirconium(IV) nitride selenide with the composition Zr{sub 2}N{sub 2}Se. The new compound crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (no. 194) with a = 363.98(2) pm, c = 1316.41(9) pm (c/a = 3.617) and two formula units per unit cell. The crystallographically unique Zr{sup 4+} cations are surrounded by three selenide and four nitride anions in the shape of a capped trigonal antiprism. The Se{sup 2-} anions are coordinated by six Zr{sup 4+} cations as trigonal prism and the N{sup 3-} anions reside in tetrahedral surrounding of Zr{sup 4+} cations. These [NZr{sub 4}]{sup 13+} tetrahedra become interconnected via three edges each to form {sup 2}{sub ∞}{[(NZr_4_/_4)_2]"2"+} double layers parallel to the (001) plane, which are held together by monolayers of Se{sup 2-} anions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahedi, K.; Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L.; Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) = 20.12 x 10 -12 (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  16. The influence of adding modified zirconium oxide-titanium dioxide nano-particles on mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesive: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Felemban, Nayef H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this in-vitro study was to examine the effect of incorporating different concentrations of Zirconium oxide-Titanium dioxide (ZrO2-TiO2) nanoparticles, which can have antibacterial properties, on the mechanical properties of an orthodontic adhesive. Methods ZrO2-TiO2 (Zirconium oxide, HWNANO, Hongwu International Group Ltd, China) -Titanium dioxide, Nanoshell, USA) nanopowder were incorporated into orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT, 3?M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) with di...

  17. Reactive removal of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide vapors under visible light irradiation by cerium oxide modified highly porous zirconium (hydr) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Joshua K.; Arcibar-Orozco, Javier A.; Bandosz, Teresa J., E-mail: tbandosz@ccny.cuny.edu

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Microporous zirconium-cerium (hydr) oxides were synthetized. • Ce presence narrowed the band gap of the materials. • The samples showed a high efficiency for removal of CEES vapors. • 1,2-Bis (ethyl thio) ethane and ethyl vinyl sulfide were the main reaction products. • 5% (Ce/Zr mol) addition of cerium oxide results in the best performing material. - Abstract: Highly porous cerium oxide modified Zr(OH){sub 4} samples were synthesized using a simple one stage urea precipitation method. The amorphicity level of zirconium hydroxide did not change upon addition of cerium oxide particles. A unique aspect of the cerium oxide-modified materials is the presence of both the oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and hydroxide (Zr(OH){sub 4}) phases resulting in a unique microporous structure of the final material. Extensive characterization using various chemical and physical methods revealed significant differences in the surface features. All synthesized materials were microporous and small additions of cerium oxide affected the surface chemistry. These samples were found as effective catalysts for a decontamination of mustard gas surrogate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Cerium oxide addition significantly decreased the band gap of zirconium hydroxide. Ethyl vinyl sulfide and 1,2-bis (Ethyl thio) ethane were identified as surface reaction products.

  18. Silica-gel modified with zirconium oxide as a novel 99Mo adsorbent 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, H.; Mollarazi, E.; Abbasi, H.

    2010-01-01

    A new 99 Mo adsorbent has been prepared with modified silica gel with zirconium oxide (SiO 2 /ZrO 2 :Na 2 MoO 4 ) and used in technetium-99m generator. The adsorption behaviors of 99 Mo in the form of molybdate and 99m Tc in the form of pertechnetate on the new adsorbent was investigated showed that the adsorption capacity of molybdate on this generator was considerably higher than the usual generator with alumina column. Coating zirconium oxide on the surface of silica gel resulted in higher 99 Mo adsorption of this compound. 99m Tc is eluted with 0.9% NaCl, and the radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities of the eluate were checked. This generator has a great potential as compared to the traditional alumina generators.

  19. Evolution of zirconium-based precipitates during oxidation and irradiation of Zr alloys (impact on the oxidation kinetics of Zr alloys)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecheur, Dominique

    1993-01-01

    As the oxidation of the zircaloy sheath is one of the factors which limit the lifetime of nuclear fuel rods, this research thesis aims at a better knowledge of the involved oxidation mechanisms and to improve the oxidation resistance in order to increase rod lifetime. Oxidation test performed in autoclave to study zirconium alloy oxidation without irradiation showed that oxidation kinetics is significantly higher under irradiation. This difference is attributed to a different evolution of the sheath material under irradiation. Thus, this research focused on the role of precipitates in the oxidation process of zirconium alloys, and on the impact of their amorphization on this oxidation. After a detailed description of the context and of the various implemented experimental means, the author presents the results obtained on a reference material on the one hand, and on a material irradiated by ions or neutrons on the other hand. More particularly, the author studied in these both cases the introduction of precipitates in the oxide layer by transmission electronic microscopy, and oxidation kinetics obtained in autoclave on these two types of material. He reports the analysis of the introduction of precipitates in the oxide layer formed on the reference material. He proposes interpretations for the evolutions of structure and of chemical compositions of precipitates in the oxide layer. These observations are then correlated with oxidation kinetics in these alloys. Finally, the author discusses results of oxidation tests obtained on materials irradiated by ions and by neutrons [fr

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of zirconium alloys in pre-transition and post-transition kinetic regimes at corrosion in electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkov, A.A.; Shavshin, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    With the aim of investigation on oxidation of zirconium alloys (Zr+2.5% Nb) the critical thickness of beginning of spalling of froming oxide films in HCl and NHO 3 aqueous solutions was evaluated by coulometry with accelerated procedure. Some variants of predeposition of modificated oxide coatings are proposed increase pre-transition regime time and to decrease corrosion during post-transition regime. Increase in agressivity of solutions (addition of 1 vol.% HF) and UV irradiation are found to increase 3-4 times pre-transition period

  1. A Review of Nanoscale Channel and Gate Engineered FINFETs for VLSI Mixed Signal Applications Using Zirconium-di-Oxide Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Nirmal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, most of the research and development efforts in the area of CMOS and IC’s are oriented towards reducing the power and increasing the gain of the circuits. While focusing the attention on low power and high gain in the device, the materials of the device also been taken into consideration. In the present technology, Computationally intensive devices with low power dissipation and high gain are becoming a critical application domain. Several factors have contributed to this paradigm shift. The primary driving factor being the increase in scale of integration, the chip has to accommodate smaller and faster transistors than their predecessors. During the last decade semiconductor technology has been led by conventional scaling. Scaling, has been aimed towards higher speed, lower power and higher density of the semiconductor devices. However, as scaling approached its physical limits, it has become more difficult and challenging for fabrication industry. Therefore, tremendous research has been carried out to investigate the alternatives, and this led to the introduction of new Nano materials and concepts to overcome the difficulties in the device fabrications. In order to reduce the leakage current and parasitic capacitance in devices, gate oxide high-k dielectric materials are explored. Among the different high-k materials available the nano size Zirconium dioxide material is suggested as an alternate gate oxide material for devices due to its thermal stability and small grain size of material. To meet the requirements of ITRS roadmap 2012, the Multi gate devices are considered to be one of the most promising technologies for the future microelectronics industry due to its excellent immunity to short channel effects and high value of On current. The double gate or multi gate devices provide a better scalability option due to its excellent immunity to short-channel effects. Here the different high-k materials are replaced in different

  2. Solubilities and stabilities of zirconium species in aqueous solutions: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkalla, E.N.; Choppin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes specific chemical properties of zirconium compounds in water. The information sources were published reports rather than experimental data. The information is reviewed as a comprehensive, descriptive report. Included as a supplement is a proposal for funding to study carbon-14 in the Palo Duro Basin repository. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Performance of magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticle in the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chang; Li, Yongqiu; Wang, Fenghua; Yu, Zhigang; Wei, Jingjing; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Li, Zihao; Xu, ZiYi; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticle (MZION) was successfully synthesized. • The removal of phosphate could be effectively fulfilled using MZION. • MZION could be conveniently separated by magnet after adsorption. • The Fe/Zr molar ratios played a key role in adsorption capacity and magnetic separation. - Abstract: In this study, magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticles (MZION) of different Fe/Zr molar ratios were successfully prepared using the co-precipitation method, and their performance for phosphate removal was systematically evaluated. The as-obtained adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and co-existing ions (including Cl − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − and HCO 3 − ) were measured to evaluate the adsorption performance in batch experiments. The results showed that decreasing the Fe/Zr molar ratios increased the specific surface area that was propitious to adsorption process, but the adsorption capacity enhanced with the decrease of Fe/Zr molar ratios. Phosphate adsorption on MZION could be well described by the Freundlich equilibrium model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent and decreased with increasing pH from 1.5 to 10.0. The adsorption was slightly affected by ionic strength. With the exception of HCO 3 − , co-existing anions showed minimum or no effect on their adsorption performance. After adsorption, phosphate on these MZION could be easily desorbed by 0.1 M NaOH solution. The phosphate adsorption mechanism of MZION followed the inner-sphere complexing mechanism, and the surface −OH groups played a significant role in the phosphate adsorption. Additionally, the main advantages of MZION consisted in its

  4. Performance of magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticle in the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chang, E-mail: zhangchang@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Yongqiu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Fenghua, E-mail: 952157786@qq.com [Institute of Physical Education, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi 830054 (China); Yu, Zhigang; Wei, Jingjing; Yang, Zhongzhu; Ma, Chi; Li, Zihao; Xu, ZiYi; Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticle (MZION) was successfully synthesized. • The removal of phosphate could be effectively fulfilled using MZION. • MZION could be conveniently separated by magnet after adsorption. • The Fe/Zr molar ratios played a key role in adsorption capacity and magnetic separation. - Abstract: In this study, magnetic zirconium-iron oxide nanoparticles (MZION) of different Fe/Zr molar ratios were successfully prepared using the co-precipitation method, and their performance for phosphate removal was systematically evaluated. The as-obtained adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and co-existing ions (including Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to evaluate the adsorption performance in batch experiments. The results showed that decreasing the Fe/Zr molar ratios increased the specific surface area that was propitious to adsorption process, but the adsorption capacity enhanced with the decrease of Fe/Zr molar ratios. Phosphate adsorption on MZION could be well described by the Freundlich equilibrium model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent and decreased with increasing pH from 1.5 to 10.0. The adsorption was slightly affected by ionic strength. With the exception of HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, co-existing anions showed minimum or no effect on their adsorption performance. After adsorption, phosphate on these MZION could be easily desorbed by 0.1 M NaOH solution. The phosphate adsorption mechanism of MZION followed the inner-sphere complexing mechanism, and the surface −OH groups played a significant role in the phosphate adsorption. Additionally, the main

  5. No difference in in vivo polyethylene wear particles between oxidized zirconium and cobalt-chromium femoral component in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Yukihide; Hata, Kanako; Iwaki, Hiroyoshi; Ikebuchi, Mitsuhiko; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inori, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    Polyethylene wear particle generation is one of the most important factors affecting mid- to long-term results of total knee arthroplasties. Oxidized zirconium was introduced as a material for femoral components to reduce polyethylene wear generation. However, an in vivo advantage of oxidized zirconium on polyethylene wear particle generation is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo polyethylene wear particles between oxidized zirconium total knee prosthesis and conventional cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) total knee prosthesis. Synovial fluid was obtained from the knees of 6 patients with oxidized zirconium total knee prosthesis and from 6 patients with conventional cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) total knee prosthesis 12 months after the operation. Polyethylene particles were isolated and examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analyser. Total number of particles in each knee was 3.3 ± 1.3 × 10(7) in the case of oxidized zirconium (mean ± SD) and 3.4 ± 1.2 × 10(7) in that of Co-Cr (n.s.). The particle size (equivalent circle diameter) was 0.8 ± 0.3 μm in the case of oxidized zirconium and 0.6 ± 0.1 μm in that of Co-Cr (n.s.). The particle shape (aspect ratio) was 1.4 ± 0.0 in the case of oxidized zirconium and 1.4 ± 0.0 in that of metal Co-Cr (n.s). Although newly introduced oxidized zirconium femoral component did not reduce the in vivo polyethylene wear particles in early clinical stage, there was no adverse effect of newly introduced material. At this moment, there is no need to abandon oxidized zirconium femoral component. However, further follow-up of polyethylene wear particle generation should be performed to confirm the advantage of the oxidized zirconium femoral component. Therapeutic study, Level III.

  6. Layer-by-layer deposition of zirconium oxide films from aqueous solutions for friction reduction in silicon-based microelectromechanical system devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junfu; Nistorica, Corina; Gory, Igor; Skidmore, George; Mantiziba, Fadziso M.; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    This work reports layer-by-layer deposition of zirconium oxide on a Si surface from aqueous solutions using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. The process consists of repeated cycles of adsorption of zirconium precursors, water rinse, and hydrolysis. The film composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film thickness was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by measuring the Zr atom concentration. The average deposition rate from a 0.1 M Zr(SO 4 ) 2 solution on a SiO 2 /Si surface is 0.62 nm per cycle. Increasing the acidity of the zirconium precursor solution inhibits the deposition of the zirconium oxide film. Atomic force microscopy shows that the zirconium oxide film consists of nanoparticles of 10-50 nm in the lateral dimension. The surface roughness increased with increasing number of deposition cycles. Friction measurements made with a microelectromechanical system device reveal a reduction of 45% in the friction coefficient of zirconium oxide-coated surfaces vs. uncoated surfaces in air

  7. Role of temperature and energy density in the pulsed laser deposition of zirconium oxide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittra, Joy; Abraham, G.J.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Kulkarni, U.D.; Dey, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Present work brings out the effects of energy density and substrate temperature on pulsed laser deposition of zirconium oxide thin film on Zr-base alloy substrates. The ablation of sintered zirconia has been carried out using a KrF excimer laser having 30 ns pulse width and 600 mJ energy at source at 10 Hz repetition rate. To comprehend effects of these parameters on the synthesized thin film, pure zirconia substrate has been ablated at two different energy densities, 2 J.cm -2 and 5 J.cm -2 , keeping the substrate at 300 K, 573 K and 873 K, respectively. After visual observation, deposited thin films have been examined using Raman Spectroscopy (RS) and X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy (XPS). It has been found that the oxide deposited at 300 K temperature does not show good adherence with the substrate and deteriorates further with the reduction in energy density of the incident laser. The oxide films, deposited at 573 K and 873 K, have been found to be adherent with the substrate and appear lustrous black. These indicate that the threshold for adherence of the zirconia film on the Zr-base alloy substrate lies in between 300 K and 573 K. Analysis of Raman spectra has indicated that thin films of zirconia, deposited using pulsed laser, on the Zr-base metallic substrate are initially in amorphous state. Experimental evidence has indicated a strong link among the degree of crystallinity of the deposited oxide film, the substrate temperature and the energy density. It also has shown that the crystallization of the oxide film is dependent on the substrate temperature and the duration of holding at high temperature. The O:Zr ratios of the films, analyzed from the XPS data, have been found to be close to but less than 2. This appears to explain the reason for the transformation of amorphous oxide into monoclinic and tetragonal phases, below 573 K, and not into cubic phase, which is reported to be more oxygen deficient. (author)

  8. Fabrication of a Biomass-Based Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite for Preferable Phosphate Removal and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hui; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Mindong; Zhao, Yunxia; Tao, Tao; Xu, Zhengwen; Liu, Gang

    2015-09-23

    Advanced removal of phosphate by low-cost adsorbents from municipal wastewater or industrial effluents is an effective and economic way to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication. Here, we proposed a novel method to immobilize hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticle within quaternary-aminated wheat straw, and obtained an inexpensive, eco-friendly nanocomposite Ws-N-Zr. The biomass-based Ws-N-Zr exhibited higher preference toward phosphate than commercial anion exchanger IRA-900 when competing sulfate ions coexisted at relatively high levels. Such excellent performance of Ws-N-Zr resulted from its specific hybrid structure, the quaternary ammonium groups bonded on the host favor the preconcentration of phosphate ions inside the wheat straw based on Donnan effect, and the encapsulated HZO nanoparticle exhibits preferable sequestration of phosphate ions through specific interaction, as further demonstrated by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cycle adsorption and regeneration experiments demonstrated that Ws-N-Zr could be employed for repeated use without significant capacity loss, when the binary NaOH-NaCl solution was employed as the regenerant. The influence of solution pH and contact time was also examined. The results suggested that Ws-N-Zr has a great potential in efficient removal of phosphate in contaminated waters.

  9. Thermoluminescence of zirconium oxide nanostructured to mammography X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, L.L. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Roman, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Av. San Rafael Atlixco 187, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gaona, E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. Calz. Del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work thermoluminescent (TL) response of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) nanostructured induced by mammography X-ray radiation was investigated. Measurements were made of the response per unit air kerma of ZrO{sub 2} with mammography equipment parameters (semiautomatic exposure control, 24 kVp and 108 mAs). The calibration curves were obtained by simultaneously irradiating ZrO{sub 2} samples and ion chamber. Samples of ZrO{sub 2} showed a linear response as a function of entrance skin air kerma. The observed results in TL properties suggest that ZrO{sub 2} nanostructured could be considered as an effective material for X-ray beams dosimetry if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray low energy thermoluminescent of ZrO{sub 2} dosimeter is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air kerma measurements were made by thermoluminescent dosimeter ZrO{sub 2} using mammography equipment parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Entrance surface skin doses were made using thermoluminescent dosimeter of ZrO{sub 2} to X-ray beam quality control.

  10. Thermoluminescence of zirconium oxide nanostructured to mammography X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, L.L.; Rivera, T.; Roman, J.; Azorín, J.; Gaona, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work thermoluminescent (TL) response of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) nanostructured induced by mammography X-ray radiation was investigated. Measurements were made of the response per unit air kerma of ZrO 2 with mammography equipment parameters (semiautomatic exposure control, 24 kVp and 108 mAs). The calibration curves were obtained by simultaneously irradiating ZrO 2 samples and ion chamber. Samples of ZrO 2 showed a linear response as a function of entrance skin air kerma. The observed results in TL properties suggest that ZrO 2 nanostructured could be considered as an effective material for X-ray beams dosimetry if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. - Highlights: ► X-ray low energy thermoluminescent of ZrO 2 dosimeter is developed. ► Air kerma measurements were made by thermoluminescent dosimeter ZrO 2 using mammography equipment parameters. ► Entrance surface skin doses were made using thermoluminescent dosimeter of ZrO 2 to X-ray beam quality control.

  11. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Zirconium Alloy with Nano structured Oxide Layer in Air Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, J. W.; Cho, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    If the temperature of the cladding materials increases above 1000 .deg. C, which can be caused by a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), Zr becomes an auto-oxidation catalyst and hence produces a huge amount of hydrogen gas from water. Therefore, many investigations are being carried out to prevent (or reduce) the hydrogen production from Zr-based cladding materials in the nuclear reactors. Our team has developed an anodization technique by which nanostructured oxide can be formed on various flat metallic elements such as Al, Ti, and Zr-based alloy. Anodization is a simple electrochemical technique and requires only a power supply and an electrolyte. In this study, Zr-based alloys with nanostructured oxide layers were oxidized by using Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and compared with the pristine one. It reveals that the nanostructured oxide layer can prevent oxidation of substrate metal in air. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA). In comparison with the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy, weight gain of the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer is lower than 10% even for 12 hours oxidation in air.

  12. Influence of preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in conditions of action of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A. A.; Aliyev, A. G.; Agayev, T. N.; Velibekova, G. Z.

    2004-01-01

    Today mainly water-cooled nuclear reactors predominate in atomic energetics. For safe work of nuclear reactors detection of accumulation process of explosives, formed during radiation and temperature influence on heat-carriers in contact with materials of nuclear reactors in normal and emergency regimes of work is of great importance. The main sources of molecular hydrogen formation in normal and emergency regimes are the processes of liquid and vaporous water in vapo metallic reaction [1-5]. At the result of these processes molecular hydrogen concentration in heat-carrier composition always exceeds theoretically expected concentration. One of the main ways to solve the problem of water-cooled reactors safety is detection of possibilities to raise material resistance of fuel elements and heat carrier to joint action of ionizing radiation and temperature. The second way is inhibition of radiation-catalytic activity of construction materials' surface during the process of water decomposition. It's been established, that one of the ways to raise resistance of zirconium materials to the influence of ionizing radiation is formation of thin oxide film on the surface of metals. In the given work the influence of preliminary oxidizing treatment of zirconium surface on its radiation-catalytic activity during the process of water decomposition. With this aim zirconium is exposed to preliminary influence of gamma-quantum in contact with hydrogen peroxide at different meanings of absorbed radiation dose

  13. About the structure and stability of complex carbonates of thorium (IV), cerium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of complex carbonates of cations of metals belonging to the IV A column, i.e. thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV), and also cerium (IV) and uranium (VI), and more particularly focused on ionic compounds formed in solution, and also on the influence of concentration and nature of cations on stability and nature of the formed solid. The author first presents methods used in this study, discusses their precision and scope of validity. She reports the study of the formation of different complex ions which have been highlighted in solution, and the determination of their formation constants. She reports the preparation and study of the stability domain of solid complexes. The next part reports the use of thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectrometry, and crystallography for the structural study of these compounds

  14. Zirconium oxide deposits (ZrO2) and titanium oxide (TiO2) on 304l stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila N, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    This research project aims to carry out the surface and electrochemical characterization to obtain the optimum conditions of the hydrothermal deposits of zirconium oxide ZrO 2 (baddeleyite) and titanium oxide TiO 2 (anatase and rutile phases) on 304l stainless steel, simulating an inhibiting protective layer. 304l steel specimens were cut, pre-oxidized in water at a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and 8 MPa, similar to those of a typical BWR conditions. From the titanium oxide anatase crystalline phase, the rutile phase was obtained by a heat treatment at 1000 degrees Celsius. The Sigma-Aldrich pre-oxidized powders and steel 304l were characterized using techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, chemical mapping and Raman spectrometry. The pre-oxidized steel has two oxide layers, an inner layer with nano metric crystals and another outer of larger crystals to 1μm, with the formation of hematite and magnetite, this predominating. The surface that contacted the sample holder has larger crystals. Hydrothermal deposits were carry out from suspensions of 10, 100 and 1000 ppm, of the crystal phases of anatase, rutile and baddeleyite, on the pre-oxidized steel at a temperature of 150 degrees Celsius for 2 and 7 days, samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, Raman spectrometry and Tafel polarization. The suspension to 1000 ppm for 7 days coated surface most; the baddeleyite deposit is noticed more homogeneous than anatase and rutile. The deposit is favored when hematite and magnetite crystals are larger. The chemical mapping on deposits show that even after being immersed in water to 288 degrees Celsius during 30 days, the deposits are still present although a loss is observed. A reference electrode was assembled to conduct electrochemical tests of Tafel able to withstand a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and pressure of 8 MPa. The baddeleyite deposit presented

  15. Zirconium titanate: stability and thermal expansion; Titanato de circonio: estabilidad termodinamica y expansion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Lopez, E.; Moreno, R.; Baudin, C.

    2011-07-01

    Zirconium titanate is a well known compound in the field of electro ceramics, although it has also been used in catalyst and sensors applications. The crystallographic thermal expansion anisotropy of this compound makes it a potential candidate as constituent of structural components. In general, to assure the structural integrity and microstructural homogeneity of a ceramic piece, relatively low cooling rates from the fabrication temperature are required. This requirement is essential for zirconium titanate because thermal expansion as well as phase distribution is affected by small variations in the composition and cooling rate. This work reviews the available data on the phase equilibrium relationships in the systems ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The main discrepancies as well as the possible origins of them are discussed. Additionally, the crystallographic thermal expansion data in the current literature are reviewed. (Author) 56 refs.

  16. Effects of Oxidation and fractal surface roughness on the wettability and critical heat flux of glass-peened zirconium alloy tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, R.W.L.; Nitheanandan, T.; Bullock, C.D.; Slater, L.F.; McRae, G.A.

    2003-05-01

    Glass-bead peening the outside surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes has been shown to increase the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of water. The CHF is found to correlate with the fractal roughness of the metal tube surfaces. In this study on the effect of oxidation on glass-peened surfaces, test measurements for CHF, surface wettability and roughness have been evaluated using various glass-peened and oxidized zirconium alloy tubes. The results show that oxidation changes the solid-liquid contact angle (i.e., decreases wettability of the metal-oxide surface), but does not change the fractal surface roughness, appreciably. Thus, oxidation of the glass-peened surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes is not expected to degrade the CHF enhancement obtained by glass-bead peening. (author)

  17. [Advantages and disadvantages of applying yttrium stabilized zirconium-dioxide post and core restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétercsák, Anita; Radics, Tünde; Hegedus, Csaba

    2014-03-01

    Full ceramic restorations are associated with metal free post and core prosthodontics for teeth with seriously destroyed clinical crowns. Using custom made zirconium-dioxide post and cores can be flattering not only to give a good aesthetic result, but also to provide excellent retention. As none of the post systems stands all demands, prudent planning is mandatory. Our paper deals with favourable and unfavourable conditions as well as common causes of failures of post and core restorations. We took morphological, esthetical and functional considerations that can help to achieve the best results. Amongst them individual anatomic constitution, shape, width and length of the root and root canal, shape of the clinical crown, direction and magnitude of chewing forces are the most important factors. To give examples we present two cases of zirconium-dioxide post and core restorations. In our first case the missing clinical crown and a too wide root canal entrance created a questionable prognosis. To minimize adverse effect of the missing ferrule effect we applied custom-made zirconium-dioxide post and core and an additional abutment. After 7 years the restoration is still functioning. The second case represented a much favourable situation with 1,5 mm clinical crown height. The restoration was a custom-made zirconia post and core and a full-ceramic crown as a single tooth restoration. Although in this case we expected a better prognosis, 15 months later the patient showed up with a post fracture for applying extreme forces on the crown.

  18. Trap state passivation improved hot-carrier instability by zirconium-doping in hafnium oxide in a nanoscale n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors with high-k/metal gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hsi-Wen; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.

  19. Effect of DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Surface Characteristics and Corrosion Resistance of Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sowa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zr is a valve metal, the biocompatibility of which is at least on par with Ti. Recently, numerous attempts of the formation of bioactive coatings on Zr by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO in solutions that were based on calcium acetate and calcium β-glycerophosphate were made. In this study, the direct current (DC PEO of commercially pure zirconium in the solutions that contained Ca(H2PO22, Ca(HCOO2, and Mg(CH3COO2 was investigated. The treatment was conducted at 75 mA/cm2 up to 200, 300, or 400 V. Five process stages were discerned. The treatment at higher voltages resulted in the formation of oxide layers that had Ca/P or (Mg+Ca/P ratios that were close to that of hydroxyapatite (Ca/P = 1.67, determined by SEM/EDX. The corrosion resistance studies were performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and DC polarization methods. R(Q[R(QR] circuit model was used to fit the EIS data. In general, the coatings that were obtained at 200 V were the most corrosion resistant, however, they lacked the porous structure, which is typical for PEO coatings, and is sought after in the biomedical applications. The treatment at 400 V resulted in the formation of the coatings that were more corrosion resistant than those that were obtained at 300 V. This was determined mainly by the prevailing plasma regime at the given process voltage. The pitting resistance of Zr was also improved by the treatment, regardless of the applied process conditions.

  20. A study into the impact of interface roughness development on mechanical degradation of oxides formed on zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, P.; Wedge, S.; Frankel, P.; Gass, M.; Howells, R.; Preuss, M.

    2015-01-01

    As a cladding material used to encapsulate nuclear fuel pellets, zirconium alloys are the primary barrier separating the fuel and a pressurised steam or lithiated water environment. Degradation mechanisms such as oxidation can be the limiting factor in the life-time of the fuel assembly. Key to controlling oxidation, and therefore allowing increased burn-up of fuel, is the development of a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process. In an autoclave, the oxidation kinetics for zirconium alloys are typically cyclical, with periods of accelerated kinetics being observed in steps of ∼2 μm oxide growth. These periods of accelerated oxidation are immediately preceded by the development of a layer of lateral cracks near the metal-oxide interface, which may be associated with the development of interface roughness. The present work uses scanning electron microscopy to carry out a statistical analysis of changes in the metal-oxide interface roughness between three different alloys at different stages of autoclave oxidation. The first two alloys are Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO ™ for which analysis is carried out at stages before, during and after first transition. The third alloy is an experimental low tin alloy, which under the same oxidation conditions and during the same time period does not appear to go through transition. Assessment of the metal-oxide interface roughness is primarily carried out based on the root mean square of the interface slope known as the R dq parameter. Results show clear trends with relation to transition points in the corrosion kinetics. Discussion is given to how this relates to the existing mechanistic understanding of the corrosion process, and the components required for possible future modelling approaches

  1. Zirconium metal-water oxidation kinetics. V. Oxidation of Zircaloy in high pressure steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, R.E.; Cathcart, J.V.; Campbell, J.J.; Jury, S.H.

    1977-12-01

    A series of scoping tests to determine the influence of steam pressure on the isothermal oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 PWR tubing was undertaken. The oxidation experiments were conducted in flowing steam at 3.45, 6.90, and 10.34 MPa (500, 1000, and 1500 psi) at 905 0 C (1661 0 F), and at 3.45 and 6.90 MPa at 1101 0 C (2014 0 F). A comparison of the results of these experiments with those obtained for oxidation in steam at atmospheric pressure under similar conditions indicated that measurable enhancement of the oxidation rate occurred with increasing pressure at 905 0 C, but not at 1100 0 C

  2. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Robert E.; Sherman, Anna H.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

  3. Influence of cobalt oxide on structure and phase composition of zirconium-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, O.S.; Gruzdev, A.I.; Koposova, Z.L.; Lyutsareva, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of Co 3 O 4 addition in a quantity from 10 to 90% on microstructure, phase content, lattice parameter and structure of ZrO 2 ceramics spallings stabilized with yttrium oxide, is studied. It is found out that in the process of ceramics synthesis the formation of three-phased heterogeneous system of matrix type occurs. At cobalt oxide content within the range of 10-30% a matrix consist of ZrO 2 base solid solution, at cobalt oxide content from 50 to 90% it is a matrix base, at 40% Co 3 O 4 the regions with both type matrixes exist. Cobalt oxide introduction decreases the sintering temperature without loss in operation indices of heat sensitive ceramics for resistance transducers

  4. Zirconium metal-water oxidation kinetics. III. Oxygen diffusion in oxide and alpha Zircaloy phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, R.E.

    1976-10-01

    The reaction of Zircaloy in steam at elevated temperature involves the growth of discrete layers of oxide and oxygen-rich alpha Zircaloy from the parent beta phase. The multiphase, moving boundary diffusion problem involved is encountered in a number of important reaction schemes in addition to that of Zircaloy-oxygen and can be completely (albeitly ideally) characterized through an appropriate model in terms of oxygen diffusion coefficients and equilibrium concentrations for the various phases. Conversely, kinetic data for phase growth and total oxygen consumption rates can be used to compute diffusion coefficients. Equations are developed that express the oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxide and alpha phases in terms of the reaction rate constants and equilibrium solubility values. These equations were applied to recent experimental kinetic data on the steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4 to determine the effective oxygen diffusion coefficients in these phases over the temperature range 1000--1500 0 C

  5. Development of bone-like zirconium oxide nanoceramic modified chitosan based porous nanocomposites for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Jana, Piyali; Mitra, Tapas; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2017-02-01

    Here, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO 2 NPs) were incorporated for the first time in organic-inorganic hybrid composites containing chitosan, poly(ethylene glycol) and nano-hydroxypatite (CS-PEG-HA) to develop bone-like nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering application. These nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM combined with SAED. SEM images and porosity measurements revealed highly porous structure having pore size of less than 1μm to 10μm. Enhanced water absorption capacity and mechanical strengths were obtained compared to previously reported CS-PEG-HA composite after addition of 0.1-0.3wt% of ZrO 2 NPs into these nanocomposites. The mechanical strengths and porosities were similar to that of human spongy bone. Strong antimicrobial effects against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains were also observed. Along with getting low alkalinity pH (7.4) values, similar to the pH of human plasma, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility with osteoblastic MG-63 cells were also established for these nanocomposites. Addition of 15wt% HA-ZrO 2 (having 0.3wt% ZrO 2 NPs) into CS-PEG (55:30wt%) composite resulted in greatest mechanical strength, porosity, antimicrobial property and cytocompatibility along with suitable water absorption capacity and compatibility with human pH and blood. Thus, this nanocomposite could serve as a potential candidate to be used for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multifunctional zirconium oxide doped chitosan based hybrid nanocomposites as bone tissue engineering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Jana, Piyali; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Mitra, Tapas; Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2016-10-20

    This paper reports the development of multifunctional zirconium oxide (ZrO2) doped nancomposites having chitosan (CTS), organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP). Formation of these nanocomposites was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed uniform distribution of OMMT and nano-HAP-ZrO2 into CTS matrix. Powder XRD study and TEM study revealed that OMMT has partially exfoliated into the polymer matrix. Enhanced mechanical properties in comparison to the reported literature were obtained after the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticle into the nanocomposites. In rheological measurements, CMZH I-III exhibited greater storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″). TGA results showed that these nanocomposites are thermally more stable compare to pure CTS film. Strong antibacterial zone of inhibition and the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of these nanocomposites against bacterial strains proved that these materials have the ability to prevent bacterial infection in orthopedic implants. Compatibility of these nanocomposites with pH and blood of human body was established. It was observed from the swelling study that the swelling percentage was increased with decreasing the hydrophobic OMMT content. Human osteoblastic MG-63 cell proliferations were observed on the nanocomposites and cytocompatibility of these nanocomposites was also established. Moreover, addition of 5wt% OMMT and 5wt% nano-HAP-ZrO2 into 90wt% CTS matrix provides maximum tensile strength, storage modulus, aqueous swelling and cytocompatibility along with strong antibacterial effect, pH and erythrocyte compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biocompatibility study of lithium disilicate and zirconium oxide ceramics for esthetic dental abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The increasing demand for esthetically pleasing results has contributed to the use of ceramics for dental implant abutments. The aim of this study was to compare the biological response of epithelial tissue cultivated on lithium disilicate (LS2) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) ceramics. Understanding the relevant physicochemical and mechanical properties of these ceramics will help identify the optimal material for facilitating gingival wound closure. Methods Both biomaterials were prepared with 2 different surface treatments: raw and polished. Their physicochemical characteristics were analyzed by contact angle measurements, scanning white-light interferometry, and scanning electron microscopy. An organotypic culture was then performed using a chicken epithelium model to simulate peri-implant soft tissue. We measured the contact angle, hydrophobicity, and roughness of the materials as well as the tissue behavior at their surfaces (cell migration and cell adhesion). Results The best cell migration was observed on ZrO2 ceramic. Cell adhesion was also drastically lower on the polished ZrO2 ceramic than on both the raw and polished LS2. Evaluating various surface topographies of LS2 showed that increasing surface roughness improved cell adhesion, leading to an increase of up to 13%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that a biomaterial, here LS2, can be modified using simple surface changes in order to finely modulate soft tissue adhesion. Strong adhesion at the abutment associated with weak migration assists in gingival wound healing. On the same material, polishing can reduce cell adhesion without drastically modifying cell migration. A comparison of LS2 and ZrO2 ceramic showed that LS2 was more conducive to creating varying tissue reactions. Our results can help dental surgeons to choose, especially for esthetic implant abutments, the most appropriate biomaterial as well as the most appropriate surface treatment to use in accordance with specific clinical

  8. Swift heavy ion induced phase transformation and thermoluminescence properties of zirconium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokesha, H.S. [Physics R & D Centre, PES Institute of Technology, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Nagabhushana, K.R., E-mail: bhushankr@gmail.com [Physics R & D Centre, PES Institute of Technology, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Department of Physics, PES University, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) powder is synthesized by combustion technique. XRD pattern of ZrO{sub 2} shows monoclinic phase with average crystallite size 35 nm. Pellets of ZrO{sub 2} are irradiated with 100 MeV swift Si{sup 7+}, Ni{sup 7+} and 120 MeV swift Ag{sup 9+} ions in the fluence range 3 × 10{sup 10}–3 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}. XRD pattern show the main diffraction peak correspond to monoclinic and tetragonal phase of ZrO{sub 2} in 2θ range 27–33°. Structural phase transformation is observed for Ni{sup 7+} and Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiated samples at a fluence 1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} and 3 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2} respectively, since the deposited electronic energy loss exceeds an effective threshold (>12 keV nm{sup −1}). Phase transition induced by Ag{sup 9+} ion is nearly 2.9 times faster than Ni{sup 7+} ion at 1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}. Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation leads two ion impact processes. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves exhibit two glows, a well resolved peak at ∼424 K and unresolved peak at 550 K for all SHI irradiated samples. TL response is decreased with increase of ion fluence. Beyond 3 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2}, samples don’t exhibit TL due to annihilation of defects.

  9. Zirconium and cast zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krone, K

    1977-04-01

    A survey is given on the occurence of zirconium, production of Zr sponge and semi-finished products, on physical and mechanical properties, production of Zr cast, composition of the commercial grades and reactor grades qualities, metal cutting, welding, corrosion behavior and use.

  10. Raman and luminescence spectroscopy of zirconium oxide with the use of the MOLE microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.E.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Raman and luminescence spectroscopy with the use of the MOLE microprobe has been used to characterize ZrO 2 originating from oxidized fuel-rod cladding in nuclear accidents. Micro-Raman analysis of samples from Three Mile Island Unit 2 and the Power Burst Facility identified tetragonal and cubic ZrO 2 . The tetragonal and cubic phases are high-temperature polymorphs of ZrO 2 and provide information about temperatures and hydrogen formation in the TMI-2 core. The data suggest that the tetragonal ZrO 2 in TMI-2 samples was stabilized by a crystallite size effect, whereas cubic ZrO 2 in PBF debris samples was stabilized by impurities. Luminescence was used to differentiate yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 ceramics and oxidized fuel-rod cladding in PBF debris samples. The ZrO 2 ceramics produced strong, sharp luminescence peaks which indicated the presence of titanium and yttria in the ZrO 2 . Oxidized fuel-rod cladding displayed no luminescence

  11. Effect of surface treatments on the bond strength between resin cement and differently sintered zirconium-oxide ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenisey, Murat; Dede, Doğu Ömür; Rona, Nergiz

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of surface treatments on bond strength between resin cement and differently sintered zirconium-oxide ceramics. 220 zirconium-oxide ceramic (Ceramill ZI) specimens were prepared, sintered in two different period (Short=Ss, Long=Ls) and divided into ten treatment groups as: GC, no treatment; GSil, silanized (ESPE-Sil); GSilPen, silane flame treatment (Silano-Pen); GSb, sandblasted; GSbSil, sandblasted+silanized; GSbCoSil, sandblasted+silica coated (CoJet)+silanized; GSbRoSil, sandblasted+silica coated (Rocatech-Plus)+silanized; GSbDSil, sandblasted+diamond particle abraded (Micron MDA)+silanized; GSbSilPen, sandblasted+silane flame treatment+silanized; GSbLSil, sandblasted+Er:Yag (Asclepion-MCL30) laser treated+silanized. The composite resin (Filtek Z-250) cylinders were cemented to the treated ceramic surfaces with a resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Shear bond strength test was performed after specimens were stored in water for 24h and thermo-cycled for 6000 cycles (5-55 °C). Data were statistically analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tamhane's multiple comparison test (α=0.05). According to the ANOVA, sintering time, surface treatments and their interaction were statistically significant (pzirconium-oxide ceramics. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative stability of krill oil (Euphausia superba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Bruheim, I.

    Krill oil has been reported in many studies to have high oxidative stability when evaluated by peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). However, recent studies have shown that other compounds than primary and secondary oxidation products are formed when krill oil is exposed to oxidative...... conditions. These compounds include Strecker degradation compounds and pyrroles. Some of these compounds may have antioxidative effect. Commercial scale processing of krill prior to extraction may affect the oxidative stability of krill oil. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to compare lipid...... oxidation in krill oil produced in a commercial process and krill oil carefully extracted from frozen krill in the laboratory. Krill oil was incubated at different temperatures (20, 30 and 40 oC) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks, under conditions of constant stirring while being exposed to air. The oxidative...

  13. Oxidation protection and behavior of in-situ zirconium diboride–silicon carbide coating for carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lu; Li, Hejun; Yin, Xuemin; Chu, Yanhui; Chen, Xi; Fu, Qiangang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ZrB 2 –SiC coating was prepared on C/C composite by in-situ reaction. • A two-layered structure was obtained when the coating was oxidized at 1500 °C. • The formation and collapse of bubbles influenced the coating oxidation greatly. • The morphology evolution of oxide scale during oxidation was illuminated. - Abstract: To protect carbon/carbon (C/C) composites against oxidation, zirconium diboride–silicon carbide (ZrB 2 –SiC) coating was prepared by in-situ reaction using ZrC, B 4 C and Si as raw materials. The in-situ ZrB 2 –SiC coated C/C presented good oxidation resistance, whose weight loss was only 0.15% after isothermal oxidation at 1500 °C for 216 h. Microstructure evolution of coating at 1500 °C was studied, revealing a two-layered structure: (1) ZrO 2 (ZrSiO 4 ) embedded in SiO 2 -rich glass, and (2) unaffected ZrB 2 –SiC. The formation and collapse of bubbles influenced the coating oxidation greatly. A model based on the evolution of oxide scale was proposed to explain the failure mechanism of coating

  14. Fundamental aspects of actinide-zirconium pyrochlore oxides: Systematic comparison of the Pu, Am, Cm, Bk and Cf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.; Raison, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Zirconium- and hafnium-based oxide materials have gained attraction for various nuclear applications. These materials have features in common with one of the early, well-publicized inorganic ceramics for immobilizing nuclear waste. Our interests have addressed the fundamental structural and chemical properties of these oxide systems. We pursued both the crystal chemical constraints of the oxide matrices, as well as the importance of the chemistry of the f-elements. By incorporating five actinide elements in our studies, we were able to compare systematically the materials science of these materials with the fundamental chemistry and electronic configurations of these actinides employed. It is expected that this basic information will be useful technologically in the realm of tailor-made materials for different applications

  15. Contribution to the identification of the processes kinetically limiting of the zirconium alloys oxidation; characterization of the oxide films formed at high temperature by solids electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermoyal, J.J.

    2000-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of zirconium alloys used for cladding tubes has been extensively studied under several oxidation conditions (temperature, steam, dry air, oxygen...) in order to clarify the mechanism(s) of oxide growth and breakdown. Oxidation rate is generally assumed to be controlled by oxygen diffusion inwards the oxide layer. Nevertheless, several experimental facts, such as acceleration or inhibition of corrosion rate in coupling conditions, suggest that electrochemical processes are involved as a rate determining step. This work is an attempt to shed light about the rate-limiting-mechanism of two zirconium alloys oxidation: Zircaloy-4 (Zy-4) and Zr-Nb(1%)O(0,13%). Impedance spectroscopy characterizations of oxide films formed in high temperature water and studied in gaseous atmosphere clearly show the difference of electrical properties between the two alloys. The in situ electrochemical and thermogravimetric investigations in gaseous medium, and the polarization effects on oxidation and hydridation of Zr alloys in PWRs conditions indicate that oxygen diffusion can be considered as the limiting kinetic step for Zy-4 oxidation. On the contrary, the acceleration of oxide growth on Zr-Nb(1%)O(0,13%) under anodic polarization in PWRs conditions (360 deg C) suggests that either the electronic conductivity in the oxide or an interfacial process at least partially control the oxidation rate. Catalytic effects observed in gaseous medium when noble metals increase the oxygen reduction rate would tend to corroborate the oxidation control of this alloy by an interfacial mechanism. An electrochemical description and a heterogeneous kinetics approach based on a diffusion-interfacial process as rate determining step are then proposed. (author)

  16. Influence of hydratation on the characteristics of zirconium alloys oxide layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gosmanová, G.; Kraus, I.; Kolega, M.; Vrtílková, V.; Weishauptová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2008), s. 1576-1580 ISSN 1210-0471 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/0043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : zirconium alloys * corrosion layer * hydrated ZrO2 Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics

  17. Pressure effect on ionic conductivity in yttrium-oxide-doped single-crystal zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E.T.; Park, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the effect of pressure on the ionic conductivity of a 9.5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystal. The experiment was conducted in the elastic region, and the oxygen ion transport number was unity (t ion > 0.99999). A conventional four-probe DC method was used to measure the ionic conductivity of the rectangular-shaped sample under uniaxial pressures up to 600 atm at 750 C in air. Measured ionic conductivity decreased as applied pressure increased. Based on henry Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory, which states that the calculated activation volume has a positive value (ΔV 2 = 2.08 cm 3 /mol of O -2 ) for oxygen ion transport in the fluoride cubic lattice, they concluded that the results they obtained could be explained by an oxygen ion transport mechanism. This mechanism can explain the fact that the interionic distance increases during oxygen ion transport from one unit cell to neighboring unit cells

  18. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahedi, K., E-mail: bahedikhadija@yahoo.com [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L. [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z. [Laboratoire POMA, UMR CNRS 6136, Universite d' Angers 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 France (France)

    2009-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} = 20.12 x 10{sup -12} (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  19. A thermally robust and thickness independent ferroelectric phase in laminated hafnium zirconium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riedel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric properties in hafnium oxide based thin films have recovered the scaling potential for ferroelectric memories due to their ultra-thin-film- and CMOS-compatibility. However, the variety of physical phenomena connected to ferroelectricity allows a wider range of applications for these materials than ferroelectric memory. Especially mixed HfxZr1-xO2 thin films exhibit a broad compositional range of ferroelectric phase stability and provide the possibility to tailor material properties for multiple applications. Here it is shown that the limited thermal stability and thick-film capability of HfxZr1-xO2 can be overcome by a laminated approach using alumina interlayers.

  20. Thermal stability and surface acidity of mesoporous silica doubly doped by incorporation of sulfate and zirconium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, P.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, J.A.; Armendariz, H.; Guzman, M.L.; Montoya, J.A.; Acosta, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    A sulfated Si-Zr-MCM-41 solid with highly ordered mesostructure was synthesized through a templated synthesis route where the CTAB surfactant was used as template. During the synthesis procedure, various amounts of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 were added into the mixed solution of Zr and Si precursors to in situ sulfate the MCM-41 solids, aiming to enhance the acidity and thermal stability. The resultant materials showed a long-range ordered hexagonal arrangement with high surface area larger than 797 m 2 /g and an average pore size distributed at approximate 2.5-2.8 nm. The high-resolution TEM observations confirmed that the order of the mesostructure gained when the molar ratio of SO 4 2- /(ZrO 2 + SiO 2 ) increased from 0.1 to 0.3 but decreased as it reached 0.5, which is consistent with the results of 29 Si MAS-NMR and XRD analysis. Compared to Si-MCM-41, the (Q 2 + Q 3 )/Q 4 ratio derived from the NMR spectra of the Zr-doped sample was higher, indicating that zirconium atoms were incorporated into the silica framework. Unexpectedly, in situ sulfation does not enhance the surface Broensted acidity, most likely due to the sulfur retained within the bulk of the materials; however, it indeed improved the thermal stability of the solid and long-range order of the structure

  1. Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanofiller and Dibutyl Phthalate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity and Optical Properties of Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Mariah Mohd; Ibrahim, Suriani

    2014-01-01

    New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38 × 10−4 Scm−1). The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased. PMID:25133244

  2. Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanofiller and Dibutyl Phthalate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity and Optical Properties of Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariah Mohd Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE based on poly(ethylene oxide (PEO doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3, dibutyl phthalate (DBP plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38×10-4 Scm-1. The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased.

  3. Zirconium oxide crystal phase: The role of the pH and time to attain the final pH for precipitation of the hydrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Harris, M.B.; Simpson, S.F.; De Angelis, R.J.; Davis, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    Precipitated hydrous zirconium oxide can be calcined to produce either a monoclinic or tetragonal product. It has been observed that the time taken to attain the final pH of the solution in contact with the precipitate plays a dominant role in determining the crystal structure of the zirconium oxide after calcination at 500 0 C. The dependence of crystal structure on the rate of precipitation is observed only in the pH range 7--11. Rapid precipitation in this pH range yields predominately monoclinic zirconia, whereas slow (8 h) precipitation produces the tetragonal phase. At pH of approximately 13.0, only the tetragonal phase is formed from both slowly and rapidly precipitated hydrous oxide. The present results, together with earlier results, show that both the pH of the supernatant liquid and the time taken to attain this pH play dominant roles in determining the crystal structure of zirconia that is formed after calcination of the hydrous oxide. The factors that determine the crystal phase are therefore imparted in a mechanism of precipitation that depends upon the pH, and it is inferred that it is the hydroxyl concentration that is the dominant factor

  4. Titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium pure and base alloys are protected by an oxide film with anionic vacancies which gives a very good resistance to corrosion in oxidizing medium, in some ph ranges. Results of pitting and crevice corrosion are given for Cl - , Br - , I - ions concentration with temperature and ph dependence, also with oxygenated ions effect. (A.B.). 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Corrosion behavior of stainless steel and zirconium in nitric acid containing highly oxidizing species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, Masami; Fujita, Tomonari

    1994-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of 304ELC, 310Nb stainless steels and Zirconium was investigated in the simulated dissolver solution of a reprocessing plant to obtain fundamental data for life prediction. Corrosion of heat transfer surface was also investigated in nitric acid solutions containing Ce ion. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Stainless steels showed intergranular corrosion in the simulated dissolver solution. The corrosion rate increased with time and reached to a constant value after several hundred hours of immersing time. The constant corrosion rate changed depending on potential suggesting that corrosion potential dominates the corrosion process. 310Nb showed superior corrosion resistance to 304ELC. (2) Corrosion rate of stainless steels increased in the heat transfer condition. The causes of corrosion enhancement are estimated to be higher corrosion potential and higher temperature of heat transfer surface. (3) Zirconium showed perfect passivity in all the test conditions employed. (author)

  6. An In Vivo Evaluation of the Fit of Zirconium-Oxide Based, Ceramic Single Crowns with Vertical and Horizontal Finish Line Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Biscaro, Leonello; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-12-01

    Different types of tooth preparations influence the marginal precision of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns. In this in vivo study, the marginal fits of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns with vertical and horizontal finish lines were compared. Forty-six teeth were chosen in eight patients indicated for extraction for implant placement. CAD/CAM technology was used for the production of 46 zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single crowns: 23 teeth were prepared with vertical finishing lines, 23 with horizontal finishing lines. One operator accomplished all clinical procedures. The zirconia crowns were cemented with glass ionomer cement. The teeth were extracted 1 month later. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each crown, using a total of four landmarks for each tooth by means of a microscope at 50× magnification. On conclusion of microscopic assessment, ESEM evaluation was completed on all specimens. The comparison of the gap between the two types of preparation was performed with a nonparametric test (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test) with a level of significance fixed at p zirconium-oxide-based ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with vertical and horizontal finish line preparations were not different. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Synthesis of amorphous zirconium oxide with luminescent characteristics; Sintesis de oxido de circonio amorfo con caracteristicas luminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera S, M; Chavez G, M; Soto E, A M; Velasquez O, C; Garcia S, M A; Olvera T, L; Rivera M, T [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was prepared zirconium oxide, ZrO{sub 2}, by means of hydrolysis-condensation reactions (sol-gel method), using zirconium propoxide, Zr(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}O){sub 4}, as precursor and nitric acid, HNO{sub 3}, as catalyst of the hydrolysis reaction. In this synthesis it was used a molar ratio water-alkoxide, r=n{sub H2O}/n{sub Zr}(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}0){sub 4}, high, similar to 200, so that the hydrolysis happens quickly and the nucleation and growth are completed in very little time. The solid was characterized with Ftir spectrophotometry, Differential thermal analysis (Dta), Thermal gravimetric analysis (T G), X-ray diffraction of powders, Scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and X-ray Dispersion energy (EDX). The ZrO{sub 2} obtained by this way is amorphous even to 300 C and it consists of big aggregates. The amorphous ZrO{sub 2}, presents thermoluminescent behavior, after it was irradiated with UV radiation and beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and it was thermally stimulated. (Author)

  8. Oxygen control in solid fuel fired heating systems with zirconium oxide cells. Iltstyring af fastbraendselsfyrede anlaeg med zirkoniumoxidcelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, U.

    1988-10-15

    During the heating season 87-88 the Jutland Technological Institute has carried out investigations of the zirconium oxygen meters of solid fuel heating units. The aim was to investigate whether the combustion of inflammable flue gas components on the surface of the oxygen meter cell is of any importance to the running and emissions of the units. The used zirconium oxide oxygen meters normally measure lower concentrations of oxygen as the paramagnetic comparator of the laboratory. The relative deviation is lowest at coal fired units (5.5% and highest at straw fired units (20%)). At several units there is a clear tendency towards increasing development of CO at an increasing surplus of air. Because of too large a surplus of air, and in consequence of this the formation of CO, the chimney waste of the units is increased by up to 6%. Both the surplus of air and the concentration of CO have been included as long term average values. Especially at the straw fired units, periodically very high concentrations of non-inflammable flue gas components can be found, resulting in an undesirable influence on the environment. The development of improved control systems and regulation equipment is recommended.

  9. Oxidation stability and risk evaluation of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes oxidation and thermal stability and hazardous possibility of biodiesel by auto-oxidation. As it can be distributed using today’s infrastructure biodisel production has increased especially in the European Union. Biodiesel has many surpassing properties as an automotive fuel. Biodiesel is considered safer than diesel fuel because of the high flash point, but it has oxygen and double bond(s. Fatty acid methyl esters are more sensitive to oxidative degradation than fossil diesel fuel. The ability of producing peroxides is rather high, therefore we should care of handling of biodiesel.

  10. MOCVD of zirconium oxide from the zirconium guanidinate complex |ZrCp′{2-(iPrN)2CNMe2}2Cl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackman, C.S.; Carmalt, C.J.; Moniz, S.J.A.; Potts, S.E.; Davies, H.O.; Pugh, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Parallel to successful studies into use of [ZrCp'{¿ 2-(iPrN)2CNMe2} 2Cl] as a precursor to the deposition of zirconium carbonitride via CVD the same precursor was utilised for the MOCVD of thin films of ZrO 2 using borosilicate glass substrates. The deposited films were of mixed phase; films

  11. Determination of the stability of the uranyl ion sipped in τ-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodic form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M.; Drot, R.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the uranyl sipped in the zirconium τ-hydrogen phosphate in sodic form (τ-NaZrP), was carried out characterizing the complexes formed by Laser spectroscopy in the visible region and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material was prepared by a new synthesis technique working in nitrogen atmosphere and to low temperatures. The sorption of the uranyl ion was made in acid media with concentrations of 10 -4 and 10 -5 of uranyl nitrate and with ion forces of 0.1 and 0.5 M of NaClO 4 . The spectra of induced fluorescence with laser (TRLFS) show that the uranyl is fixed in very acid media in three well differentiated species, to pH less acid, the specie of long half life disappears and are only those of short half life. The results of the binding energy obtained by XPS indicate that the binding energy of the uranyl confer it a stable character to the complex formed in the τ-NaZP, that makes to this material appropriate to retain to the uranyl in solution to high ion forces and in acid media. (Author)

  12. Effect of Sol Concentration, Aging and Drying Process on Cerium Stabilization Zirconium Gel Produced by External Gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarsono, R.; Rachmawati, M.; Susilowati, S. R.; Husnurrofiq, D.; Nurwidyaningrum, K.; Dewi, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Cerium Stabilized Zirconium gel has been prepared using external gelation process. As the raw materials was used ZrO(NO3)2 and Ce(NO3)4 nitrate salt which was dissolved with water into Zr-Ce nitrate mixture. The concentration of the nitrate salt mixture in the sol solution was varied by varying the concentration of zirconium and cerium nitrate in the sol solution and the addition of PVA and THFA to produce a sol with a viscosity of 40-60 cP. The viscosity range of 40-60cP is the viscosity of the sol solution that was easy to produce a good gel in the gelation apparatus. Sol solution was casted in a gelation column equipped with following tools: a 1 mm diameter drip nozzle which was vibrated to adjust the best frequency and amplitude of vibration, a flow meter to measure the flow rate of sol, flowing of NH3 gas to presolidification process. Gelation column was contained NH4OH solution as gelation medium and gel container to collect gel product. Gel obtained from the gelation process than processed with ageing, washing, drying and calcinations to get round gel and not broken at calcinations up to 500°C. The parameters observed in this research are variation of Zr nitrate concentration, Ce nitrate concentration, ratio of Zr and Ce in the sol and ageing and drying process method which was appropriate to get a good gel. From the gelation processes that has been done, it can be seen that with the presolidification process can be obtained a round gel and without presolidification process, produce not round gel. In the process of ageing to get not broken gel, ageing was done on the rotary flask so that during the ageing, gels rotate in gelation media. Gels, then be washed by dilute ammonium nitrate, demireralized water and iso prophyl alcohol. The washed gel was then dried by vacuum drying to form pores on the gel which become the path for the gases resulting from decomposition of the gel to exit the gel. Vacuum drying can prevent cracking because the pores allow the gel

  13. Hip Dislocation Increases Roughness of Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Heads in Total Hip Arthroplasty: An Analysis of 59 Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mohamed E.; Esposito, Christina I.; Elpers, Marcella E.; Wright, Timothy M.; Padgett, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess damage on the surface of retrieved oxidized zirconium metal (OxZr) femoral heads, to measure surface roughness of scratches, and to evaluate the extent of surface effacement using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ceramic zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) heads were analyzed for comparison. OxZr femoral heads explanted for recurrent dislocation had the most severe damage (p<0.001). The median surface roughness of damaged OxZr femoral heads was 1.49μm, compared to 0.084μm for damaged ZTA heads and 0.052μm for undamaged OxZr (p<0.001). This may be of clinical concern because increased surface roughness has the potential to increase the wear of polyethylene liners articulating against these OxZr heads in THA. PMID:25443362

  14. Quantification of chlorine in zirconium oxide and biological samples by instrumental NAA utilizing PCF of Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Balaji Rao, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies on chlorine contents in various samples are being pursued due to its corrosive nature. Chlorine present at trace level in various finished products as well as powder is used as a raw material for production of different types of zircaloys used as structural materials in nuclear technology. As a part of quality assurance program, it is necessary to quantify chlorine accurately with suitable and simple technique. In the present work we have applied instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) utilizing its short-lived activation product ( 38 Cl, 37 min, 1642 and 2168 keV) for its estimation. Pneumatic Carrier Facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor, BARC was used sample irradiation of zirconium oxide dry powder, synthetic wax and IAEA RMs 1515 (Apple leaves) and Lichen 336. (author)

  15. Oxidized zirconium head on crosslinked polyethylene liner in total hip arthroplasty: a 7- to 12-year in vivo comparative wear study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidakis, George K; Karachalios, Theofilos

    2015-12-01

    Osteolysis resulting from wear debris production from the bearing surfaces is a major factor limiting long-term survival of hip implants. Oxidized zirconium head on crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) is a modern bearing coupling. However, midterm in vivo wear data of this coupling are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo whether the combination of an oxidized zirconium femoral head on XLPE produces less wear than a ceramic head on XLPE or a ceramic head on conventional polyethylene (CPE) couplings and whether any of these bearing combinations results in higher hip scores. Between 2003 and 2007, we performed 356 total hip arthroplasties in 288 patients; of those, 199 (69.1%) patients (199 hips) were enrolled in what began as a randomized trial. Unfortunately, after the 57(th) patient, the randomization process was halted because of patients' preference for the oxidized zirconium bearing instead of the ceramic after (as they were informed by the consent form), and after that, alternate allocation to the study groups was performed. Hips were allocated into four groups: in Group A, a 28-mm ceramic head on CPE was used; in Group B, a 28-mm ceramic head on XLPE; in Group C, a 28-mm Oxinium head on XLPE; and in Group D, a 32-mm Oxinium head on XLPE. The authors prospectively collected in vivo wear data (linear wear, linear wear rate, volumetric wear, and volumetric wear rate) using PolyWare software. Preoperative and postoperative clinical data, including Harris and Oxford hip scores, were also collected at regular intervals. Of those patients enrolled, 188 (95%) were available for final followup at a minimum of 7 years (mean, 9 years; range, 7-12 years). All bearing surfaces showed a varying high bedding-in effect (plastic deformation of the liner) up to the second postoperative year. At 5 years both oxidized zirconium on XLPE groups showed lower (p zirconium on XLPE groups also showed lower (p zirconium groups were compared, no differences were

  16. Suspensions on the basis of stabilised zirconium oxide for three-dimensional printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, P. S.; Komissarenko, D. A.; Shmeleva, I. A.; Slyusar, I. V.; Dosovitskiy, G. A.; Evdokimov, P. V.; Putlyaev, V. I.; Dosovitskiy, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Present work considers the first results on rheological and photo-curing behaviour of suspension consisting of nanocrystalline stabilised zirconium dioxide powders (19 - 27 vol. %) and a liquid UV-photosensitive organic monomer. At ambient temperature compositions showed a viscosity of 2.5 and 0.8 Pa×s at 10 and 100 s-1 shear rates, respectively. Printability of these compositions was subsequently investigated by using an stereolithography machine Ember (Autodesk). 3D objects were later sintered in a separate furnace into dense translucent ZrO2 ceramics.

  17. Zirconium oxide-coated sand based batch and column adsorptive removal of arsenic from water: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ali Chaudhry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports zirconium oxide-coated sand preparation, characterization by SEM, EDX, XRD, FT-IR and thermoanalytical techniques, and use as an adsorbent for the removal of most toxic form of arsenic, As(III, from aqueous solution in both batch and column methods. Batch experimental parameters such as contact time, concentration, dose of adsorbent, pH of As(III solution and temperature were optimized. The adsorption data was fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms at 303, 308 and 313 K. The maximum Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 136.98 μg/g at 313 K. Values of ΔH°, ΔG° and ΔS° were found to be −12.90, −8.74 to –8.28 and 0.014 kJ/mol, suggesting exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process with slight increase in entropy. The adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics and was controlled by film diffusion step. The column studies showed that when flow rate was increased from 3.0 to 5.0 mL/min, the arsenic adsorption capacity of ZrOCS increased from 33.104 to 42.231 μg/g and breakthrough, and exhaustion times got reduced reduced. The results indicated that zirconium oxide-coated sand (ZrOCS is an excellent adsorbent for the removal of As(III from water.

  18. Thermal stability and surface acidity of mesoporous silica doubly doped by incorporation of sulfate and zirconium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: psalas@imp.mx; Chen, L.F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wang, J.A. [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Col. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armendariz, H. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Guzman, M.L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montoya, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Acosta, D.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    A sulfated Si-Zr-MCM-41 solid with highly ordered mesostructure was synthesized through a templated synthesis route where the CTAB surfactant was used as template. During the synthesis procedure, various amounts of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were added into the mixed solution of Zr and Si precursors to in situ sulfate the MCM-41 solids, aiming to enhance the acidity and thermal stability. The resultant materials showed a long-range ordered hexagonal arrangement with high surface area larger than 797 m{sup 2}/g and an average pore size distributed at approximate 2.5-2.8 nm. The high-resolution TEM observations confirmed that the order of the mesostructure gained when the molar ratio of SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}/(ZrO{sub 2} + SiO{sub 2}) increased from 0.1 to 0.3 but decreased as it reached 0.5, which is consistent with the results of {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR and XRD analysis. Compared to Si-MCM-41, the (Q{sup 2} + Q{sup 3})/Q{sup 4} ratio derived from the NMR spectra of the Zr-doped sample was higher, indicating that zirconium atoms were incorporated into the silica framework. Unexpectedly, in situ sulfation does not enhance the surface Broensted acidity, most likely due to the sulfur retained within the bulk of the materials; however, it indeed improved the thermal stability of the solid and long-range order of the structure.

  19. On the mechanical effects of a nanocrystallisation treatment for ZrO2 oxide films growing on a zirconium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panicaud, B.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.-L.; Retraint, D.; Guérain, M.; Li, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Raman spectroscopy is performed to determine the stress evolution in a Zr/ZrO 2 system. ► Analytical relations are used to determine material characteristics. ► A specific modelling of the mechanical fields within the oxide is done. ► Relaxation and growth parameters are identified from an inverse method. - Abstract: In the present work, mechanical features are investigated in the case of ZrO 2 thermal oxide films growing on a Zr alloy at the temperature of 550 °C. The effects of a nanocrystallisation treatment on high temperature oxidation of a zirconium alloy are specifically studied. High temperature oxidation is performed in order to show benefits of such a nanocrystallisation on corrosion resistance and its influence on the mechanical fields. Experimental results obtained by Raman spectroscopy give the growth stress evolution in ZrO 2 films. Using a modelling of the system, both asymptotic forms and an optimization procedure are developed to determine the mechanical characteristic parameters of the system.

  20. Experimental study and modeling of high-temperature oxidation and phase transformation of cladding-tubes made in zirconium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeres, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    One of the hypothetical accident studied in the field of the safety studies of Pressurized light Water Reactor (PWR) is the Loss-Of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). In this scenario, zirconium alloy fuel claddings could undergo an important oxidation at high temperature (T≅ 1200 C) in a steam environment. Cladding tubes constitute the first confinement barrier of radioelements and then it is essential that they keep a certain level of ductility after quenching to ensure their integrity. These properties are directly related to the growth kinetics of both the oxide and the αZr(O) phase and also to the oxygen diffusion profile in the cladding tube after the transient. In this context, this work was dedicated to the understanding and the modeling of the both oxidation phenomenon and oxygen diffusion in zirconium based alloys at high temperature. The numerical tool (EKINOX-Zr) used in this thesis is based on a numerical resolution of a diffusion/reaction problem with equilibrium-conditions on three moving boundaries: gas/oxide, oxide/αZr(O), αZr(O)/βZr. EKINOX-Zr kinetics model is coupled with ThermoCalc software and the Zircobase database to take into account the influence of the alloying elements (Sn, Fe, Cr, Nb) but also the influence of hydrogen on the solubility of oxygen. This study focused on two parts of the LOCA scenario: the influence of a pre-oxide layer (formed in-service) and the effects of hydrogen. Thanks to the link between EKINOX-Zr and the thermodynamic database Zircobase, the hydrogen effects on oxygen solubility limit could be considered in the numerical simulations. Thus, simulations could reproduce the oxygen diffusion profiles measured in pre-hydrided samples. The existence of a thick pre-oxide layer on cladding tubes can induce a reduction of this pre-oxide layer before the growth of a high-temperature one during the high temperature dwell under steam. The first simulations performed using the numerical tool EKINOX-Zr showed that this particular

  1. Effect of oxide additives on radiolytic decomposition of zirconium and thorium nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.G.; Garg, A.N.; Natarajan, V.; Sastry, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma ray-induced decomposition of the binary mixtures of zirconium and thorium nitrates with 2.5, 5 and 10 mol% of V 2 O 5 , PbO, ThO 2 , ZrO 2 , and MnO 2 has been studied at different doses up to 260 kGy. Radiation chemical yield G(NO 2 - )-values are enhanced by V 2 O 5 , PbO, and ThO 2 but are decreased by ZrO 2 and MnO 2 . The effect of radiation dose on the G(NO 2 - ) values of the binary mixtures of zirconium nitrate with 10 mol% of As 2 O 3 , CuO, MgO, MoO 3 , PbO, ZnO, V 2 O 5 , ThO 2 , MnO 2 and ZrO 2 has been studied. ESR and TL measurements suggest the formation of radical species which interact with the damage entities to enhance or retard the decomposition of the nitrates. A possible mechanism based on the interaction of radical species has been suggested. (Author)

  2. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Zirconium Oxides Observed Using a Pulse CV Technique and including the Effect of High Temperature Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qifeng; Zhao, Chun; Mu, Yifei; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Taylor, Stephen; Chalker, Paul R

    2015-07-29

    A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV) technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The results indicated that: (1) more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrO x ; (2) the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N₂ ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 10 12 cm -2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 10 12 cm -2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10 - ⁶ A/cm² at V g = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10 -3 A/cm² at V g = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one.

  3. Hysteresis in Lanthanide Zirconium Oxides Observed Using a Pulse CV Technique and including the Effect of High Temperature Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111 substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD. The results indicated that: (1 more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrOx; (2 the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N2 ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 1012 cm−2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 1012 cm−2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10−6 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10−3 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one.

  4. Corrosion mechanisms of zirconium alloys - study of the initial oxidation kinetics and of the mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, M.

    1996-12-01

    Nuclear fuel claddings are made of zirconium alloys. The conditions of use lead the cladding oxidize outside. The so-formed layers behaves like a thermal barrier and prevents from using oxidized claddings with an oxide thickness larger than 100 μm. The oxidation kinetic is approximately cubic for oxide thicknesses smaller than about 2μm, linear beyond. A kinetic model has been proposed which estimates the post-transition growth rate from the kinetic parameters of the pre-transition state and morphological features of post-transition layers. This work aims at providing the necessary elements to validate this model and studying the layers around the kinetic transition, in order to determine whether the oxidation mechanisms before and after the transition are similar. Thicknesses of the 50 - 500 nm range of the oxide layers are measured by an optical method; pre-transition kinetics are thus precisely determined. The effect of the composition, the thermal treatment and the presence of oxygen in solid solution is studied. The morphological and crystallographic study of the layers show that they exhibit a lot of similarities before and after the kinetic transition. The results concerning the kinetic aspects and the morphology of the post-transition layers point out that the proposed model leads to realistic post-transition growth rates. Furthermore, the kinetic transition corresponds to the appearance of cracks in the oxide layer. The mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system has been modelled at different scales. When the specific behaviours of the metal and the oxide are taken into account together with the interface geometry, radial stresses appear, which are high enough to locally open cracks. The appearance and localization of cracks depend on both the interface geometry and the stress distribution in the metal/oxide system. (author)

  5. Porous Silicates Modified with Zirconium Oxide and Sulfate Ions for Alcohol Dehydration Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Esteban Benito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicates were synthesized by a nonhydrothermal method, using sodium silicate as a source of silica and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template agent. Catalysts were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, pyridine adsorption, potentiometric titration with n-butylamine, scanning electronic microscopy, and transmission electronic microscopy. The surface area of the materials synthesized was greater than 800 m2/g. The introduction of zirconium atoms within the porous silicates increased their acid strength from −42 to 115 mV, while the addition of sulfate ions raised this value to 470 mV. The catalytic activity for the dehydration of alcohols yields conversions of up to 70% for ethanol and 30% for methanol.

  6. Evaluation of a Ductility after High Temperature Oxidation with the Three-Point Bend Test in Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yang Il; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In a light water reactor, the fuel cladding play an important role of preventing leakage of radioactive materials into the coolant, and thus the mechanical integrity of the cladding should be guaranteed under the conditions of normal and transient operation. In the case of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), the cladding is subjected to a high temperature oxidation which is finally quenched because of an emergency coolant reflooding into the core. In this situation, the current LOCA criteria consist of five separate requirements: i) peak cladding temperature, ii) maximum cladding oxidation, iii) maximum hydrogen generation, iv) coolable geometry, and v) long-term cooling. The claddings lose their ductility due to the microstructural phase transformation from beta to martensite alpha-prime. and hydrogen up-take after LOCA. Since the reduction in ductility can induce embrittlement of claddings, post-quench ductility is one of the major concerns in transient operation circumstances. For the analysis, usually ring compression test are performed on ring samples cut from the tube to examine the oxidized cladding ductility. However, the test would not be applicable to the platelet samples which are general form of a specimen for developing alloys. As a high burn-up fuel cladding materials, Zircaloys are being replaced by modern zirconium alloys such as ZIRLO, and M5. Korea has also developed a new fuel cladding material HANA (high performance alloy for nuclear application) by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Because of the different composition of the newer claddings in comparison with the conventional Zircaloy-4, the high temperature oxidation behavior and the ductility after the oxidation would be different, and the properties should be evaluated how much the newer claddings were improved

  7. Modification of Different Zirconium Propoxide Precursors by Diethanolamine. Is There a Shelf Stability Issue for Sol-Gel Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijksma, Gerald I.; Blank, Dave H. A.; Bouwmeester, Henny J. M.; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of different zirconium propoxide precursors with H2dea was investigated by characterization of the isolated modified species. Upon modification of zirconium n-propoxide and [Zr(OnPr)(OiPr)3(iPrOH)]2 with ½ a mol equivalent of H2dea the complexes [Zr2(OnPr)6(OCH2CH2)2NH]2 (1) and [Zr2(OnPr)2(OiPr)4(OCH2CH2)2NH]2 (2) were obtained. However, 1H-NMR studies of these tetranuclear compounds showed that these are not time-stable either in solution or solid form. The effect of this time instability on material properties is demonstrated by light scattering and TEM experiments. Modification of zirconium isopropoxide with either ½ or 1 equivalent mol of H2dea results in formation of the trinuclear complex, Zr{η3μ2-NH(C2H4O)2}3[Zr(OiPr)3]2(iPrOH)2 (3) countering a unique nona-coordinated central zirconium atom. This complex 3 is one of the first modified zirconium propoxide precursors shown to be stable in solution for long periods of time. The particle size and morphology of the products of sol-gel synthesis are strongly dependent on the time factor and eventual heat treatment of the precursor solution. Reproducible sol-gel synthesis requires the use of solution stable precursors. PMID:20087472

  8. An X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) study of the Sn L_3 edge in zirconium alloy oxide films formed during autoclave corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, Helen; Baxter, Felicity; Babu, R. Prasath; Denecke, Melissa A.; Gass, Mhairi; Steuwer, Axel; Norén, Katarina; Carlson, Stefan; Preuss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of tin speciation in zirconium alloy metal and oxide films using Sn L_3-XANES. • Chemical environment of tin in Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO™ oxide films shown to be similar. • Tin in the oxide films is present in both the di- and tetravalent states and oxidises progressively with oxide-layer growth. - Abstract: Application of Sn L_3-XANES to study the oxidation state of alloying additions of tin (1–1.2 wt%) in <2 μm oxide layers formed on nuclear grade zirconium alloy has been demonstrated. Data obtained for metallic and corroded ZIRLO™ (1 wt% Sn) and Zircaloy-4 (1.2 wt% Sn) indicate tin has a similar chemical speciation in both metal alloys but this differs in the oxidised surface layers. By recording XANES at various incident angles to vary the photon penetration depth and amount of the oxide layer probed in the measurement, the authors found evidence that the oxidation of tin progresses with increasing oxide thickness.

  9. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  10. First-principles study of the stability and diffusion properties of hydrogen in zirconium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao-Yong [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Lu, Yong [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang_ping@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-10-15

    The stability and diffusion properties of interstitial hydrogen atom in bulk ZrC have been investigated by first-principles calculations. In energy, hydrogen atoms prefer to occupy the carbon substitutional site (C-SS) with a negative formation energy, consistent with the experimental observations. In the C-SS, the hydrogen atom obtains 0.702 electrons from its 1 NN Zr atoms, tending to achieve the most stable 1s{sup 2} electronic state. Two hydrogen atoms in the same tetrahedral interstitial site are able to form a pairing cluster along the 〈110〉 direction with the H−H pair equilibrium distance of 1.30 Å, nearly twice the length of H{sub 2} bond, suggesting a relatively weak interaction between the H−H pair. The diffusion energy barriers of hydrogen in pure and vacancy pre-existing ZrC matrix are calculated. It is found that the presence of native vacancies will capture the hydrogen atoms due to the large energy barrier to jump out the vacancy. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients of interstitial hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium in ZrC are predicted using the transition state theory.

  11. Tungsten-zirconium carbide-rhenium alloys with extraordinary thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.D. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xie, Z.M.; Miao, S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, R.; Jiang, W.B. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, T., E-mail: zhangtao@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, X.P., E-mail: xpwang@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fang, Q.F. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, C.S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, X. [Southwest Institute of Plasma Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2016-05-15

    The low recrystallization temperature (1200 °C) of pure W is a serious limitation for application as facing plasma materials in fusion reactor. In this paper, W-0.5wt.%ZrC-1wt.%Re (WZR) alloy with recrystallization temperature up to 1800 °C was prepared by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering. The grain size of WZR alloy is about 2.6 μm, smaller than that of pure W (4.4 μm), which keeps unchanged until the annealing temperature increases to 1800 °C. Tensile tests indicate that the WZR alloys exhibit excellent comprehensive properties: the ductile to brittle transition temperature of WZR is in the range from 400 °C to 500 °C, about 200 °C lower than that of pure W prepared by the same process; the total elongation (TE) of WZR at 600 °C is above 30%, which is about 2 times that of pure W (at 700 °C). Meanwhile its tensile strength keeps ∼450 MPa before and after 1800 °C annealing as well as its TE increases after annealing. WZR alloy exhibits higher hardness (489HV) than that of pure W (453HV) at room temperature. Microstructure analysis indicates that the strengthening of nano-sized ZrC particles dispersion and Re solid solution improve tensile properties and thermal stability of WZR alloy.

  12. Investigation of nano-structured Zirconium oxide film on Ti6Al4V substrate to improve tribological properties prepared by PIII&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Sehrish [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ahmad, R., E-mail: ahriaz@gcu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics (CASP), Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ayub, R. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics (CASP), Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ikhlaq, Uzma [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Jin, Weihong; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2} film was deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy using the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition at various bias voltage. • The deposited film was characterized by XPS, AFM, Ellipometry, Nano-indentation and Pin-on disk machine. • A dense zirconium oxide film with the maximum thickness 108 nm was formed at maximum applied voltage. • The hardness and wear resistance of film is much higher as compared to the substrate. - Abstract: Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is the most attractive and efficient technique used in the medical field to tailor materials for biomedical applications. In the present study zirconium oxide nano-structured thin films were deposited on surface of Ti6Al4V alloy for bias voltages of 15, 20 and 25 kV. The chemical composition, surface roughness and thickness of deposited films were characterized by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and ellipsometry respectively. The XPS results confirm the formation of a dense zirconium oxide film of the treated specimens. AFM results exhibit a smooth film with maximum roughness of about 8.4 nm is formed. The thickness of the film is increased with the increase in bias voltages and is maximum at 25 kV. The effect of bias voltages on wear characteristics was further investigated by pin-on-disk test. It is observed that the friction coefficient is reduced, whereas wear resistance is enhanced and it is found to be maximum at 25 kV compared to the other bias voltages. Nanohardness is improved up to twice compared to untreated specimen at the maximum bias voltage. Therefore, it is concluded that deposition of zirconium oxide using the PIII&D is produced a dense layer on the substrate surface, which can be used as a promising candidate for the improved tribological properties of Ti6Al4V.

  13. Corrosion of zirconium alloys in nuclear reactors: A model for irradiation induced enhancement by local radiolysis in the porous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaignan, C; Salot, R [CEA/DRN/DTP, CENG-SECC, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    An analysis has been undertaken of the various cases of local enhancement of corrosion rate of zirconium alloys under irradiation. It is observed that in most cases a strong emission of energetic {beta}{sup -} is present leading to a local energy deposition rate higher than the core average. This suggests that the local transient radiolytic oxidizing species produced in the coolant by the {beta}{sup -} particles could contribute to corrosion enhancement, by increasing the local corrosion potential. This process is applicable to the local enhanced corrosion found in front of stainless steels structural parts, due to the contribution of Mn, and in front of Pt inserts or Cu-rich cruds. It explains also the irradiation corrosion enhancement of Cu-Zr alloys. Enhanced corrosion around neutron absorbing material is explained similarly by pair production from conversion of high energy capture photons in the cladding, leading to energetic electrons. The same process was found to be active with other highly ionizing species like {alpha} from Ni-rich alloys and fission products in homogeneous reactors. Due to the changes induced by the irradiation intensity on the concentration of the radiolytic species, the coolant chemistry, that controls the boundary conditions for oxide growth, has to be analyzed with respect to the local value of the energy deposition rate. An analysis has been undertaken which shows that, in a porous media, the water is exposed to a higher intensity than bulk water. This leads to a higher concentration of oxidizing radiolytic species at the root of the cracks of the porous oxide, and increases the corrosion rate under irradiation. This mechanism, deduced from the explanation proposed for localized irradiation enhanced corrosion, can be extended to the whole reactor core, where the general enhancement of Zr alloys corrosion under irradiation could be attributed to the general radiolysis in the porous zirconia. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs.

  14. Nucleation and growth of oxides on metals with special reference to mild steel and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadiyar, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Metallurgy Div.

    1977-01-01

    The oxidation of metals is a complex phenomenon of metal-gas interface for the understanding of which a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. Some aspects of this phenomena are discussed with reference to oxygen or steam as the oxidant. As a case study, the nucleation of oxide through microstructural characterisation, the kinetics and mechanism involved in the case of oxidation of Zr and its alloys have been examined.

  15. Thick-film effects in the oxidation and hydriding of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    One of the fundamental discoveries involving radiation effects on the oxidation of Zircaloy in low-oxygen aqueous environments is the influence of thick oxide films. Zircaloy oxidation rates in low-oxygen (hydrogen-rich) coolants initially proceed at relatively low rates, often almost uninfluenced by radiation. Marked upturns in oxidation rate have signaled the onset of radiation effects. The radiation effects appear to correlate with a threshold oxide thickness. Results of the test reactor experiments lead to formulation of the Thick-Film Hypothesis: beyond a threshold oxide thickness, radiolysis of water that infiltrates oxide cracks and pores controls the oxidation rate; radiation creates microenvironments inside the oxide film, producing highly oxidizing conditions, that are no longer suppressed by the coolant-borne hydrogen. Upturns in oxidation rate on high-exposure Zircaloy pressure tubes add confirmatory evidence for the thick-film effect. This paper summarizes the early evidence for thick-film behavior, including oxidation and hydriding trends, updates confirmatory evidence from Zircaloy reactor and fuel assembly components, and highlights other observations from the test reactor series that have potential fundamental significance to explanations of radiation effects on Zircaloy. 23 refs., 10 figs

  16. The surface oxidation kinetics of zirconium-niobium alloys and aα-Fe with prevailing cubical texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhambetov, D.G.; Kargin, D.B.; Chalaya, O. V.; Berber, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    It is known, that the kinetics of oxidation of zirconium at formed heating is characterized by two consecutive stages. At the initial stage the thin protecting film will be derived. The relation of its depth from time h (t) is described predominantly by parabolic law. Some time later there can be a transition to the linear law of oxidation. The time moment divided these areas on the kinetic relation is called as a point of break. The film is formed at the second stage, has a developed grid of pores or cracks, can be flake away and be crumbled by losing its protective properties. At the oxidation of the surface shells of the heat generating elements and the technological channels of atomic boilers both stages are proceeded simultaneously. This phenomenon is called modular corrosion. Its consequences can be dangerous for the equipment. Its mechanism is not clear till now. Similar dependencies h(t), with the break point, beginning from which the thin film is transformed into the thick one were found by us at the oxidation α-Fe with prevailing cubical texture. The task of the work was to study the oxide film growth laws in order to clarify the mechanisms of transition of the thin film into the oxide layer on the α-Fe surface and Zr-Nb alloy modular corrosion emergence. Low-carbonate steel with contents 99.43 % of α-Fe was used as a model object of our research. In the texture of the steel surface planar direction [100] was prevalent. Its part accounted for about 40 %. The isothermal air oxidation was carried out in the interval of 450-500 deg. C . Phase composition of the film was determined with X-ray diffraction. The mathematical treatment of the dependencies h(t) obtained by experiment showed that the kinetics of the film growth can be conditionally divided into 4-stages. The initial stage is described by function logarithmic function, the other stages - by the power mode h n =A n ·t, namely, the second stage - is described by function close to cubical (n≅3

  17. The solubilities and solubility products of zirconium hydroxide and oxide after aging at 278, 313, and 333 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Taishi; Uemura, Takuya; Sasaki, Takayuki; Takagi, Ikuji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Moriyama, Hirotake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The solubilities of zirconium hydroxide and oxide after aging at 278, 313, and 333 K were measured at 278, 298, 313, and 333 K in the pH{sub c} range of 0.3-7 in a 0.5 M ionic strength solution of NaClO{sub 4} and HClO{sub 4}. Size distributions of the colloidal species were investigated by ultrafiltration using membranes with different pore sizes, and the solid phases were examined by X-ray diffraction. The apparent solubility of zirconium amorphous hydroxide (Zr(OH){sub 4}(am)), prepared by the oversaturation method, decreased with increasing aging temperature (T{sub a}), and the size distributions obtained after aging at elevated temperatures indicated the growth of the colloidal species. We, therefore, suggested that agglomeration of the colloidal species and dehydration and crystallization of Zr(OH){sub 4}(am) as the solubility-limiting solid phase occurred over the course of aging at elevated temperatures. For sample solutions of the crystalline oxide (ZrO{sub 2}(cr)), the aging temperature had no significant effect on the solubility, but the solubility data at lower temperatures were found to be slightly higher than those at higher temperatures, implying a small fraction of the amorphous components. In the analysis of different solid phases (Zr(OH){sub 4}(s,T{sub a}), T{sub a} = 278, 313, and 333 K) depending on the aging temperatures, the solubility products (K{sub sp}, T{sub a}) were determined at different measurement temperatures, and the enthalpy change (Δ{sub r}H {sup circle}) for Zr{sup 4+} 4OH{sup -} <=> Zr(OH){sub 4}(s,T{sub a}) was calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The solid-phase-transformation process at elevated temperatures was also analyzed based on the obtained K{sub sp}, T{sub a} and Δ{sub r}H {sup circle} values.

  18. Zirconium alloy barrier having improved corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, R.B.; Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor has a composite cladding container having a substrate and a dilute zirconium alloy liner bonded to the inside surface of the substrate. The dilute zirconium alloy liner forms about 1 to about 20 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of zirconium and a metal selected from the group consisting of iron, chromium, iron plus chromium, and copper. The dilute zirconium alloy liner shields the substrate from impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material and protects the substrate from stress corrosion and stress cracking. The dilute zirconium alloy liner displays greater corrosion resistance, especially to oxidation by hot water or steam than unalloyed zirconium. The substrate material is selected from conventional cladding materials, and preferably is a zirconium alloy. (author)

  19. Articulation of Native Cartilage Against Different Femoral Component Materials. Oxidized Zirconium Damages Cartilage Less Than Cobalt-Chrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlommel, Jan; De Corte, Ronny; Luyckx, Jean Philippe; Anderson, Melissa; Labey, Luc; Bellemans, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is produced by thermally driven oxidization creating an oxidized surface with the properties of a ceramic at the top of the Zr metal substrate. OxZr is much harder and has a lower coefficient of friction than cobalt-chrome (CoCr), both leading to better wear characteristics. We evaluated and compared damage to the cartilage of porcine patella plugs, articulating against OxZr vs CoCr. Our hypothesis was that, owing to its better wear properties, OxZr would damage cartilage less than CoCr. If this is true, OxZr might be a better material for the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty if the patella is not resurfaced. Twenty-one plugs from porcine patellae were prepared and tested in a reciprocating pin-on-disk machine while lubricated with bovine serum and under a constant load. Three different configurations were tested: cartilage-cartilage as the control group, cartilage-OxZr, and cartilage-CoCr. Macroscopic appearance, cartilage thickness, and the modified Mankin score were evaluated after 400,000 wear cycles. The control group showed statistically significant less damage than plugs articulating against both other materials. Cartilage plugs articulating against OxZr were statistically significantly less damaged than those articulating against CoCr. Although replacing cartilage by an implant always leads to deterioration of the cartilage counterface, OxZr results in less damage than CoCr. The use of OxZr might thus be preferable to CoCr in case of total knee arthroplasty without patella resurfacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Zirconium-barrier cladding attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.; Rand, R.A.; Tucker, R.P.; Cheng, B.; Adamson, R.B.; Davies, J.H.; Armijo, J.S.; Wisner, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This metallurgical study of Zr-barrier fuel cladding evaluates the importance of three salient attributes: (1) metallurgical bond between the zirconium liner and the Zircaloy substrate, (2) liner thickness (roughly 10% of the total cladding wall), and (3) softness (purity). The effect that each of these attributes has on the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance of the Zr-barrier fuel was studied by a combination of analytical model calculations and laboratory experiments using an expanding mandrel technique. Each of the attributes is shown to contribute to PCI resistance. The effect of the zirconium liner on fuel behavior during off-normal events in which steam comes in contact with the zirconium surface was studied experimentally. Simulations of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) showed that the behavior of Zr-barrier cladding is virtually indistinguishable from that of conventional Zircaloy cladding. If steam contacts the zirconium liner surface through a cladding perforation and the fuel rod is operated under normal power conditions, the zirconium liner is oxidized more rapidly than is Zircaloy, but the oxidation rate returns to the rate of Zircaloy oxidation when the oxide phase reaches the zirconium-Zircaloy metallurgical bond

  1. Investigation of strontium and uranium sorption onto zirconium-antimony oxide/polyacrylonitrile (Zr-Sb oxide/PAN) composite using experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Pelin; Inan, Suleyman, E-mail: suleyman.inan@ege.edu.tr; Altas, Yuksel

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We model Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sorption onto Zr-Sb oxide/PAN composite. • Central composite design was separately employed for Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sorption. • The model F values indicate that both models are statistically significant. • All of the single factors were determined as significant for the sorption of Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. • Zr-Sb oxide/PAN can be used effectively for Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} removal from acidic solutions. - Abstract: A study on the sorption of strontium (Sr{sup 2+}) and uranium (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) onto zirconium-antimony oxide/PAN (Zr-Sb oxide/PAN) composite was conducted. The zirconium-antimony oxide was synthesized and was then turned into composite spheres by mixing it with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The single and combined effects of independent variables such as initial pH, temperature, initial ion concentration and contact time on the sorption of Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} were separately analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) was separately employed for Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sorption. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that all of the single effects found statistically significant on the sorption of Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Probability F-values (F = 2.45 × 10{sup −08} and F = 9.63 × 10{sup −12} for Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively) and correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} = 0.96 for Sr{sup 2+} and R{sup 2} = 0.98 for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) indicate that both models fit the experimental data well. At optimum sorption conditions Sr{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sorption capacities of the composite were found as 39.78 and 60.66 mg/g, respectively. Sorption isotherm data pointed out that Langmuir model is more suitable for the Sr{sup 2+} sorption, whereas the sorption of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was correlated well with the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thermodynamic parameters such as

  2. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  3. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Pilo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC. Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa. The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns.

  4. Synthesis of hydrous zirconium oxide-impregnated chitosan beads and their application for removal of fluoride and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong-Wan [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byong-Hun, E-mail: bhjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 6 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yoojin [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, In-Hyun [Geologic Environment Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ui-Kyu [Mine reclamation corporation, Coal Center, 2 Segye-ro, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 16464 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Rahul [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 6 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hocheol, E-mail: hcsong@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-30

    A composite adsorbent capable of simultaneous removal of both cationic and anionic contaminants from aqueous solutions was developed by impregnating hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) into chitosan beads (CB). The optimal mass ratio of chitosan to HZO was 2:2. The composite adsorbent (HZOCB) had the rugged surface (52.74 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) with irregular cracks caused by HZO inclusion and amine functional groups. The rate of Pb{sup 2+} adsorption by HZOCB was relatively rapid. Most of Pb{sup 2+} (89%) was adsorbed within 2.5 h. A binary sorbate system was noticeably favorable for F{sup −} adsorption as compared to single sorbate system. Adsorption of F{sup −} and Pb{sup 2+} followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The maximum sorption capacities obtained from Langmuir isotherm model were 22.1 and 222.2 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The study demonstrates that the developed composite could be a potential adsorbent for the simultaneous remediation of F{sup −} and Pb{sup 2+} contamination in water.

  5. Continuous precipitation of mineral products: influence of mixing conditions on the co-precipitation of cerium-zirconium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Patrizio, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    An automated experimental set-up with rapid mixers is used to study the influence of mixing conditions on the co-precipitation of cerium-zirconium mixed oxides. The intensity of mixing is controlled by the inlet flow rates of the reacting solutions. An engulfment model is used to estimate a mixing time from the measurement of a segregation index by the Villermaux-Dushman reaction system. Three geometries of Hartridge Roughton mixers are compared. Mixing performance is better when a separate mixing chamber upstream of a narrower outlet pipe is present. A better mixing decreases the maximal reducibility temperature of the material and increases the crystal strains of the particles calcined at 1100 C. This is probably due to a better homogenization of the particles content. The important incorporation of nitrates in the particle at the outlet of the mixers shows precipitation occurs while the mixing process is not finished. This experimental result was confirmed by numerical simulation and an estimation of sur-saturations during the mixing process. (author)

  6. Preparation and performance of lipophilic α-zirconium phosphate with high thermal stability and its application in thermal-plastic polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Du

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To prepare lipophilic α-zirconium phosphate with high grafting ratio and thermal stability (OZrP-HT and explore its potential application in thermal-plastic polymers, a novel method was developed by surface lipophilicity enhancement strategy. The commercial α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP was pre-intercalated by n-propylamine (PA and grafted by silane coupling agents. Then the pre-intercalated PA was removed by heat-treatment, and the obtained OZrP-HT was utilized to fabricate the phosphorous-containing polyester (P-co-PET/OZrP-HT nanocomposites by melt-blending method. The prepared OZrP-HT and P-co-PET/OZrP-HT nanocomposites were characterized by Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, etc. The results show that OZrP-HT with high grafting ratio (13.78 wt% and thermal stability (Tonset=368 °C was successfully prepared via this novel method and was uniformly intercalated by P-co-PET molecular chains. OZrP-HT had no significant effect on the fiber processability of P-co-PET polymer, and flame retardant properties of (P-co-PET/OZrP-HT nanocomposites were improved. This method may be suitable for organic modification of general inorganic layered compounds and could extend the potential applications in thermo-plastic polymers.

  7. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2017-06-12

    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  8. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.; Barthel, Alexander; Maheu, Clement; Sodpiban, Ounjit; Dega, Frank-Blondel; Vummaleti, Sai V.C.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Pelletier, Jeremie; Cavallo, Luigi; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  9. Visual and surface plasmon resonance sensor for zirconium based on zirconium-induced aggregation of adenosine triphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Wenjing; Zhao, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhongyuan; Xu, Min; Anjum, Saima; Majeed, Saadat; Xu, Guobao

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Visual and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for Zr(IV) has been developed for the first time based on Zr(IV)-induced change of SPR absorption spectra of ATP-stabilized AuNP solutions. -- Highlights: •Visual and SPR absorption Zr 4+ sensors have been developed for the first time. •The high affinity between Zr 4+ and ATP makes sensor highly sensitive and selective. •A fast response to Zr 4+ within 4 min. -- Abstract: Owing to its high affinity with phosphate, Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)-stabilized AuNPs, leading to the change of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectra and color of ATP-stabilized AuNP solutions. Based on these phenomena, visual and SPR sensors for Zr(IV) have been developed for the first time. The A 660 nm /A 518 nm values of ATP-stabilized AuNPs in SPR absorption spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of Zr(IV) from 0.5 μM to 100 μM (r = 0.9971) with a detection limit of 95 nM. A visual Zr(IV) detection is achieved with a detection limit of 30 μM. The sensor shows excellent selectivity against other metal ions, such as Cu 2+ , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , and Pb 2+ . The recoveries for the detection of 5 μM, 10 μM, 25 μM and 75 μM Zr(IV) in lake water samples are 96.0%, 97.0%, 95.6% and 102.4%, respectively. The recoveries of the proposed SPR method are comparable with those of ICP-OES method

  10. Visual and surface plasmon resonance sensor for zirconium based on zirconium-induced aggregation of adenosine triphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Zhao, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhongyuan; Xu, Min; Anjum, Saima; Majeed, Saadat; Xu, Guobao

    2013-07-17

    Owing to its high affinity with phosphate, Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-stabilized AuNPs, leading to the change of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectra and color of ATP-stabilized AuNP solutions. Based on these phenomena, visual and SPR sensors for Zr(IV) have been developed for the first time. The A(660 nm)/A(518 nm) values of ATP-stabilized AuNPs in SPR absorption spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of Zr(IV) from 0.5 μM to 100 μM (r=0.9971) with a detection limit of 95 nM. A visual Zr(IV) detection is achieved with a detection limit of 30 μM. The sensor shows excellent selectivity against other metal ions, such as Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+). The recoveries for the detection of 5 μM, 10 μM, 25 μM and 75 μM Zr(IV) in lake water samples are 96.0%, 97.0%, 95.6% and 102.4%, respectively. The recoveries of the proposed SPR method are comparable with those of ICP-OES method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of surface treatment on the oxidation behavior of zirconium and zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, I.; Ramanathan, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of fluoride concentration in surface treatment solutions on the oxidation behavior of Zr and Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range 350-760 0 C have been studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis. Two solutions containing different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid have been used for surface treatments, following which surface roughness measurements were also carried out. The influence of fluoride ion concentration on oxidation behavior has been found to be significant at higher temperatures. (Author) [pt

  12. Oxidative stability examination of irradiated swine for samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formanek, Z.

    1995-01-01

    DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), OBM (Oxygen Bomb Method) methods and POV (Peroxide Value) determination was applied to determine the oxidative stability of lard samples irradiated by a Co 60 gamma source at the dose of 0; 0.75; 2.5kGy. Both of the methods seem to be suitable to determine oxidative stability of fats, because in every case lowering oxidative stability was received with increasing irradiation dose. (R.P.). 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Cathodic cycling effects in the oxide films formed on zirconium alloys type AB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, J.O; Visintin, A; Triaca, W

    2003-01-01

    The passive behavior of ZrNi alloys near the rest potential is studied through in situ voltammetry, ellipsometry, and microscopic observation.A significant oxide layer growth is observed in aqueous 1 M KOH during the application of different potential programs currently used in the activation processes of the alloy.The understanding of both the alloy activation process and the hydrogen absorption process is important in the strategies employed for the design of electrodes for nickel metal hydride batteries.The kinetics of the oxide layer formation, under potential cycling in the cathodic region related to the rest potential, plays a significant role in the activation process of metal alloy.Cathodic potential cycling increases the thickness and decreases the compactness of the passive oxide layer.The protonation of the oxide decreases the barrier effect and makes the anodic polarization more effective.Potential cycling gives rise to increasing surface oxidation, hydrogen absorption and hydride formation, and produces the consequent fragmentation of the material mainly through grain limits (J.Solid State Eletrochem. in press)

  14. Glow discharge mass spectrometry study of chemical impurities diffusion in zirconium oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actis-Dato, L.O.

    2000-02-01

    In the Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) the primary cooling system is water at 350 deg C and 16 Mpa. In these extreme conditions the corrosion of the out-of-pile components of the reactor and in particular of the Zircaloy cladding containing the nuclear fuel pellets is accelerated. The formation of a growing oxide layer is observed on the elements of the nuclear reactor core. When the thickness of the oxide layer reaches a critical value, problems like structural malfunction and material failure can occur. At this stage the danger of the release of radioactivity in the coolant becomes effective. In this work a glow discharge mass spectrometer is used to study the diffusion of impurities like lithium, zinc and boron in oxide layers growing on Zircaloy samples. After a brief description of the different technique used the preparation and analysis of Zircaloy samples on which oxide layers of different thickness have been produced will be described. The analysis of these samples will allow the determination and evaluation the depth profiles of the impurities absorbed by the oxide. The analysis of the shape of the crater produced during the mass spectrometric analysis will give additional informations on the quality of the results obtained. The technique developed will finally be applied to the study of samples produced during reactor operation under real irradiation conditions. The results obtained show a lithium intake in the oxide layer and confirm the beneficial effect on the corrosion produced by boron. The influence of zinc on the corrosion behaviour of Zircaloy has not been established. The technique developed has also shown interesting capabilities concerning the analysis of irradiated samples. (author)

  15. Effect of Zirconium Oxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Physicochemical Properties and Antibiofilm Activity of a Calcium Silicate-Based Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Trindade-Junior, Adinael; Cesar Costa, Bernardo; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Drullis Cifali, Leonardo; Basso Bernardi, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activity against Enterococcus faecalis, compressive strength. and radiopacity of Portland cement (PC) added to zirconium oxide (ZrO2), as radiopacifier, with or without nanoparticulated zinc oxide (ZnO). The following experimental materials were evaluated: PC, PC + ZrO2, PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (5%), and PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (10%). Antibiofilm activity was analyzed by using direct contact test (DCT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, for 5 h or 15 h. The analysis was conducted by using the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The compressive strength was performed in a mechanical testing machine. For the radiopacity tests, the specimens were radiographed together with an aluminium stepwedge. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests, with level of significance at 5%. The results showed that all materials presented similar antibiofilm activity (P > 0.05). The addition of nanoparticulated ZnO decreased the compressive strength of PC. All materials presented higher radiopacity than pure PC. It can be concluded that the addition of ZrO2 and ZnO does not interfere with the antibiofilm activity and provides radiopacity to Portland cement. However, the presence of ZnO (5% or 10%) significantly decreased the compressive strength of the materials. PMID:25431798

  16. Correlation between zirconium oxide impedance and corrosion behavior of Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Myung Ho; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Jung, Youn Ho

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation of Zr oxide impedance and corrosion behavior of Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe-Cu alloys, the corrosion behavior of the alloys was tested in the autoclave containing 70 ppm LiOH solution at 360 .deg. C. The characteristics of the oxide on the alloys were investigated by using the electrochemical impedance spectrosocpy (EIS) method. The corrosion resistance of the alloys was evaluated from the corrosion rate determined as a function of the concentration of Nb. The equivalent circuit of the oxide was composed on the base of the spectrum from EIS measurements on the oxide layers that had formed at pre-and post-transition regions on the curve of corrosion rate. By using the capacitance characteristics of the equivalent circuit, the thickness of impervious layer, it's electrical resistance and characteristics of space charge layer were evaluated. The corrosion characteristics of the Zr-Nb-Sn-Fe-Cu alloys were successfully explained by applying the EIS test results

  17. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Houšková, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Maříková, Monika; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 11 (2010), s. 1080-1088 ISSN 1044-5803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : warfare agents * nano-dispersed oxides * homogeneous hydrolysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.496, year: 2010

  18. Zirconium and hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Bedinger, George M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon (ZrSiO4, or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals. Zirconium and hafnium are both refractory lithophile elements that have nearly identical charge, ionic radii, and ionic potentials. As a result, their geochemical behavior is generally similar. Both elements are classified as incompatible because they have physical and crystallochemical properties that exclude them from the crystal lattices of most rock-forming minerals. Zircon and another, less common, ore mineral, baddeleyite (ZrO2), form primarily as accessory minerals in igneous rocks. The presence and abundance of these ore minerals in igneous rocks are largely controlled by the element concentrations in the magma source and by the processes of melt generation and evolution. The world’s largest primary deposits of zirconium and hafnium are associated with alkaline igneous rocks, and, in one locality on the Kola Peninsula of Murmanskaya Oblast, Russia, baddeleyite is recovered as a byproduct of apatite and magnetite mining. Otherwise, there are few primary igneous deposits of zirconium- and hafnium-bearing minerals with economic value at present. The main ore deposits worldwide are heavy-mineral sands produced by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks and the concentration of zircon and other economically important heavy minerals, such as ilmenite and rutile (for titanium), chromite (for chromium), and monazite (for rare-earth elements) in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. In coastal deposits, heavy-mineral enrichment occurs where sediment is repeatedly reworked by wind, waves, currents, and tidal processes. The resulting heavy-mineral-sand deposits, called placers or paleoplacers, preferentially form at relatively low latitudes on passive continental margins and supply 100 percent of

  19. Preparation of highly-oxidized starch using hydrogen peroxide and its application as a novel ligand for zirconium tanning of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Wang, Ya-Nan; Ding, Wei; Zhou, Jianfei; Shi, Bi

    2017-10-15

    A series of highly-oxidized starch (HOS) were prepared using H 2 O 2 and a copper-iron catalyst as a desired ligand for zirconium tanning of leather. The effects of catalyst and H 2 O 2 dosages, and reaction temperature on the oxidation degree (OD, represented as the amount of carbonyl and carboxyl groups derived) of starch were investigated. The OD reached 76.2% when oxidation was conducted using 60% H 2 O 2 and 0.015% catalyst at 98°C for 2h. 13 C NMR and FT-IR illustrated carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed in HOS after oxidation. GPC and laser particle size analyses indicated the decrease of HOS molecular size with increasing H 2 O 2 dosage and OD. HOS with moderate OD and molecular weight was able to coordinate with zirconium and remarkably improve tanning process. Leather tanned by Zr complexes using HOS-60 (60% H 2 O 2 , Mn 3516g/mol) as ligand presented considerably better physical and organoleptic properties than those of traditional Zr-tanned leather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Storage and characterization of the hydrogen in mixed oxides on base of cerium-nickel and zirconium or the aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeusscher, S.

    2008-12-01

    The mixed oxides based on cerium-nickel and zirconium or aluminium are able to store large quantities of hydrogen, To determine nature, reactivity and properties of hydrogen species (spill-over, direct desorption), the solid were studied by different physicochemical techniques in the dried, calcined and partially reduced states: XRD, porosity, TGA, TPR, TPA, TPD, chemical titration and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Solids are mainly meso-porous with a common pore size at 4 nm, They are constituted of CeO 2 phase, Ce-Ni or Ce-Ni-Zr solid solution and of Ni(OH) 2 in the dried state and NiO in the calcined state. The Ni species are in various environments and the strong interactions between the cations in solid solution and at different particles interface influence their reducibility and the creation of anionic vacancies. Activation in H 2 in temperature is determining for hydrogen storage in the solid while calcination step is not necessary. INS Analyses evidence that the hydrogen species inserted during treatment in H 2 are H + (OH - ), hydride H - and H * (metallic nickel) species, present in various chemical environments, in particular for hydride species. All kinds of hydrogen species participate to the reaction during the chemical titration in agreement with the proposed hydrogenation mechanism. The study of the adsorption of hydrogen shows that this step is fast and in quantity of the same order as that measured by chemical titration. The direct desorption of H 2 is very low, linked to the presence of hydrogen in interaction with metallic nickel (H *- .). Desorption of water is also observed, in parallel, corresponding to the elimination of groups. The hydride species are not desorbed. These various observations allow connecting hydrogen species properties with their localization in the structure and to model active sites. (author)

  1. Oxidation Behavior of FeCrAl -coated Zirconium Cladding prepared by Laser Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Choi, Byung-Kwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    From the recent research trends, the ATF cladding concepts for enhanced accident tolerance are divided as follows: Mo-Zr cladding to increase the high temperature strength, cladding coating to increase the high temperature oxidation resistance, FeCrAl alloy and SiC/SiCf material to increase the oxidation resistance and strength at high temperature. To commercialize the ATF cladding concepts, various factors are considered, such as safety under normal and accident conditions, economy for the fuel cycle, and developing development challenges, and schedule. From the proposed concepts, it is known that the cladding coating, FeCrAl alloy, and Zr-Mo claddings are considered as a near/mid-term application, whereas the SiC material is considered as a long-term application. Among them, the benefit of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the fuel cycle economy regarding the manufacturing, neutron cross section, and high tritium permeation characteristics. However, the challenge of cladding coating on Zr-based alloys is the lower oxidation resistance and mechanical strength at high-temperature than other concepts. Another important point is the adhesion property between the Zr-based alloy and coating materials. A laser coating method supplied with FeCrAl powders was developed to decrease the high-temperature oxidation rate in a steam environment through a systematic study for various coating parameters, and a FeCrAl-coated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube of 100 mm in length to the axial direction can be successfully manufactured.

  2. Study of the thermal oxidation of titanium and zirconium under argon ion irradiation in the low MeV range (E = 15 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, N.-L.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that argon ion irradiation between 1 and 15 MeV produces damage on both titanium and zirconium surfaces, taking the form of accelerated oxidation and/or craterization effects, varying as a function of the projectile energy and the annealing atmosphere (temperature and pressure) simulating the environmental conditions of the fuel/cladding interface of PWR fuel rods. Using AFM, we have shown that the titanium and zirconium surface is attacked under light argon ion bombardment at high temperature (up to 500 C) in weakly oxidizing medium (under rarefied dry air pressure ranging from 5,7 10 -5 Pa to 5 10 -3 Pa) for a fixed fluence of about 5 10 14 ions.cm -2 . We observed the formation of nano-metric craters over the whole titanium surface irradiated between 2 and 9 MeV and the whole zirconium surface irradiated at 4 MeV, the characteristics of which vary depending on the temperature and the pressure. In the case of the Ar/Ti couple, the superficial damage efficiency increases when the projectile energy decreases from 9 to 2 MeV. Moreover, whereas the titanium surface seems to be transparent under the 15-MeV ion beam, the zirconium surface exhibits numerous micrometric craters surrounded by a wide halo. The crater characteristics (size and superficial density) differ significantly from that observed both in the low energy range (keV) where the energy losses are controlled by ballistic collisions (Sn) and in the high energy range (MeV - GeV) where the energy losses are controlled by electronic excitations (Se), which was not completely unexpected in this intermediate energy range for which combined Sn - Se stopping power effects are possibly foreseen. Using XPS associated to ionic sputtering, we have shown that there is an irradiation effect on thermal oxidation of titanium, enhanced under the argon ion beam between 2 and 9 MeV, and that there is also an energy effect on the oxide thickness and stoichiometry. The study conducted using Spectroscopic

  3. Investigation of carrier oil stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The polyunsaturated carrier oil (flaxseed oil) is used as a stabilizing agent for iron oxide nanoparticles. Kirby Bauer method was used to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of carrier oil stabilized and uncoated SPIONs at 10 and 20 μg/L on Gram-positive ...

  4. Comparative study on nano-Zirconium Oxide Materials used in Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.; Dakroury, G.A.; Abou El-Nour, F.; Abdel-Khlik, M.

    2004-01-01

    Nano-ZrO 2 powders were prepared using two advanced methods, namely SoI-GeI and Gelation techniques. Y 2 O 3 , Ce0 2 and Mg0 were used as stabilizers during the preparation processes. The function of these materials is to stabilize the meta stable tetragonal Zr0 2 phase responsible for the nano character of produced materials. The applied experimental procedures proved to be suitable to produce nano powders composed of crystallites of few nano-meter size with an interfacial component formed by all atoms situated in the grain boundaries. These two structure components (nano-sized crystallites and boundaries) of comparable volume fractions are crucial for the nano-structure materials. Powder agglo-meration, contamination during processing and remaining of the residual pores in the bodies were overcome during the sintering process of the powder by special treatment. Different analytical procedures such as DTA-TG, specific surface area, pore size analysis, density, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out for Zr0 2 produced by both SoI-GeI and Gelation techniques

  5. Dynamically formed hydrous zirconium (IV) oxide-polyelectrolyte membranes. III: Poly(acrylic acid) and substituted poly(acrylic acid) homo, co and terpolymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Reenen, A.J.; Sanderson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A series of acrylic acid and substituted acrylic acid homo, co and terpolymers was synthesised. These polymers were used as polyelectrolytes in dynamically formed hydrous zirconium (iv) oxide-polyelectrolyte membranes. Substitution of the acrylic acid α-hydrogen was done to increase the number of carboxylic acid groups per monomer unit and to change the acid strength of acrylic acid carboxylic acid group. None of these changes improved the salt rejection of these membranes over that of commercially used poly(acrylic acid). Improvement in rejection was found when a hydrophobic comonomer, vinyl acetate, was used in conjunction with acrylic acid in a copolymer dynamic membrane. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Method of separating hafnium from zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    English. A new anhydrous method was developed for separating zirconium and hafnium, which gives higher separation factors and is more economical than previous methods. A molten phase, comprising a solution of unseparated zirconium and hafnium and a solvent metal, is first prepared. The molten metal phase is contacted with a fused salt phase which includes a zirconium salt. Zirconium and hafnium separation is effected by mutual displacement with hafnium being transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, while zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The solvent metal is less electropositive than zirconium. Zinc was chosen as the solvent metal, from a group which also included cadmium, lead, bismuth, copper, and tin. The fused salt phase cations are more electropositive than zirconium and were selected from a group comprising the alkali elements, the alkaline earth elements, the rare earth elements, and aluminum. A portion of the zirconium in the molten metal phase was oxidized by injecting an oxidizing agent, chlorine, to form zirconium tetrachlorid

  7. Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

  8. Microarc oxidation discharge types and bio properties of the coating synthesized on zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Sezgin; Azakli, Yunus; Tarakci, Mehmet; Stanciu, Lia; Gencer, Yucel

    2017-08-01

    This study is an attempt for gaining a better understanding on relationship between microarc oxidation (MAO) coating discharge types and bioactivity of an oxide-based coating synthesized on a Zr substrate. The discharge types and the coating growth mechanism were identified by the examination of the real cross-section image of the coating microstructure. The coating was conducted by using MAO in an electrolyte containing Na 2 SiO 3 , Ca(CH 3 COO) 2 and C 3 H 7 Na 2 O 6 P, for different durations of 2.5, 5, 15, and 30mins. The effect of the process duration on the different discharge model types (Type-A, B, and C) and bioactivity of the coatings were investigated by using X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements (SEM-EDS) and Optical Surface Profilometry (OSP). It was found that the increasing MAO duration resulted in thicker and rougher coatings. The XRD data revealed that all the samples prepared at different process durations contained the t-ZrO 2 (tetragonal zirconia) phase. During the MAO process, non-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) formed, which was confirmed from the FTIR data. The surface morphology, the amount and distribution of the features of the coating surface were modified by increasing voltage. The simulated body fluid (SBF) tests showed that the more bioactive surface with more HA crystals formed owing to chemical composition and high surface roughness of the coating. The pore, crack and discharge structures played a key role in apatite nucleation and growth, and provided ingrowth of apatite into discharge channels on the coating surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  10. Influence of chemical composition of zirconium alloy E110 on embrittlement under LOCA conditions - Part 1: Oxidation kinetics and macrocharacteristics of structure and fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, S. A.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Belov, V. A.; Li, E. V.; Glazkina, V. S.

    2011-11-01

    Exploratory investigations of the influence of alloying and impurity content in the E110 alloy cladding tubes on the behavior under conditions of Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) has been performed. Three alloys of E110 type have been tested: E110 alloy of nominal composition Zr-1%Nb (E110), E110 alloy of modified composition Zr-1%Nb-0.12%Fe-0.13%O (E110M), E110 alloy of nominal composition Zr-1%Nb with reduced impurity content (E110G). Alloys E110 and E110M were manufactured on the electrolytic basis and alloy E110G was manufactured on the basis of zirconium sponge. The high temperature oxidation tests in steam ( T = 1100 °C, 18% of equivalent cladding reacted (ECR)) have been conducted, kinetics of oxidation was investigated. Quantitative research of structure and fracture macrocharacteristics was performed by means of optical and electron microscopy. The results received were compared with the residual ductility of specimens. The results of the investigation showed the existence of "breakaway oxidation" kinetics and white spalling oxide in E110 and E110M alloys while the specimen oxidation kinetics in E110G alloy was characterized by a parabolic law and specimens had a dense black oxide. Oxygen and iron alloying in the E110 alloy positively changed the macrocharacteristics of structure and fracture. However, in general, it did not improve the resistance to embrittlement in LOCA conditions apparently because of a strong impurity influence caused by electrolytic process of zirconium production.

  11. Biocorrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloy by microarc oxidation in electrolyte containing zirconium and calcium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; Guo, Jun-Wei; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan; Cao, Jian-Yun; Zhou, Yu; Jia, De-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The key to use magnesium alloys as suitable biodegradable implants is how to adjust their degradation rates. We report a strategy to prepare biocompatible ceramic coating with improved biocorrosion resistance property on AZ91D alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) in a silicate-K2ZrF6 solution with and without Ca(H2PO4)2 additives. The microstructure and biocorrosion of coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM, as well as electrochemical and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the coatings are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4, m-ZrO2 phases, further Ca containing compounds involve the coating by Ca(H2PO4)2 addition in the silicate-K2ZrF6 solution. The corrosion resistance of coated AZ91D alloy is significantly improved compared with the bare one. After immersing in SBF for 28 d, the Si-Zr5-Ca0 coating indicates a best corrosion resistance performance.

  12. Effect of nano-sized cerium-zirconium oxide solid solution on far-infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Yang, Liqing; Hu, Weijie; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Haojing

    2015-10-01

    Far-infrared functional nanocomposites were prepared by the co-precipitation method using natural tourmaline (XY3Z6Si6O18(BO3)3V3W, where X is Na+, Ca2+, K+, or vacancy; Y is Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Cr3+, Li+, or Ti4+; Z is Al3+, Mg2+, Cr3+, or V3+; V is O2-, OH-; and W is O2-, OH-, or F-) powders, ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate and zirconium(IV) nitrate pentahydrate as raw materials. The reference sample, tourmaline modified with ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate alone was also prepared by a similar precipitation route. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr has a better far-infrared emission property than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the mechanism for oxygen evolution during the heat process in the two composite materials was systematically studied. The XPS spectra show that Fe3+ ratio inside tourmaline modified with Ce alone can be raised by doping Zr. Moreover, it is showed that there is a higher Ce3+ ratio inside the tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. In addition, XRD results indicate the formation of CeO2 and Ce1-xZrxO2 crystallites during the heat treatment and further TEM observations show they exist as nanoparticles on the surface of tourmaline powders. Based on these results, we attribute the improved far-infrared emission properties of Ce-Zr doped tourmaline to the enhanced unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arisen from much more oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ inside the tourmaline caused by the change in the catalyst redox properties of CeO2 brought about by doping with Zr4+. In all samples, tourmaline modified with 7.14 wt.% Ce and 1.86 wt.% Zr calcined at 800∘C for 5 h has the best far-infrared emission property with the maximum emissivity value of 98%.

  13. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed M; Abualsaud, Reem; Rahoma, Ahmed; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Al-Abidi, Khalid S; Akhtar, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for the fabrication of removable prostheses. Recently, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO 2 ) have been added to improve some properties of PMMA, but their effect on the optical properties and tensile strength are neglected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-ZrO 2 addition on the translucency and tensile strength of the PMMA denture base material. Eighty specimens (40 dumbbell-shaped and 40 discs) were prepared out of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and divided into four groups per test (n=10). The control group for each test included unreinforced acrylic, while the test groups were reinforced with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt% nano-ZrO 2 . Acrylic resin was mixed according to manufacturer's instructions, packed, and processed by conventional method. After polymerization, all specimens were finished, polished, and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48±2 hours. Tensile strength (MPa) was evaluated using the universal testing machine while the specimens' translucency was examined using a spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using the paired sample t -test ( p ≤0.05). A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the morphological changes and topography of the fractured surfaces. This study showed that the mean tensile strength of the PMMA in the test groups of 2.5%NZ, 5%NZ, and 7.5%NZ was significantly higher than the control group. The tensile strength increased significantly after nano-ZrO 2 addition, and the maximum increase seen was in the 7.5%NZ group. The translucency values of the experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the control group. Within the reinforced groups, the 2.5%NZ group had significantly higher translucency values when compared to the 5%NZ and 7.5%NZ groups. The addition of nano-ZrO 2 increased the tensile strength of the denture base acrylic. The increase was directly proportional to the nano-ZrO 2 concentration. The

  14. Properties of calcium silicate-monobasic calcium phosphate materials for endodontics containing tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparini, Fausto; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo; Taddei, Paola; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2018-05-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of three premixed calcium silicate materials containing monobasic calcium phosphate (CaH 4 P 2 O 8 ) bioceramic, tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide, recently marketed for endodontics (TotalFill BC-Sealer, BC-RRM-Paste, BC-RRM-Putty). Microchemical and micromorphological analyses, radiopacity, initial and final setting times, calcium release and alkalising activity were tested. The nucleation of calcium phosphates (CaPs) and/or apatite after 28 days ageing was evaluated by ESEM-EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy. BC-Sealer and BC-RRM-Paste showed similar initial (23 h), prolonged final (52 h) setting times and good radiopacity (> 7 mm Al); BC-RRM-Putty showed fast initial (2 h) and final setting times (27 h) and excellent radiopacity (> 9 mm Al). All materials induced a marked alkalisation (pH 11-12) up to 28 days and showed the release of calcium ions throughout the entire test period (cumulative calcium release 641-806 ppm). After 28 days ageing, a well-distributed mineral layer was present on all samples surface; EDX demonstrated relevant calcium and phosphorous peaks. B-type carbonated apatite and calcite deposits were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy on all the 28-day-aged samples; the deposit thickness was higher on BC-RRM-Paste and BC-RRM-Putty, in agreement with calcium release data. These materials met the required chemical and physical standards and released biologically relevant ions. The CaSi-CaH 4 P 2 O 8 system present in the materials provided Ca and OH ions release with marked abilities to nucleate a layer of B-type carbonated apatite favoured/accelerated by the bioceramic presence. The ability to nucleate apatite may lead many clinical advantages: In orthograde endodontics, it may improve the sealing ability by the deposition of CaPs at the material-root dentine interface, and in endodontic surgery, it could promote bone and

  15. Raman spectroscopy study of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transition in zirconium oxide scales and determination of overall oxygen diffusion by nuclear microanalysis of O18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, J.; Lambertin, M.; Gros, J.P.; Wadier, J.F.; Weidinger, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on two allotropic forms of zirconium oxide, monoclinic and tetragonal that have been identified in the scales formed on zirconium alloys. The transition from tetragonal to monoclinic has been followed by Z-ray measurements and Raman laser spectroscopy. Information on the average content of the tetragonal phase was obtained by X-ray diffraction, whereas Raman laser analyses on tapered sections revealed its distribution through the scale thickness. Oxidation exposures were made in an autoclave, using H 2 O 18 and D 2 O 18 to determine the overall diffusion coefficients. In particular, oxide scales have been studied on Zircaloy-4 with three different precipitate sizes, and on a Zr-1Nb alloy, after exposure in an autoclave for between 3 and 100 days. The specimens were analyzed in detail in the vicinity of the kinetics transition point, where the acceleration of corrosion occurs. Raman spectroscopy analyses enabled the crystallographic nature of the ZrO 2 to be determined. Close to the interface, the tetragonal phase content is about 40%, when after the transition the tetragonal phase is transformed into monoclinic. The O 18 diffusion treatment was carried out in an autoclave at 400 degrees C under pressure on specimens previously oxidized for between 3 and 100 days in natural water vapor pressure. The diffusion profiles were determined by nuclear microanalysis using the O 18 (p, α) → N 15 reaction. Based on these profiles, the volume and grain boundary diffusion coefficients were calculated for each material and for each oxidation time

  16. Study on application of zirconium dioxide for upgrading quality of pouring cups used in continuous steel casting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ba Kien; Vu Thanh Quang and Ngo Van Tuyen

    2004-01-01

    This theme studies on technology of zirconium oxide powder stabilized by calcium and testing production of steel pouring cup made of the stabilized dioxide zirconium ceramic. As a product of the theme, the steel pouring cup has had the following main characteristics: heat resistance > 1700 o C, density of 4.7 g/cm 3 , apparent sponge degree of 1.63%, compressibility of 3300 kg/cm 2 . The quality of the cup has been tested and highly evaluated during the actual production. (author)

  17. Laboratory Oxidation Stability Study on B10 Biodiesel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelen, B. [and others

    2013-11-15

    A laboratory oxidation stability study has been completed jointly by CONCAWE and DGMK on three biodiesel blends containing 10% v/v (B10) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). The results of the study are compared to measurements from an in-vehicle storage stability study on similar B10 diesel fuels that had been conducted previously in a Joint Industry Study. This laboratory study monitored the oxidation stability of the three B10 blends during six weeks of laboratory storage under ambient (25C) and elevated temperature (43C) conditions. Various test methods were used to monitor oxidation stability changes in the B10 diesel fuel blends including electrical conductivity, viscosity, Rancimat oxidation stability (EN 15751), PetroOxy oxidation stability (EN 16091), acid number (EN 14104), Delta Total Acid Number (Delta TAN), and peroxide number (ISO 3960). Elemental analyses by ICP were also completed on the FAME and B10 blends at the start and end of the laboratory study. The concentrations of dissolved metals were very low in all cases except for silicon which was found to be between about 600-700 ppb in the B10 blends. A limited study was also conducted on one neat FAME sample (B100) to investigate the effect of air/oxygen exposure on the rate of decrease in oxidation stability.

  18. Pull-test adhesion measurements of diamondlike carbon films on silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, and zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erck, R.A.; Nichols, F.A.; Dierks, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon or diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were formed by 400 eV methane (CH 4 ) ion bombardment of various smooth and rough ceramics, as well as ceramics coated with a layer of Si or Ti. Adhesion was measured by a bonded-pin method. Excellent adhesion was measured for smooth SiC and Si 3 N 4 , but adhesion of DLC to smooth Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 was negligible. The use of a Si bonding interlayer produced good adhesion to all the substrates, but a Ti layer was ineffective due to poor bonding between the DLC film and Ti. Bulk thermodynamic calculations are not directly applicable to bonding at the interface because the interface is two dimensional and the compositions of interfacial phases are generally not known. If the standard enthalpy ΔH degree for the reaction between CH 4 and the substrate material is calculated under the assumption that a carbide phase is produced, a relationship is seen between the reaction enthalpy and the relative adhesion. Large positive enthalpies are associated with poor adhesion; negative or small positive enthalpies are associated with good adhesion. This relation between enthalpy and adhesion was also observed for DLC deposited on Si. The lack of adhesion to the Ti was attributed to inadvertent formation of a surface oxide layer that rendered the enthalpy for the reaction with CH 4 positive

  19. Pull-test adhesion measurements of diamondlike carbon films on silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, and zirconium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.; Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dierks, J.F. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films or diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were formed by ion-beam deposition of 400 eV methane (CH{sub 4}) ions on several smooth and rough ceramics, as well as on ceramics coated with a layer of Si and Ti. Adhesion was measured by the pin-pull method. Excellent adhesion was measured for smooth SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, but adhesion of DLC to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} was negligible. The use of a Si bonding interlayer produced good adhesion to all the substrates, but a Ti layer was ineffective because bonding between the DLC film and Ti was poor. The presence of surface roughness appeared to greatly increase the measured adhesion in all cases. Bulk thermodynamic calculations are not directly applicable to bonding at the interface. If the standard enthalpy of formation for reaction between CH{sub 4} and substrate is calculated assumpting a carbide or carbon phase is produced, a relation is seen between reaction enthalpy and relative adhesion. Large positive enthalpies are associated with poor adhesion; negative or small positive enthalpies are associated with good adhesion. This relation between enthalpy and adhesion was also observed for DLC deposited on Si. Lack of adhesion to Ti was attributed to inadvertent formation of a surface oxide layer that rendered the enthalpy for reaction with CH{sub 4} strongly positive and similar in magnitude to that for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}.

  20. Residual stresses in high temperature corrosion of pure zirconium using elasto-viscoplastic model: Application to the deflection test in monofacial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettré, D.; Bouvier, S.; Favergeon, J.; Kurpaska, L.

    2015-12-01

    The paper is devoted to modeling residual stresses and strains in an oxide film formed during high temperature oxidation. It describes the deflection test in isothermal high-temperature monofacial oxidation (DTMO) of pure zirconium. The model incorporates kinetics and mechanism of oxidation and takes into account elastic, viscoplastic, growth and chemical strains. Different growth strains models are considered, namely, isotropic growth strains given by Pilling-Bedworth ratio, anisotropic growth strains defined by Parise and co-authors and physically based model for growth strain proposed by Clarke. Creep mechanisms based on dislocation slip and core diffusion, are used. A mechanism responsible for through thickness normal stress gradient in the oxide film is proposed. The material parameters are identified using deflection tests under 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C. The effect of temperature on creep and stress relaxation is analyzed. Numerical sensitivity study of the DTMO experiment is proposed in order to investigate the effects of the initial foil thickness and platinum coating on the deflection curves.

  1. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CdS nanoparticles prepared in reverse micellar system was incorporated into ... The molar ratio of various constituents of the hydrothermal gel was ... other synthesis techniques for the preparation of iron oxide nanocomposites using.

  2. Role of electrolyte composition on structural, morphological and in-vitro biological properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation films formed on zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M, Sandhyarani; T, Prasadrao; N, Rameshbabu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniform oxide films were formed on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation. • Silicate in electrolyte alter the growth of m-ZrO 2 from (1 ¯ 11) to (2 0 0) orientation. • Addition of KOH to electrolyte improved the corrosion resistance of oxide films. • Silicon incorporated oxide films showed higher surface roughness and wettability. • Human osteosarcoma cells were strongly adhered and spreaded on all the oxide films. - Abstract: Development of oxide films on metallic implants with a good combination of corrosion resistance, bioactivity and cell adhesion can greatly improve its biocompatibility and functionality. Thus, the present work is aimed to fabricate oxide films on metallic Zr by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in methodically varied concentrations of phosphate, silicate and KOH based electrolyte systems using a pulsed DC power source. The oxide films fabricated on Zr are characterized for its phase composition, surface morphology, chemical composition, roughness, wettability, surface energy, corrosion resistance, apatite forming ability and osteoblast cell adhesion. Uniform films with thickness varying from 6 to 11 μm are formed. XRD patterns of all the PEO films showed the predominance of monoclinic zirconia phase. The film formed in phosphate + KOH electrolyte showed superior corrosion resistance, which can be ascribed to its pore free morphology. The films formed in silicate electrolyte showed higher apatite forming ability with good cell adhesion and spreading over its surface which is attributed to its superior surface roughness and wettability characteristics. Among the five different electrolyte systems employed in the present study, the PEO film formed in an electrolyte system with phosphate + silicate + KOH showed optimum corrosion resistance, apatite forming ability and biocompatibility

  3. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  4. Oxidative stability of fatty acid alkyl esters: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Angelovič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and to process the current literary knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of vegetable oil raw used for biodiesel production in terms of its qualitative stability. An object of investigation was oxidative stability of biodiesel. In the study, we focused on the qualitative physico-chemical properties of vegetable oils used for biodiesel production, oxidative degradation and its mechanisms, oxidation of lipids, mechanisms of autooxidation, effectivennes of different synthetic antioxidants in relation to oxidative stability of biodiesel and methods of oxidative stability determination. Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil as raw material and the factors affecting these properties is critical for the production of quality biodiesel and its sustainability. According to the source of oilseed, variations in the chemical composition of the vegetable oil are expressed by variations in the molar ratio among different fatty acids in the structure. The relative ratio of fatty acids present in the raw material is kept relatively constant after the transesterification reaction. The quality of biodiesel physico-chemical properties is influenced by the chain length and the level of unsaturation of the produced fatty acid alkyl esters. A biodiesel is thermodynamically stable. Its instability primarily occurs from contact of oxygen present in the ambient air that is referred to as oxidative instability. For biodiesel is oxidation stability a general term. It is necessary to distinguish ‘storage stability' and ‘thermal stability', in relation to oxidative degradation, which may occur during extended periods of storage, transportation and end use. Fuel instability problems can be of two related types, short-term oxidative instability and long-term storage instability. Storage instability is defined in terms of solid formation, which can plug nozzles, filters, and degrade engine

  5. Stabilization and functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Textor, Marcus; Reimhult, Erik

    2011-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface presentation of functionalities. This review is focused on different aspects of the stability of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs, from its practical definition to its implementation by molecular design of the dispersant shell around the iron oxide core and further on to its influence on the magnetic properties of the superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. Special attention is given to the selection of molecular anchors for the dispersant shell, because of their importance to ensure colloidal and functional stability of sterically stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. We further detail how dispersants have been optimized to gain close control over iron oxide NP stability, size and functionalities by independently considering the influences of anchors and the attached sterically repulsive polymer brushes. A critical evaluation of different strategies to stabilize and functionalize core-shell superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs as well as a brief introduction to characterization methods to compare those strategies is given.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface

  6. Improved description of metal oxide stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Thomas Stenbæk; Olsen, Thomas; Bligaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The renormalized adiabatic PBE (rAPBE) method has recently been shown to comprise a significant improvement over the random phase approximation (RPA) for total energy calculations of simple solids and molecules. Here we consider the formation energies of 19 group I and II metal oxides and a few...... transition-metal oxides. The mean absolute error relative to experiments is 0.21 eV and 0.38 eV per oxygen atom for rAPBE and RPA, respectively, and thus the rAPBE method greatly improves the description of metal-oxygen bonds across a wide range of oxides. The failure of the RPA can be partly attributed...... to the lack of error cancellation between the correlation energy of the oxide on the one hand and the bulk metal and oxygen molecule on the other hand, which are all separately predicted much too negative by the RPA. We ascribe the improved performance of the rAPBE to its significantly better description...

  7. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by ...

  8. Extractive metallurgy of zirconium--1945 to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, D.G.; Adamson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Although the history of the reduction of zirconium dates from 1824 and the first ductile zirconium metal was produced in the laboratory in 1914, modern reduction practice was pioneered by the U.S. Bureau of Mines starting in 1945. This paper reviews the history of the extractive metallurgy of zirconium from the early work of W. J. Kroll and co-workers at the Bureau of Mines in Albany, Ore., through the commercial development of the production of reactor-grade zirconium metal which was spurred by the requirements of the Naval Reactor Program and the development of commercial nuclear power. Technical subjects covered include processes for opening the ore, zirconium-hafnium separation, chlorination of zirconium oxide, reduction processes, and electrowinning of zirconium metal. Proposed new processes and process modifications are reviewed

  9. Stabilization of mixed carbides of uranium-plutonium by zirconium. Part 1.: uranium carbide with small additions of zirconium; Etude de la stabilisation des carbures mixtes d'uranium et de plutonium par addition de zirconium. 1. partie: etude des carbures d'uranium avec de faibles additions de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocker, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Cast carbide samples, being of a high density and purity, are preferable for research purposes, to samples produced by powder metallurgy methods. Samples of uranium carbide with small additions of zirconium (1 to 5 per cent) were cast, as rods, in an arc furnace. A single phase carbide with interesting qualities was produced. As cast, a dendrite structure is observed, which does not disappear, after a treatment at 1900 deg. C during 110 hours. In comparison with uranium monocarbide the compatibility with stainless steel is much improved. The specific heat (between room temperature and 2500 deg. C) is similar to the specific heat of uranium monocarbide. A study of these mixed carbides, but having a part of the uranium replaced by plutonium is under way. (author) [French] Les echantillons de monocarbures obtenus par coulee sont tres interessants pour les recherches experimentales a cause de leur grande purete, de leur densite tres elevee et de la facilite d'obtention des lingots de forme et dimensions variees. On a prepare et coule dans un four a arc des echantillons de carbures d'uranium avec de faibles additions de zirconium (1 a 5 at. pour cent). On obtient ainsi des carbures monophases presentant de meilleures proprietes que le monocarbure d'uranium. A l'etat brut de coulee on observe une structure dendritique qui n'est pas detruite par un traitement thermique de 110 heures a 1900 deg. C. La compatibilite avec l'acier inoxydable 316 (a 925 deg. C pendant 500 heures) est nettement amelioree par rapport a UC. La chaleur specifique (entre la temperature ordinaire et 2500 deg. C) et la densite sont tres peu differentes de celles du monocarbure d'uranium. Une etude concernant les composes U-Pu-Zr-C est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  10. Titanium(IV), zirconium, hafnium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Titanium can exist in solution in a number of oxidation states. The titanium(IV) exists in acidic solutions as the oxo-cation, TiO 2+ , rather than Ti 4+ . Zirconium is used in the ceramics industry and in nuclear industry as a cladding material in reactors where its reactivity towards hydrolysis reactions and precipitation of oxides may result in degradation of the cladding. In nature, hafnium is found together with zirconium and as a consequence of the contraction in ionic radii that occurs due to the 4f -electron shell, the ionic radius of hafnium is almost identical to that of zirconium. All isotopes of thorium are radioactive and, as a consequence of it being fertile, thorium is important in the nuclear fuel cycle. The polymeric hydrolysis species that have been reported for thorium are somewhat different to those identified for zirconium and hafnium, although thorium does form the Th 4 (OH) 8 8+ species.

  11. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide; Preparacao e caracterizacao de fibras de bagaco de cana modificadas com nanoparticulas de oxido de zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H., E-mail: kcccarvalho@hotmail.com.b [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia(FEG)

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  12. Investigation of Oxidation stability of Pongamia Biodiesel and its blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dwivedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from Pongamia oil is one of the promising non edible sources in India. But the main problem of using Pongamia biodiesel as fuel is its poor stability characteristics. Poor stability leads to gum formation which further leads to a storage problem of these fuels for a longer period of time. This paper investigates the methodology of improving the stability characteristics of Pongamia biodiesel by blending with diesel and use of the antioxidant Pyrogallol. The experimental investigation shows that blending with diesel and using of antioxidant Pyrogallol improves the stability characteristics of Pongamia biodiesel significantly. Results of the study show that the optimum amount of antioxidant (PY for pure PB20 is 300 ppm to maintain the oxidation stability specification and blending of diesel with Pongamia shows that PB10 requires no additive to maintain its stability characteristics.

  13. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  14. Formation and reduction behaviors of zirconium oxide compounds in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O melt at 923 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu, E-mail: sakamura@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1 Iwadokita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Iizuka, Masatoshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1 Iwadokita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kitawaki, Shinichi; Nakayoshi, Akira; Kofuji, Hirohide [International Research Institute for Nuclear Decommissioning (IRID), 2-23-1 Nishi-shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The reduction behaviors of ZrO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and (U,Pu,Zr)O{sub 2} in a LiCl–Li{sub 2}O salt bath at 923 K were investigated. This study was conducted as part of a feasibility study on the pyrochemical treatment of damaged fuel debris generated by severe accidents at light water reactors. It was demonstrated in electrolytic reduction tests that the uranium in synthetic corium specimens of (U,Pu,Zr)O{sub 2} with various ZrO{sub 2} contents could be reduced to the metallic form and that part of the zirconium was converted to Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Zirconium metal and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} were obtained by the reduction of ZrO{sub 2}. The reduction of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} did not proceed even in LiCl containing no Li{sub 2}O. Moreover, the stable chemical forms of the ZrO{sub 2}–Li{sub 2}O complex oxide were investigated as a function of the Li{sub 2}O concentration in LiCl. ZrO{sub 2} was converted to Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} at a Li{sub 2}O concentration of 0.018 wt%. As the Li{sub 2}O concentration was increased, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was converted to Li{sub 6}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and then to Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6}. It is suggested that the removal of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} from the reduction product is a key point in the pyrochemical treatment of corium. - Highlights: • The uranium in (U,Pu,Zr)O{sub 2} could be reduced to the metallic form in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O. • Part of the zirconium was converted to Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} during electrolytic reduction. • Li{sub 6}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} formed at high Li{sub 2}O concentrations in LiCl.

  15. Improvement of the oxidation stability of cobalt nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celin Dobbrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the resistance of cobalt nanoparticles to oxidation in air, the impact of different stabilization strategies on the isothermal oxidation of particle dispersions and powders was kinetically investigated and compared to as-prepared particle preparations. A post-synthesis treatment with different alcohols was employed, and we also investigate the influence of two different polymer shells on the oxidation process. We found a parabolic decrease of the magnetization for all particle charges, indicating that the process is dominated by a diffusion of oxygen to the cobalt core and a radial growth of the oxide layer from the particle surface to the core. A significant deceleration of the oxidation process was observed for all alcohol-passivated particle preparations, and this resulted finally in a stagnation effect. The stabilizing effect increases in the sequence Co@OA/MeOH < Co@OA/EtOH < Co@OA/iPrOH. For polymer-coated particle preparations Co@PCL and Co@PS, the deceleration was even more pronounced. The results demonstrate that cobalt nanoparticles can effectively be protected against oxidation in order to improve their mid- to longterm stability.

  16. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  17. Monochloro non-bridged half-metallocene-type zirconium complexes containing phosphine oxide-(thio)phenolate chelating ligands as efficient ethylene polymerization catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yong-Xia; Liu, San-Rong; Liu, Jing-Yu; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2013-01-14

    A series of novel monochloro half-zirconocene complexes containing phosphine oxide-(thio)phenolate chelating ligands of the type, ClCp'Zr[X-2-R(1)-4-R(2)-6-(Ph(2)P=O)C(6)H(2)](2) (Cp' = C(5)H(5), 2a: X = O, R(1) = Ph, R(2) = H; 2b: X = O, R(1) = F, R(2) = H; 2c: X = O, R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = H; 2d: X = O, R(1) = R(2) = (t)Bu; 2e: X = O, R(1) = SiMe(3), R(2) = H; 2f: X = S, R(1) = SiMe(3), R(2) = H; Cp' = C(5)Me(5), 2g: X = O, R(1) = SiMe(3), R(2) = H), have been synthesized in high yields. These complexes were identified by (1)H {(13)C} NMR and elemental analyses. Structures for 2b, 2c and 2f were further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Structural characterization of these complexes reveals crowded environments around the zirconium. Complexes 2b and 2c adopt six-coordinate, distorted octahedral geometry around the zirconium center, in which the equatorial positions are occupied by three oxygen atoms of two chelating phosphine oxide-bridged phenolate ligands and a chlorine atom. The cyclopentadienyl ring and one oxygen atom of the ligand are coordinated on the axial position. Complex 2f also folds a six-coordinate, distorted octahedral geometry around the Zr center, consisting of a Cp-Zr-O (in P=O) axis [177.16°] and a distorted plane of two sulfur atoms and one oxygen atom of two chelating phosphine oxide-bridged thiophenolate ligands as well as a chlorine atom. When activated by modified methylaluminoxane (MMAO), all the complexes exhibited high activities towards ethylene polymerization at high temperature (75 °C), giving high molecular weight polymers with unimodal molecular weight distribution. The formation of 14-electron, cationic metal alkyl species might come from the Zr-O (in phenol ring) bond cleavage based on the DFT calculations study.

  18. Experimental studies of relevance on zirconium nitrate raffinate sludge for its disposal as well as zirconium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Narasimha Murty, B.; Ravindra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    . Thus, the presence of excess of zirconium in the sludge is undesirable not only with respect to the requirement of more lime for stabilization but in view of loss of precious zirconium. It was observed that leaching of sludge with 3N nitric acid recovered only about 13% of zirconium whereas under the same conditions leaching of sludge with water recovered more than 99% zirconium. It was observed that when the sludge: water weight ratio was 2:1, 1:1, 2:3 and 1:2 the recovery of zirconium was respectively 21.6, 26.2, 46.3 and 99.3%. (author)

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions affected by biochar and nitrogen stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both biochar and N fertilizer stabilizers (N transformation inhibitors) are potential strategies to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilization, but the mechanisms and/or N transformation processes affecting the N dynamics are not fully understood. This research investigated N2O emission...

  20. Cathodic behavior of zirconium in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, F.; Yasuda, M.; Sato, H.

    1977-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Zr was studied by polarization measurements. The surface oxide and zirconium hydride formed by cathodic polarization of Zr have been examined by X-ray, SEM, and a hardness tester. Zirconium hydride would form on Zr cathode after the surface oxide is reduced at the potential, which is several hundred mV more noble than the predicted value shown by the Pourbaix diagram. The parameters for the hydrogen evolution reaction on the hydride formed Zr cathode differs from that on the oxide covered surface, which means that hydrogen evolution takes place on both surfaces under a different mechanism, while details are still veiled at present

  1. Oxidative stability of pullulan electrospun fibers containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, Cecilie; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of oil content and addition of natural antioxidants on the morphology and oxidative stability of pullulan ultra-thin fibers loaded with fish oil and obtained by electrospinning was investigated. Pullulan sub-micron fibers containing 10 and 30wt% fish oil were prepared and both presented...... into food matrices. These results show the feasibility to encapsulate fish oil in pullulan ultra-thin fibers and to improve their oxidative stability by adding natural antioxidants such as δ-tocopherol and rosemary extract. Therefore, this study might open up new opportunities for further technological...... development in the production of omega-3 nanodelivery systems, which have potential applications in different types of fortified foods. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants....

  2. Electrochemical properties of the hexacyanoferrate(II)–ruthenium(III) complex immobilized on silica gel surface chemically modified with zirconium(IV) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panice, Lucimara B.; Oliveira, Elisangela A. de; Filho, Ricardo A.D. Molin; Oliveira, Daniela P. de; Lazarin, Angélica M.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium composite material was synthesized. • This newly synthesized compound was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode. • The electrode did not show significant changes in response after six months of use. • The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. • The electrode sensor was successfully applied for ascorbic acid determination. - Abstract: The chemically modified silica gel with zirconium(IV) oxide was used to immobilize the [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4− complex ion initially. The reaction of this material with [Ru(edta)H 2 O] − complex ion formed the immobilized cyano-bridged mixed valence ruthenium complex, (≡Zr) 5 [(edta)RuNCFe(CN) 5 ]. This material was incorporated into a carbon paste electrode and, its electrochemical properties were investigated. However, for an ascorbic acid solution, an enhancement of the anodic peak current was detected due to electrocatalytic oxidation. The electrode presented the same response for at least 150 successive measurements, with a good repeatability. The modified electrode is very stable and reproducible. The sensor was applied for ascorbic acid determination in pharmaceutical preparation with success

  3. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    investigated. For that purpose, three different biopolymers namely pullulan, dextran and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated as encapsulating materials. First, the influence of biopolymer concentration on the physical properties (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface tension) of the biopolymer...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  4. Modified silver nanowire transparent electrodes with exceptional stability against oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, J; Neri, W; Ly, I; Poulin, P; Backov, R; Labrugère, C

    2016-01-01

    We report an easy method to prepare thin, flexible and transparent electrodes that show enhanced inertness toward oxidation using modified silver nanowires (Ag NWs). Stabilization is achieved through the adsorption of triphenylphosphine (PPh 3 ) onto the Ag NW hybrid dispersions prior to their 2D organization as transparent electrodes on polyethylene terephtalate (PET) films. After 110 days in air (20 °C) under atmospheric conditions, the transmittance of the PET/Ag NW/PPh 3 based films is nearly unchanged, while the transmittance of the PET/Ag NW-based films decreases by about 5%. The sheet resistance increases for both materials as time elapses, but the rate of increase is more than four times slower for films stabilized by PPh 3 . The improved transmittance and conductivity results in a significantly enhanced stability for the figure of merit σ dc /σ op . This phenomenon is highlighted in highly oxidative nitric acid vapor. The tested stabilized films in such conditions exhibit a decrease to σ dc /σ op of only 38% after 75 min, whereas conventional materials exhibit a relative loss of 71%. In addition, by contrast to other classes of stabilizers, such as polymer or graphene-based encapsulants, PPh 3 does not alter the transparency or conductivity of the modified films. While the present films are made by membrane filtration, the stabilization method could be implemented directly in other liquid processes, including industrially scalable ones. (paper)

  5. The influence of adding modified zirconium oxide-titanium dioxide nano-particles on mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesive: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Nayef H; Ebrahim, Mohamed I

    2017-01-13

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to examine the effect of incorporating different concentrations of Zirconium oxide-Titanium dioxide (ZrO2-TiO2) nanoparticles, which can have antibacterial properties, on the mechanical properties of an orthodontic adhesive. ZrO2-TiO2 (Zirconium oxide, HWNANO, Hongwu International Group Ltd, China) -Titanium dioxide, Nanoshell, USA) nanopowder were incorporated into orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT, 3 M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) with different concentrations (0.5% weight nonofiller and 1% weight nanofiller). The size of nanoparticle was 70-80 nm for ZrO2 and less than 50 nm for TiO2. For measuring the shear bond strength of the three groups of orthodontic adhesives [Transbond (control), Transbond mixed with 0.5% weight ZrO2-TiO2, and Transbond mixed with 1% weight ZrO2-TiO2], 30 freshly extracted human first premolars were used and bonded with stainless steel metal brackets (Dentaurum®, Discovery®, Deutschland), using the 3 orthodontic adhesives and 3 M Unitek; Transbond TM Plus Self-Etching Primer (10 samples in each group). The recorded values of compressive strength and tensile strength (measured separately on 10 samples of orthodontic adhesives (add the 3 D size of sample, light cured for 40 s on both sides) of each orthodontic adhesives), as well as the shear bond strength in Mega Pascal unit (MPa) were collected and exposed to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc tests. orthodontic adhesive with 1% weight ZrO2-TiO2 showed the highest mean compressive (73.42 ± 1.55 MPa, p: 0.003, F: 12.74), tensile strength (8.65 ± 0.74 MPa, p: 0.001, F: 68.20), and shear bond strength (20.05 ± 0.2 MPa, p: 0.001, F: 0.17). Adding ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticle to orthodontic adhesive increased compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear bond strength in vitro, but in vivo studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to validate the present findings.

  6. Oxide characterization and hydrogen behaviors of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kwon, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Oh, S. J.; Yim, B. J.; Son, S. B.; Yun, S. P.

    2006-03-01

    The work scope and contents of the research are as follows : basic properties of zirconium alloys, hydrogen pick-up mechanism of zirconium alloy, effects of hydride on the corrosion behaviors of zirconium alloys, estimation on stress of oxide layer in the zirconium alloy, microstructure and characteristic of oxide in pre-hydrided zirconium alloys

  7. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  8. Long-Term Stability of Oxide Nanowire Sensors via Heavily Doped Oxide Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhang, Guozhu; He, Yong; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2017-12-22

    Long-term stability of a chemical sensor is an essential quality for long-term collection of data related to exhaled breath, environmental air, and other sources in the Internet of things (IoT) era. Although an oxide nanowire sensor has shown great potential as a chemical sensor, the long-term stability of sensitivity has not been realized yet due to electrical degradation under harsh sensing conditions. Here, we report a rational concept to accomplish long-term electrical stability of metal oxide nanowire sensors via introduction of a heavily doped metal oxide contact layer. Antimony-doped SnO 2 (ATO) contacts on SnO 2 nanowires show much more stable and lower electrical contact resistance than conventional Ti contacts for high temperature (200 °C) conditions, which are required to operate chemical sensors. The stable and low contact resistance of ATO was confirmed for at least 1960 h under 200 °C in open air. This heavily doped oxide contact enables us to realize the long-term stability of SnO 2 nanowire sensors while maintaining the sensitivity for both NO 2 gas and light (photo) detections. The applicability of our method is confirmed for sensors on a flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. Since the proposed fundamental concept can be applied to various oxide nanostructures, it will give a foundation for designing long-term stable oxide nanomaterial-based IoT sensors.

  9. Oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel as prepared by supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayu Xin; Hiroaki Imahara; Shiro Saka [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science

    2008-08-15

    A non-catalytic supercritical methanol method is an attractive process to convert various oils/fats efficiently into biodiesel. To evaluate oxidation stability of biodiesel, biodiesel produced by alkali-catalyzed method was exposed to supercritical methanol at several temperatures for 30 min. As a result, it was found that the tocopherol in biodiesel is not stable at a temperature higher than 300{sup o}C. After the supercritical methanol treatment, hydroperoxides were greatly reduced for biodiesel with initially high in peroxide value, while the tocopherol slightly decreased in its content. As a result, the biodiesel prepared by the supercritical methanol method was enhanced for oxidation stability when compared with that prepared by alkali-catalyzed method from waste oil. Therefore, supercritical methanol method is useful especially for oils/fats having higher peroxide values. 32 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Study of oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Biofuel Research Laboratory, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand- 247667 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel overdependency. However, the possibilities of production of biodiesel from edible oil resources in India is almost impossible, as primary need is to first meet the demand of edible oil that is already imported therefore it is essential to explore non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha curcas and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. The oxidation stability of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil is very poor. Therefore the aim of the present paper is to study the oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blend. Also the effectiveness of various antioxidants is checked with respect to various blends of biodiesel with diesel.

  11. Improving oxidative stability of liquid fish oil supplements for pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Griinari, Mikko; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    oxidative stability to the same extent as 2000 ppm mixed tocopherols in Oxipres. Overall, oxidative stability of fish oil or fish oil + vegetable oil blends was improved the most by addition of 5000 ppm rosemary extract and 500 ppm mixed tocopherols. A commercial oil blend with composition optimized based...... of fish oil by adding vegetable oils, mixed tocopherols and rosemary extract, and to formulate a commercial product according to the results obtained. The formulated product was evaluated against commercial fish oil products. An initial screening for antioxidative effect was performed by using Oxipres...... equipment. The effect of antioxidant and vegetable oil blends was examined in oils stored at 30 and 40°C by measuring peroxide value, volatile compounds with GC-MS and tocopherol content. Addition of vegetable oil and rosemary extract at high level (4000–6000 ppm) plus 600 ppm of mixed tocopherols increased...

  12. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  13. Cationic polyelectrolyte induced separation of some inorganic contaminants and their mixture (zirconium silicate, kaolin, K-feldspar, zinc oxide) as well as of the paraffin oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimici, Luminita

    2016-03-15

    The flocculation efficiency of a cationic polyelectrolyte with quaternary ammonium salt groups in the backbone, namely PCA5 was evaluated on zirconium silicate (kreutzonit), kaolin, K- feldspar and zinc oxide (ZnO) suspensions prepared either with each pollutant or with their mixture. The effect of several parameters such as settling time, polymer dose and the pollutant type on the separation efficacy was evaluated and followed by optical density and zeta potential measurements. Except for ZnO, the interactions between PCA5 and suspended particles led to low residual turbidity values (around 4% for kreutzonit, 5% for kaolin and 8% for K-feldspar) as well as to the reduction of flocs settling time (from 1200 min to 30 min and 120 min in case of kaolinit and K-feldspar, respectively), that meant a high efficiency in their separation. The negative value of the zeta potential and flocs size measurements, at the optimum polymer dose, point to contribution from charge patch mechanism for the particles flocculation. A good efficiency of PCA5 in separation of paraffin oil (a minimum residual turbidity of 9.8%) has been also found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In situ oxidation of zirconium binary alloys by environmental SEM and analysis by AFM, FIB, and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proff, C.; Abolhassani, S.; Dadras, M.M.; Lemaignan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Binary Zr-alloys containing 1%Fe and 1% Ni (large precipitates) and 1% Cr and 0.6% Nb (small precipitates), as well as a pure Zr sample were exposed in situ at 130 Pa water vapour pressure at 415 o C in an environmental SEM. The surface topography and composition of each sample was characterised before in situ experiments, during and after oxidation. After oxidation the surface was characterised by SEM and EDS, AFM and TEM combined with EDS. Focused ion beam was used to prepare cross sections of the metal-oxide interface and for the preparation of TEM thin foils. The oxidation behaviour of precipitates for these alloying elements can be characterised into two large families, those which show a rapid oxidation and those which induce a delayed oxidation in comparison with the Zr-matrix. At 415 o C after 1 h of oxidation for Zr1%Fe and Zr1%Ni, the formation of protrusions could be detected at the surface, being related to underlying SPP in the oxide. On Zr1%Cr and Zr0.6%Nb unoxidised SPPs were observed in the oxide, close to the metal-oxide interface. These SPPs were, however, oxidised close to the outer surface of the oxide. The surface roughness was increased for all materials after in situ oxidation, however, only for Zr1%Fe and Zr1%Ni protrusions appeared on the surface during oxidation. It was subsequently demonstrated that these latter correspond to the position of SPPs. For Zr1%Fe the surface roughness increased more than in the other materials and on these protrusions small iron oxide crystals have been observed at the surface. These observations confirm that Fe has a different behaviour compared to the other SPP forming elements, and it diffuses out to the free surface of the material. These alloying elements being the constituents of the commercial alloys (Fe and Cr for Zircaloy-4; Fe, Cr and Ni for Zircaloy-2 and Nb for all Nb-containing alloys), this study allows to separate their individual influence and can allow a subsequent comparison to the behaviour

  15. Method of reducing zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for making nuclear-grade zirconium from a zirconium compound, which ismore economical than previous methods since it uses aluminum as the reductant metal rather than the more expensive magnesium. A fused salt phase containing the zirconium compound to be reduced is first prepared. The fused salt phase is then contacted with a molten metal phase which contains aluminum and zinc. The reduction is effected by mutual displacment. Aluminum is transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, replacing zirconium in the salt. Zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The fused salt phase and the molten metal phase are then separated, and the solvent metal and zirconium are separated by distillation or other means. (DN)

  16. Improving Thermo-Oxidative Stability of Nitrile Rubber Composites by Functional Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO, modified with anti-aging agent p-phenylenediamine (PPD, was added into nitrile rubber (NBR in order to improve the thermo-oxidative stability of NBR. The modification of GO and the transformation of functional groups were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Mechanical performances of NBR composites before and after the thermo-oxidative aging were recorded. The results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA show an increased storage modulus (G’ and a decreased value of area of tan δ peak after introducing modified GO into NBR. It indicates that filler particles show positive interaction with molecular chains. The thermo-oxidative stability of composites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Then, the thermo-oxidative aging kinetic parameters were obtained by the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO equation. The results of aging tests show that the thermo-oxidative stability of rubber matrix increases obviously after introducing GO–PPD. In addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation at break of both before and after aged NBR/GO–PPD composites were superior to that of NBR. This work provides meaningful guidance for achieving multifunction thermo-oxidative aging resistance rubber composites.

  17. Improving Thermo-Oxidative Stability of Nitrile Rubber Composites by Functional Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Zhang, Zhao; Zhao, Hongguo; He, Xianru; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Rui

    2018-05-30

    Graphene oxide (GO), modified with anti-aging agent p -phenylenediamine (PPD), was added into nitrile rubber (NBR) in order to improve the thermo-oxidative stability of NBR. The modification of GO and the transformation of functional groups were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical performances of NBR composites before and after the thermo-oxidative aging were recorded. The results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) show an increased storage modulus (G') and a decreased value of area of tan δ peak after introducing modified GO into NBR. It indicates that filler particles show positive interaction with molecular chains. The thermo-oxidative stability of composites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Then, the thermo-oxidative aging kinetic parameters were obtained by the Flynn⁻Wall⁻Ozawa (FWO) equation. The results of aging tests show that the thermo-oxidative stability of rubber matrix increases obviously after introducing GO⁻PPD. In addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation at break) of both before and after aged NBR/GO⁻PPD composites were superior to that of NBR. This work provides meaningful guidance for achieving multifunction thermo-oxidative aging resistance rubber composites.

  18. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  19. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  20. Coordination behavior of bis-phenolate saturated and unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene ligands to zirconium: reactivity and activity in the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalrempuia, Ralte; Breivik, Frida; Törnroos, Karl W; Le Roux, Erwan

    2017-06-27

    Tetravalent zirconium complexes supported by tridentate bis-phenolate imidazolidin-2-ylidene (L1), imidazol-2-ylidene (L2) and benzimidazol-2-ylidene (L3) NHC ligands were synthesized and evaluated as precursors for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide (CHO) with CO 2 . While the reactivity of the imidazolidinium [H 3 L1] chloride salt with Zr(OiPr) 4 (HOiPr), and subsequent ligand exchanges with either (CH 3 ) 3 SiCl or LiOiPr lead to a series of heteroleptic compounds (κ 3 -O,C,O-L1)Zr(X) 2 (THF) (X = Cl, OiPr), both imidazolium [H 3 L2] and benzimidazolium [H 3 L3] chloride salts give a mixture of homoleptic (κ 3 -O,C,O-NHC) 2 Zr and zwitterionic (κ 2 -O,O-HL)ZrCl 2 (OiPr) compounds along with traces or the absence of the heteroleptic intermediate (κ 3 -O,C,O-NHC)Zr(Cl)(OiPr)(THF). Such dissimilar reactivity between the unsaturated and saturated NHC ligands is predominantly ascribed to the increased acidity of azolium salts along with the π-donor strength of the C carbene in L2 and L3-Zr moieties. The reactivity with the more acidic azolium salts (H 3 L2/3) and the destabilized Zr-X trans to NHC carbene bond results in a significant increase in the amount of homoleptic compounds generating HCl. The released HCl reacts preferentially with the heteroleptic intermediates having non-planar NHC ligands (i.e. L2/3) promoting the formation of zwitterionic complexes. The in situ deprotonation of the isolated zwitterionic (κ 2 -O,O-HL3)ZrCl 2 (OiPr) compound by using Ag 2 O gives the homoleptic complex as the major component along with a bimetallic hydroxo-bridged [(κ 3 -O,C,O-L3)Zr(μ-OH)(OiPr)] 2 compound. Of particular interest is that only the heteroleptic NHC-Zr(iv) complexes were identified to be active and highly selective towards the copolymerization of CHO with CO 2 independently of the co-catalysts used (both anionic and neutral) under mild conditions (P CO 2 < 1 bar, T = 60 °C), and gave atactic and completely alternating copolymers in a

  1. Interfacial bonding stabilizes rhodium and rhodium oxide nanoparticles on layered Nb oxide and Ta oxide supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Megan E; Binz, Jason M; Tanase, Mihaela; Shahri, Seyed Mehdi Kamali; Sharma, Renu; Rioux, Robert M; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2014-04-16

    Metal nanoparticles are commonly supported on metal oxides, but their utility as catalysts is limited by coarsening at high temperatures. Rhodium oxide and rhodium metal nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports are anomalously stable. To understand this, the nanoparticle-support interaction was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), and synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering techniques. Nanosheets derived from the layered oxides KCa2Nb3O10, K4Nb6O17, and RbTaO3 were compared as supports to nanosheets of Na-TSM, a synthetic fluoromica (Na0.66Mg2.68(Si3.98Al0.02)O10.02F1.96), and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O. High surface area SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports were also used for comparison in the ITC experiments. A Born-Haber cycle analysis of ITC data revealed an exothermic interaction between Rh(OH)3 nanoparticles and the layered niobate and tantalate supports, with ΔH values in the range -32 kJ·mol(-1) Rh to -37 kJ·mol(-1) Rh. In contrast, the interaction enthalpy was positive with SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports. The strong interfacial bonding in the former case led to "reverse" ripening of micrometer-size Rh(OH)3, which dispersed as 0.5 to 2 nm particles on the niobate and tantalate supports. In contrast, particles grown on Na-TSM and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O nanosheets were larger and had a broad size distribution. ETEM, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analyses were used to study the growth of supported nanoparticles under oxidizing and reducing conditions, as well as the transformation from Rh(OH)3 to Rh nanoparticles. Interfacial covalent bonding, possibly strengthened by d-electron acid/base interactions, appear to stabilize Rh(OH)3, Rh2O3, and Rh nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports.

  2. Determination of hydrogen in zirconium hydride and uranium-zirconium hydride by inert gas exraction-gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Akira; Iso, Shuichi

    1976-01-01

    An inert gas extraction-gravimetric method has been applied to the determination of hydrogen in zirconium hydride and uranium-zirconium hydride which are used as neutron moderator and fuel of nuclear safety research reactor (NSRR), respectively. The sample in a graphite-enclosed quartz crucible is heated inductively to 1200 0 C for 20 min in a helium stream. Hydrogen liberated from the sample is oxidized to water by copper(I) oxide-copper(II) oxide at 400 0 C, and the water is determined gravimetrically by absorption in anhydrone. The extraction curves of hydrogen for zirconium hydride and uranium-zirconium hydride samples are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Hydrogen in the samples is extracted quantitatively by heating at (1000 -- 1250) 0 C for (10 -- 40) min. Recoveries of hydrogen in the case of zirconium hydride were examined as follows: a weighed zirconium rod (5 phi x 6 mm, hydrogen -5 Torr. After the chamber was filled with purified hydrogen to 200 Torr, the rod was heated to 400 0 C for 15 h, and again weighed to determine the increase in weight. Hydrogen in the rod was then determined by the proposed method. The results are in excellent agreement with the increase in weight as shown in Table 1. Analytical results of hydrogen in zirconium hydride samples and an uranium-zirconium hydride sample are shown in Table 2. (auth.)

  3. Influence of cerium, zirconium and boron on the oxidation resistance of heat-resistant steels in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, A.; Schendler, W.

    1981-01-01

    Isothermal and cyclic oxidation experiments were carried out in air to investigate the influence of the minor elements such as Cerium, Zirkonium and Boron on the oxidation resistance of heat resistant ferritic and austenitic steels like X10Cr18, X10CrAl18 and X15CrNiSi2012. In the case of cyclicexperiments samples were exposed at constant temperatures for 100 h and then cooled to R.T. This cycle was repeated 10 times. The corrosion was determined as weight change and was continuously measured by a thermo-balance. The distribution of the alloying elements on the phase boundary scale/steel was examined by Scanning-Electron-Microscope. Addition of small amounts of Ce (0.3 wt-% max.) could reduce the oxidation rate in the case of isothermal and cyclic conditions. Zirkonium concentrations below 0.1 wt-% could have a beneficial effect, but at higher concentrations the oxidation rate increases with increasing amounts of Zr. Small Boron concentrations of 0.02 wt-% lead to catastrophic oxidation at temperatures above 1000 0 C. (orig.) [de

  4. Co/Zr substitution in a cerium-zirconium oxide by catalytic steam reforming of bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, J.C.; Thomas, S.; Roger, A.C.; Kiennemann, A.; Vargas, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the production of hydrogen by bio-ethanol catalytic steam reforming. The aim is to develop a catalyst active in ethanol conversion, selective in hydrogen and resistant to deactivation, particularly those induced by the formation of carbon deposition. The metal-support interaction being one of the keys of this challenge, catalysts in which a transition metal is inserted into an oxide by a liquid synthesis method (by the precursor method) have been developed. The initial insertion of cobalt into a cerium oxide-zirconia structure presents the advantages to increase the redox properties of the host oxide and to allow a stable reduction of a cobalt part while favoring the metal-support interaction. (O.M.)

  5. Mössbauer study of oxide films of Fe-, Sn-, Cr- doped zirconium alloys during corrosion in autoclave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru; Bateev, A. B.; Lauer, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer investigations were used to compare iron atom states in oxide films of binary Zr-Fe, ternary Zr-Fe-Cu and quaternary Zr-Fe-Cr-Sn alloys. Oxide films are received in an autoclave at a temperature of 350–360 °C and at pressure of 16.8 MPa. The corrosion process decomposes the intermetallic precipitates in alloys and forms metallic iron with inclusions of chromium atoms α–Fe(Cr), α–Fe(Cu), α–Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4} compounds. Some iron ions are formed in divalent and in trivalent paramagnetic states. The additional doping influences on corrosion kinetics and concentration of iron compounds and phases formed in oxide films. It was shown the correlation between concentration of iron in different chemical states and corrosion resistance of alloys.

  6. Oxidative stability of biodiesel blends derived from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feroldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of biodiesel production is mainly linked to the price of raw material.This factor has favored the use of alternative fats and oils such as those used in frying. Since biodiesel can be obtained from several vegetable and animal raw materials, the physicochemical characteristics of the fuel may vary considerably. One of these characteristics is the fatty acid composition. It directly affects the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which can be impaired when the fuel undergoes exposure to sunlight, metals, oxygen and high temperatures. In order to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from waste frying oil some studies involving blends of different raw materials have been carried out. In this sense, this work aimed to assess the characteristics resulting from the blending of soybean waste frying oil with other waste biodiesels in what concerns to oxidation. The blends of fatty materials were obtained by means of a 2² factorial design. The induction periods of biodiesel blends were enough to meet the ASTM D6751 standard. Swine fat was responsible for the increase in the induction period values.

  7. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco M, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  8. Composite cathode based on yttria stabilized bismuth oxide for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changrong; Zhang Yuelan; Liu Meilin

    2003-01-01

    Composites consisting of silver and yttria stabilized bismuth oxide (YSB) have been investigated as cathodes for low-temperature honeycomb solid oxide fuel cells with stabilized zirconia as electrolytes. At 600 deg. C, the interfacial polarization resistances of a porous YSB-Ag cathode is about 0.3 Ω cm 2 , more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of other reported cathodes on stabilized zirconia. For example, the interfacial resistances of a traditional YSZ-lanthanum maganites composite cathode is about 11.4 Ω cm 2 at 600 deg. C. Impedance analysis indicated that the performance of an YSB-Ag composite cathode fired at 850 deg. C for 2 h is severely limited by gas transport due to insufficient porosity. The high performance of the YSB-Ag cathodes is very encouraging for developing honeycomb fuel cells to be operated at temperatures below 600 deg. C

  9. The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2012-07-01

    The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) fabricated on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template is investigated. The full structure consists of the following layers: AAO membrane (600 nm)/Pt anode/YSZ electrolyte (900 nm)/porous Pt cathode. The utilization of a 600-nm-thick AAO membrane significantly improves the thermomechanical stability due to its well-known honeycomb-shaped nanopore structure. Moreover, the Pt anode layer deposited in between the AAO membrane and the YSZ electrolyte preserves its integrity in terms of maintaining the triple-phase boundary (TPB) and electrical conductivity during high-temperature operation. Both of these results guarantee thermomechanical stability of the micro-SOFC and extend the cell lifetime, which is one of the most critical issues in the fabrication of freestanding membrane-type micro-SOFCs.

  10. Apparatus and method for oxidation and stabilization of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of plasma-derived gas containing at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at a selected temperature. The polymer may be directly exposed to the plasma, or alternatively, the plasma may be established in a separate volume from which the reactive species may be extracted and introduced into the vicinity of the polymer. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments.

  11. Apparatus and method for stabilization or oxidation of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2010-01-19

    An apparatus for treating polymeric materials comprises a treatment chamber adapted to maintain a selected atmosphere at a selected temperature; a means for supporting the polymeric material within the chamber; and, a source of ozone-containing gas, which decomposes at the selected temperature yielding at least one reactive oxidative species whereby the polymer is stabilized and cross linked through exposure to the oxidative species in the chamber at the selected temperature. The ozone may be generated by a plasma discharge or by various chemical processes. The apparatus may be configured for either batch-type or continuous-type processing. The apparatus and method are especially useful for preparing polymer fibers, particularly PAN fibers, for later carbonization treatments as well as to make flame-retardant fabrics.

  12. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblonde, Gauthier J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Rupert, Peter B.; An, Dahlia D.; Illy, Marie-Claire; Ralston, Corie Y.; Brabec, Jiri; de Jong, Wibe A.; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2017-09-01

    Berkelium (Bk) has been predicted to be the only transplutonium element able to exhibit both +III and +IV oxidation states in solution, but evidence of a stable oxidized Bk chelate has so far remained elusive. Here we describe the stabilization of the heaviest 4+ ion of the periodic table, under mild aqueous conditions, using a siderophore derivative. The resulting Bk(IV) complex exhibits luminescence via sensitization through an intramolecular antenna effect. This neutral Bk(IV) coordination compound is not sequestered by the protein siderocalin—a mammalian metal transporter—in contrast to the negatively charged species obtained with neighbouring trivalent actinides americium, curium and californium (Cf). The corresponding Cf(III)-ligand-protein ternary adduct was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Combined with theoretical predictions, these data add significant insight to the field of transplutonium chemistry, and may lead to innovative Bk separation and purification processes.

  13. Determination of impurities in zirconium by emission spectrograph method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolon, S.; Masduki, B.; Aryadi

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of B, Cd, Si and Cr elements in zirconium oxide was carried out. Zirconium oxide was made by precipitating zirconium solution with oxalic acid and calcination was at temperature 900 oC for four hours. Silver chloride compound as much as 10% was used as a distillation carrier and 7 step filtration was used to reduce the impurities element spectra having high density. It was found that B concentration is between 3.80 and 7.44 ppm, Cd less then 0.5 ppm, Si between 74.38-150.33 ppm and Cr between 19.90-45.76 ppm. (author)

  14. Adsorption of As(III), As(V) and Cu(II) on zirconium oxide immobilized alginate beads in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Cho, Dong-Wan; Kumar, Rahul; Baek, Seung Han; Kurade, Mayur B; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-10-01

    A composite adsorbent to remove arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], and copper [Cu(II)] from aqueous phase was synthesized by immobilizing zirconium oxide on alginate beads (ZOAB). The composition (wt%) of ZOAB (Zr-34.0; O-32.7; C-21.3; Ca-1.0) was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Sorption studies were conducted on single and binary sorbate systems, and the effects of contact time, initial adsorbate concentration, and pH on the adsorption performance of ZOAB (pHPZC = 4.3) were monitored. The sorption process for As(III)/As(V) and Cu(II) reached an equilibrium state within 240 h and 24 h, respectively, with maximum sorption capacities of 32.3, 28.5, and 69.9 mg g(-1), respectively. The addition of Cu(II) was favorable for As(V) sorption in contrast to As(III). In the presence of 48.6 mg L(-1) Cu(II), the sorption capacity of As(V) increased from 1.5 to 3.8 mg g(-1) after 240 h. The sorption data for As(III)/As(V) and Cu(II) conformed the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The adsorption of As(III), As(V), and Cu(II) followed pseudo second order kinetics. The effect of arsenic species on Cu(II) sorption was insignificant. The results of present study demonstrated that the synthesized sorbent could be useful for the simultaneous removal of both anionic and cationic contaminants from wastewaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiwall carbon nanotube- zirconium oxide nanocomposite hollow fiber solid phase microextraction for determination of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water, coffee and tea samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Mahnaz Nozohour; Yamini, Yadollah; Asiabi, Hamid

    2018-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (HF-SPME) followed by HPLC-UV to determine the ultra-trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes in complex coffee and tea samples. HF-SPME can be effectively used as an alternative to the direct immersion SPME (DI-SPME) method in complex matrices. The DI-SPME method suffers from serious limitation in dirty and complicated matrices with low sample clean-up, while the HF-SPME method has high clean-up and selectivity due to the high porosity of hollow fiber that can pick out analyte from complicated matrices. As a hollow fiber sorbent, a novel multiwall carbon nanotube/zirconium oxide nanocomposite (MWCNT/ZrO 2 ) was fabricated. The excellent adsorption of PAHs on the sorbent was attributed to the dominant roles of π-π stacking interaction and hydrophobic interaction. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the wide linear range of 0.1-200 μg L -1 with coefficients of determination better than 0.998 and low detection limits of 0.033-0.16 μg L -1 with satisfactory precision (RSD tea samples were in the range of 92.0-106.0%. Compared to other methods, MWCNT/ZrO 2 hollow fiber solid phase microextraction demonstrated a good capability for determination of PAHs in complex coffee and tea samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of top reflooding in case of severe accident and in particular oxidation of Uranium, Zirconium, Oxygen melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet-Thibault, E.

    2006-12-01

    In 1979, the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident occurred in United States and accelerated research activities in the field of severe accidents. Severe accident management procedures imply massive water injections to flood the core. The work of this thesis bent principally over this reflooding. The first part of the study concerns the core oxidation enhancement during the reflooding phase which leads to a rough increase of the concentration of burnable hydrogen in the containment. This is why the study carried on the analysis of the contribution of the oxidation of U-Zr-O mixtures, towards the total production of hydrogen during reflooding. In the second part, the study concerns top flooding modelling i.e.: with injection of water in the hot legs. Here, we attempted to define bases and realize a model allowing to describe this type of reflooding. These models were validated on the simulation of the parameter with MAAP4 code. (author)

  17. Corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimura, H.; Morikawa, H.; Nagano, H.

    1987-01-01

    Slow strain rate tests are effected on zirconium in boiling nitric acid to study the influence of nitric acid concentration, of oxidizing ions (Cr and Ce) and of electric potential. Corrosion resistance is excellent and stress corrosion cracking occurs only for severe conditions: 350 mV over electric potential for corrosion with nitric acid concentration of 40 % [fr

  18. Interactions of NO{sub 2} at ambient temperature with cerium-zirconium mixed oxides supported on SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Benoit; Ebrahim, Amani M. [The City College of New York and The Graduate School of CUNY 160 Convent Ave, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Burress, Jacob [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bandosz, Teresa J., E-mail: tbandosz@ccny.cuny.edu [The City College of New York and The Graduate School of CUNY 160 Convent Ave, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce{sub 1-y}Zr{sub y}O{sub 2-x} mixed oxides were highly dispersed in mesoporous silica SBA-15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strong increase in the NO{sub 2} adsorption capacity was observed on composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The insertion of Zr{sup 4+} in ceria fluorite structure promotes the reduction of Ce{sup 4+} into Ce{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce{sup 3+} and -OH groups were found to be the main active centers for NO{sub x} retention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure remains quite stable after exposure to NO{sub 2} in ambient conditions. - Abstract: New silica-based composites were obtained using a slow precipitation of mixed oxide Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} on the surface of mesoporous silica, SBA-15. The samples were tested as NO{sub 2} adsorbents in dynamic conditions at room temperature. The surface of the initial and exhausted materials was characterized using N{sub 2} sorption, XRD, TEM, potentiometric titration, and thermal analysis before and after exposure to NO{sub 2}. In comparison with unsupported Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} mixed oxides, a significant increase in the NO{sub 2} adsorption capacity was observed. This is due to the high dispersion of active oxide phase on the surface of SBA-15. A linear trend was found between the NO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and the amount of Zr(OH){sub 4} added to the structure. Introduction of Zr{sup 4+} cations to ceria contributes to an increase in the amount of Ce{sup 3+}, which is the active center for the NO{sub 2} adsorption, and to an increase in the density of -OH groups. These groups are found to be involved in the retention of both NO{sub 2} and NO on the surface. After exposure to NO{sub 2}, an acidification of the surface caused by the oxidation of the cerium as well as the formation of nitrite and nitrates took place. The structure of the composites appears not to be affected by reactive adsorption of NO{sub 2}.

  19. Electron microscopy of nuclear zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, R.A.; Ipohorski, Miguel

    1986-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations of the microstructure of zirconium alloys used in fuel sheaths of nuclear power reactors are reported. Specimens were observed after different thermal and mechanical treatment, similar to those actually used during fabrication of the sheaths. Electron micrographs and electron diffraction patterns of second phase particles present in zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 were also obtained, as well as some characteristic parameters. Images of oxides and hydrides most commonly present in zirconium alloys are also shown. Finally, the structure of a Zr-2,5Nb alloy used in CANDU reactors pressure tubes, is observed by electron microscopy. (Author) [es

  20. Metallurgy of zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshnikov, N.V.; Geger, V.Eh.; Denisova, N.D.; Kazajn, A.A.; Kozhemyakin, V.A.; Nekhamkin, L.G.; Rodyakin, V.V.; Tsylov, Yu.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are those properties of zirconium and of hafnium, which are of practical interest for the manufacture of these elements. Systematized are the theoretical and the practical data on the procedures for thermal decomposition of zirconia and for obtaining zirconium dioxide and hafnium dioxide by a thermal decomposition of compounds and on the hydrometallurgical methods for extracting zirconium and hafnium. Zirconium and hafnium fluorides and chlorides production procedures are described. Considered are the iodide and the electrolytic methods of refining zirconium and hafnium

  1. Experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX). Hydrogen generation and chemical augmentation of energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The results of the first data series of experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. These experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of pure zirconium or zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water. A total of nine tests were conducted, including four with pure zirconium melt and five with Zr-ZrO{sub 2} mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite extensive, the estimated explosion energetics were found to be very small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available. (author)

  2. Alumina-zirconium ceramics synthesis by selective laser sintering/melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Yadroitsev, I.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, porous refractory ceramics synthesized by selective laser sintering/melting from a mixture of zirconium dioxide, aluminum and/or alumina powders are subjected to optical metallography and X-ray analysis to study their microstructure and phase composition depending on the laser processing parameters. It is shown that high-speed laser sintering in air yields ceramics with dense structure and a uniform distribution of the stabilizing phases. The obtained ceramic-matrix composites may be used as thermal and electrical insulators and wear resistant coating in solid oxide fuel cells, crucibles, heating elements, medical tools. The possibility to reinforce refractory ceramics by laser synthesis is shown on the example of tetragonal dioxide of zirconium with hardened micro-inclusion of Al 2 O 3 . By applying finely dispersed Y 2 O 3 powder inclusions, the type of the ceramic structure is significantly changed

  3. Some recent trends in the use of zirconium alloys for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaramamoorthy, K.

    1992-01-01

    Without any exception nuclear power reactors particularly the water cooled ones, operating in the World use natural or slightly enriched uranium oxide fuel pellets with zirconium alloy cladding. While the zirconium alloys have proven to be successful in their designed usage, a desire for longer lifetimes of core components and increased duty cycle puts more demand on materials performance. This demand has led to more in depth studies of phenomena associated with zirconium alloy corrosion mechanism, fine tuning of the zirconium alloy composition, development of fabrication techniques and to the evaluation of newer zirconium alloys for critical applications. (author). 5 refs., 32 figs

  4. Techniques for chemical characterization of zirconium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, K.V.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Sudersanan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical characterization of zirconium and its alloys such as zircaloy, Zr-Nb, etc for minor and trace constituents like Nb, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Al etc has been carried out. Zirconium, being a major constituent, has been determined by gravimetry as zirconium oxide while other constituents like Nb, Ti, Fe have been determined by spectrophotometric methods. Other metals of importance at trace level have been estimated by AAS or ICPAES. The judicious use of both conventional and modern instrumental methods of analysis helps in the characterization of zirconium and its alloys for various major and minor constituents. The role of matrix effect in the determination was also investigated and methods have been worked out based on a preliminary separation of zirconium by a hydroxide precipitation. (author)

  5. Determination of microquantities of zirconium and thorium in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber de D'Alessio, Ana; Zucal, Raquel.

    1975-07-01

    A method for the determination of 10 to 50 ppm of zirconium and thorium in uranium IV oxide of nuclear purity is established. Zirconium and thorium are retained in a strong cation-exchange resin Dowex 50 WX8 in 1 M HCl. Zirconium is eluted with 0,5% oxalic acid solution and thorium with 4% ammonium oxalate. The colorimetric determination of zirconium with xilenol orange is done in perchloric acid after destructtion of oxalic acid and thorium is determined with arsenazo III in 5 M HCl. 10 μg of each element were determined with a standard deviation of 2,1% for thorium and 3,4% for zirconium. (author) [es

  6. Radiation stability of fluorite-type nuclear oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, Frederico [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)], E-mail: Frederico.Garrido@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Vincent, Laetitia [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Nowicki, Lech [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Sattonnay, Gael [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux Hors-Equilibre, Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, UMR 8182, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Thome, Lionel [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2008-06-15

    Oxides with the fluorite-type structure are radiation tolerant materials. They are widely used or envisaged in hostile nuclear environments, such as nuclear fuels or inert transmutation matrices for actinide burning. Study of the radiation stability of this class of solids in various radiative fields is of major importance. Two issues which may affect the stability of materials are considered in this work: the production of radiation damage (ballistic contribution); the modification of the matrix composition by doping (chemical contribution). Both contributions may drastically affect the solid stability. Urania and zirconia single crystals were chosen as fluorite-type canonical systems. They were implanted with low-energy inert gases (He or Xe). The damage in-growth, due to both ballistic and chemical contributions, was investigated by in situ RBS/C experiments in the channelling mode and TEM. Two main steps in the disordering kinetics were observed for both inert gases. Relevant key parameters were found to be: the number of displaced lattice atoms created by the slowing-down of energetic ions during the implantation process; the concentration of noble gas atoms in the solid which cause the formation of large stress fields surrounding gas aggregates.

  7. A novel accelerated oxidative stability screening method for pharmaceutical solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Donghua Alan; Zhang, Geoff G Z; George, Karen L S T; Zhou, Deliang

    2011-08-01

    Despite the fact that oxidation is the second most frequent degradation pathway for pharmaceuticals, means of evaluating the oxidative stability of pharmaceutical solids, especially effective stress testing, are still lacking. This paper describes a novel experimental method for peroxide-mediated oxidative stress testing on pharmaceutical solids. The method utilizes urea-hydrogen peroxide, a molecular complex that undergoes solid-state decomposition and releases hydrogen peroxide vapor at elevated temperatures (e.g., 30°C), as a source of peroxide. The experimental setting for this method is simple, convenient, and can be operated routinely in most laboratories. The fundamental parameter of the system, that is, hydrogen peroxide vapor pressure, was determined using a modified spectrophotometric method. The feasibility and utility of the proposed method in solid form selection have been demonstrated using various solid forms of ephedrine. No degradation was detected for ephedrine hydrochloride after exposure to the hydrogen peroxide vapor for 2 weeks, whereas both anhydrate and hemihydrate free base forms degraded rapidly under the test conditions. In addition, both the anhydrate and the hemihydrate free base degraded faster when exposed to hydrogen peroxide vapor at 30°C under dry condition than at 30°C/75% relative humidity (RH). A new degradation product was also observed under the drier condition. The proposed method provides more relevant screening conditions for solid dosage forms, and is useful in selecting optimal solid form(s), determining potential degradation products, and formulation screening during development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Analysis of hafnium in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Isao; Sakai, Fumiaki; Ohuchi, Yoshifusa; Nakamura, Hisashi

    1977-01-01

    It is required to analyse alloying components and impurity elements in the acceptance analysis of zirconium alloys as the material for fuel cladding tubes and pressure tubes for advanced thermal reactors. Because of extreme similarity in chemical properties between zirconium and hafnium, about 100 ppm of hafnium is usually contained in zirconium alloys. Zircaloy-2 alloy and 2.5% Nb-zirconium with the addition of hafnium had been prepared as in-house standard samples for rapid analysis. Study was made on fluorescent X-ray analysis and emission spectral analysis to establish the analytical method. By using these in-house standard samples, acceptance analysis was successfully carried out for the fuel cladding tubes for advanced thermal reactors. Sulfuric acid solution was prepared from JAERI-Z 1, 2 and 3, the standard sample for zircaloy-2 prepared by the Analytical Committee on Nuclear Fuel and Reactor Materials, JAERI, and zirconium oxide (Hf 1 ppm/Zr). Standard Hf solution was added to the sulfuric acid solution step by step, to make up a series of the standard oxide samples by the precipitation process. By the use of these standard samples, the development of the analytical method and joint analysis were made by the three-member analytical technique research group including PNC. The analytical precision for the fluorescent X-ray analysis was improved by attaching a metallic yttrium filter to the window of an X-ray tube so as to suppress the effect due to zirconium matrix. The variation factor of the joint analysis was about 10% to show good agreement, and the indication value was determined. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. Stability of β-carotene in polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinado, I., E-mail: irpeipar@upvnet.upv.es [Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Mason, M.; Romano, A. [Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Biasioli, F. [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all ‘Adige, TN (Italy); Scampicchio, M., E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • β-carotene was incorporated into PEO-nanofibers by electrospinning. • Properties of the fibers were analyzed by SEM, color analysis, and DSC. • TGA coupled to PTR–ms resulted promising to online-monitoring thermal degradation. • Thermal stability of βc increased after encapsulation into the PEO-nanofibers. - Abstract: β-carotene (βc) was successfully incorporated into electrospun nanofibers of poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with the aim of prolonging its shelf life and thermal stability. The physical and thermal properties of the βc-PEO-nanofibers were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nanofibers of PEO and βc-PEO exhibited average fiber diameters of 320 ± 46 and 230 ± 21 nm, with colorimetric coordinates L* = 95.7 ± 2.4 and 89.4 ± 4.6 and b* = −0.5 ± 0.1 and 6.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Proton Transfer–Mass Spectroscopy (TGA/PTR–ms) demonstrated that coated βc inside PEO nanofibers increased thermal stability when compared to standard βc in powder form. In addition, β-carotene in the membranes showed higher stability during storage when compared with β-carotene in solution with a decrease in concentration of 57 ± 4% and 70 ± 2% respectively, thus should extend the shelf life of this compound. Also, TGA coupled with PTR–MS resulted in a promising technique to online-monitoring thermal degradation.

  10. Antioxidant Activities and Oxidative Stabilities of Some Unconventional Oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; Ozdemir, Nurhayat

    2012-04-01

    The oils of some unconventional oilseeds (hemp, radish, terebinth, stinging nettle, laurel) were obtained by a cold-press method in which the total oil content, fatty acids, tocopherol isomers, some metal contents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu), antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were determined. The total oil content was determined ranging between 30.68 and 43.12%, and the oil samples had large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid and linoleic acid. Of all the oils, terebinth seed oil had the highest α-tocopherol content (102.21 ± 1.01 mg/kg oil). Laurel oilseed had the highest antiradical activity in both the DPPH and ABTS assays. The peroxide value of the non-oxidized oils ranged between 0.51 and 3.73 mequiv O(2)/kg oil. The TBARS value of the non-oxidized oils ranged between 0.68 ± 0.02 and 6.43 ± 0.48 mmol MA equiv/g oil. At 110 °C, the Rancimat induction period of the oils ranged between 1.32 and 43.44 h. The infrared spectra of the samples were recorded by FTIR spectroscopy. The absorbance values of the spectrum bands were observed and it was determined that some of the chemical groups of oxidized oils caused changes in absorbance. As a result of the present research, the analyzed oils could be evaluated as an alternative to traditionally consumed vegetable oils or as additives to them.

  11. SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.

    1956-08-21

    A dilute aqueous solution of zirconyl chloride which is 1N to 2N in HCl is passed through a column of a cation exchange resin in acid form thereby absorbing both zirconium and associated hafnium impurity in the mesin. The cation exchange material with the absorbate is then eluted with aqueous sulfuric acid of a O.8N to 1.2N strength. The first portion of the eluate contains the zirconium substantially free of hafnium.

  12. Stability of a novel synthetic amorphous manganese oxide in contrasting soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komárek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Bordas, F.; Mihaljevič, M.; Klementová, Mariana; Šebek, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 214, FEB (2014), s. 2-9 ISSN 0016-7061 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Amorphous manganese oxide * Stability * Soils * Chemical stabilization * Pollution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2014

  13. Improving the oxidation resistance and stability of Ag nanoparticles by coating with multilayered reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahui; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Bowen; Guo, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    A kind of coating nanostructure, Ag nanoparticles coated with multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO), is fabricated by employing a three-step reduction method in an orderly manner, which is significantly different from the conventional structures that are simply depositing or doping with Ag nanoparticles on RGO via chemical reduction. The as-prepared nanostructure is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SEAD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the obtained Ag/RGO nanostructure is observed to be a perfect coating structure with well dispersed Ag particles, which is responsible for the remarkable oxidation resistance. The results of XPS spectra indicate the content of metallic Ag is far greater than that of Ag oxides despite of prolonged exposure to the air, which fully demonstrate the excellent stability of thus coating nanostructure.

  14. The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric surfactant in strong oxidant media containing 5 % m/m sodium hypochlorite through measurement of decomposing rate using high performance liquid chromatography and two phase titration.

  15. Oxidative stability of Liposomes composed of docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Jørgensen, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stability of liposomes made of (Docosahexaenoic acid) DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) was examined during preparation and storage. After preparation of the liposomes, the concentration of primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary oxidation products (Thiobarbituric acid...

  16. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-02

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  17. Analysis of the deconvolution of the thermoluminescent curve of the zirconium oxide doped with graphite; Analisis de la deconvolucion de la curva termoluminiscente del oxido de zirconio dopado con grafito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas C, P. [IMP, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Estrada G, R. [Depto. de Fisica y Matematicas, UIA, Unidad Stanta Fe, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez M, P.R.; Mendoza A, D. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical analysis of the behavior of the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) induced by gamma radiation in samples made of zirconium oxide doped with different amounts of graphite. In accordance with the results gamma radiation induces a Tl curve with two maximum of emission localized in the temperatures at 139 and 250 C, the area under the curve is increasing as a function of the time of exposition to the radiation. The analysis of curve deconvolution, in accordance with the theory which indicates that this behavior must be obey a Boltzmann distribution, we found that each one of them has a different growth velocity as the time of exposition increase. In the same way, we observed that after the irradiation was suspended each one of the maximum decrease with different velocity. The behaviour observed in the samples is very interesting because the zirconium oxide has attracted the interest of many research groups, this material has demonstrated to have many applications in thermoluminescent dosimetry and it can be used in the quantification of radiation. (Author)

  18. Oxidative stability of yogurt with added lutein dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, L D; Xavier, A A O; Mercadante, A Z; Petenate, A J; Jorge, R A; Viotto, W H

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding lutein dye on the oxidative stability of yogurt during 35 d of refrigerated storage, in the presence and absence of light. Yogurts manufactured without and with the equivalent of 1.5mg of lutein in 120 g of the final product were characterized for their total carotenoid and riboflavin contents, and the behaviors of both riboflavin and lutein were monitored during storage. A decrease in riboflavin content occurred, with concurrent appearance of its derived-oxidation products in the yogurts without added lutein and exposed to light during storage. The yogurts with added lutein dye showed constant lutein and riboflavin contents throughout storage both for the samples stored under light and for those stored in the dark. Yogurts (120 g) with the addition of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5mg of lutein dye were evaluated for their sensory acceptance, and the statistical analysis showed no differences between the samples for the attributes of aroma and flavor. These results indicate that the added lutein remained stable throughout the storage period and conferred protection for the riboflavin against photooxidation, preserving the quality of the yogurts. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of high-purity zirconium dioxide from baddeleyite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikov, N.B.; Skiba, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of baddeleyite concentrate with calcium oxide and calcium chloride in the process of caking is studied. The influence of grain size on calcium zirconate formation is tested. Conditions for cake leaching by hydrochloric acid and zirconium(4) oxychloride purification from calcium and silicon compounds by recrystallization are reported. Zirconium dioxide corresponding to specifications (6-2 special purity) is obtained with a high (more than 90%) chemical yield. 9 refs., 1 tab

  20. Alkylation of isobutane by butenes on zirconium sulfate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenov, A.V.; Perelevskij, E.V.; Finevich, V.P.; Zajkovskij, V.I.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Duplyakiv, V.K.; Bal'zhinimaev, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of applied zirconium sulfate catalysts obtained by the method of impregnation is investigated. Results of comparative study of structural, acid-base and catalytic properties of sulfated zirconium dioxide applied on silica gel and aluminium oxide are represented. Intervals of values of synthesis basic parameters and characteristics of catalysts properties providing achievement of high activity and selectivity in isobutane alkylation by butenes in liquid phase are determined [ru

  1. Influence of surface treatment of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium oxides and cement type on crown retention after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipour-Saryazdi, Mehdi; Sadid-Zadeh, Ramtin; Givan, Daniel; Burgess, John O; Ramp, Lance C; Liu, Perng-Ru

    2014-05-01

    Information about the influence of zirconia crown surface treatment and cement type on the retention of zirconia crowns is limited. It is unclear whether zirconia crowns require surface treatment to enhance their retention. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatment on the retention of zirconia crowns cemented with 3 different adhesive resin cements after artificial aging. Ninety extracted human molars were prepared for ceramic crowns (approximately 20-degree taper, approximately 4-mm axial length) and were divided into 3 groups (n=30). Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing zirconia copings were fabricated. Three surface treatments were applied to the intaglio surface of the copings. The control group received no treatment, the second group was airborne-particle abraded with 50 μm Al2O3, and the third group was treated with 30 μm silica-modified Al2O3, The copings were luted with a self-etch (RelyX Unicem 2), a total-etch (Duo-Link), or a self-etch primer (Panavia F 2.0) adhesive cement. They were stored for 24 hours at 37°C before being artificially aged with 5000 (5°C-55°C) thermal cycles and 100,000 cycles of 70 N dynamic loading. Retention was measured on a universal testing machine under tension, with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed with 1-way and 2-way ANOVA. Mean retention values ranged from 0.72 to 3.7 MPa. Surface treatment increased crown retention, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>.05), except for the Duo-Link cement group (P<.05). Analysis of the adhesives revealed that the Duo-Link cement resulted in significantly lower crown retention (P<.05) than the other 2 cements. For zirconia crowns, retention seems to be dependent on cement type rather than surface treatment. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide composite as high performance electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourian, Hazhir; Salimi, Abdollah; Firoozi, Somayeh; Korani, Aazam; Soltanian, Saied

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One pot hydrothermal synthesis used for preparing of ZrO 2 NPs reduced graphene oxide. • Electrocatalytic activity of ZrO 2 /rGO improved in compared to ZrO 2 based C- materials. • ZrO 2 NPs/rGO modified GCE was used for electrocatalytic reduction of O 2 and H 2 O 2 . • ZrO 2 NPs/rGO/GCE shows excellent ability to simultaneous detection of AA,UA and DP. • With immobilization of GOX onto ZrO 2 NPs/rGO a sensitive glucose biosensor fabricated. - Abstract: We report on the synthesis of zirconium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide composite (ZrO 2 -rGO) and its application as a novel architecture for electrochemical sensing and biosensing purposes. ZrO 2 -rGO hybrid is synthesized through a simple one-step hydrothermal route, where the reduction of GO and the in-situ generation of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) occurred simultaneously. Characterization of the resultant hybrid material using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy clearly indicated the homogeneous dispersion of ZrO 2 NPs with particle sizes of ∼5 nm on rGO sheets. The potential application of ZrO 2 -rGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ZrO 2 -rGO/GC) for electroanalytical purposes was demonstrated by using several important electroactive compounds as representative examples (i.e., O 2 , hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), glucose, ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA)). Electrochemical control experiments by using different composites of ZrO 2 /graphite, ZrO 2 /Active Carbon and ZrO 2 electrodeposited on activated GC electrode revealed that the ZrO 2 -rGO composite possessed superior electrocatalytic activitiy towards the catalytic reduction of O 2 and H 2 O 2 at more reduced overpotentials. The linear range of H 2 O 2 concentration was from 0.10 to 1340 μM with the detection limit of 20 nM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, via immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme onto the

  3. Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization improves oxidative stability and interfacial properties of soy protein isolate-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Avila, C; Trujillo, A J

    2016-10-15

    Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (100-300MPa) has great potential for technological, microbiological and nutritional aspects of fluid processing. Its effect on the oxidative stability and interfacial properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 4% (w/v) of soy protein isolate and soybean oil (10 and 20%, v/v) were studied and compared to emulsions treated by conventional homogenization (15MPa). Emulsions were characterized by particle size, emulsifying activity index, surface protein concentration at the interface and by transmission electron microscopy. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were evaluated in emulsions upon storage. Emulsions with 20% oil treated at 100 and 200MPa exhibited the most oxidative stability due to higher amount of oil and protein surface load at the interface. This manuscript addresses the improvement in oxidative stability in emulsions treated by UHPH when compared to conventional emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zirconium isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.H.; Lahoda, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the amount of zirconium 91 isotope in zirconium comprising: forming a first solution of (a) a first solvent, (b) a scavenger, and (c) a zirconium compound which is soluble in the first solvent and reacts with the scavenger when exposed to light of a wavelength of 220 to 600 nm; irradiating the first solution with light at the wavelength for a time sufficient to photoreact a disproportionate amount of the zirconium compound containing the zirconium 91 isotope with the scavenger to form a reaction product in the first solution; contacting the first solution, while effecting the irradiation, with a second solvent which is immiscible with the first solvent, which the second solvent is a preferential solvent for the reaction product relative to the first solvent, such that at least a portion of the reaction product is transferred to the second solvent to form a second solution; and separating the second solution from the first solution after the contacting

  5. Improved Oxidation Resistance of Zirconium Resulting from Addition of Small Amounts of Copper; Amelioration de la Resistance a l'Oxydation du Zirconium par de Faibles Additions de Cuivre; Povyshenie soprotivlyaemosti k okisleniyu tsirkoniya posle dobavlenij nebol'shikh kolichestv medi; Aumento de la Resistencia del Circonio a la Oxidacion por Agregado de Pequenas Cantidades de Cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loriers, H.; Darras, R.; Baque, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1966-02-15

    The authors have tried to explain the process by which the addition of small amounts of copper improves the resistance of zirconium to oxidation by pressurized carbon dioxide between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C. The resulting alloys, particularly that with 2.5% copper, seem to offer interesting possibilities as cladding or structural materials for the fuel elements of reactors of the heavy water-carbon dioxide type. The corrosion of zirconium by carbon dioxide amounts essentially to oxidation, in which two processes are involved: (1) the building up of a layer of monoclinic zirconia, through which oxygen diffuses by migration of the anionic vacancies: (2) the dissolution and diffusion of oxygen, which penetrates into the metal. The combination of gravimetric data and measurements of the thickness of the oxide layers permits evaluation of the two corresponding diffusion coefficients. This calculation has been extended, by analogy, to the case of binary zirconium-copper alloys with a concentration of copper less than or equal to 4% by weight. Comparison of the results obtained shows that the apparent diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the oxide layer that is formed decreases as the copper content of the alloy in question increases; as regards the apparent diffusion coefficient of the oxygen in the alloy, though this is only slightly modified at 600 Degree-Sign C, at 700 Degree-Sign C it too decreases when the copper content is increased to 2.5%. The improved oxidation resistance associated with slowing down of the diffusion processes results, in particular, in prolongation of parabolic-type kinetics whereas, in the case of non-alloyed zirconium or other alloys, cracking in the oxide layer rapidly leads to linear oxidation kinetics as a result of the phenomenon of peeling. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont cherche a interpreter l'amelioration apportee par de faibles additions de cuivre a la resistance a l'oxydation du zirconium par le gaz carbonique sous pression entre

  6. An ultrasonic-accelerated oxidation method for determining the oxidative stability of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Orozco, Francisco D; Sousa, Antonio C; Domini, Claudia E; Ugulino Araujo, Mario Cesar; Fernández Band, Beatriz S

    2013-05-01

    Biodiesel is considered an alternative energy because it is produced from fats and vegetable oils by means of transesterification. Furthermore, it consists of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAS) which have a great influence on biodiesel fuel properties and in the storage lifetime of biodiesel itself. The biodiesel storage stability is directly related to the oxidative stability parameter (Induction Time - IT) which is determined by means of the Rancimat® method. This method uses condutimetric monitoring and induces the degradation of FAAS by heating the sample at a constant temperature. The European Committee for Standardization established a standard (EN 14214) to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which requires it to reach a minimum induction period of 6h as tested by Rancimat® method at 110°C. In this research, we aimed at developing a fast and simple alternative method to determine the induction time (IT) based on the FAAS ultrasonic-accelerated oxidation. The sonodegradation of biodiesel samples was induced by means of an ultrasonic homogenizer fitted with an immersible horn at 480Watts of power and 20 duty cycles. The UV-Vis spectrometry was used to monitor the FAAS sonodegradation by measuring the absorbance at 270nm every 2. Biodiesel samples from different feedstock were studied in this work. In all cases, IT was established as the inflection point of the absorbance versus time curve. The induction time values of all biodiesel samples determined using the proposed method was in accordance with those measured through the Rancimat® reference method by showing a R(2)=0.998. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term stability of oxidative stress biomarkers in human serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Eugène H J M; Beekhof, Piet K; Viezeliene, Dale; Muzakova, Vladimira; Skalicky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The storage time and storage temperature might affect stability of oxidative stress biomarkers, therefore, they have to be analyzed after long-term storage of serum samples. The stability of three biomarkers reflecting oxidative stress: reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) for hydroperoxides, total

  8. ZIRCONIUM-CLADDING OF THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, R.J.

    1961-11-21

    A method of cladding thorium with zirconium is described. The quality of the bond achieved between thorium and zirconium by hot-rolling is improved by inserting and melting a thorium-zirconium alloy foil between the two materials prior to rolling. (AEC)

  9. Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Society for Testing and Materials AVCRAD Aviation Classification Repair Activity Depot Chrome (VI) Hexavalent Chromium CRS Cold Rolled Steel...are being used commercially in automotive and other industrial operations as replacements to hexavalent chromium-based and zinc phosphate...application over CRS and aluminum with water-borne and solvent-borne Mil-Spec primers gave results in corrosion performance similar to the chrome

  10. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and oils and fats-containing foods in the food and pet food industries. Discusses oxidative stability and shelf life of low-moisture (dry) food, including dry pet food. Discusses lipid co-oxidation with protein because a number of food products contain both lipids and proteins. Directed mainly toward......Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats focuses on food stability and shelf life, both important factors in the improvement and development of food products. This book, relevant for professionals in the food and pet food industries, presents an evaluation of methods...... for studies on the oxidative stability and shelf life of bulk oils/fats, fried oils and foods, food emulsions, dried foods, meat and meat products, and seafood in food and pet food. Focuses on the application of various evaluation methods to studies of oxidative stability and shelf life in oils and fats...

  11. The Development of an In-Situ TEM Technique for Studying Corrosion Behavior as Applied to Zirconium-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Wayne

    Zirconium-based alloys are a commonly used material for nuclear fuel rod cladding, due to its low neutron cross section and good corrosion properties. However, corrosion is still a limiting factor in fuel rod lifespan, which restricts burn up levels, and thus efficiency, that can be achieved. While long-term corrosion behavior has been studied through both reactor and autoclave samples, the oxide nucleation and growth behavior has not been extensively studied. This work develops a new technique to study the initial stages of corrosion in zirconium-based alloys and the microstructural effects on this process by developing an environmental cell system for the TEM. Nanoscale oxidation parameters are developed, as is a new FIB technique to support this method. Precession diffraction is used in conjunction with in-situ TEM to observe the initial stages of corrosion in these alloys, and oxide thickness is estimated using low-loss EELS. In addition, the stress stabilization of tetragonal ZrO 2 is explored in the context of sample preparation for TEM. It was found that in-situ environmental TEM using an environmental cell replicates the oxidation behavior observed in autoclaved samples in both oxide structure and phases. Utilizing this technique, it was shown that cracking of the oxide layer in zirconium-based alloys is related to oxide relaxation, and not thermal changes. The effect of secondary phase particles on oxidation behavior did not present significant results, however a new method for studying initial oxidation rates using low-loss EELS was developed.

  12. Purification of zirconium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.E.P.

    1976-01-01

    A commercial grade ZrO 2 and an ammonium uranate (yellow cake) are obtained from the caldasito ore processing. This ore is found in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caldasito is an uranigerous zirconium ore, a mixture of zircon and baddeleyite and contains 60% ZrO 2 and 0,3% U 3 O 8 . The chemical opening of the ore was made by alkaline fusion with NaOH at controlled temperature. The zirconium-uranium separation took place by a continuous liquid-liquid extraction in TBP-varsol-HNO 3 -H 2 O system. The raffinate containing zirconium + impurities (aluminium, iron and titanium) was purified by an ion exchange operation using a strong cationic resin [pt

  13. Stabilization of actinides and lanthanides in unusually high oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, P.G.; Penneman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical environments can be chosen which stabilize actinides and lanthanides in unusually high or low oxidation states and in unusual coordination. In many cases, one can rationalize the observed species as resulting from strong charge/size influences provided by specific sites in host lattices (e.g., Tb(IV) in BaTbO 3 or Am(IV) in polytungstate anions). In other cases, the unusual species can be considered from an acid-base viewpoint (e.g., U(III) in AsF 5 /HF solution or Pu(VII) in Li 5 PuO 6 ). In still other cases, an interplay of steric and redox effects can lead to interesting comparisons (e.g., instability of double fluoride salts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) relative to U, Np, and Am analogues). Generalized ways to rationalize compounds containing actinides and lanthanides in unusual valences (particularly high valences), including the above and numerous other examples, will form the focus of this paper. Recently developed methods for synthesizing high valent f-element fluorides using superoxidizers and superacids at low temperatures will also be described. 65 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  14. An oxidized asphalt mastic - ''Jastab'' a clay shale stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Reported on is the devepment in Poland of a new compound - Jastab, which is introduced into clay solutions on a water base for ensuring stability of the walls of drilled wells, complexed with clay shales. Jastab is oxidized asphalt, which is a brown powder with a specific weight of 1.55-1.6 g/cm/sup 3/. The solution which consists of 100 parts by weight of Jastab and 160 parts by weight of diesel fuel, has a viscosity of 15 centapoise, a specific weight of 0.92 g/cm/sup 3/ and a water output at a temperature of 20/sup 0/C of 2.15 cm/sup 3//30 min. It i established that the introduction of Jastab into the clay muds makes it possible to control the osmosis process and to strongly limit the process of hydration of the clay shales, and to improve the rheological properties of the clay muds. The wide introduction of the Jastab compound is recommended in the passage of wells in the region of the Carpathians and in slanted wells.

  15. Perovskite Oxide Thin Film Growth, Characterization, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Andrew

    Studies into a class of materials known as complex oxides have evoked a great deal of interest due to their unique magnetic, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. In particular, materials with the ABO3 perovskite structure have highly tunable properties because of the high stability of the structure, which allows for large scale doping and strain. This also allows for a large selection of A and B cations and valences, which can further modify the material's electronic structure. Additionally, deposition of these materials as thin films and superlattices through techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) results in novel properties due to the reduced dimensionality of the material. The novel properties of perovskite oxide heterostructures can be traced to a several sources, including chemical intermixing, strain and defect formation, and electronic reconstruction. The correlations between microstructure and physical properties must be investigated by examining the physical and electronic structure of perovskites in order to understand this class of materials. Some perovskites can undergo phase changes due to temperature, electrical fields, and magnetic fields. In this work we investigated Nd0.5Sr 0.5MnO3 (NSMO), which undergoes a first order magnetic and electronic transition at T=158K in bulk form. Above this temperature NSMO is a ferromagnetic metal, but transitions into an antiferromagnetic insulator as the temperature is decreased. This rapid transition has interesting potential in memory devices. However, when NSMO is deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 (STO) or (001)-oriented (LaAlO3)0.3-(Sr 2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) substrates, this transition is lost. It has been reported in the literature that depositing NSMO on (110)-oriented STO allows for the transition to reemerge due to the partial epitaxial growth, where the NSMO film is strained along the [001] surface axis and partially relaxed along the [11¯0] surface axis. This allows the NSMO film enough

  16. Protein capped nanosilver free radical oxidation: role of biomolecule capping on nanoparticle colloidal stability and protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Manuel; Bohne, Cornelia; Oake, Jessy; Alarcon, Emilio I

    2018-05-03

    We studied the effect of human serum albumin protein capped spherical nanosilver on the nanoparticle stability upon peroxyl radical oxidation. The nanoparticle-protein composite is less prone to oxidation compared to the individual components. However, higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were formed in the nanoparticle-protein system.

  17. Waterside corrosion of zirconium alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Technically the study of corrosion of zirconium alloys in nuclear power reactors is a very active field and both experimental work and understanding of the mechanisms involved are going through rapid changes. As a result, the lifetime of any publication in this area is short. Because of this it has been decided to revise IAEA-TECDOC-684 - Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants - published in 1993. This updated, revised and enlarged version includes major changes to incorporate some of the comments received about the first version. Since this review deals exclusively with the corrosion of zirconium and zirconium based alloys in water, and another separate publication is planned to deal with the fuel-side corrosion of zirconium based fuel cladding alloys, i.e. stress corrosion cracking, it was decided to change the original title to Waterside Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants. The rapid changes in the field have again necessitated a cut-off date for incorporating new data. This edition incorporates data up to the end of 1995; including results presented at the 11 International Symposium on Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in September 1995. The revised format of the review now includes: Introductory chapters on basic zirconium metallurgy and oxidation theory; A revised chapter discussing the present extent of our knowledge of the corrosion mechanism based on laboratory experiments; a separate and revised chapter discussing hydrogen uptake; a completely reorganized chapter summarizing the phenomenological observations of zirconium alloy corrosion in reactors; a new chapter on modelling in-reactor corrosion; a revised chapter devoted exclusively to the manner in which irradiation might influence the corrosion process; finally, a summary of our present understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating in reactor

  18. Superficial effects during the activation of zirconium AB2 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, J; Visitin, A; Triaca, W

    2005-01-01

    The activation of zirconium nickel alloys with and without the addition of chromium and titanium is investigated through electrochemical and optical techniques.These alloys show high hydrogen absorption capacity and are extensively used in metal hydride batteries.Recent investigations in aqueous 1 M KOH indicate oxide layer growth and occlusion of hydrogen species in the alloys during the application of different cathodic potential programmes currently used in the activation process.In this research several techniques such as voltammetry, ellipsometry, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays EDAX, and scanning electron microscopy SEM are applied on the polished massive alloy Zr 1 -xTi x , x=0.36 y 0.43, and Zr 1 -xTi x CrNi, x=0.1,0.2 y 0.4.Data analysis shows that the stability, compactness and structure of the passive layers are strongly dependent on the applied potential programme.The alloy activation depends on the formation of deepen crevices that remain after a new polishing. Microscopic observation shows increase in the crevices thickness after the cathodic sweep potential cycling, which produces fragmentation of the grains and oxide growth during the activation process.This indicates metal breaking and intergranular dissolution that take place together with oxide and hydride formation.In some cases the resultant crevice thickness is one or two orders higher than that of the superficial oxide growth indicating intergranular localised corrosion

  19. Fretting wear behavior of zirconium alloy in B-Li water at 300 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lefu; Lai, Ping; Liu, Qingdong; Zeng, Qifeng; Lu, Junqiang; Guo, Xianglong

    2018-02-01

    The tangential fretting wear of three kinds of zirconium alloys tube mated with 304 stainless steel (SS) plate was investigated. The tests were conducted in an autoclave containing 300 °C pressurized B-Li water for tube-on-plate contact configuration. The worn surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and 3D microscopy. The cross-section of wear scar was examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicated that the dominant wear mechanism of zirconium alloys in this test condition was delamination and oxidation. The oxide layer on the fretted area consists of outer oxide layer composed of iron oxide and zirconium oxide and inner oxide layer composed of zirconium oxide.

  20. Investigation on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvet, P.; Mur, P.

    1990-01-01

    Zirconium in nitric solutions exhibits an excellent corrosion resistance in the passive state, and a mediocre corrosion resistance in the unpassive state with risk of stress corrosion cracking. Results of the influence of some parameters (medium, potential, temperature, stress, friction, metallurgical structure and surface state) on zirconium passivation are presented. Zirconium remains passive in a large range of HNO 3 concentration (at least up to 14.4N), in the presence of oxidizing ions (Cr 4 , Ce 4 ), in a spent fuel dissolution solution. Zirconium is depassived by friction at high speed and pressure, by platinum coupling in boiling 14.4N HNO 3 with or without stress, or by imposed deformation speed under high potential. (A.B.)

  1. Solvent extraction of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Yoon, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of zirconium(VI) from an aqueous solution of constant ionic strength with versatic acid-10 dissolved in benzen was studied as a function of pH and the concentration of zirconium(VI) and organic acid. The effects of sulphate and chlorine ions on the extraction of the zirconium(VI) were briefly examined. It was revealed that (ZrOR 2 .2RH) is the predominant species of extracted zirconium(VI) in the versatic acid-10. The chemical equation and the apparent equilibrium constants thereof have been determined as follows. (ZrOsup(2+))aq+ 2(R 2 H 2 )sub(org) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)+2(H + )aq Ksub(Zr) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)(H + ) 2 /(ZrOsup(2+))sub(aq)(R 2 H 2 )sup(2)sub(org) = 3.3 x 10 -7 . The synergistic effects of TBP and D2EHPA were also studied. In the mixed solvent with 0.1M TBP, the synergistic effect was observed, while the mixed solvent with D2EHPA showed the antisynergistic effect. (Author)

  2. Photometric determination of zirconium in phosphorites by reaction with arsenazo III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikol' skaya, I V; Maksimov, A V

    1976-05-01

    The reaction between zirconium and arsenazo III has been studied over a wide range of hydrochloric acid concentration and under different conditions. 6 and 9 M HCl solutions are optimal for determining zirconium; the least effect of phosphate ions and color stability in time are observed in this case. The determination of zirconium should be carried out using 10-fold reagent excess and in 15-20 min after adding the reagent. The interference of phosphate ions has been estimated. A procedure has been developed for photometric determination of zirconium in phosphorites with prior acid separation of soluble impurities.

  3. Methods for determination of zirconium in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Two methods for determining zirconium content in titanium alloys are specified in this standard. One is the ion-exchange/mandelic acid gravimetry for Zr content below 20 % down to 1 % while the other is the mandelic acid gravimetry for Zr content below 20 % down to 0.5 %. In the former, a specimen is decomposed by hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. After substances such as titanium are oxidized by adding nitric acid, the liquid is adjusted into a 4N hydrochloric acid - gN hydrofluoric acid solution, which is them passed through an ion-exchange column. The niobium and tantalum contents are absorbed while the titanium and zirconium contents flow out. Perchloric acid and sulfuric acid are poured in the solution to remove hydrofluoric acid. Aqueous ammonia is added to produce hydroxide of titanium and zirconium, which is then filtered out. The hydroxyde is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and mandelic acid is poured to precipitate the zirconium content. The precipitate is ignited and the weight of the oxide formed is measured. The coprecipitated titanium content is determined by the absorptiometric method using hydrogen peroxide. Finally, the weight of the oxide is corrected. In the latter determination method, on the other hand, only several steps of the above procedure are used, namely, decomposition by hydrochloric acid, precipitation of zirconium, ignition of precipitate, measurement of oxide weight and weight correction. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Stability aspects of hydrogen-doped indium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Gabrielle; Hamri, Alexander Nordin; Köhler, Florian; Hüpkes, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides play an important role as contact layers in various opto-electronic devices such as solar cells or LEDs. Whilst crystalline materials e.g. zinc oxide (ZnO), tin oxide (Sn2O3) or tin doped indium oxide (ITO) have already been vastly investigated and applied [1] hydrogen doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) entered the scene a while ago as a new material with a superior trade-off between electrical and optical performance. In2O3:H is commonly deposited at room temperature...

  5. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Marly S; McClements, D J; Miglioranza, Lucia H S; Decker, Eric A

    2008-07-23

    The oxidation of fatty acids can be inhibited by engineering the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets to decrease interactions between aqueous phase prooxidants and lipids. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether emulsions stabilized by a multilayer emulsifier systems consisting of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus or sugar beet pectin could produce fish oil-in-water emulsions that had good physical and oxidative stability. Sugar beet pectin was compared to citrus pectin because the sugar beet pectin contains the known antioxidant, ferulic acid. A primary Menhaden oil-in-water emulsion was prepared with beta-lactoglobulin upon which the pectins were electrostatically deposited at pH 3.5. Emulsions prepared with 1% oil, 0.05% beta-lactoglobulin, and 0.06% pectins were physically stable for up to 16 days. As determined by monitoring lipid hydroperoxide and headspace propanal formation, emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and citrus pectin were more stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone. Emulsions prepared with the multilayer system of beta-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin were less stable than emulsions stabilized with beta-lactoglobulin alone despite the presence of ferulic acid in the sugar beet pectin. The lower oxidative stability of the emulsions with the sugar beet pectin could be due to its higher iron and copper concentrations which would produce oxidative stress that would overcome the antioxidant capacity of ferulic acid. These data suggest that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing omega-3 fatty acids could be improved by the use of multilayer emulsion systems containing pectins with low metal concentrations.

  6. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtain......-oxidative effect of shrimp. The effect of ingredients in tuna salads was inconclusive, possibly due to a high content of volatiles in the vegetables themselves. However, the addition of spices increased the oxidative stability of tuna salad (oregano>rosemary>thyme)....

  7. Solute redistribution studies in oxidised zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khera, S K; Kale, G B; Gadiyar, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Metallurgy Div.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microprobe studies on solute distribution in oxide layers and in the regions near oxide metal interface have been carried out in the case of zircaloy-2 and zirconium binary alloys containing niobium, tin, iron, copper, chromium and nickel and oxidised in steam at 550 deg C. In the case of alloys having higher oxidation rates, the oxide of solute element was found to dissolve in ZrO/sub 2/ without any composition variation. However, for solute addition with limited solubility like Cr, Cu and Fe, solute enrichment at metal/oxide interface and depletion of the same matrix has been observed. The intensity profiles for nickel distribution were also found to be identical to Fe or Cr distribution. The mode of solute distribution has been discussed in relation to oxidation behaviour of these alloys.

  8. Determination of the stability of the uranyl ion sipped in {tau}-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodic form; Determinacion de la estabilidad del ion uranilo sorbido en {tau}-hidrogenofosfato de zirconio en forma sodica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Drot, R.; Simoni, E. [Universite de Paris-Sud-XI, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Groupe de radiochimie, Bat. 100, 91406 Orsay (France)]. e-mail: edo@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The stability of the uranyl sipped in the zirconium {tau}-hydrogen phosphate in sodic form ({tau}-NaZrP), was carried out characterizing the complexes formed by Laser spectroscopy in the visible region and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material was prepared by a new synthesis technique working in nitrogen atmosphere and to low temperatures. The sorption of the uranyl ion was made in acid media with concentrations of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -5} of uranyl nitrate and with ion forces of 0.1 and 0.5 M of NaClO{sub 4}. The spectra of induced fluorescence with laser (TRLFS) show that the uranyl is fixed in very acid media in three well differentiated species, to pH less acid, the specie of long half life disappears and are only those of short half life. The results of the binding energy obtained by XPS indicate that the binding energy of the uranyl confer it a stable character to the complex formed in the {tau}-NaZP, that makes to this material appropriate to retain to the uranyl in solution to high ion forces and in acid media. (Author)

  9. Preparation of zirconium molybdate gel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, S.; Aungurarat, G.; Laohawilai, S.; Sukontpradit, W.; Jingjit, S.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of 99mTc generator based on conversion to zirconium molybdate gel of 99Mo produced by neutron activation was reported. The gel was prepared from zirconium oxychloride solution pH 1.6, ammonium molybdate solution pH 3-5 and mole ratio of Zr:Mo 1:1 which had water content about 7-8%. Small generators containing 1-1.5 g of gel were eluted with average efficiencies of 77% and the activity peak in the first 3 ml of 10 ml of saline solution. The amount of Mo and Zr in eluates were below the acceptance limit. The gel generators of activity about 100 mCi were prepared and had the good performance in elutability and stability

  10. Effect of the method of processing on quality and oxidative stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... Key words: Samn, fatty acid, oxidative stability, sensory evaluation. .... subjected to panel tests, the preference of judges towards these ... letters within the same row mean significant difference (p>0.05, n =25 trained panelists).

  11. Study of the zirconium passive layer in nitric medium, by the means of electrochemical impedance spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musy, C.

    1996-01-01

    Although zirconium exhibits a very low corrosion rate in nitric medium at 100 C, electrochemical impedance spectrometry enabled the in-situ monitoring of the zirconium oxide growth in theses conditions. The growth curve shows a very clear deceleration of the oxide growth kinetics after the first hundred hours of immersion in hot nitric medium. The initial thickness of the native oxide film is also examined

  12. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  13. Hot zirconium cathode sputtered layers for useful surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that multilayer zirconium based sputtered coatings can greatly improve the wear properties of a wide variety of mechanical components, machine tools, and metal surfaces. Although a hot (approximately 1000 0 C) cathode is employed, temperature sensitive components can be beneficially treated, and for precision parts a total coating thickness of only 0.5μm is often perfectly effective. Even at the highest coating rates substrate temperatures are below 300 0 C. For the corrosion protection of less well finished surfaces thicker layers are usually required and it is important that relatively stress free layers are produced. The authors employed a variety of tailored zirconium/zirconium nitride/zirconium oxide mixed layers to solve a number of tribological problems for some 5 or 6 years. However, it is only recently that they designed, built, and commissioned rapid cycle, multiple cathode, load-lock plant for economic production of such coatings. This paper provides an introduction to this method of depositing pure zirconium and pure synthetic zirconium nitride films

  14. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  15. Study of the Rancimat test method in measuring the oxidation stability of biodiesel ester and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthiaume, D.; Tremblay, A. [Oleotek Inc., Thetford Mines, PQ (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    This paper provided details of a study conducted to examine the oxidation stability of biodiesel blends. The study tested samples of canola oil, soybean oil, fish oil, yellow grease, and tallow. The EN 14112 (Rancimat) method was used to compare oxidation stability results obtained in previous tests conducted in the United States and Europe. The aim of the study was also to evaluate the influence of peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV) and feedstock source on the the oxidative stability of different samples. The study also evaluated the possibility of developing a validated test method developed from the EN 14112 methods to specifically consider biodiesel blends. Results of the study indicated that the Rancimat method was not suitable for measuring the oxidation stability of biodiesels blended with petrodiesels. No direct correlation between oxidative stability and PV or AV was observed. It was concluded that fatty acid distribution was not a principal factor in causing changes in oxidation stability. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Oxidation stability of rapeseed biodiesel/petroleum diesel blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Anderson, James E.; Mueller, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    of the oxidation of a biodiesel fuel blend consisting of 30% (v/v) rapeseed methyl ester in petroleum diesel (B30) was conducted at 70 and 90 °C with three aeration rates. Oxidation rates increased with increasing temperature as indicated by decreases in induction period (Rancimat), concentrations of unsaturated...

  17. Plasma arc melting of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming

  18. Zirconium microstructures: uncharted possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samajdar, I.; Kumar, Gulshan; Singh, Jaiveer; Lodh, Arijit; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.

    2015-01-01

    The 'conventional' Zirconium microstructures can be significantly extended with information on: (i) microtexture, (ii) residual stresses and (iii) local mechanical properties. Though these involve different tools, but a consolidated microstructure can be crated. This is the theme of this presentation. Examples of this consolidated picture will be made from deformation twinning, recovery-recrystallization, burst ductility and orientation versus solid solution hardening. (author)

  19. Zirconium elasticity modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, G.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the limit and the intermediate values of the Young modulus E, modulus of shear G and of linear modulus of compression K obtainable at various temperatures (4.2 to 1133 K) for single crystals of α-zirconium. Determined and presented are the corrected isotropic elasticity characteristics of E, G, K over the above range of temperatures of textured and non-textured α-Zr

  20. Beryllium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesse, Marc

    1959-01-01

    Pure beryllium and zirconium, both isolated at about the same date but more than a century ago remained practically unused for eighty years. Fifteen years ago they were released from this state of inactivity by atomic energy, which made them into current metal a with an annual production which runs into tens of tons for the one and thousands for the other. The reasons for this promotion promise well for the future of the two metals, which moreover will probably find additional uses in other branches of industry. The attraction of beryllium and zirconium for atomic energy is easily explained. The curve of figure 1 gives the price per gram of uranium-235 as a function of enrichment: this price increases by about a factor of 3 on passing from natural uranium (0, 7 percent 235 U) to almost pure uranium-235. Because of their tow capture cross-section beryllium and zirconium make it possible, or at least easier, to use natural uranium and they thus enjoy an advantage the extent of which must be calculated for each reactor or fuel element project, but which is generally considerable. It will be seen later that this advantage should be based on figures which are even more favourable that would appear from the simple ratio 3 of the price of pure uranium- 235 contained in natural uranium. Reprint of a paper published in 'Industries Atomiques' - n. 1-2, 1959

  1. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    -enriched oil-in-water emulsion. The selected food emulsifiers were Tween 80, Citrem, sodium caseinate and lecithin. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by determination of peroxide values and secondary volatile oxidation products. Moreover, the zeta potential and the droplet sizes were determined. Twen resulted...... in the least oxidatively stable emulsions, followed by Citrem. When iron was present, caseinate-stabilized emulsions oxidized slower than lecithin emulsions at pH 3, whereas the opposite was the case at pH 7. Oxidation generally progressed faster at pH 3 than at pH 7, irrespective of the addition of iron. EDTA...

  2. Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and charged block copolymers on oxides consequences for colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, N.G.

    1996-01-01


    The aim of the study described in this thesis was to examine the adsorption properties of polyelectrolytes and charged block copolymers on oxides, and the effect of these polymers on the colloidal stability of oxidic dispersions. For this purpose the interaction of some well-characterised

  3. Stability of Ruddlesden-Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2013-08-01

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7-δ) of the Ruddlesden-Popper-structured Sr3FeMO7-δ (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden-Popper and related layered oxide phases.

  4. Activity and stability trends of perovskite oxides for oxygen evolution catalysis at neutral pH

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Chen; Jia, Hongfei; Han, Binghong; Risch, Marcel; Lee, Yueh Lin; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite oxides (ABO[subscript 3]) have been studied extensively to promote the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolytes. However, developing highly active catalysts for OER at near-neutral pH is desirable for many photoelectrochemical/electrochemical devices. In this paper, we systematically studied the activity and stability of well-known perovskite oxides for OER at pH 7. Previous activity descriptors established for perovskite oxides at pH 13, such as hav...

  5. Effects of tocopherols on oxidative stability of margarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizkhani, M.; Kamkar, A.; Nejad, A.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Tocopherols are the most important natural antioxidants which are now added to edible oils. Each individual tocopherol (a, beta and gamma) was added to the oil phase of margarine in 0 (control), 100, 250, and 500 ppm. Anti oxidative activity was evaluated through oven test (at 60 +- 1 deg. C in 5 days and measuring peroxide value and anisidine value) and Ransimat test (110 +- 1 deg. C). Anti oxidative activity increased progressively as concentration of gamma-tocopherol increased. As the concentration of gamma-tocopherol increased from 0 to 100, and 250 ppm, oxidation of oil phase decreased. At 500 ppm, a-tocopherol acted as a prooxidant and gamma-tocopherol did not have any noticable effect, but gamma-tocopherol acted as an antioxidant. The order of anti oxidative activity of tocopherols was: a- < beta- < gamma-. (author)

  6. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  7. Color and oxidative stability of nitrite-free cured meat after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, F.; Pegg, R.B.; Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 5 and 10 kGy irradiation on the color and oxidative stability of meats treated with nitrite or a nitrite-free curing system were investigated. The nitrite-free curing system consisted of the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment, sodium ascorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate with or without sodium acid pyrophosphate. Irradiation had no detrimental effects on the color or flavor of either cured samples. Polyphosphates had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability but had a slight detrimental effect on color stability of irradiated samples

  8. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...

  9. On the stability of sub-stoichiometric uranium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, K.; Colmenares, C. A.; Smith, R. L.; Wooten, F.

    1986-12-01

    The oxidation of clean, high-purity polycrystalline uranium metal surfaces for low exposures to dry oxygen was studied with AES and XPS in an attempt to substantiate claims for the formation of a stable UO surface phase at ambient temperatures. We found no evidence for such a surface phase and found instead that grossly sub-stoichiometric surface oxides were formed after sequential oxygen saturation and heating.

  10. Sensitivity analysis on the zirconium ignition in a postulated SFP loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanggil; Lee, Jaeyoung; Kim, Sun-ki; Chun, Tae-hyun; Bang, Je-geon

    2016-01-01

    From both SFP complete LOCA experiments, it was observed that zirconium alloy cladding temperature was abruptly increased at a certain point and the cladding was almost fully oxidized. To capture this phenomenon, the concept of air oxidation breakaway model was adopted in MELCOR code. This paper examines this air oxidation breakaway model by comparing the SFP project test data and MELCOR code calculation results by using this model. The air oxidation model parameters are slightly altered to see their sensitivities on the occurrence of the zirconium ignition. Through such sensitivity analysis, limitations of the air oxidation breakaway model are revealed in comparison to the actual zirconium ignition phenomenon during air ingress scenarios. In addition, ways to overcome the identified limitations of the air oxidation model are recommended to estimate better the zirconium ignition phenomenon in SFP sequences. In this paper, the zirconium ignition phenomenon was reviewed and the model to capture this phenomenon was investigated. The model is the air oxidation breakaway model in MELCOR code, and its sensitivity of the model parameters on the time to ignition was studied. From the sensitivity analysis, the slight change of model parameters induce the large variation of the time to ignition. The model itself includes its weakness to fully represent both the air oxidation breakaway phenomenon and the followed zirconium ignition behavior. Furthermore, this model considers no effect of N2 on the cladding degradation and its promoted exothermic heat release

  11. Sensitivity analysis on the zirconium ignition in a postulated SFP loss of coolant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sanggil; Lee, Jaeyoung [Handong Global Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-ki; Chun, Tae-hyun; Bang, Je-geon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From both SFP complete LOCA experiments, it was observed that zirconium alloy cladding temperature was abruptly increased at a certain point and the cladding was almost fully oxidized. To capture this phenomenon, the concept of air oxidation breakaway model was adopted in MELCOR code. This paper examines this air oxidation breakaway model by comparing the SFP project test data and MELCOR code calculation results by using this model. The air oxidation model parameters are slightly altered to see their sensitivities on the occurrence of the zirconium ignition. Through such sensitivity analysis, limitations of the air oxidation breakaway model are revealed in comparison to the actual zirconium ignition phenomenon during air ingress scenarios. In addition, ways to overcome the identified limitations of the air oxidation model are recommended to estimate better the zirconium ignition phenomenon in SFP sequences. In this paper, the zirconium ignition phenomenon was reviewed and the model to capture this phenomenon was investigated. The model is the air oxidation breakaway model in MELCOR code, and its sensitivity of the model parameters on the time to ignition was studied. From the sensitivity analysis, the slight change of model parameters induce the large variation of the time to ignition. The model itself includes its weakness to fully represent both the air oxidation breakaway phenomenon and the followed zirconium ignition behavior. Furthermore, this model considers no effect of N2 on the cladding degradation and its promoted exothermic heat release.

  12. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÇANAKÇI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be produced from renewable feed stocks such as vegetable oil and animal fats. These feed stocks are reacted with an alcohol to produce alkyl monoesters. The obtained ester can be used in conventional diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel, especially if produced from highly unsaturated oils, oxidizes more rapidly than diesel fuel. This paper reports the results of accelerated oxidation tests on biodiesel. These tests show the impact of time, oxygen flow rate, temperature, metals, and feedstock type on the rate of oxidation. Blending with diesel fuel and the addition of antioxidants are also explored. The data indicate that without antioxidants, biodiesel will oxidize very quickly at temperatures typical of diesel engines. This oxidation results in increases in peroxide value, acid value, and viscosity. While the peroxide value generally reaches a plateau of about 350 meq O2/kg, the acid value and viscosity increase monotonically as oxidation proceeds.

  13. Effects of oxidation potential and retention time on electrochromic stability of poly (3-hexyl thiophene) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Hyun Song, Seok; Kim, Hyo-Jae; Oh, Seong-Hyeon; Han, Song-Yi; Kim, Goung; Nah, Yoon-Chae

    2018-06-01

    Herein, we report the effects of applied voltage on the electrochromic (EC) stability of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films during EC reactions. The transmittance difference and cycling stability of these films were monitored to optimize the oxidation voltage, and their chemical compositions were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after long-term electrochemical cycling. High oxidation voltages increased the color contrast of P3HT films but decreased their cycling stability due to facilitating chemical degradation. Furthermore, at an optimized oxidation voltage, the retention time during potential pulsing was adjusted utilizing the optical memory of P3HT, revealing that the decreased voltage application time reduced power consumption by 9.6% and enhanced EC stability without loss of color contrast.

  14. Study of the oxidative stability of oils vegetables for production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio R Melo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is technological and estrategical Brazilian oportunity once this country has abundant vegetable species which oils are extracted to produce this biofuel. Oleaginous viability depends on its technical, economical and social-environmental competitiviness. Fatty acid variety determines its thermal and oxidative stability, mainly polyunsaturated ones. In this point of view, this papers aims evaluate oxidative stability and resistence to thermal decomposition of pequi, buriti and macauba oils. These fatty acids profiles are in agreement with literature data. Comparing thermal and oxidative stability of these oils, it can be seen pequi oil is more easily to oxidate than buriti and macauba oils when PetroOXY and Rancimat methods are employed.

  15. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....... of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...

  16. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  17. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800 degrees C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800 degrees C to below about 300 degrees C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300 degrees C

  18. Stabilization of hydrogen peroxide using tartaric acids in Fenton and fenton-like oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyung Suk; Kim, Jeong-Jin; Kim, Young-Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The stabilization of hydrogen peroxide is a key factor in the efficiency of a Fenton reaction. The stability of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated in a Fenton reaction and Fenton-like reactions in the presence of tartaric acid as a stabilizer. The interactions between ferrous or ferric iron and tartaric acid were observed through spectroscopic monitoring at variable pH around pKa{sub 1} and pKa{sub 2} of the stabilizer. Ferric iron had a strong interaction with the stabilizer, and the strong interaction was dominant above pKa{sub 2}. At a low pH, below pKa{sub 1}, the stabilizing effect was at its maximum and the prolonged life-time of hydrogen peroxide gave a higher efficiency to the oxidative degradation of nitrobenzene. In Fenton-like reactions with hematite, the acidic conditions caused dissolution of iron from an iron oxide, and an increase in iron species was the result. Tartaric acid showed a stabilizing effect on hydrogen peroxide in the Fentonlike system. The stabilization by tartaric acid might be due to an inhibition of catalytic activity of dissolved iron, and the stabilization strongly depends on the ionization state of the stabilizer.

  19. Stabilization of hydrogen peroxide using tartaric acids in Fenton and fenton-like oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyung Suk; Kim, Jeong-Jin; Kim, Young-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of hydrogen peroxide is a key factor in the efficiency of a Fenton reaction. The stability of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated in a Fenton reaction and Fenton-like reactions in the presence of tartaric acid as a stabilizer. The interactions between ferrous or ferric iron and tartaric acid were observed through spectroscopic monitoring at variable pH around pKa 1 and pKa 2 of the stabilizer. Ferric iron had a strong interaction with the stabilizer, and the strong interaction was dominant above pKa 2 . At a low pH, below pKa 1 , the stabilizing effect was at its maximum and the prolonged life-time of hydrogen peroxide gave a higher efficiency to the oxidative degradation of nitrobenzene. In Fenton-like reactions with hematite, the acidic conditions caused dissolution of iron from an iron oxide, and an increase in iron species was the result. Tartaric acid showed a stabilizing effect on hydrogen peroxide in the Fentonlike system. The stabilization by tartaric acid might be due to an inhibition of catalytic activity of dissolved iron, and the stabilization strongly depends on the ionization state of the stabilizer.

  20. Kinetics of aging of metastable, zirconium-dioxide-based solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.; Inozemtsev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of aging of zirconium-dioxide-based metastable solid oxide electrolytes stabilized with 8 to 10 mole % of yttrium, holmium, or scandium oxide were studied over the temperature range from 1200 to 1373 0 K. Kinetic equations were proposed which describe the conduction behavior of two-phase solid electrolytes in a wide time range. The processes were found to occur independently at the initial stage of aging in the cubic solution, viz., an increase in the number of nuclei of the new phase, and a growth in volume of nuclei of the new phase. After a long time the former process ceases, and the kinetics of aging of the electrolyte only are determined by the kinetics of volume growth of the inclusions of new phase. The time-dependent behavior of two-phase solid solutions is discussed theoretically and examined experimentally

  1. Thermal stability and phase transformation in fully indium oxide (InO{sub 1.5}) stabilized zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piva, R.H., E-mail: honorato.piva@ua.pt; Piva, D.H.; Morelli, M.R.

    2017-01-15

    Indium oxide (InO{sub 1.5}) stabilized zirconia (InSZ) is an attractive material as electrolyte, or electrode, in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and as corrosion resistant top coat in thermal barrier coatings. However, little is known about the phase stability of cubic InSZ at temperatures that simulate the conditions in an operating SOFC or turbine. This article provides an investigation of the phase stability and phase transformations in cubic InSZ after heat treatments at 800, 1000, and 1200 °C for periods up to 2000 h. The results revealed that cubic InSZ is not stable during annealing at 1000 and 1200 °C, owing to a fast destabilization of the initial cubic phase to tetragonal, and eventually to monoclinic (c → t → m). The c → t → m transition in InSZ is intimately associated with the indium volatilization. On the other hand, cubic InSZ remained stable for 2000 h at 800 °C, although the partial formation of the tetragonal phase was observed along with a 0.25% contraction in the unit cell volume of the cubic phase, caused by short-range ordering. These results demonstrate that technological applications of cubic InSZ are restricted to temperatures at which the volatilization of the InO{sub 1.5} stabilizer does not occur. - Highlights: •Phase stability of fully InO{sub 1.5} stabilized zirconia (cubic InSZ) was evaluated. •Cubic InSZ is instable at temperatures ≥ 1000 °C, owing to the cubic-to-tetragonal-to-monoclinic destabilization. •Cubic InSZ undergoes the cubic-to-tetragonal transformation at ~ 800 °C. •Owing to the low phase stability, applications of cubic InSZ in TBCs or SOFCs are restricted.

  2. Modelling of zirconium alloys corrosion in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritskij, V.G.; Berezina, I.G.; Kritskij, A.V.; Stjagkin, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical parameters, that exerted effect on Zr+1%Nb alloy corrosion and deserved consideration during reactor operation, were defined and a model was developed to describe the influence of physical and chemical parameters on zirconium alloys corrosion in nuclear power plants. The model is based on the correlation between the zirconium oxide solubility in high-temperature water under the influence of the chemical parameters and the measured values of fuel cladding corrosion under LWR conditions. The intensity of fuel cladding corrosion in the primary circuits depends on the coolant water quality, growth of iron oxide deposits and vaporization portion. Mathematically, the oxidation rate can be expressed as a sum of heat and radiation components. The temperature dependence on the oxidation rate can be described by the Arrenius equation. The radiation component of Zr uniform corrosion equation is a function of several factors such as neutron fluency, the temperature the metallurgical composition and et. We assume that the main factor is the changing of water chemistry and the H 2 O 2 concentration play the determinative role. Probably, the influence of H 2 O 2 is based on the formation of unstable compound ZrO 3 ·nH 2 O and Zr(OH) 4 with high solubility. The validity of the used formulae was confirmed by corrosion measurements on WWER and RBMK fuel cladding. The model can be applied for calculating the reliability of nuclear fuel operation. (author)

  3. In Situ Study of Thermal Stability of Copper Oxide Nanowires at Anaerobic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many metal oxides with promising electrochemical properties were developed recently. Before those metal oxides realize the use as an anode in lithium ion batteries, their thermal stability at anaerobic environment inside batteries should be clearly understood for safety. In this study, copper oxide nanowires were investigated as an example. Several kinds of in situ experiment methods including in situ optical microscopy, in situ Raman spectrum, and in situ transmission electron microscopy were adopted to fully investigate their thermal stability at anaerobic environment. Copper oxide nanowires begin to transform as copper(I oxide at about 250°C and finish at about 400°C. The phase transformation proceeds with a homogeneous nucleation.

  4. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Food Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant effects in food emulsions are influenced by many different factors, such as the composition of the aqueous phase and interface, the partitioning of the antioxidants between the different phases of the emulsion system, the antioxidant properties, and others. This ch...

  5. Trends in Metal Oxide Stability for Nanorods, Nanotubes, and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Vallejo, Federico Calle

    2011-01-01

    The formation energies of nanostructures play an important role in determining their properties, including their catalytic activity. For the case of 15 different rutile and 8 different perovskite metal oxides, we used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of (2,2) na...

  6. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  7. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of Arjan (Amygdalus reuteri) kernel oil as emerging edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Emadi, Teymour; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Munekata, Paulo Eduardo Sichetti; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel; Brnčić, Mladen; Barba, Francisco J

    2018-05-01

    The oxidative stability, as well as the chemical composition of Amygdalus reuteri kernel oil (ARKO), were evaluated and compared to those of Amygdalus scoparia kernel oil (ASKO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) during and after holding in the oven (170 °C for 8 h). The oxidative stability analysis was carried out by measuring the changes in conjugated dienes, carbonyl and acid values as well as oil/oxidative stability index and their correlation with the antioxidant compounds (tocopherol, polyphenols, and sterol compounds). The oleic acid was determined as the predominant fatty acid of ARKO (65.5%). Calculated oxidizability value and an iodine value of ARKO, ASKO and EVOO were reported as 3.29 and 3.24, 2.00 and 100.0, 101.4 and 81.9, respectively. Due to the high wax content (4.5% and 3.3%, respectively), the saponification number of ARKO and ASKO (96.4 and 99.8, respectively) was lower than that of EVOO (169.7). ARKO had the highest oxidative stability, followed by ASKO and EVOO. Therefore, ARKO can be introduced as a new source of edible oil with high oxidative stability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  9. Stability of Ruddlesden–Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7−δ) of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured Sr 3 FeMO 7−δ (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden–Popper and related layered oxide phases. - Graphical abstract: Many of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured A 3 B 2 O 7−δ oxides readily react with water via intercalation reactions. Three possible factors affecting the water intercalation are identified: oxygen content of the phase, ionic radius of cation A and valence state of cation B. The resultant layered water-derivative phases can be categorised into two groups, depending on the crystal symmetry of the phase. Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper oxides A 3 B 2 O 7−δ often accommodate water via intercalation reaction. • The lower the oxygen content 7−δ is the more readily the intercalation reaction occurs. • The second factor promoting the reaction is the large size of cation A. • The third possible factor is the high valence state of cation B. • Resultant water-derivatives can be categorised into two groups depending on symmetry

  10. Stability of Ruddlesden–Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M., E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2013-08-15

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7−δ) of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured Sr{sub 3}FeMO{sub 7−δ} (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden–Popper and related layered oxide phases. - Graphical abstract: Many of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} oxides readily react with water via intercalation reactions. Three possible factors affecting the water intercalation are identified: oxygen content of the phase, ionic radius of cation A and valence state of cation B. The resultant layered water-derivative phases can be categorised into two groups, depending on the crystal symmetry of the phase. Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper oxides A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} often accommodate water via intercalation reaction. • The lower the oxygen content 7−δ is the more readily the intercalation reaction occurs. • The second factor promoting the reaction is the large size of cation A. • The third possible factor is the high valence state of cation B. • Resultant water-derivatives can be categorised into two groups depending on symmetry.

  11. Silica intercalated crystalline zirconium phosphate-type materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention relates to intercalated crystalline zirconium phosphate-types compositions wherein the interlayers of said composition have been intercalated with three-dimensional silicon oxide pillars whereby the pillars comprise at least two silicon atom layers parallel to the clay

  12. Studies on Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Nan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the operating condition of aviation engine via autoclave experiment of high temperature and pressure, we studied the physic-chemical property of poly-α-olefin base oil samples mixed with antioxidants of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and p,p’-diisooctyl diphenylamine at different temperature. The mechanism of degradation of PAO aviation lubricating oil was analyzed according to the oxidized products by modern analytical instruments. The results showed that the aviation lubricating oil produced a large number of low molecule compounds while increasing the temperature, and resulted in the viscosity decreasing and acid value increasing which indicated that the thermal oxidation of the oil sample underwent a radical process.

  13. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanová, S.; Zarevúcka, Marie; Bouša, D.; Pumera, M.; Sofer, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 13 (2015), s. 5852-5858 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09001S Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : graphene oxide * lipase * immobilization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 7.760, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/nr/c5nr00438a

  14. Corrosion resistance of zirconium: general mechanisms, behaviour in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of zirconium results from the strong affinity of this metal for oxygen; as a result a thin protective oxide film is spontaneously formed in air or aqueous media, its thickness and properties depending on the physicochemical conditions at the interface. This film passivates the underlying metal but obviously if the passive film is partially or completely removed, localised or generalised corrosion phenomena will occur. In nitric acid, this depassivation may be chemical (fluorides) or mechanical (straining, creep, fretting). In these cases it is useful to determine the physicochemical conditions (concentration, temperature, potential, stress) which will have to be observed to use safely zirconium and its alloys in nitric acid solutions [fr

  15. Analytical study of zirconium and hafnium α-hydroxy carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The analytical study of zirconium and hafnium α-hydroxy carboxylates was described. For this purpose dl-mandelic, dl-p-bromo mandelic, dl-2-naphthyl glycolic, and benzilic acids were prepared. These were used in conjunction with glycolic, dl-lactic, dl-2-hydroxy isovaleric, dl-2-hydroxy hexanoic, and dl-2-hydroxy dodecanoic acids in order to synthesize the zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) tetrakis(α-hydroxy carboxylates). The compounds were characterized by melting point determination, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, calcination to oxides and X-ray diffractometry by the powder method. (C.G.C)

  16. Modification in band gap of zirconium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mayank, E-mail: mayank30134@gmail.com; Singh, J.; Chouhan, S. [Department of Physics, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore (M.P.) (India); Mishra, A. [School of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (M.P.) (India); Shrivastava, B. D. [Govt. P. G. College, Biora (M.P.) (India)

    2016-05-06

    The optical properties of zirconium complexes with amino acid based Schiff bases are reported here. The zirconium complexes show interesting stereo chemical features, which are applicable in organometallic and organic synthesis as well as in catalysis. The band gaps of both Schiff bases and zirconium complexes were obtained by UV-Visible spectroscopy. It was found that the band gap of zirconium complexes has been modified after adding zirconium compound to the Schiff bases.

  17. Oxide layer stability in lead-bismuth at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, F. J.; Soler, L.; Hernández, F.; Gómez-Briceño, D.

    2004-11-01

    Materials protection by 'in situ' oxidation has been studied in stagnant lead-bismuth, with different oxygen levels (H 2/H 2O ratios of 0.3 and 0.03), at temperatures from 535 °C to 600 °C and times from 100 to 3000 h. The materials tested were the martensitic steels F82Hmod, EM10 and T91 and the austenitic stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 304L. The results obtained point to the existence of an apparent threshold temperature above which corrosion occurs and the formation of a protective and stable oxide layer is not possible. This threshold temperature depends on material composition, oxygen concentration in the liquid lead-bismuth and time. The threshold temperature is higher for the austenitic steels, especially for the AISI 304L, and it increases with the oxygen concentration in the lead-bismuth. The oxide layer formed disappear with time and, after 3000 h all the materials, except AISI 304L, suffer corrosion, more severe for the martensitic steels and at the highest temperature tested.

  18. Oxidative stability of refrigerated fish pates containing loquat seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Piccolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extracts (EJSE as inhibitors of lipid and protein oxidation on fish pates subjected to refrigerated storage. Five fish pate formulations were developed. These formulations included two control pates (water-control and ascorbic acid-control and three pates with added EJSE (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4g of seed 100g-1 product, equivalent to 3.4, 6.8 or 13.6mg phenolic compounds kg-1 product, which were then stored under refrigeration for 35 days. Conjugated dienes (CD and peroxide (PV values increased along with the storage time; however, these values decreased and were similar among all samples at the end of 35 days of analysis (P<0.05. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (TBARS did not change along the storage and were not affected by the EJSE. Additionally, there was a linear increase in the protein carbonyl content of fish pates over the storage period (P<0.05, but no effect of EJSE on protein oxidation. The results show that, at the concentrations evaluated, hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extract was unable to inhibit or reduce lipid and protein oxidation in fish pates, but the observed phenolic content emphasizes the need for further studies on the wastes of this fruit.

  19. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  20. Chemical stabilization of metals and arsenic in contaminated soils using oxides – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komárek, Michael; Vaněk, Aleš; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Oxides and their precursors have been extensively studied, either singly or in combination with other amendments promoting sorption, for in situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils. This remediation option aims at reducing the available fraction of metal(loid)s, notably in the root zone, and thus lowering the risks associated with their leaching, ecotoxicity, plant uptake and human exposure. This review summarizes literature data on mechanisms involved in the immobilization process and presents results from laboratory and field experiments, including the subsequent influence on higher plants and aided phytostabilization. Despite the partial successes in the field, recent knowledge highlights the importance of long-term and large-scale field studies evaluating the stability of the oxide-based amendments in the treated soils and their efficiency in the long-term. - In situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils using oxides combined with phytostabilization is a potential alternative to conventional remediation techniques.

  1. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  2. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  3. Zirconium intermetallics and hydrogen uptake during corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1987-04-01

    The routes by which hydrogen can enter zirconium alloys containing second phase particles during corrosion are discussed. Both direct diffusion through the bulk of the oxide film, and migration through second phase particles that intersect the surface are considered. An examination of results for hydrogen uptake by zirconium alloys during the early stages of oxidation, when the oxide film is still coherent, suggests that for Zr, Zr-1%Cu and Zr-1%Fe the hydrogen enters by diffusing through the bulk ZrO 2 film, whereas for the Zircaloys the primary migration route may be through the intermetallics. The steps in the latter process are discussed and the evidence available on the properties of the intermetallics collated. A comparison of these data with results for hydrogen uptake by two series of ternary alloys (Zr-1%Nb - 1%X, Zr-1%Cu - 1%X) suggests that high hydrogen uptakes often correlate with intermetallics with high hydrogen solubilities and vice versa. The properties of Zr(Fe/Cr) 2+x intermetallics are examined in an attempt to understand the behaviour of the Zircaloys, and it is concluded that present data establishing composition and unit cell dimensions for such intermetallic particles are not of sufficient accuracy to permit a correlation

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF COMPLEX MINERAL TANNING MATERIAL ON THE BASIS OF ALUMINIUM AND ZIRCONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toguzbaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of acetate ion on stability of alumina-zirconium tanning to alkalization has been investigated in the paper. The investigation results have shown that at the ratio of Al3+:Zr4+:CH3COO = 1:1:1 it  is  possible  to  prepare  a  solution  of  masking   alumina-zirconium  tanning  (АЦД-М   with  high stability and low consumption of aluminum sulfate. The paper reveals that masking of alumina-zirconium tanning by natrium acetate allows to increase stability to alkalization and improve tanning properties. It has been established that for a stable increase of fatty matter viscosity and improvement of  leather water-resistant properties it is necessary to use water-insoluble aluminum and zirconium soaps of carboxylic acids.

  5. Reaction of yttria-stabilized zirconia with zirconium, silicon and Zircaloy-4 at high temperature: a compatibility study for cermet fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, T.; Tateyama, T.; Idemitsu, K.; Inagaki, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Compatibility studies for cermet (ceramic and metal) fuels have been completed for a temperature range of 1073-1423 K. A reaction between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), as a simulated fuel, and Zr, as a candidate for a metallic matrix, has been observed at temperatures ≥1273 K, which means the formation of a metallic reaction layer at the interface between YSZ and Zr and the occurrence of metallic phases inside the YSZ. Similar results were observed for the YSZ-Zry4 (cladding) system. On the other hand, the degree of reaction was relatively large for the YSZ-Si (metallic matrix) system, and Si diffused into the YSZ. However, the maximum fuel center-line temperature can be predicted to be less than ∼1273 K for cermet fuels. Therefore, compatibility between the ceramic fuel and the metallic matrix should be good under normal reactor operational conditions. Furthermore, since the temperature of the fuel-cladding gap is lower, the cermet fuel and the cladding material are compatible

  6. Improving the oxidative stability of a high redox potential fungal peroxidase by rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Jiménez, Verónica; Acebes, Sandra; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Ligninolytic peroxidases are enzymes of biotechnological interest due to their ability to oxidize high redox potential aromatic compounds, including the recalcitrant lignin polymer. However, different obstacles prevent their use in industrial and environmental applications, including low stability towards their natural oxidizing-substrate H2O2. In this work, versatile peroxidase was taken as a model ligninolytic peroxidase, its oxidative inactivation by H2O2 was studied and different strategies were evaluated with the aim of improving H2O2 stability. Oxidation of the methionine residues was produced during enzyme inactivation by H2O2 excess. Substitution of these residues, located near the heme cofactor and the catalytic tryptophan, rendered a variant with a 7.8-fold decreased oxidative inactivation rate. A second strategy consisted in mutating two residues (Thr45 and Ile103) near the catalytic distal histidine with the aim of modifying the reactivity of the enzyme with H2O2. The T45A/I103T variant showed a 2.9-fold slower reaction rate with H2O2 and 2.8-fold enhanced oxidative stability. Finally, both strategies were combined in the T45A/I103T/M152F/M262F/M265L variant, whose stability in the presence of H2O2 was improved 11.7-fold. This variant showed an increased half-life, over 30 min compared with 3.4 min of the native enzyme, under an excess of 2000 equivalents of H2O2. Interestingly, the stability improvement achieved was related with slower formation, subsequent stabilization and slower bleaching of the enzyme Compound III, a peroxidase intermediate that is not part of the catalytic cycle and leads to the inactivation of the enzyme.

  7. Improving the oxidative stability of a high redox potential fungal peroxidase by rational design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Sáez-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Ligninolytic peroxidases are enzymes of biotechnological interest due to their ability to oxidize high redox potential aromatic compounds, including the recalcitrant lignin polymer. However, different obstacles prevent their use in industrial and environmental applications, including low stability towards their natural oxidizing-substrate H2O2. In this work, versatile peroxidase was taken as a model ligninolytic peroxidase, its oxidative inactivation by H2O2 was studied and different strategies were evaluated with the aim of improving H2O2 stability. Oxidation of the methionine residues was produced during enzyme inactivation by H2O2 excess. Substitution of these residues, located near the heme cofactor and the catalytic tryptophan, rendered a variant with a 7.8-fold decreased oxidative inactivation rate. A second strategy consisted in mutating two residues (Thr45 and Ile103 near the catalytic distal histidine with the aim of modifying the reactivity of the enzyme with H2O2. The T45A/I103T variant showed a 2.9-fold slower reaction rate with H2O2 and 2.8-fold enhanced oxidative stability. Finally, both strategies were combined in the T45A/I103T/M152F/M262F/M265L variant, whose stability in the presence of H2O2 was improved 11.7-fold. This variant showed an increased half-life, over 30 min compared with 3.4 min of the native enzyme, under an excess of 2000 equivalents of H2O2. Interestingly, the stability improvement achieved was related with slower formation, subsequent stabilization and slower bleaching of the enzyme Compound III, a peroxidase intermediate that is not part of the catalytic cycle and leads to the inactivation of the enzyme.

  8. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-01

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g m change, threshold voltage V T change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature

  9. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Ting, E-mail: ctlee@ee.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy (RCETS), National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-28

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  10. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil......The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1...... wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus...

  11. Preparation of polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate film and research of thermal stability and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihui; Song, Yunna; Ma, Zheng; Li, Ning; Niu, Shuai; Li, Yongshen

    2018-05-01

    In this article, flake graphite, nitric acid, peroxyacetic acid and phosphoric acid are used to prepare graphene oxide phosphonic and phosphinic acids (GOPAs), and GOPAs and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are used to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate and phosphinate (PVAGOPs) in the case of faint acidity and ultrasound irradiation, and PVAGOPs are used to fabricate PVAGOPs film, and the structure and morphology of GOPAs, PVAGOPs and PVAGOPs film are characterized, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are investigated. Based on these, it has been proved that GOPAs consist of graphene oxide phosphonic acid and graphene oxide phosphinic acid, and there are CP covalent bonds between them, and PVAGOPs are composed of GOPAs and PVA, and there are six-member lactone rings between GOPAs and PVA, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are improved effectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Textural attributes and oxidative stability of pork longissimus muscle injected with marbling-like emulsified lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lizhen; Xiong, Youling L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3 weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3 weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (Pemulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles: effects of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phong A.; Nguyen, Hiep T.; Fox, Kate; Tran, Nhiem

    2018-03-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have significant potential in biomedical applications such as in diagnosis, imaging and therapeutic agent delivery. The choice of stabilizers and surface functionalization is important as it is known to strongly influence the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of surface charges on the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles. We used a co-precipitation method to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles which were then stabilized with either chitosan (CS) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which have net positive charge and zero charge at physiological pH, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, charges and chemical oxidation state. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was assessed using mouse fibroblast cells and was correlated with surface charges of the nanoparticles and their aggregation.

  14. Synergistic effect of metal deactivator and antioxidant on oxidation stability of metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, Amit [Department of Applied Sciences, Amritsar College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143001 (India); Arora, Rajneesh; Singh, N.P. [Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar (India); Sarin, Rakesh; Malhotra, R.K. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R and D Centre, Sector-13, Faridabad 121007 (India); Sharma, Meeta [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R and D Centre, Sector-13, Faridabad 121007 (India); University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110403 (India); Khan, Arif Ali [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110403 (India)

    2010-05-15

    Biodiesel is relatively unstable on storage and European biodiesel standard EN-14214 calls for determining oxidation stability at 110 C with a minimum induction time of 6 h by the Rancimat method (EN-14112). According to proposed National Mission on biodiesel in India, we have undertaken studies on stability of biodiesel from tree borne non-edible oil seeds Jatropha. Neat Jatropha biodiesel exhibited oxidation stability of 3.95 h. It is found possible to meet the desired EN specification for neat Jatropha biodiesel and metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel by using antioxidants; it will have a cost implication, as antioxidants are costly chemicals. Research was conducted to increase the oxidation stability of metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel by doping metal deactivator with antioxidant, with varying concentrations in order to meet the aforementioned standard required for oxidation stability. It was found that usage of antioxidant can be reduced by 30-50%, therefore the cost, even if very small amount of metal deactivator is doped in Jatropha biodiesel to meet EN-14112 specification. (author)

  15. Transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking of sodium caseinate improves oxidative stability of flaxseed oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hairan; Forssell, Pirkko; Kylli, Petri; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Buchert, Johanna; Boer, Harry; Partanen, Riitta

    2012-06-20

    Sodium caseinate was modified by transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking reaction prior to the emulsification process in order to study the effect of cross-linking on the oxidative stability of protein stabilized emulsions. The extent of the cross-linking catalyzed by different dosages of transglutaminase was investigated by following the ammonia production during the reaction and using SDS-PAGE gel. O/W emulsions prepared with the cross-linked and non-cross-linked sodium caseinates were stored for 30 days under the same conditions. Peroxide value measurement, oxygen consumption measurement, and headspace gas chromatography analysis were used to study the oxidative stability of the emulsions. The emulsion made of the cross-linked sodium caseinate showed an improved oxidative stability with reduced formation of fatty acid hydroperoxides and volatiles and a longer period of low rate oxygen consumption. The improving effect of transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking could be most likely attributed to the enhanced physical stability of the interfacial protein layer against competitive adsorption by oil oxidation products.

  16. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Abundant oxygen vacancies coexisting with Ce3+ ions in fluorite cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have the potential to enhance catalytic ability, but the ratio of unstable Ce3+ ions in CNPs is typically low. Our recent work, however, demonstrated that the abundant Ce3+ ions created in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers (CNPLs) by Ar ion irradiation were stable in air at room temperature. Ce valence states in CNPs correlate with the catalytic ability that involves redox reactions between Ce3+ and Ce4+ ions in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce3+ ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air-stability, (ii) thermal stability up to 500 °C, and (iii) aqueous stability of Ce 3+ ions in water, buffer solution and cell culture medium. It is noteworthy that air-stability of Ce3+ ions in CNPLs persisted for more than 1 year. Thermal stability results showed that oxidation of Ce 3+ to Ce4+ occurred at 350 °C in air. Highly concentrated Ce3+ ions in ultra-thin CNPLs slowly oxidized in water within 1 day, but stability was improved in the cell culture medium. Ce 3+ stability of CNPLs immersed in the medium was associated with phosphorus adsorption on the Ce3+ sites. This study also illuminates the potential interaction mechanisms of stable Ce3+ ions in CNPLs. These findings could be utilized to understand catalytic mechanisms of CNPs with abundant oxygen vacancies in their application environments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  17. Addition of Fish Oil to Cream Cheese Affects Lipid Oxidation, Sensory Stability and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Horsewell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the oxidative stability during storage of fish oil enriched cream cheeses when fish oil was added either as neat oil or pre-emulsified oil with sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, or a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids as emulsifier. Results showed that the addition of fish oil decreased the oxidative stability of cream cheeses regardless of the addition method, especially when the cheese was stored longer than five weeks. The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched cream cheeses was highest when fish oil was added as neat oil or in a delivery emulsion prepared with a combination of milk proteins and phospholipids. Adding the fish oil in a delivery emulsion prepared with whey protein or caseinate resulted in a less oxidative stable product. It was furthermore shown that the microstructure of the cream cheeses was affected by fish oil addition, and it was suggested that the change in microstructure was partly responsible for the oxidative stability of the cream cheeses.

  18. Effect of yttria addition on the stability of porous chromium oxide ceramics in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ziqiang; Chen Weixing; Zheng Wenyue; Guzonas, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Porous chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) ceramics were prepared by oxidizing highly porous chromium carbides that were obtained by a reactive sintering method, and were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 375 °C to 625 °C in supercritical water (SCW) environments with a fixed pressure of 25–30 MPa. Reactive element yttrium was introduced to the porous oxide ceramic by adding various amounts of yttria of 5, 10 and 20 wt.%, respectively, prior to reactive sintering. The exposure in SCW shows that the porous chromium oxide is quite stable in SCW at 375 °C. However, the stability decreased with increasing temperature. It is well known that chromium oxide can be oxidized to soluble chromium (VI) species in SCW when oxygen is present. Adding yttria increases the stability of chromium oxide in SCW environments. However, adding yttria higher than 5 wt.% increased the weight loss of porous chromium oxide samples because of the direct dissociation of Y 2 O 3 in SCW.

  19. Homogenization Pressure and Temperature Affect Protein Partitioning and Oxidative Stability of Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Barouh, Nathalie; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative stability of 10 % fish oil-in-water emulsions was investigated for emulsions prepared under different homogenization conditions. Homogenization was conducted at two different pressures (5 or 22.5 MPa), and at two different temperatures (22 and 72 °C). Milk proteins were used...... prior to homogenization did not have any clear effect on lipid oxidation in either of the two types of emulsions....

  20. Stabilization of polymer solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A; Serino, A; Jenkins, D; Lichaa, P M

    1974-01-01

    Many investigators in the field of heavy oil recovery techniques have confirmed the recovery efficiency which, in the miscible displacement method, has utilized polymer solutions as additives to the injection fluids. The viscosity increase of the displacing phase has lowered the mobility ratio with a significant improvement in the sweep efficiency. Recently, others have reported a notable improvement in the recovery of heavy crude by this same method of miscible displacement which causes a mobile fluid bank between the crude and the displacing fluid. There is an intervening oxidation reaction, promoting the in situ formation of surface-active agents on the interface of these 2 fluids. This study describes the effect on degradation of polymer solutions by such oxidizing agents as potassium chromate and potassium permanganate. The degradation of any polymer solution with or without additives is increased materially by an increase in temperature. The presence of NaCl brine is not often of any great significance in the time of gelation, especially with polymers of the polysaccharide type. (18 refs.)

  1. Zirconium molybdate gel as a generator for technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.V.; Shying, M.E.

    1984-12-01

    A new sup(99m)Tc generator based on zirconium molybdate gel is described. Essentially the gel is a cation ion exchanger which permits the elution of the pertechnetate ion. The high molybdenum content of this gel, its stability under self-irradiation, and the absence of organic materials during preparation provide a generator concept that eliminates high processing costs, active waste storage costs and stability problems in other types of generator

  2. SEPARATION OF HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, L.B.; Barton, C.J. Sr.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1960-05-31

    The separation of hafnium impurities from zirconium can be accomplished by means of organic solvent extraction. The hafnium-containing zirconium feed material is dissolved in an aqueous chloride solution and the resulting solution is contacted with an organic hexone phase, with at least one of the phases containing thiocyanate. The hafnium is extracted into the organic phase while zirconium remains in the aqueous phase. Further recovery of zirconium is effected by stripping the onganic phase with a hydrochloric acid solution and commingling the resulting strip solution with the aqueous feed solution. Hexone is recovered and recycled by means of scrubbing the onganic phase with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the hafnium, and thiocyanate is recovered and recycled by means of neutralizing the effluent streams to obtain ammonium thiocyanate.

  3. Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain, Alicia G.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana; Shutthanandan, V.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered candidates for nuclear fission and fusion applications at high temperature and dose. The complex oxide nanoclusters in these alloys provide high-temperature strength and are expected to afford better radiation resistance. Proton, heavy ion, and neutron irradiations have been performed to evaluate cluster stability in 14YWT and 9CrODS steel under a range of irradiation conditions. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used in this work to analyze the evolution of the oxide population.

  4. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  5. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoma Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properties of AmGO were investigated. The emulsions stabilized by AmGO showed good stability within a wide range of pH (from pH = 1 to pH = 13 and salt concentrations (from 0.1 to 1000 mM. In addition, the application of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by AmGO was investigated. AmGO/polyaniline nanocomposite (AmGO/PANi was prepared through an emulsion approach, and its supercapacitor performance was investigated. This research broadens the application of AmGO as a water-in-oil type emulsion stabilizer and in preparing graphene-based functional materials.

  6. Phase stability of oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels in neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Oka, K.; Ohnuki, S.; Akasaka, N.; Ukai, S.

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels were irradiated by neutrons up to 21 dpa and studied by microstructural observation and microchemical analysis. The original high dislocation density did not change after neutron irradiation, indicating that the dispersed oxide particles have high stability under neutron irradiation. However, there is potential for recoil resolution of the oxide particles due to ballistic ejection at high dose. From the microchemical analysis, it was implied that some of the complex oxides have a double-layer structure, such that TiO 2 occupied the core region and Y 2 O 3 the outer layer. Such a structure may be more stable than the simple mono-oxides. Under high-temperature irradiation, Laves phase was the predominant precipitate occurring at grain boundaries α phase and χ phase were not observed in this study

  7. Nanosize stabilization of cubic and tetragonal phases in reactive plasma synthesized zirconia powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, S., E-mail: sjayakumar.physics@gmail.com [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 014 (India); Department of Physics, Pollachi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi 642 205 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Thiyagarajan, T.K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Perumal, K. [Vision for Wisdom, Temple of Consciousness, Aliyar 642 101 (India); Mishra, S.C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engg, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008 (India); Suresh, G. [Department of Physics, Park College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 659 (India); Su, L.T.; Tok, A.I.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engg, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore)

    2013-06-15

    Pure zirconium oxide powders with particle size 2–33 nm are synthesized by reactive plasma processing. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of these particles revealed size dependent behavior for their phase stabilization. The monoclinic phase is found to be stable when particle size is ≥20 nm; Tetragonal is found to be stabilized in the range of 7–20 nm and as the particle size decreases to 6 nm and less, the cubic phase is stabilized. - Highlights: ► Direct conversion of micron-sized zirconium hydride powder to single crystal ZrO{sub 2} nanopowder. ► Size dependent stabilization of cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases in the reactive plasma synthesized ZrO{sub 2} nanopowder. ► Transmission electron microscopic investigation to identify particles of different sizes and their corresponding phase structure.

  8. Reaction scheme of partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.J.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied with in situ FTIR and both steady-state and transient experiments. The four major products, CO, H2, CO2, and H2O, are primary products of CPOM over YSZ. Besides these major products and traces of

  9. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  10. Effect of the method of processing on quality and oxidative stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study four samn samples prepared from cow milk using two processing methods (traditional T1, T2 and factory processed T3, T4) were investigated for their physico-chemical properties, fatty acids composition, oxidative stability and sensory properties. The traditionally processed samples showed a significance ...

  11. Conservation of Oxidative Protein Stabilization in an Insect Homologue of Parkinsonism-Associated Protein DJ-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiusheng; Prahlad, Janani; Wilson, Mark A. (UNL)

    2012-08-21

    DJ-1 is a conserved, disease-associated protein that protects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in multiple organisms. Human DJ-1 contains a functionally essential cysteine residue (Cys106) whose oxidation is important for regulating protein function by an unknown mechanism. This residue is well-conserved in other DJ-1 homologues, including two (DJ-1{alpha} and DJ-1{beta}) in Drosophila melanogaster. Because D. melanogaster is a powerful model system for studying DJ-1 function, we have determined the crystal structure and impact of cysteine oxidation on Drosophila DJ-1{beta}. The structure of D. melanogaster DJ-1{beta} is similar to that of human DJ-1, although two important residues in the human protein, Met26 and His126, are not conserved in DJ-1{beta}. His126 in human DJ-1 is substituted with a tyrosine in DJ-1{beta}, and this residue is not able to compose a putative catalytic dyad with Cys106 that was proposed to be important in the human protein. The reactive cysteine in DJ-1 is oxidized readily to the cysteine-sulfinic acid in both flies and humans, and this may regulate the cytoprotective function of the protein. We show that the oxidation of this conserved cysteine residue to its sulfinate form (Cys-SO{sub 2{sup -}}) results in considerable thermal stabilization of both Drosophila DJ-1{beta} and human DJ-1. Therefore, protein stabilization is one potential mechanism by which cysteine oxidation may regulate DJ-1 function in vivo. More generally, most close DJ-1 homologues are likely stabilized by cysteine-sulfinic acid formation but destabilized by further oxidation, suggesting that they are biphasically regulated by oxidative modification.

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Paula I.P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Laia, César A.T. [Laboratório Associado para a Química Verde (LAQV), REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, Alexandra [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Pereira, Laura C.J.; Coutinho, Joana T. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Ferreira, Isabel M.M., E-mail: imf@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Novo, Carlos M.M. [Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IHMT/UNL, 1349-008 Lisboa (Portugal); Borges, João Paulo, E-mail: jpb@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized with oleic acid. • Maximum stabilization was achieved at neutral pH. • Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia applications were tested. • The produced nanoparticles are viable for both biomedical applications. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of −120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  13. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Paula I.P.; Laia, César A.T.; Carvalho, Alexandra; Pereira, Laura C.J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M.M.; Novo, Carlos M.M.; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized with oleic acid. • Maximum stabilization was achieved at neutral pH. • Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia applications were tested. • The produced nanoparticles are viable for both biomedical applications. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe_3O_4, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of −120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  14. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  15. Scalable high-affinity stabilization of magnetic iron oxide nanostructures by a biocompatible antifouling homopolymer

    KAUST Repository

    Luongo, Giovanni

    2017-10-12

    Iron oxide nanostructures have been widely developed for biomedical applications, due to their magnetic properties and biocompatibility. In clinical application, the stabilization of these nanostructures against aggregation and non-specific interactions is typically achieved using weakly anchored polysaccharides, with better-defined and more strongly anchored synthetic polymers not commercially adopted due to complexity of synthesis and use. Here, we show for the first time stabilization and biocompatibilization of iron oxide nanoparticles by a synthetic homopolymer with strong surface anchoring and a history of clinical use in other applications, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethy phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)). For the commercially important case of spherical particles, binding of poly(MPC) to iron oxide surfaces and highly effective individualization of magnetite nanoparticles (20 nm) are demonstrated. Next-generation high-aspect ratio nanowires (both magnetite/maghemite and core-shell iron/iron oxide) are furthermore stabilized by poly(MPC)-coating, with nanowire cytotoxicity at large concentrations significantly reduced. The synthesis approach is exploited to incorporate functionality into the poly(MPC) chain is demonstrated by random copolymerization with an alkyne-containing monomer for click-chemistry. Taking these results together, poly(MPC) homopolymers and random copolymers offer a significant improvement over current iron oxide nanoformulations, combining straightforward synthesis, strong surface-anchoring and well-defined molecular weight.

  16. Improving oxidative stability of virgin olive oil by addition of microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nasireh; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant activity of Chlorella ( Chlorella vulgaris ) was evaluated in virgin olive oil (VOO) at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w) under accelerated storage conditions. Antioxidant activity of Chlorella was compared with those of BHT and β-carotene. Chlorella samples significantly retarded the formation of primary, secondary, and total oxidation products in comparison with those of the control. The stability increased as concentrations of Chlorella increased. Samples containing 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% Chlorella significantly improved VOO stability by 19.99, 28.83, and 33.14%, respectively. Observed effects can be related to the release in the assortment of bioactive compounds from Chlorella algae to the VOO. Among the different antioxidants evaluatedy, BHT exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. On the contrary, β-carotene had no preventive effect against the oxidation of VOO. It also proved incapable of limiting the progress of VOO oxidation and played role as pro-oxidant. In conclusion, Chlorella enhanced VOO oxidative stability. Thus it can be considered as a promising source of natural antioxidants.

  17. Scalable high-affinity stabilization of magnetic iron oxide nanostructures by a biocompatible antifouling homopolymer

    KAUST Repository

    Luongo, Giovanni; Campagnolo, Paola; Perez, Jose E.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Georgiou, Theoni K.; Regoutz, Anna; Payne, David J; Stevens, Molly M.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E

    2017-01-01

    Iron oxide nanostructures have been widely developed for biomedical applications, due to their magnetic properties and biocompatibility. In clinical application, the stabilization of these nanostructures against aggregation and non-specific interactions is typically achieved using weakly anchored polysaccharides, with better-defined and more strongly anchored synthetic polymers not commercially adopted due to complexity of synthesis and use. Here, we show for the first time stabilization and biocompatibilization of iron oxide nanoparticles by a synthetic homopolymer with strong surface anchoring and a history of clinical use in other applications, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethy phosphorylcholine) (poly(MPC)). For the commercially important case of spherical particles, binding of poly(MPC) to iron oxide surfaces and highly effective individualization of magnetite nanoparticles (20 nm) are demonstrated. Next-generation high-aspect ratio nanowires (both magnetite/maghemite and core-shell iron/iron oxide) are furthermore stabilized by poly(MPC)-coating, with nanowire cytotoxicity at large concentrations significantly reduced. The synthesis approach is exploited to incorporate functionality into the poly(MPC) chain is demonstrated by random copolymerization with an alkyne-containing monomer for click-chemistry. Taking these results together, poly(MPC) homopolymers and random copolymers offer a significant improvement over current iron oxide nanoformulations, combining straightforward synthesis, strong surface-anchoring and well-defined molecular weight.

  18. Stability of O/W Emulsion with Synthetic Perfumes Oxidized by Singlet Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared O/W emulsion composed of a synthetic perfume, n-dodecane, protoporphyrin IX disodium salt (PpIX-2Na, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and water and investigated oxidative decomposition of the synthetic perfume in the emulsion and change in the stability of the emulsion by singlet oxygen (1O2 generated by photosensitization of PpIX-2Na. We used eugenol, linalool, benzyl acetate, α-ionone, α-hexylcinnamaldehyde, and d-limonene as a synthetic perfume. The stability of the O/W emulation including eugenol and linalool significantly decreased with increasing light irradiation time. The decrease in the emulsion stability may be attributable to oxidative decomposition of eugenol and linalool by 1O2 and enlargement of the oil droplet size.

  19. Degradation Studies of Polyolefins Incorporating Transparent Nanoparticulate Zinc Oxide UV Stabilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammala, A.; Hill, A.J.; Meakin, P.; Pas, S.J.; Turney, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    Coated and dispersed nanoparticulate zinc oxide is shown to improve ultra violet (UV) stability of polypropylene and high-density polyethylene without changing its characteristic absorption spectrum in the visible region (400-800-nm). The performance of these nanoparticulate UV stabilizers is compared to conventional hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS). QUV accelerated weathering is used to simulate long-term exposure. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is used to provide an indication of physical and chemical changes due to accelerated weathering and is shown to have potential for detecting changes well before other techniques. Visual observation, optical microscopy, carbonyl index, yellowness index and PALS indicate that nanoparticulate zinc oxide gives superior resistance to UV degradation compared to organic HALS at appropriate loading levels

  20. Oxidative Stability of Dispersions Prepared from Purified Marine Phospholipid and the Role of α-Tocopherol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2012-01-01

    , respectively, during 32 days of storage at 2 °C. Nonenzymatic browning was investigated through measurement of Strecker aldehydes, color changes, and pyrrole content. Dispersions containing α-tocopherol or higher levels of purified marine PL showed a lower increment of volatiles after 32 days storage......The objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability of dispersions prepared from different levels of purified marine phospholipid (PL) obtained by acetone precipitation, with particular focus on the interaction between α-tocopherol and PL in dispersions. This also included...... the investigation of nonenzymatic browning in purified marine PL dispersions. Dispersions were prepared by high-pressure homogenizer. The oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of dispersions were investigated by determination of hydroperoxides, secondary volatile oxidation products, and free fatty acids...