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Sample records for stabilized unsaturated polyesters

  1. Stabilized unsaturated polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, O.; Borsig, E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An unsaturated polyester, such as propylene glycolmaleic acid phthalic acid prepolymer dissolved in styrene is interpolymerized with an ultraviolet absorber and/or an antioxidant. The unsaturated chain may be filled with H or lower alkyl such as methyl and tertiary alkyl such as tertiary butyl. A polymer stable to exposure to the outdoors without degradation by ultraviolet radiation, thermal and/or photooxidation is formed.

  2. Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core-shell particles. MO Munyati, PA Lovell. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Science and Technology Special Edition 2004: 24-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Post-irradiation crosslinking of partially cured unsaturated polyester resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkin, Tanja; Pucic, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The post-irradiation crosslinking of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin samples irradiated to different doses was monitored during the 15-days period. The post-reaction sensitivity of three experimental techniques was evaluated. Significant changes were detected by extraction analysis that also included determination of the free styrene content. The most substantial changes were detected by differential scanning calorimetry, even up to 5 days after the irradiation. The sensitivity and reproducibility of FTIR was the lowest. The first two techniques detected the influence of particular reaction periods, at which the radiation crosslinking was terminated, on the post-reaction

  4. Development of sugar palm yarn/glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Khalina, A.; Sapuan, S. Mohd; Rahmah, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of fibre hybridization for sugar palm yarn fibre with glass fibre reinforced with unsaturated polyester composites. In this work, unsaturated polyester resin are reinforced with fibre at a ratio of 70:30 wt% and 60:40 wt%. The hybrid composites were characterized in terms of physical (density and water absorption), mechanical (tensile, flexural and compression) and thermal properties through thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA). Density determination showed that density increased with higher wt% of glass fibre. The inherently higher density of glass fibre increased the density of hybrid composite. Resistance to water absorption is improved upon the incorporation of glass fibre and the hybrid composites were found to reach equilibrium absorption at days 4 and 5. As for mechanical performance, the highest tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus and compression strength were obtained from 40 wt% of fibres reinforcement with ratio of 50:50 wt% of sugar palm yarn fibre and glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. The increase of glass fibre loading had a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties to the composites structure due to its superior strength and modulus. The thermal stability of hybrid composites was improved by the increase of onset temperature and the reduction of residues upon increase in temperature.

  5. Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur Kandola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly flammable unsaturated polyester. This increased flame retardance arises from a condensed phase mechanism in which the furanic component forms a semi-protective char, reducing rates of thermal degradation and total heat release and heat of combustion. The blends also burn with reduced smoke output compared with that from unsaturated polyester alone.

  6. Thermal Degradation Mechanism of a Thermostable Polyester Stabilized with an Open-Cage Oligomeric Silsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bautista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A polyester composite was prepared through the polymerization of an unsaturated ester resin with styrene and an open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane with methacrylate groups. The effect of the open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane on the thermal stability of the thermostable polyester was studied using both thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The results showed that the methacryl oligomeric silsesquioxane improved the thermal stability of the polyester. The decomposition mechanism of the polyester/oligomer silsesquioxane composite was proposed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the volatiles.

  7. Thermal Degradation Mechanism of a Thermostable Polyester Stabilized with an Open-Cage Oligomeric Silsesquioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalbo, Ana; Mestre, Sergio; Sanz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    A polyester composite was prepared through the polymerization of an unsaturated ester resin with styrene and an open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane with methacrylate groups. The effect of the open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane on the thermal stability of the thermostable polyester was studied using both thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The results showed that the methacryl oligomeric silsesquioxane improved the thermal stability of the polyester. The decomposition mechanism of the polyester/oligomer silsesquioxane composite was proposed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the volatiles. PMID:29295542

  8. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiep Dinh Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA were polymerized using an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB and the potential for an enzymatic synthesis of alkyds was investigated. The developed method enables the use of both glycerol and also pentaerythritol (for the first time as the alcohol source and was found to be very robust. This allows simple variations in the molar mass and structure of the polyester without premature gelation, thus enabling easy tailoring of the branched polyester structure. The postpolymerization crosslinking of the polyesters illustrates their potential as binders in alkyds. The formed films had good UV stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition.

  9. Aluminium trihydroxide in combination with ammonium polyphosphate as flame retardants for unsaturated polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and reaction to fire characteristics of a flame retardant unsaturated polyester (UP ternary system are presented here. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed an improved thermal stability between 200–600°C with the addition of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and aluminium trihydroxide (ATH formulation. Cone calorimetry tests indicated that ATH is more efficient than calcium carbonate at delaying the ignition time, lowering the carbon monoxide yield and lowering the peak heat release (PHRR. However the addition of APP and ATH to the formulation failed to demonstrate any significant synergistic effect at reducing the PHRR.

  10. MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES FROM UNSATURATED POLYESTER FILLED WITH OIL PALM ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm ash (OPA is available in abundance, is renewable, can be obtained at no cost and shows good performance at high thermal conditions. Combinations of the unsaturated polyester with natural fillers have been reported to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of composites. Utilisation of oil palm ash as a filler in the manufacture of polymer composites can significantly reduce the requirement for other binders or matrixes of composite materials. This research uses oil palm ash as a filler to form composites through the investigation of the effect of different contents of filler on the properties of OPA-filled unsaturated polyester (UP/OPA composites. The effect of different volume fractions, i.e., 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% of oil palm ash introduced into 100, 90, 80 and 70 vol.% of an unsaturated polyester matrix on the composite mechanical properties, i.e., tensile and flexural, has been studied, together with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC. Specimens were prepared using compression moulding techniques based on the ASTM D790 and D5083 standards for flexural and tensile tests, respectively. The tensile and flexural mechanical properties of UP/OPA composites were improved in modulus by increasing the filler content. Thermal stability of the composites increased as the OPA filler content was increased, which was a logical consequence because of the high thermal stability of the silica compound of the OPA filler compared with that of the UP matrix. The results from the surface electron microscope (SEM analysis were the extension of mechanical and thermal tests.

  11. Fully Biobased Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters from Renewable Resources : Enzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Fully biobased saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyesters and oligoesters are successfully prepared by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed polycondensations of succinate, itaconate, and 1,4-butanediol. The effects of monomer substrates and polymerization methods on enzymatic

  12. Thermal Aging of Unsaturated Polyester Composite Reinforced with E-Glass Nonwoven Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Milon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out using glass fiber (GF as reinforcing materials with unsaturated polyester matrix to fabricate composite by hand layup technique. Four layers of GF were impregnated by polyester resin and pressed under a load of 5 kg for 20 hours. The prepared composite samples were treated by prolonged exposure to heat for 1 hour at 60-150°C and compared with untreated GF-polyester composite. Different mechanical test of the fabricated composite were investigated. The experiment depicted significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the fabricated composite resulted from the heat treatment. The maximum tensile strength of 200.6 MPa is found for 90°C heat-treated sample. The mechanical properties of the composite do seem to be very affected negatively above 100°C. Water uptake of the composite was carried out and thermal stability of the composite was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and it was found that the composite is stable up to 600°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the characteristic bond in the composite. Finally, the excellent elevated heat resistant capacity of glass-fiber-reinforced polymeric composite shows the suitability of its application to heat exposure areas such as kitchen furniture materials, marine, and electric board.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of unsatured polyesters from the reaction of glycerol with fumaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Brioude, Michel M.; Agrela, Sara P.; Rosa, Leandro O.S.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The biodiesel production from vegetable oils has been encouraged by the Brazilian Federal Government, since biodiesel is a renewable fuel. The utilization of glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production) has gained importance, since it corresponds to 30 wt-% of the produced biodiesel. In this context, the present work aims at preparing and characterizing polymers based on glycerol, which could have an application. In this way, the production of biodiesel could be further stimulated. Unsaturated polyesters were preparing by esterification of glycerol with fumaric acid. The reaction mixture was heated up to 240 deg C. After the polymerization was complete, the material was cast onto Teflon molds. The materials were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The materials showed thermal stability comparable to alkyd thermoset derived from maleic anhydride and glycerol. (author)

  14. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Löf, David; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA....... This allows simple variations in the molar mass and structure of the polyester without premature gelation, thus enabling easy tailoring of the branched polyester structure. The postpolymerization crosslinking of the polyesters illustrates their potential as binders in alkyds. The formed films had good UV...

  15. Critical aspects related to processing of carbon nanotube/unsaturated thermoset polyester nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Seyhan, Abdullah Tuğrul; Gojny, Florian H.; Tanoğlu, Metin; Schulte, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have outstanding mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. As a result, particular interest has been recently given in exploiting these properties by incorporating carbon nanotubes into some form of matrix. Although unsaturated polyesters with styrene have widespread use in the industrial applications, surprisingly there is no study in the literature about CNT/thermoset polyester nanocomposite systems. In the present paper, we underline some important issues and l...

  16. Going greener: Synthesis of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters for styrene crosslinked resins with enhanced thermomechanical properties

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    C. S. M. F. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was the development of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs that upon crosslinking with unsaturated monomers (UM could lead to greener unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs with similar thermomechanical properties to commercial fossil based UPR. After the successful synthesis of the biobased UPs, those were crosslinked with styrene (Sty, the most commonly used monomer, and the influence of the chemical structure of the UPs on the thermomechanical characteristics of UPRs were evaluated. The properties were compared with those of a commercial resin (Resipur 9837©. The BioUPRs presented high gel contents and contact angles that are similar to the commercial resin. The thermomechanical properties were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and it was found that the UPR synthesized using propylene glycol (PG, succinic acid (SuAc and itaconic acid (ItAc presented very close thermomechanical properties compared to the commercial resin.

  17. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Styrene

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hasmukh S.; Panchal, Kumar K.

    2004-01-01

    Novel unsaturated poly (ester-amide) resins (UPEAs) were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA) and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Styrene (STY.) to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-STY. resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a catalyst and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter ...

  18. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Unsaturated Polyester/Vinyl Ester Blends Cured at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhyananta, H.; Puspadewa, F. D.; Wicaksono, S. T.; Widyastuti; Wibisono, A. T.; Kurniawan, B. A.; Ismail, H.; Salsac, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin containing aromatic ring was blended with vinyl ester (VE) at wide range composition (10, 20, 30, 40,and 80 wt.%) using mechanical blending method. The blends were cured at room temperature using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) (4 wt.%) as catalyst initiator without the presence of catalystaccelerator. The effect of vinyl ester composition on theenhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of unsaturated polyester/vinyl ester blends was investigated. The polymer blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)spectroscopy, tensile testing, hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). IR spectra showed UP and VE peaks. The curing copolymerization reactionoccurred at vinyl (C=C) bonds. The addition of vinyl esters enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The UP/VE blends showed homogeneous morphology, transparent and copolymer thermoset blend.

  19. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh S. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel unsaturated poly (ester-amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Styrene (STY. to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-STY. resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO as a catalyst and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The glass fibre reinforced composites (i.e. laminates of these UPEA-STY. resin blends were fabricated using the DSC data. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre composites have also been evaluated. The unreinforced cured samples of the UPEA-STY. resin blends were also analyzed by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  20. Dsc cure kinetics of an unsaturated polyester resin using empirical kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the kinetics of curing of unsaturated polyester resin initiated with benzoyl peroxide was studied. In case of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin, isothermal test alone could not predict correctly the curing time of UP resin. Therefore, isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconventional adjustment was used to correctly predict the curing time and temperature of UP resin. Isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconversional adjustment indicated that 97% of UP resin cures in 33 min at 120 degree C. Curing of UP resin through microwaves was also studied and found that 67% of UP resin cures in 1 min at 120 degree C. The crosslinking reaction of UP resin is so fast at 120 degree C that it becomes impossible to predict correctly the curing time of UP resin using isothermal test and the burial of C=C bonds in microgels makes it impossible to be fully cured by microwaves at 120 degree C. The rheological behaviour of unsaturated polyester resin was also studied to observe the change in viscosity with respect to time and temperature. (author)

  1. Microfibrillated Lignocellulose Enables the Suspension-Polymerisation of Unsaturated Polyester Resin for Novel Composite Applications

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    Yutao Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new route towards embedding fibrillated cellulose in a non-polar thermoset matrix without any use of organic solvent or chemical surface modification is presented. It is shown that microfibrillated lignocellulose made from cellulose with high residual lignin content is capable of stabilising an emulsion of unsaturated polyester resin in water due to its amphiphilic surface-chemical character. Upon polymerisation of the resin, thermoset microspheres embedded in a microfibrillated cellulose network are formed. The porous network structure persists after conventional drying in an oven, yielding a mechanically stable porous material. In an application experiment, the porous material was milled into a fine powder and added to the polyester matrix of a glass fibre-reinforced composite. This resulted in a significant improvement in fracture toughness of the composite, whereas a reduction of bending strength and stiffness was observed in parallel.

  2. Non-isothermal curing kinetics and physical properties of MMT-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP) resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, María A., E-mail: angelesvh@yahoo.com [Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnológico S/N, Valle de Anáhuac, 55210 Ecatepec de Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez, H. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Física, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Guthausen, G. [KIT, Pro2NMR at MVM and IBG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-10

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal DSC analysis results have shown that the addition of MMT to a UP resin produces a delay in the cure reaction. • The shape of experimental heat-flow DSC curves showed two exothermic peaks for all the samples at different heating rates. • The overall kinetic analysis was performed by isoconversional methods. • It was found that the dependence of the activation energy (E{sub a}) on degree of reaction (α) is complex. - Abstract: Cure behavior of unsaturated polyester (UP)/montmorillonite (MMT)/methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP)/cobalt octoate intercalated nanocomposites with various MMT loadings was investigated by dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UP/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by sequential mixing. Non-isothermal DSC curves were obtained by applying heating rates ranging from 5 to 20 °C/min. They presented two exothermic peaks, which should correspond to two independent cure reactions. The effective activation energy E{sub a}, was determined by applying both the Kissinger’s and Starink’s methods. The results showed slightly higher activation energy for nanocomposites, except for UP/10-MMT. It was found that the dependence of E{sub a} on α is complex. All the systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model in overall reaction controlled kinetics and the corresponding model parameters, n, m, A were obtained, but it was insufficient in depicting the complex reaction kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy data support the formation of a partially delaminated nanocomposite material. UP and nanocomposites showed similar behavior on thermal stability.

  3. A Comparative Study on the Thermal Resistance, Flammability and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Fathizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties, flammability and mechanical properties of three different kinds of unsaturated polyester resins, ortho, iso and vinyl ester and an epoxy resin based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A were investigated. Since these resins are widely used in the composite industry it is vital to recognize their properties. For this purpose, viscosity, burning rate, limiting oxygen index (LOI and flexural properties were measured. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were also performed. The viscosity of unsaturated polyester resins which was in the range of 300 to 450 cp showed an advantage compared to the viscosity of epoxy resin which was in the range of 600 to 1000 cp. The low viscosity property which is usually seen in unsaturated polyester resins is very important from the processing point of view, which in turn helps to ensure a simple processing. The ortho resin showed the highest conversion and conversion rate among the three unsaturated polyester resins. The vinyl ester resin showed a higher conversion than the iso resin. The results showed that the vinyl ester resin had the highest thermal resistance, flammability and mechanical properties among the unsaturated polyester resins used in this work. On the other hand, although the epoxy resin showed the highest burning rate but it had the highest carbon residue or char yield (12.4% and LOI (20.2%, and consequently the highest thermal resistance. The results of flexural test showed that the epoxy resin had the highest flexural strength (116 MPa and modulus (4.1 GPa and the lowest deflection-at-break (2.8% and toughness in comparison with the unsaturated polyester resins used in this work.

  4. 3D printing of new biobased unsaturated polyesters by microstereo-thermal-lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Filipa A M M; Costa, Cátia S M F; Fabela, Inês G P; Simões, Pedro N; Serra, Arménio C; Coelho, Jorge F J; Farinha, Dina; Faneca, Henrique; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2014-01-01

    New micro three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs) were prepared by microstereo-thermal-lithography (μSTLG). This advanced processing technique offers indubitable advantages over traditional printing methods. The accuracy and roughness of the 3D structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus microscopy, revealing a suitable roughness for cell attachment. UPs were synthesized by bulk polycondensation between biobased aliphatic diacids (succinic, adipic and sebacic acid) and two different glycols (propylene glycol and diethylene glycol) using fumaric acid as the source of double bonds. The chemical structures of the new oligomers were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The thermal and mechanical properties of the UPs were evaluated to determine the influence of the diacid/glycol ratio and the type of diacid in the polyester’s properties. In addition an extensive thermal characterization of the polyesters is reported. The data presented in this work opens the possibility for the use of biobased polyesters in additive manufacturing technologies as a route to prepare biodegradable tailor made scaffolds that have potential applications in a tissue engineering area. (paper)

  5. Cross-Linkable Epoxidized Maleinated Castor Oil: A Renewable Resin Alternative to Unsaturated Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Müge Şahin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative resin to conventional synthetic unsaturated polyesters (UPEs, epoxidized maleinated castor oil (EMACO was synthesized in two steps. For this purpose, castor oil was reacted with maleic anhydride at 70°C to obtain maleinated castor oil (MACO. Then, epoxidation of MACO was carried out by using a mixture of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide at 0–5°C. Then, the free carboxyl groups of the synthesized EMACO were further reacted with free epoxide groups of EMACO at 90°C. At the end of the reaction, an unsaturated polyester precursor-prepolymer was obtained (P-EMACO. FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the monomers synthesized. The P-EMACO was then mixed with styrene and cross-linked in the presence of AIBN at 50°C. Thermal and mechanical properties of the final cross-linked product were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA techniques. The degradation onset temperature of the material at which cross-linked X-EMACO loses 5% of its weight was found to be 209°C. Its dynamic Tg and storage modulus at 25°C were determined as 72°C and 1.08 GPa, respectively. These results are higher than some of the different oil based polymers reported in the literature.

  6. One-pot preparation of unsaturated polyester nanocomposites containing functionalized graphene sheets via a novel solvent-exchange method

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports a convenient one-pot method integrating a novel solvent-exchange method into in situ melt polycondensation to fabricate unsaturated polyester nanocomposites containing functionalized graphene sheets (FGS). A novel solvent-exchange method was first developed to prepare graphene oxi...

  7. Evaluation of mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester-guar gum/hydroxypropyl guar gum composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum is a natural polysaccharide that has been explored for various applications. However, there is a limited number of studies in which guar gum has been used as a filler in a polymer. The effect of guar gum and its hydroxypropyl derivatives in unsaturated polyester composites were investigated with respect to their mechanical and chemical properties. The effect of hydroxypropylation and the degree of hydroxypropylation on the properties of resultant composites were also studied. It was observed that the inclusion of guar gum and its derivatives resulted in composites with increased solvent resistance and mechanical properties. An increase in the degree of substitution resulted in increased polymer-filler interaction reflected by a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the composites. These results open an avenue for the use of polysaccharides and their derivatives as eco-friendly fillers as a replacement of mineral fillers.

  8. Adhesion analysis of non-woven natural fibres in unsaturated polyester resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, Med Amin; Triki, A.; Guicha, M.; Ben Hassen, Med; Arous, M.; Ahmed El Hamzaoui, H.; Bulou, A.

    2015-03-01

    The presence of wool fibres in non-woven Alfa fibres sheet was investigated as a mean of improving adhesion of Alfa fibre-reinforced unsaturated polyester composite. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results revealed that such improvement could occur by a decrease in the hydrophilic character of the Alfa fibres owing to the presence of wool fibres. Hence, physical and chemical interactions could happen between the reinforcement and the matrix as demonstrated by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results. Tensile testing performed on this composite confirmed that such adhesion could occur according to its excellent specific parameters despite of its low tensile strength attributed to a higher fibre to fibre contact of wool fibres.

  9. hermo-Physical and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester /Cobalt Ferrite Composites

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    Lamees Salam Faiq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated polyester was used as a matrix which was filled with different percentages of cobalt ferrite using hand lay-up method. Cobalt ferrite was synthesized using solid state ceramic method with reagent of CoO and Fe2O3. Mechanical properties such tensile strength, Young's modulus and shore D hardness of the composite have been studied. All these properties have increased by 10% with increasing cobalt ferrite contents. Also the thermal properties such thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are highly increased as the ferrite content increased, while the thermal diffusivity increased by 22 %. On the other hand dielectric strength of composite has been measured which increased by 50% by increasing the cobalt ferrite content.

  10. Influence of Carbon Nano Tubes on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, A K M Moshiul; Beg, M D H; Yunus, Rosli Mohd

    2015-01-01

    To date nano fillers are renowned reinforcing agent for polymer materials. In this work, unsaturated polyester (UPR) nanocomposites were fabricated by 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt% multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through solution dispersion and casting method. The influence of MWCNT content was investigated by thermo-mechanical properties. Dispersion of nanotubes was observed by fracture morphology. The strength of nanocomposites rose with raising the CNT content. Moreover, DSC thermograms of nanocomposites represent noticeable improvement of glass transition temperature (T g ), melting temperature (T m ) and enthalpy (ΔH m ). Micro-crystallinity of nanocomposites increased with increasing the CNT content. Moreover, the stiffness increased with increasing the CNT content. (paper)

  11. Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Yuta

    2017-08-01

    To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0-30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.

  12. Analysis of structural changes influence on radiation crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucic, I.; Ranogajec, F.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. DC-electrical conductivity has shown high sensitivity toward structural changes, especially to some low intensity transitions such as liquid-liquid transitions that are difficult to observe. It also showed favorable properties for monitoring of crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resins. However, when the rates were calculated using commonly applied formula: k lnσ =ln[(ln σ t - ln σ o )/(ln σ ∞ - ln σ o )] the sensitivity decreased. The extents of the reaction were shifted on time axis compared to non-logarithmic conductivity data and extraction analysis results. The logarithmic data had pronounced scattering at the end of the reaction so it was very difficult to determine end point of reaction and almost impossible to detect vitrification point. Some other features that can be seen on conductivity plot were lost. Therefore the results of DC-electrical conductivity monitoring of radiation and thermally initiated crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resins were interpreted in the same manner as the data collected by other non-electrical methods, using 'raw' data instead of its logarithmic form: k σ = ln [(σ t - σ o )/(σ ∞ - σ o )]. By this modification of data analysis the full sensitivity of electrical conductivity method to structural changes in reacting system was proven. Lower data scattering allowed observation of dose rate influences. The apparent rate constants calculated from conductivity itself showed the influence of upper liquid-liquid transition on the rate of radiation induced reaction that could not be seen if the logarithm of conductivity was used

  13. Preparation of polymer nanocomposite materials based on unsaturated polyester resin and nanosilica A200. Part II - Structural and properties of polymer nanocomposite materials based on unsaturated polyester resin and nanosilica A200 with coupling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Minh Dat; Bui Chuong; Bach Trong Phuc; Dinh Van Kai; Luu Van Khue

    2012-01-01

    Effects of coupling agent on the structures and properties of nanocomposite materials based on unsaturated polyester resin and A200 silica nanoparticles were investigated. The viscosity of the resin/A200 silica mixtures increased with increasing coupling agent content because of forming core-shell structures and the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites generally were better than those without coupling agent and appeared a maximum in mechanical properties at 4.0 wt% coupling agent content. IR analyze indicated that the coupling agent had reacted with unsaturated polyester resin and A200 silica nanoparticles. SEM, Fe-SEM and TG-SDC demonstrated more homogeneous dispersion of A200 silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and accompanied by lower glass transition temperature and melt temperature. Furthermore, it was also found that the best dispersion route involved a methanol dispersion technique. (author)

  14. Study of the effect of surface treatment of kenaf fibre on mechanical properties of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, I. A. S.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Betar, B. O.; Adam, T.; Mohammed, M.; Mohammed, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this research, unsaturated polyester/kenaf fiber (UP/KF) composites was prepared by using hand lay-up process. The effect of surface treatment of kenaf fiber on mechanical properties of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester composites were studied. Different concentrationsof stearic acid (SA) were applied, i.e. 0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%. Tensile strength of untreated UP/KF composites was found to be higher for 40 wt% loading of kenaf fiber. The highest tensile strength value was obtained after treatment with 0.4 wt% concentration of stearic acid at 56 MPa and tensile modulus was at 2409 MPa. From the flexural strength result obtained, it is clearly seen that 40 wt% loading of kenaf fiber and treatment with 0.4 wt% concentration of stearic acid give the highest value at 72 MPa and flexural modulus at 3929 MPa.

  15. Effect of Chemical Treatment on Mechanical and Water-Sorption Properties Coconut Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester from Recycled PET

    OpenAIRE

    Munirah Abdullah, Nurul; Ahmad, Ishak

    2012-01-01

    Coconut fibers were used as reinforcement for unsaturated polyester resin from recycled PET that has been prepared using glycolysis and polyesterification reaction. Various concentrations of alkali, silane, and silane on alkalized fiber were applied and the optimum concentration of treatments was determined. Morphological and mechanical properties of the composite have also been investigated to study the effect of fiber surface treatment. The influence of water uptake on the sorption characte...

  16. Study Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Material Based on Unsaturated Polyester with Clay Modified by Poly(ethylene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duy Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, polymer clay nanocomposites have been attracting considerable interests in polymers science because of their advantages. There are many scientists who researched about this kind of material and demonstrated that when polymer matrix was added to little weight of clay, properties were enhanced considerably. Because clay is a hydrophilic substance so it is difficult to use as filler in polymer matrix having hydrophobic nature, so clay needs to be modified to become compatible with polymer. In this study, poly(ethylene oxide was used as a new modifier for clay to replace some traditional ionic surfactants such as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary alkyl ammonium or alkylphosphonium cations having the following disadvantages: disintegrate at high temperature, catalyze polymer degradation, and make nanoproducts colorific, and so forth. In order to evaluate modifying effect of poly(ethylene oxide, modified clay products were characterize d by X-ray spectrum. Then organoclay was used to prepare nanocomposite based on unsaturated polyester. Morphology and properties of nanocomposites were measure d by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, tensile strength, and thermal stability. The results showed that clay galleries changed to intercalated state in the nanocomposites. Properties of nanocomposites were improved a lot when the loading of the organoclay was used at 1 phr.

  17. Surface coatings of unsaturated polyester resin Kamper wood (Dry obalan ops spp.) by using UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto Danu; Yusuf Sudo Hadi; Novi Eka Putri

    1999-01-01

    Kamper wood (Dryobalanops spp.) has high contribution in wood working industry and most of them need surface coating process. Radiation curing of surface coating, especially the use of ultra-violet (UV) light have potential to give contribution in the wood finishing. The experiment on surface coating of kamper wood has been conducted by using UV-radiation. Unsaturated polyester resin with the commercial name of Yucalac type 157 was used as coating materials after being added with styrene monomer, some fillers and radical photoinitiator of 2-hydroxy-2-2-methyl-l- phenyl propanone. Four photoinitiator concentration levels of 1.5 ; 2 ; 2.5 and 3 % by weight of resin were used. The coating materials were coated onto the wood panel samples by using high pressure sprayer. The wood samples were then exposed to irradiation by using 80 Watts/cm UV-source with variable conveyor speed of 3 ; 4 ; 5 and 5.8 m/min. Formulation of coating materials, pendulum hardness, adhesion, and gloss of cured films were evaluated

  18. Tensile properties of chrome tanned leather waste short fibre filled unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Satariah; Romli, Ahmad Zafir; Saad, Siti Zaleha

    2017-12-01

    Waste leather from industries was commonly disposed via land filling or incineration where the oxidation of Cr III to Cr VI by oxidants (such as peroxides and hypohalide) can easily occur. Cr VI is well known as carcinogenic and mutagenic element where the excessive exposure to this element can be very harmful. As an alternative way, the leather waste from footwear industry was utilised as filler in unsaturated polyester composite (UPC). The leather waste was ground using 0.25 mm mesh size and used without any chemical treatment. The sample was fabricated via castingtechnique and the study was carried out at 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 3 wt% filler loading. The leather waste filled composites showed lower tensile strength and Young's modulus than the unfilled composite. The increasing loading amount of leather waste led to the decreased in tensile strength and Young's modulus. The tensile results was supported by the decreasing pattern of density result which indicates the increasing of void content as the filler loading increased. The results of glass transition temperature are also parallel to the tensile properties where the increasing filler loading had decreased the glass transition temperature. Based on the morphological observation on the fractured tensile sample, much severe filler agglomerations and higher amount of voids was observed at higher filler loading compared to the lower filler loading.

  19. Effect of cuprous oxide with different sizes on thermal and combustion behaviors of unsaturated polyester resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanbei; Hu, Weizhao; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2017-07-15

    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) as an effective catalyst has been applied to enhance the fire safety of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR), but the particle size influence on combustion behaviors has not been previously reported. Herein, the UPR/Cu 2 O composites (metal oxide particles with average particle-size of 10, 100, and 200nm) were successfully synthesized by thermosetting process. The effects of Cu 2 O with different sizes on thermostability and combustion behaviors of UPR were characterized by TGA, MCC, TG-IR, FTIR, and SSTF. The results revel that the addition of Cu 2 O contributes to sufficient decomposition of oxygen-containing compounds, which is beneficial to the release of nontoxic compounds. The smallest-sized Cu 2 O performs the excellent catalytic decomposition effect and promotes the complete combustion of UPR, which benefits the enhancement of fire safety. While the other additives retard pyrolysis process and yield more char residue, and thus the flame retardancy of UPR composites was improved. Therefore, catalysis plays a major role for smaller-sized particles during thermal decomposition of matrix, while flame retarded effect became gradual distinctly for the larger-sized additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of interaction between pre-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes and unsaturated polyester resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M. D. H., E-mail: dhbeg@yahoo.com; Moshiul Alam, A. K. M., E-mail: akmmalam@gmail.com; Yunus, R. M. [Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering (Malaysia); Mina, M. F. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics (Bangladesh)

    2015-01-15

    Efforts are being given to the development of well-dispersed nanoparticle-reinforced polymer nanocomposites in order to tailor the material properties. In this perspective, well dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was prepared using pre-dispersed MWCNTs in tetrahydrofuran solvent with ultrasonication method. Then the well-dispersed MWCNTs reinforced UPR nanocomposites were fabricated through solvent evaporation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicates a good interaction between matrix and MWCNTs. This along with homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes in matrix has been confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy. At low shear rate, the value of viscosity of UPR is 8,593 mPa s and that of pre-dispersed MWCNT–UPR suspension is 43,491 mPa s, showing implicitly a good dispersion of nanotubes. A notable improvement in the crystallinity of UPR from 14 to 21 % after MWCNTs inclusion was observed by X-ray diffractometry. The mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact strength, and elongation-at-break, of nanocomposite were found to be increased to 22, 20, 28, and 87 %, respectively. The estimated melting enthalpy per gram for composites as analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry is higher than that of UPR. The onset temperature of thermal decomposition in the nanocomposites as monitored by thermogravimetric analysis is found higher than that of UPR. Correlations among MWCNTs dispersion, nucleation, fracture morphology, and various properties were measured and reported.

  1. Contribution To Degradation Study, Behavior Of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Under Neutron Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellache, D.; Lounis, A.; Taïbi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Applications of unsaturated polyester thermosetting resins are numerous in construction sector, in transport, electric spare parts manufactures, consumer goods, and anticorrosive materials. This survey reports the effect of thermosetting polymer degradation (unsaturated polyester): degradation by neutrons irradiation. In order to evaluate the deterioration of our material, some comparative characterizations have been done between standard samples and damaged ones. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultrasonic scanning, hardness test (Shore D) are the techniques which have been used. The exposure to a neutrons flux is carried out in the column of the nuclear research reactor of Draria (Algiers-Algeria). The energetic profile of the incidental fluxes is constituted of fast neutrons (ΦR = 3.1012n.cm-2.s-1, E = 2 Mev) of thermal neutrons (ΦTH = 1013n.cm-2.s-1; E = 0.025 ev) and epithermal neutrons (Φepi = 7.1011 n.cm-2.s-1; E>4,9 ev). The received dose flow is 0,4 Kgy. We notice only a few scientific investigations can be found in this field. In comparison with the standard sample (no exposed) it is shown that the damage degree is an increasing process with the exposure. Concerning the description of irradiation effects on polymers, we can advance that several reactions are in competition : reticulation, chain break, and oxidation by radical mechanism. In our case the incidental particle of high energy fast neutrons whose energy is greater or equal to 2 Mev, is braked by the target with a nuclear shock during which the incidental particle transmits a part of its energy to an atom. If the energy transfer is sufficient, the nuclear shock permits to drive out an atom of its site the latter will return positioning interstitially, the energy that we used oversteps probably the energy threshold (displacement energy). This fast neutrons collision with target cores proceeds to an indirect ionization by the preliminary creation of excited secondary species that will

  2. Unsaturated polyester/expanded polystyrene composite : thermal characteristics and flame retardancy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Syed Mustafa, S. A.; Norizan, Mohd N.; Amerudin, L. S.

    2017-07-01

    Panels for energy efficient buildings has to meet certain requirements such as low thermal conductivity and inherent flame retardancy characteristics, before being eligible for buildings and construction applications. Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as waste material had been incorporated as filler in Unsaturated Polyester Resin (UPR) composites. The composite are fabricated as flat panel window or glazing to replace glass. In this study, different EPS content incorporated was found to affect flammability and thermal characteristics. Core additives such as Flame Retardant (FR) and Antioxidant (AO) were added to the composite for imparting flame retardancy and prevent aging of the composite. The result obtained via the comparison of the various composite systems studied had revealed that organic and metal oxide flame retardant (FR) additives imparts higher flame retardancy levels than others, but each type of additives had interacted with the polymeric matrixes differently. The thermal conductivity, k value, as measured from a handheld thermal probe had showed a minimum of ~0.124 W/m.K for the 1%wt zinc oxide sample, while the highest k value of ~0.280 W/m.K was exhibited by the 2%wt tin oxide sample. The first 1%wt of either metal oxide FR initially decreases both the thermal conductivity, k value; and volumetric specific heat, Cp,v of the samples. At 2%wt, increases in k value were obtained. The flammability was reduced with the use of organic Phosphate Ester FR, which had reduced the flame speed to about 37.1% of the original flame speed. With the equivalent mixture of all three organic FR system, the flammability reduced less than 30%, while the metal oxide FR additive doesn't reduces the flammability.

  3. The relationship between hardness to the tensile properties of kenaf/ unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaztar, Muhammad Mustakim Mohd; Romli, Ahmad Zafir; Ibrahim, Nik Noor Idayu Nik

    2017-12-01

    The level of fibre-matrix interaction and consolidation are essential aspects to determine the composite deformation but, less attention is given to the effect of small fibre weight increment (5 wt%), chemical treatment coalition (NaOH/ silane), fibre's length and aspect ratio to the physical and mechanical properties of the composite. Hence, this paper studies the correlation between these parameters towards hardness and tensile properties of Kenaf fibre and unsaturated polyester (UP) matrix. The study was carried out by fabricating the sample into two (2) types of fibre categories and fibre loadings and tested to determine its properties. The results showed that the hardness and tensile stress were significantly influenced by the fibre loading and dispersion of the fabricated samples. At low filler loading, the treated samples for both fibre sizes showed lower hardness property compared to the untreated samples. The chemical treatment coalition might diffuse out the pectin and hemicellulose which affect the ability of the fibre to absorb the force applied by the hardness indenter. Good fibre dispersion observed for the treated samples also resulted in the fibre-dominating composite system where the fibres were efficiently absorbed and distributed the indentation force. However, chemical treatments and good fibre dispersion contributed to the higher tensile stress of the treated fibre samples especially for smaller fibre length and aspect ratio compared to the untreated samples. At high fibre loading, treated fibre samples showed higher hardness property compared to the untreated samples since the treatment resulted in better fibre wetting by the matrix and the formation of pack structure. However, high fibre loading caused the mutual abrasion among the fibre which led to the lower tensile stress compared to the low fibre loading samples. In conclusion, by understanding the factors that influenced the reinforcing mechanism of the composite, the inconsistency of

  4. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of unsaturated aliphatic polyesters based on green monomers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Woortman, Albert J J; van Ekenstein, Gert O R Alberda; Loos, Katja

    2013-08-12

    Bio-based commercially available succinate, itaconate and 1,4-butanediol are enzymatically co-polymerized in solution via a two-stage method, using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB, in immobilized form as Novozyme® 435) as the biocatalyst. The chemical structures of the obtained products, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-itaconate) (PBSI), are confirmed by 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of the reaction conditions on the CALB-catalyzed synthesis of PBSI are fully investigated, and the optimal polymerization conditions are obtained. With the established method, PBSI with tunable compositions and satisfying reaction yields is produced. The 1H-NMR results confirm that carbon-carbon double bonds are well preserved in PBSI. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicate that the amount of itaconate in the co-polyesters has no obvious effects on the glass-transition temperature and the thermal stability of PBS and PBSI, but has significant effects on the melting temperature.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of UPR/ LNR/ Glass Fiber Composite by using Unsaturated Polyester Resin (PET) from PET Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Farhana Hisham; Ishak Ahmad; Rusli Daik

    2011-01-01

    UPR/ LNR/ glass fibre composite had been prepared by using unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) based from recycled PET product. PET waste was recycled by glycolysis process and the glycides product was then reacted with maleic anhydride to produce unsaturated polyester resin. The preparation of UPR/ LNR blends were conducted by varying the amount of LNR addition to the resin ranging from 0-7.5 % (wt). The composition of UPR/LNR blend with good mechanical properties had been selected as a matrix of the glass fiber reinforced composite. Glass fibre was also treated by (3-Amino propil)triethoxysilane as a coupling agent. From the result, the addition of 2.5 % LNR in UPR had showed the optimum mechanical and morphological properties where the elastomer particle's were well dispersed in the matrix with smaller size. The silane treatment on the glass fiber increased the tensile and impact strength values of the UPR/ LNR/ GF composite compared to untreated fiber reinforcement. (author)

  6. Synthesis of unsaturated polyesters for improved interfacial strength in carbon fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamstedt, E.K.; Skrifvars, M.; Jacobsen, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon fibres are gaining use as reinforcement in glass fibre/polyester composites for increased stiffness as a hybrid composite. The mechanics and chemistry of the carbon fibre–polyester interface should be addressed to achieve an improvement also in fatigue performance and off-axis strength...... of chemical bonding of the double bonds in the polymer to the functional groups of the carbon fibre surface....

  7. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Vinyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, H. S.; Panchal, K. K.; Patel, S. R.; Desai, S. N.

    2004-01-01

    Novel unsaturated poly (ester- amide) resins (UPEAs) were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA) and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Vinyl acetate (VA) to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-VA resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator for the radical polymerization and was monitored by using ...

  8. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Vinyl Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel unsaturated poly (ester- amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Vinyl acetate (VA to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-VA resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO as an initiator for the radical polymerization and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The glass fibre reinforced composites (i.e. laminates of these UPEA-VA resin blends were fabricated using the DSC data. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre composites have also been evaluated. The unreinforced cured samples of the UPEA-VA resin blends were also analyzed by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  9. Effect of Addition Reclaimed Rubber on Some Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massar Najim Obaid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is the use of Reclaimed Rubber as Reinforcement Material by simple method. The composite Material was prepared by adding different percent from the powder of Reclaimed Rubber (0 – 25 % to study the effect of this material on some properties of polyester. The tests are used in this research (hardness, impact force , bending strength, tensile strength, modulus and strain. The results have showed that decreased hardness (from 34.9 to 28.9 shoreD, and increased impact force (from 0.2 to 0.79 Joule, and also increase bending strength(from 60.1 to 120.7Mpa ,increase tensile strength (from 27.052 to 32.5Mpa, raised modulus (from33.73 to 77.38Mpa and decrease strain (from 0.804 to 0.42%.

  10. Kinetics and isotherm analysis of Tropaeoline 000 adsorption onto unsaturated polyester resin (UPR): a non-carbon adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev; Sharma, Pooja; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2013-03-01

    The presence of dyes in water is undesirable due to the toxicological impact of their entrance into the food chain. Owing to the recalcitrant nature of dyes to biological oxidation, a tertiary treatment like adsorption is required. In the present study, unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) has been used as a sorbent in the treatment of dye-contaminated water. Different concentrations of Tropaeoline 000 containing water were treated with UPR. The preliminary investigations were carried out by batch adsorption to examine the effects of pH, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature. A plausible mechanism for the ongoing adsorption process and thermodynamic parameters have also been obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Tropaeoline 000 onto activated carbon (AC) and UPR were feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic under studied conditions. The estimated values for (ΔG) are -10.48 × 10(3) and -6.098 × 10(3) kJ mol(-1) over AC and UPR at 303 K (30 °C), indicating towards a spontaneous process. The adsorption process followed pseudo-first-order model. The mass transfer property of the sorption process was studied using Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetic models. The values of % removal and k (ad) for dye systems were calculated at different temperatures (303-323 K). The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model.

  11. Proton-Transfer Polymerization by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Monomer and Catalyst Scopes and Mechanism for Converting Dimethacrylates into Unsaturated Polyesters

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Miao

    2016-01-18

    This contribution presents a full account of experimental and theoretical/computational investigations into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed proton-transfer polymerization (HTP) that converts common dimethacrylates (DMAs) containing no protic groups into unsaturated polyesters. This new HTP proceeds through the step-growth propagation cycles via enamine intermediates, consisting of the proposed conjugate addition–proton transfer–NHC release fundamental steps. This study examines the monomer and catalyst scopes as well as the fundamental steps involved in the overall HTP mechanism. DMAs having six different types of linkages connecting the two methacrylates have been polymerized into the corresponding unsaturated polyesters. The most intriguing unsaturated polyester of the series is that based on the biomass-derived furfuryl dimethacrylate, which showed a unique self-curing ability Four MeO– and Cl–substituted TPT (1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene) derivatives as methanol insertion products, RxTPT(MeO/H) (R = MeO, Cl; x = 2, 3), and two free carbenes (catalysts), OMe2TPT and OMe3TPT, have been synthesized, while OMe2TPT(MeO/H) and OMe2TPT have also been structurally characterized. The structure/reactivity relationship study revealed that OMe2TPT, being both a strong nucleophile and a good leaving group, exhibits the highest HTP activity and also produced the polyester with the highest Mn, while the Cl–substituted TPT derivatives are least active and efficient. Computational studies have provided mechanistic insights into the tail-to-tail dimerization coupling step as a suitable model for the propagation cycle of the HTP. The extensive energy profile was mapped out and the experimentally observed unicity of the TPT-based catalysts was satisfactorily explained with the thermodynamic formation of key spirocyclic species.

  12. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  13. Study of the effect of surface treatment of kenaf fiber on chemical structure and water absorption of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, I. A. S.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Betar, B. O.; Adam, T.; Mohammed, M.; Mohammed, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this research, unsaturated polyester/kenaf fiber (UP/KF) composites was prepared by using hand lay-up process. The effect of surface treatment of kenaf fiber on mechanical properties of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester composites were studied. Different concentrationsof stearic acid (SA) were applied, i.e. 0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of kenaf fiber shows high intensity of the peak around 3300-3400 cm-1, which is attributed to the hydrogen bonded O-H stretching. However, the treated kenaf fiber with stearic acid shows the elimination of O-H group and this peak is vanished. This is due to the reaction of (-COOH) group of stearic with (-OH) group of kenaf fiber. The results of water absorption study revealed that increasing the loading of KF in the composite will result is increasing the tendency to absorb water. However, the absorption was significantly decreased after treatment with stearic acid as well as the time to reach to the equilibrium state.

  14. Volatilization of Toxic alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Compounds During Activated Sludge Treatment of Polyester Manufacturing Industry Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Caffaro, RA; Grossman, MJ; Durrant, LR

    2011-01-01

    Polyester manufacturing wastewater consists of water formed as a coproduct of step-growth polymerization reactions, typically performed between diols and dicarboxylic acids. Due to the solubility of the reactants and byproducts of polymerization, the wastewater is typically heavily contaminated and can possess considerable toxicity that can strongly inhibit biological wastewater treatment processes. However, very little has been published on the treatment of wastewater produced during polyest...

  15. D.C.-electrical conductivity as a method for monitoring radiation curing of unsaturated polyester resins. Pt. 2: Influence of electrical field and dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucic, I.; Ranogajec, F.

    1996-01-01

    The course of radiation cross linking of unsaturated polyester resins was followed by measuring electrical conductivity change. Both the electrical field strength and dose rate influenced the crosslinking. The electrical field somewhat increased the reaction rate possibly due to the orientation of a polar polyester chains. To investigate the effect of electrical field, the samples were irradiated to different doses at different field strengths, from 2.5 to 250 kV/m and then extracted in benzene to determine the extent of crosslinking. The extraction analysis of irradiated samples confirmed the influence of electrical field observed in conductivity measurements. The electrical field effect depended on the dose rate. Three dose rates were applied 3.05, 0.354 and 0.096 kGy/h. The medium dose rate gave the highest reaction rate (on dose scale). Faster decrease of free styrene content with radiation dose than increase of gel content at higher dose rate implies partial styrene grafting or homopolymerization. The higher the electrical field, the more pronounced were the effects of dose rate. (Author)

  16. A Study on Tensile Behavior and Water Uptake of Wood Powder-Composites Based on Epoxy and Unsaturated Polyester Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Amir hossein Pirayeshfar; M.Mahdi Jalili; Yahya Musavi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two kinds of epoxy resins (i.e. high-viscosity and low-viscosity) as well as one polyester resin (orthophthalic grade) were selected and examined as pure resins and also as a polymeric matrix for producing wood-composites. In this study, tensile properties, water uptake, and degradation of samples in water were also investigated. The results show that addition of wood particles to the thermoset resins strongly impresses on their tensile behavior and water uptake. Tensile studie...

  17. A Study on Tensile Behavior and Water Uptake of Wood Powder-Composites Based on Epoxy and Unsaturated Polyester Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir hossein Pirayeshfar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two kinds of epoxy resins (i.e. high-viscosity and low-viscosity as well as one polyester resin (orthophthalic grade were selected and examined as pure resins and also as a polymeric matrix for producing wood-composites. In this study, tensile properties, water uptake, and degradation of samples in water were also investigated. The results show that addition of wood particles to the thermoset resins strongly impresses on their tensile behavior and water uptake. Tensile studies show that addition of wood powder improves the tensile properties of polyester resin as compared with viscosity epoxy one, although its modulus value is relatively less than that of low viscosity epoxy resin. Water uptake measurements also revealed that pure polyester resin and its related composites possess minimum water uptake and less degradation in water as compared with corresponding epoxy specimens and from which the lowest extent of materials is extracted and migrated to the water even after 50 days immersion in water.

  18. Colour interceptions, thermal stability and surface morphology of polyester metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdy, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Chelating copolymers via grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) and acrylamide (AAm/AAc) comonomer mixture onto polyester micro fiber fabrics (PETMF) using gamma-radiation technique were prepared. The prepared graft chains (PETMF-g-AAc) and (PETMF-g-PAAc/PAAm) acted as chelating sites for some selected transition metal ions. The prepared graft copolymers and their metal complexes were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), colour parameters and surface morphology measurements. The colour interception and strength measurements showed that the metal complexation is homogeneously distributed. The results showed that the thermal stability of PETMF was improved after graft copolymerization and metal complexes. Moreover, the degree of grafting enhanced the thermal stability values of the grafted and complexed copolymers up to 25% of magnitude, on the other hand the activation energy of the grafted-copolymer with acrylic acid increased up to 80%. The SEM observation gives further supports to the homogenous distribution of grafting and metal complexation

  19. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  20. Optimization of mixing process and effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on tensile properties of unsaturated polyester resin in composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Van-Tho; Yum, Young-Jin [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were mixed with Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) using the stir method at high temperatures. The mixing temperature and hardener ratio were optimized based on compression properties and the exothermic temperature. In the experiment, 60 °C and 1 wt.% of Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) were chosen for the mixing condition and catalyst concentration, respectively. MWCNTs with different weight fractions (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 wt.%) were dispersed to investigate the effect of MWCNTs on tensile properties of the UPR, and it was found that 0.1 wt.% of MWCNTs showed the best performance in this range of fiber weight fraction due to a higher strength (42.14 %), modulus (14.33 %) and fracture strain (37.17 %) than pure UPR. The state of dispersion and arrangement of fibers were examined by a Field emission Scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) according to fracture surfaces. Similarly, the FE-SEM also showed better results with 0.1 wt.% of MWCNTs mixed in the UPR.

  1. Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1997-04-01

    Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media.

  2. Aromatic Polyester-Polysiloxane Block Copolymers: Multiphase Transparent Damping Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-02

    45 Direct Esterification............49 Transeterification.............51 Methods Involving Diacid Chlorides . . . . 53 Lactone Polymerization...include plasticizers and interme- diates for polyurethane elastomers, foams, and spandex fibers. Unsaturated polyesters are the most comon polymers...initiators, is 45 thus a vinyl copolymerization between the unsaturated polyester and the solvent monomer. Further details concern- ing unsaturated

  3. Influence of weathering effect in natural environment on thermal properties hybrid kenaf blast/glass fibre and unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Beta, B. O.; Adam, T.; Osman, A. F.; Salem, I. A. S.; Dahham, O. S.; Al-Samarrai, M. N.; Mohammed, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    Unprecedented growing on environmental concern has put research on completive driven effort to quest for new material in various application, the effort toward producing thermally stable polymer is ever gaining considerable interest. Thus, this study proposed the integration of glass fiber with kenaf based polymer to improve thermal properties. Based on the TGA and DSC results, the composites show slow and steady initial weight loss until major weight loss at 360°C. Thus, with incorporation of glass fiber extend region of degradation until 260-360 °Cshow no exothermic or endothermic changes, this reflected that the composites thermally stability have been improved.

  4. Synthesis variables effect on TiO2/polyester fabrics photoactivity and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Castro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 coatings on fabric samples were obtained by immersion of 9cm2 of commercial polyester in a TiO2-SiO2 suspension. This suspension was prepared by adding TiO2 P25 to a silica matrix obtained from the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between the immersion time of the fabric on the photocatalytic activity and stability of the coating against several cycles of use and washing. Obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR. Evaluation of modified fabrics was performed by self-disinfection tests under 250W/m2 of simulated sunlight using E. coli as model bacteria. In general, all modified fabrics (except that obtained at 2h immersion time inactivated bacteria in less than 120min and its regrowth was prevented for at least 24h after the disinfection tests. It was determined that low immersion time (3-4h lead to active and stable fabrics to 3 cycles of use and washing, whereas higher immersion times (12h lead to more active but unstable fabrics.

  5. Squalene mono-oxygenase, a key enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, is stabilized by unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Julian; Luu, Winnie; Kristiana, Ika; Brown, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    SM (squalene mono-oxygenase) catalyses the first oxygenation step in cholesterol synthesis, immediately before the formation of the steroid backbone at lanosterol. SM is an important control point in the pathway, and is regulated at the post-translational level by accelerated cholesterol-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, which is associated with the accumulation of squalene. Using model cell systems, we report that SM is stabilized by unsaturated fatty acids. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acids such as oleate, but not saturated fatty acids, increased protein levels of SM or SM-N100-GFP (the first 100 amino acids of SM fused to GFP) at the post-translational level and partially overcame cholesterol-dependent degradation, as well as reversing cholesterol-dependent squalene accumulation. Maximum stabilization required activation of fatty acids, but not triacylglycerol or phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The mechanism of oleate-mediated stabilization appeared to occur through reduced ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6. Stabilization of a cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme by unsaturated fatty acids may help maintain a constant cholesterol/phospholipid ratio.

  6. Effect of poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer and two different poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers on morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructured unsaturated polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes, Daniel H; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; Corcuera, Ma Angeles; Mondragon, Iñaki; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2014-01-22

    Novel nanostructured unsaturated polyester resin-based thermosets, modified with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and two poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymers (BCP), were developed and analyzed. The effects of molecular weights, blocks ratio, and curing temperatures on the final morphological, optical, and mechanical properties were reported. The block influence on the BCP miscibility was studied through uncured and cured mixtures of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins with PEO and PPO homopolymers having molecular weights similar to molecular weights of the blocks of BCP. The final morphology of the nanostructured thermosetting systems, containing BCP or homopolymers, was investigated, and multiple mechanisms of nanostructuration were listed and explained. By considering the miscibility of each block before and after curing, it was determined that the formation of the nanostructured matrices followed a self-assembly mechanism or a polymerization-induced phase separation mechanism. The miscibility between PEO or PPO blocks with one of two phases of UP matrix was highlighted due to its importance in the final thermoset properties. Relationships between the final morphology and thermoset optical and mechanical properties were examined. The mechanisms and physics behind the morphologies lead toward the design of highly transparent, nanostructured, and toughened thermosetting UP systems.

  7. Biodegradable polyesters based on succinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marija S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two series of aliphatic polyesters based on succinic acid were synthesized by copolymerization with adipic acid for the first series of saturated polyesters, and with fumaric acid for the second series. Polyesters were prepared starting from the corresponding dimethyl esters and 1,4-butanediol by melt transesterification in the presence of a highly effective catalyst tetra-n-butyl-titanate, Ti(0Bu4. The molecular structure and composition of the copolyesters was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The effect of copolymer composition on the physical and thermal properties of these random polyesters were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The degree of crystallinity was determined by DSC and wide angle X-ray. The degrees of crystallinity of the saturated and unsaturated copolyesters were generally reduced with respect to poly(butylene succinate, PBS. The melting temperatures of the saturated polyesters were lower, while the melting temperatures of the unsaturated copolyesters were higher than the melting temperature of PBS. The biodegradability of the polyesters was investigated by enzymatic degradation tests. The enzymatic degradation tests were performed in a buffer solution with Candida cylindracea lipase and for the unsaturated polyesters with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. The extent of biodegradation was quantified as the weight loss of polyester films. Also the surface of the polyester films after degradation was observed using optical microscopy. It could be concluded that the biodegradability depended strongly on the degree of crystallinity, but also on the flexibility of the chain backbone. The highest biodegradation was observed for copolyesters containing 50 mol.% of adipic acid units, and in the series of unsaturated polyesters for copolyesters containing 5 and 10 mol.% of fumarate units. Although the degree of crystallinity of the unsaturated polyesters decreased slightly with increasing unsaturation, the biodegradation

  8. Proton-transfer polymerization (HTP): converting methacrylates to polyesters by an N-heterocyclic carbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Miao; Chen, Eugene Y-X

    2014-10-27

    A new polymerization termed proton (H)-transfer polymerization (HTP) has been developed to convert dimethacrylates to unsaturated polyesters. HTP is catalyzed by a selective N-heterocyclic carbene capable of promoting intermolecular Umpolung condensation through proton transfer and proceeds through the step-growth propagation cycles via enamine intermediates. The role of the added suitable phenol, which is critical for achieving an effective HTP, is twofold: shutting down the radically induced chain-growth addition polymerization under HTP conditions (typically at 80-120 °C) and facilitating proton transfer after each monomer enchainment. The resulting unsaturated polyesters have a high thermal stability and can be readily cross-linked to robust polyester materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Rainfall induced stability on the basis of unsaturated effective stress principle for Busan landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seboong; Achmad Zaky, Fauzi; Ko, Jae Young; Lee, Jaewoo

    2017-04-01

    Heavy rainfall-induced landslide is one of major climatic problems in Korea. This study reports infiltration and stability analyses on both actual failure and non-failure areas. Three out of eight areas in Busan have been recognized to experience actual failure due to prolonged precipitation. Using the stochastic rainfall intensity, the measured hydromechanical properties, and the prescribed initial conditions, the one-dimensional infiltration model assessed the infiltration behavior in unsaturated conditions for 24 hours. To examine the stability of shallow layers, infinite slope model was conducted using generalized effective stress framework based on transient infiltration analysis. The failures could be simulated as time dependent variation of both saturation and pore water pressure, and time dependent reduction of factor of safety into 1.0. It is also shown that the transient infiltration and stability analyses can reconstruct failure events under the generalized effective stress framework. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by grant from Korean NRF (2015R1A2A2A01003933), which are greatly appreciated.

  10. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  11. Double dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma-assisted deposition of chemical stabilized nanoparticles on polyamide 6,6 and polyester fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Modic, M.; Cvelbar, U.; Dinescu, G.; Mitu, B.; Nikiforov, A.; Leys, C.; Kuchakova, I.; Vanneste, M.; Heyse, P.; De Vrieze, M.; Carneiro, N.; Souto, A. P.; Zille, A.

    2017-10-01

    The development of new multifunctional textiles containing nanoparticles (NPs) has a special interest in several applications for pharmaceutical and medical products. Cu, Zn and Ag are the most promising antimicrobial NPs, exhibiting strong antibacterial activities. However, most of antimicrobial textiles coated with NPs are not able to perform a controlled release of NPs because of the high degree of aggregation. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of NPs stabilizers such as citrate, alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in Cu, Zn and Ag NPs dispersions. The obtained dispersions were used to develop a new class of antibacterial NPs coatings onto polyamide 6,6 (PA66) and polyester fabrics (PES) by Double Dielectric Barrier (DBD) plasma discharge. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to evaluate the best dispersing agent in terms of size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Coating efficiency was evaluated by SEM, XPS and FTIR. The washing fastness of the coatings developed was also tested. The results show that the best dispersions were obtained using 2.5% of citrate for ZnO, 5% Alginate for Cu and 2.5% alginate for Ag NPs. SEM, XPS and FTIR analysis shows that DBD is an efficient deposition technique only for Ag and Cu NPs and that better perform in PA66 than PES fabric. The DBD deposition in air display similar results in term of NPS deposition of usually more efficient plasma jets using carrier gas such as N2 and Ar.

  12. Radiation processed composite materials of wood and elastic polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapolcai, I.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation polymerization of multifunctional unsaturated polyester-monomer mixtures in wood forms interpenetrating network system. The mechanical resistance (compression, abrasion, hardness, etc.) of these composite materials are generally well over the original wood, however the impact strength is almost the same or even reduced, in comparison to the wood itself. An attempt is made using elastic polyester resins to produced wood-polyester composite materials with improved modulus of elasticity and impact properties. For the impregnation of European beech wood two types of elastic unsaturated polyester resins were used. The exothermic effect of radiation copolymerization of these resins in wood has been measured and the dose rate effects as well as hardening dose was determined. Felxural strength and impact properties were examined. Elastic unsaturated polyester resins improved the impact strength of wood composite materials. (author)

  13. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride Tedlar® bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jo, Sang-Hee; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong Ryeul; Parker, David B

    2012-01-27

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar(®)) bags for gaseous VOC sampling. Eight VOC standards (benzene, toluene, p-xylene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, and isobutyl alcohol) were placed into each bag at storage times of 0, 2, and 3 days prior to analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From each bag representing each storage day, samples of 3 different mass loadings were withdrawn and analyzed to derive response factors (RF) of each chemical between the slope of the GC response (y-axis) vs. loaded mass (x-axis). The relative recoveries (RR) of VOC, if derived by dividing RF value of a given storage day by that of 0 day, varied by time, bag type, and VOC type. If the RR values after three days are compared, those of methyl isobutyl ketone were the highest with 96 (PVF) and 99% (PEA); however, the results of isobutyl alcohol were highly contrasting between the two bags with 31 and 94%, respectively. Differences in RR values between the two bag types increased with storage time, such that RR of PEA bags (88±10%) were superior to those of PVF bags (73±22%) after three days, demonstrating that VOC in PEA bags were more stable than in PVF bags. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structures of mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols. IV. The highest melting β'-2 polymorphs of trans-mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols and related saturated TAGs and their polymorphic stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, J.B.; Peschar, R.; Schenk, H.

    2008-01-01

    The β1'-2 crystal structures of a series of mixed-chain saturated and trans-mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols containing palmitoyl, stearoyl and elaidoyl acyl chains have been solved from high-resolution powder diffraction data, from synchrotron as well as laboratory X-ray sources. The structures

  15. Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyester resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%. (author)

  16. Procedure for the fabrication of a cross-linked polyester material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alelio, G.F.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures are described for the production of a cross-linked polyester material by means of the irradiation of a radiosensitive polyester with a dose of over 0.5 megarad and under 8 megarads high energy, ionising radiation, corresponding to at least 100,000 ev. The polyester is of the telomerised diacrylpolyester type, and may be in a mixture containing about 1% of a coplymerisable aliphatic monomer, or about 30-90% of an unsaturated aliphatic alkyd resin. (JIW)

  17. Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja, Samantha Siqueira; Conceição, Leyvison Rafael V. da; Costa, Carlos E.F. da; Zamian, José R.; Rocha Filho, Geraldo N. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We obtained biodiesel from açai, cupuaçu, passion fruit and linseed oil. • Determined the properties of biodiesel, such as kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability. • Evaluated the influence of antioxidants on biodiesel. • The PG antioxidant was more efficient than BHA and TBHQ for the açaí biodiesel. - Abstract: In the present paper, methyl esters were obtained from the transesterification of cupuaçu fat lipids (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) (K. Schum.), açaí (Euterpe oleracea), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oils, using a basic catalyst. The triglycerides were characterized by their fatty acid composition, and the biodiesels were characterized according to standard methods. The critical properties, such as the cold filter plugging point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability, of the biodiesels were studied. The influence of butyl-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants on the açaí, passion fruit and linseed biodiesels was evaluated at concentrations from 500 to 4000 ppm. PG was found to be the most efficient antioxidant for the studied biodiesels

  18. Stabilization of Nanosized TiO2 Particles on Knitted Cotton/Polyester Fabric by Citric Acid for Self-cleaning and Discoloration of Reactive Black 5 from Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid montazer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton/polyester knitted fabrics as a major production of textile industry was treated with titanium dioxide nanosized particles. The treated fabric with nanosized TiO2 became whiter with a good self-cleaning property. Also the discoloration of Reactive Black 5 dye was studied and reported. The stabilization of TiO2 on cotton/polyester knitted fabrics by citric acid (CA with sodium hypophosphate (SHP as a catalyst was also investigated. These samples showed a good self-cleaning property through discoloration of C.I. Direct Red 80. In addition, using CA in the presence of SHP, helped to stabilize the TiO2 nanosized particles on the fabric surface even after 10 washing cycles. The images of scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray mapping, EDX analyses confirmed the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles on the fabric surfaces even after 10 washing cycles.

  19. Sorção de agua em compósitos de poliéster insaturado reforçados com tecido de juta e juta/vidro modelagem, simulação e experimentação Water sorption in unsaturated polyester composites reinforced with jute and jute/glass fiber fabrics: modeling, simulation and experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma S. Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    , and premature failure of the system. This problem can be reduced by employing hybrid fiber weaved or knitted fabrics. This work is aimed at studying water sorption in composites of jute and jute/glass. The compression molded unsaturated polyester composites reinforced with jute fabric and a hybrid jute-glass fabric had the following weight compositions: a 26% jute/74% unsaturated polyester; and b 26% jute/32% glass roving/42% unsaturated polyester and dimensions of 20.00 × 20.00 × 2.30 mm³ and 20.00 × 20.00 × 2.82 mm³, respectively. A three-dimensional transient diffusion mathematical model was developed to predict mass transfer during water absorption. The mathematical formulation was numerically solved using a finite-volume method and an implicit interpolation scheme. The results of moisture content distribution inside these composites and water absorption kinetics are shown and analyzed. The knowledge of this moisture distribution allows verifying more favorable areas for delamination due to the weakness of the fiber-matrix interface and consequently reduction in the mechanical properties.

  20. Polyester-Solid Lipid Mixed Nanoparticles with Improved Stability in Gastro-Intestinal Tract Facilitated Oral Delivery of Larotaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jingxin; Feng, Shuangshuang; Liang, Yuheng; Fang, Guihua; Zhang, Haotian; Yin, Tian; Zhang, Yu; He, Haibing; Wang, Yanjiao; Tang, Xing

    2017-11-06

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of core stability of nanoparticles on their performances in oral drug delivery. Solid lipids (Geleol Mono and Diglycerides Nf) were incorporated into nanoparticles composed of mPEG-b-PCL by the dialysis method. The prepared solid lipid loaded nanoparticles were found to be spherical nanoparticles with a core state and size distribution dependent on the amount of solid lipid incorporated. The critical aggregation concentrations of lipid-loaded nanoparticles were determined using pyrene fluorescence. Then, the stability of block copolymer in nanoparticles with different solid lipid contents was studied in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid. Solid lipids were found to stabilize nanoparticle cores by improving not only the thermodynamic stability (lowered CAC) of the nanoparticle but also the chemical stability of the block copolymer in the gastrointestinal environment. The stability of the loaded drug (larotaxel, LTX) in nanoparticles with different solid lipid contents was challenged by intestinal homogenate and rat liver microsome, and solid lipid loaded nanoparticles showed superior drug-protecting capability. Solid lipid incorporation exhibited limited influence on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake but improved the transcytosis of nanoparticles in Caco-2 monolayers. The results of pharmacokinetic study indicated that core stabilization was helpful in promoting oral larotaxel absorption as the absolute bioavailability of LTX delivered by solid lipid loaded nanoparticles was found to be 13.17%, compared with that by the lipid-free nanoparticles (6.264%) and LTX solution (2.435%). Additionally, the results of biodistribution study indicated relatively higher particle integrity of solid lipid loaded nanoparticles, shown by slower liver and spleen accumulation rate, compared with its lipid-free counterpart. Overall, incorporation of solid lipids made the nanoparticles more suitable for oral

  1. Radiation effects on biodegradable polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Mitomo; Darmawan Darwis; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1999-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] are microbial biodegradable polyesters produced by many types of bacteria. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(E-caprolactone) (PCL) are also biodegradable synthetic polyesters which have been commercialized. These thermoplastics are expected for wide usage in environmental protection and blocompatible applications. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto many polymers, e.g., polyethylene and polypropylene has been studied mainly for biomedical applications. In the present study, radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto PHB and P(3HB-co-3HV) was carried out and improvement of their properties was studied. Changes in the properties and biodegradability were compared with the degree of grafting. Radiation-induced crosslinking of PBS and PCL which relatively show thermal and irradiation stability was also carried out to improve their thermal stability or processability. Irradiation to PBS and PCL mainly resulted in crosslinking and characterization of these crosslinked polyesters was investigated

  2. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from bis-(4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    More importantly, all these polyesters exhibited very large mesophase stability. Keywords. Liquid crystalline polyesters; thermotropic; interfacial polycondensation; rigid diol; dicarboxylic acid chloride. 1. Introduction. In the recent past, a branch of polymer chemistry, i.e., synthesis of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) has re-.

  3. Rheological Behavior of Bentonite-Polyester Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Omari, Salah Addin

    2013-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a bentonite clay dispersed in unsaturated polyester was investigated. The effects of the solid content and particle size on the steady and transient rheological properties of the dispersions were studied. In addition, two types of bentonite with different Na+/Ca+2 ratio were used in this study. The Herschel-Bulkley and the Weltman models were used to describe the apparent viscosity of the bentonite-polyester composite in relation to the shear rate and shearing time. The bentonite-polyester dispersions were found to exhibit both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. The transition from a Newtonian to a Bingham plastic and then to a shear-thinning material with a yield stress was found to depend on the solid concentration, the particle size, and the type of bentonite. At a low solid content, the apparent viscosity of the bentonite dispersion increased linearly with solid concentration. But a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity beyond a solid content of 20 wt.% was observed. On the other hand, a thixotropic behavior was detected in bentonite-polyester dispersions with a high solid content and a low particle size. However, this behavior was more pronounced in dispersions with a high Na+/Ca+2 ratio.

  4. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  5. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Compósitos de matriz poliéster reforçados por fibras curtas de sisal Tensile properties of unsaturated Polyester composites reinforced by short sisal fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruvilla Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades tênseis de compósitos de matriz poliéster, reforçados por fibras curtas de sisal foram determinadas em função do comprimento, teor e orientação das fibras. Os resultados mostram que, para os compósitos investigados, a resistência à tração aumentou com o comprimento das fibras (5 – 45 mm, atingiu um plateau (45 – 55 mm e então decresceu (55 – 75 mm enquanto os valores de módulo e de alongamento na ruptura não dependiam do comprimento das fibras. A resistência à tração dos compósitos aumentou com o teor de fibras até 50% em peso e, a partir daí, tendeu a decrescer. A resistência à tração de compósitos reforçados por fibras orientadas e testados longitudinalmente ao reforço foi 10 vezes maior do que a sua resistência transversal e 3 vezes maior do que a resistência de compósitos reforçados por fibras dispostas ao acaso.The tensile properties of short sisal fibre reinforced polyester composites as a function of fibre length, content and orientation were evaluated. The tensile strength of the composites increased with fibre lengths (5-45 mm, leveled off (45-55mm and then decreased (55-75mm. Modulus and elongation at break of the composites were insensitive to fibre length. The tensile strength of the composites increased with fibre contents up to 50% and then showed a decreasing trend. The longitudinal tensile strength of oriented composites was 10 times higher than its transverse strength and 3 times higher than those of randomly oriented composites.

  7. Effect of poly and mono-unsaturated fatty acids on stability and structure of recombinant S100A8/A9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Hamideh; Chegini, Koorosh Goodarzvand; Amini, Abbas; Gheibi, Nematollah

    2016-03-01

    Recombinant pET 15b vectors containing the coding sequences S100A8 and S100A9 are expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The structural changes of S100A8/A9 complex are analyzed upon interaction with poly/mono-unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). The thermodynamic values, Gibbs free energy and the protein melting point, are obtained through thermal denaturation of protein both with and without UFAs by thermal scanning of protein emission using the fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra show that all studied unsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic and oleic acids, induce changes in the secondary structure of S100A8/A9 by reducing the α-helix and β-sheet structures. The tertiary structure of S100A8/A9 has fluctuations in the fluorescence emission spectra after the incubation of protein with UFAs. The blue-shift of emission maximum wavelength and the increase in fluorescence intensity of anilino naphthalene-8-sulfonic acid confirm that the partial unfolding is caused by the conformational changes in the tertiary structure in the presence of UFAs. The structural changes in S100A8/A9 and its lower stability in the presence of UFAs may be necessary for S100A8/A9 to play a biological role in the inflammatory milieu. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes from thermophilic actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic actinomycetes produce enzymes capable of hydrolyzing synthetic polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In addition to carboxylesterases, which have hydrolytic activity predominantly against PET oligomers, esterases related to cutinases also hydrolyze synthetic polymers. The production of these enzymes by actinomycetes as well as their recombinant expression in heterologous hosts is described and their catalytic activity against polyester substrates is compared. Assays to analyze the enzymatic hydrolysis of synthetic polyesters are evaluated, and a kinetic model describing the enzymatic heterogeneous hydrolysis process is discussed. Structure-function and structure-stability relationships of actinomycete polyester hydrolases are compared based on molecular dynamics simulations and recently solved protein structures. In addition, recent progress in enhancing their activity and thermal stability by random or site-directed mutagenesis is presented. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  10. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  11. Polyester composites reinforced with corona-treated fibers from pine, eucalyptus and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to evaluate plant fibers that were surface activated with NaOH and corona discharge before incorporating in ortho unsaturated polyester-based fiber composites. It demonstrates the potential use of lignocellulosic particles, especially eucalyptus that presented the higher values for a...

  12. Some Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent emergence of nano science and nano technology has added another dimension to the staple of the modern composite technology. Instead of micron diameter fibres and particles, nano particles are being incorporated into polymer matrices to form a composite blend known as polymer nano composites (PNCs).

  13. some tensile properties of unsaturated polyester resin reinforced wi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    large improvement in physical and mechanical properties. Literature survey shows that these improvements are achieved with less than 10% volume additions of nanoscale particles (typically on the order of. 1% to 5% for layered silicates and carbon nanotubes), which is in sharp contrast to conventional polymer fillers [2].

  14. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Nano Filler Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnia Noor Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focusing on mechanical and morphological properties of unsaturated polyester (UP reinforced with two different types of filler which is nano size clay Cloisite 30B (C30B and Carbon Black (CB. Samples were fabricated via hand lay-up and open molding technique. Percentages of Cloisite 30B & Carbon Black (CB used vary from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%. The mechanical properties were evaluated by impact, flexural and hardness testing. Result shows that the mechanical strength of C30B was better compare to CB filled composite. The combination of UP with C30B helps to improve the properties due to the high surface area of nanosize filler in the matrix. The result shows that increasing of filler content had increased mechanical properties of composites. Optimum percentage represent good mechanical properties are 4% for both fillers. SEM images showed that rough surface image indicate to agglomeration of filler in the matrix for CB sample and smooth surface image on C30B sample indicate to homogenous blending between filler and matrix polyester. SEM images proved that mechanical properties result indicate that C30B polyester composite is a good reinforcement compare to CB polyester composite.

  15. Optimum conditions for radiation curing of polyester/epoxy compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzostowski, A.; Pietrzak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of dose rate of γ 60 Co radiation, heat removal conditions and construction of polyester-epoxy compositions on the curing conditions of the latter were investigated. It was found that the optimum dose rate was within 0.1x10 4 Gy/h and 0.6x10 4 Gy/h for the following composition: 100 parts by weight of polyester resin, 10 to 15 parts by weight of an unsaturated epoxy resin and 100 parts by weight of silicon dioxide. The mixture was well cooled during the curing process. Curing is completed after the absorption of a dose from 0.3x10 4 Gy to 0.45x10 4 Gy. (author)

  16. Catalyst Influence on Undesired Side Reactions in the Polycondensation of Fully Bio-Based Polyester Itaconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based unsaturated polyester resins derived from itaconic acid can be an alternative to established resins of this type in the field of radical-curing resins. However, one of the challenges of these polyester itaconates is the somewhat more elaborate synthetic process, especially under polycondensation conditions used on an industrial scale. The α,β-unsaturated double bond of the itaconic acid is prone to side reactions that can lead to the gelation of the polyester resin under standard conditions. This is especially true when bio-based diols such as 1,3-propanediol or 1,4-butanediol are used to obtain resins that are 100% derived from renewable resources. It was observed in earlier studies that high amounts of these aliphatic diols in the polyester lead to low conversion and gelation of the resins. In this work, a catalytic study using different diols was performed in order to elucidate the reasons for this behavior. It was shown that the choice of catalyst has a crucial influence on the side reactions occurring during the polycondensation reactions. In addition, the side reactions taking place were identified and suppressed. These results will allow for the synthesis of polyester itaconates on a larger scale, setting the stage for their industrial application.

  17. Karakterstik Serapan Suara Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Astika, I Made; Dwijana, I Gusti Komang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate of sound absorption of coconut filter fiber composites. The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resin unsaturated polyester (UPRs) type Yukalac BQTN 157 with 1% hardener types MEKPO (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) and fiber treatment by  0,5% KMnO4. Production methods is poltrusion and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiber length are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of sound absorpt...

  18. Obtaining polyester from glycerin for synthesis of polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, Rodolfo A.; Ghesti, Grace F.; Sales, Maria J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable resources has been increasing, due to the development of materials that have viable applications that are environmentally friendly. In this paper, a polyester was synthesized from glycerin, with the addition of adipic acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1.5, with dilauryl tin catalyst, which was added in proportions of 1 to 3% obtained PUs from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and MDI (diphenyl methane diisocyanate). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance 1 H NMR, thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG). The reaction for obtaining the polyester was confirmed by FTIR, the absorption band between 1708-1730 cm -1 and 1 H NMR, in the region 1.4 to 1.8 ppm and 2.2 to 2.6 ppm. The thermal decomposition of polyester occurred with temperature above 300 ° C. PUs showed similar thermal stability. (author)

  19. Effect of fiber loading on the mechanical and physical properties of “green” bagasse–polyester composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy M. Naguib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to fill unsaturated polyester resin with bagasse agricultural waste, as reinforcement, to prepare green wooden–polymer composites. Bagasse fibers were treated with 5% sodium hydroxide and then with dilute sulfuric acid. Bagasse–polyester composites were prepared by addition of 5, 10 and 15% of untreated and alkali treated bagasse fibers to polyester. The crosslinking reaction was performed using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide as a catalyst and cobalt octoate as an accelerator. The prepared composites were then exposed to post-curing at elevated temperature for completely crosslinking. The flexural behavior of the prepared composites was studied. An enhancement in the mechanical properties was achieved after chemical treatment. In addition, water absorption and chemical resistance were conducted showing that the produced bagasse–polyester composite with appreciable mechanical and physical properties is a new partner and cost effective material for many advanced industrial applications in addition to their environmental friendly behavior.

  20. Mechanical properties of water hyacinth fibers – polyester composites before and after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abral, H.; Kadriadi, D.; Rodianus, A.; Mastariyanto, P.; Ilhamdi; Arief, S.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ishak, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Moisture absorption of water hyacinth (WH) fibers was measured. • WH fibers polyester composites immersed in water decreased mechanical properties. • Improvement fibers fraction in polyester increases mechanical properties. - Abstract: This study reported moisture absorption of untreated and treated individual water hyacinth (WH) fibers as well as comparison the mechanical properties of WH fibers – unsaturated polyester (UPR) matrix composites after and before immersion in water. The result shows that the individual WH fibers treated with various alkali concentration did not exhibit significantly decreases of their moisture absorption. SEM photograph in cross section of the treated WH fibers shows swollen cell wall containing more nano and micro hollows. Tensile and flexure strength of the wet composite samples are lower than that of dried ones. However, increases volume fraction of the WH fibers in UPR matrix affected slightly on enhancement mechanical properties of the composite samples

  1. Mechanical properties and environmental stress cracking resistance of rubber toughened polyester/kenaf composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study rubber-toughened polyester-kenaf fibre composites were prepared by adding various percentages of kenaf fibre in unsaturated polyester resin and subsequently cross linked using a mixture of organic peroxide methyl ethyl ketone and cobalt octanoate. Three percent (3% of liquid natural rubber (LNR were added as a toughening agent. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by impact and flexural testing. Environmental stress cracking resistance (ESCR of polyester-kenaf composite in acid and base medium was also studied. It was found that the addition of LNR increased impact strength by about 66% and flexural strength by 70%. Measurement of ESCR shows that the composite has the fastest diffusion rate in acid medium, followed by that in base medium and then without medium. Bonding mechanisms were assessed by scanning electron microscope and FTIR analysis.

  2. Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Bacterial Polyester Hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers. The growing amount of PU used industrially has resulted in a worldwide increase of plastic wastes. The related environmental pollution as well as the limited availability of the raw materials based on petrochemicals requires novel solutions for their efficient degradation and recycling. The degradation of the polyester PU Impranil DLN by the polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC, TfCut2, Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 was analyzed using a turbidimetric assay. The highest hydrolysis rates were obtained with TfCut2 and Tcur0390. TfCut2 also showed a significantly higher substrate affinity for Impranil DLN than the other three enzymes, indicated by a higher adsorption constant K. Significant weight losses of the solid thermoplastic polyester PU (TPU Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10 were detected as a result of the enzymatic degradation by all four polyester hydrolases. Within a reaction time of 200 h at 70 °C, LCC caused weight losses of up to 4.9% and 4.1% of Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed a preferential degradation of the larger polymer chains. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracks at the surface of the TPU cubes as a result of enzymatic surface erosion. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the observed weight losses were a result of the cleavage of ester bonds of the polyester TPU.

  3. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión, F.; Montalban Domingo, Maria Laura; Real Herráiz, Julia Irene; Real, T.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate) and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strenght, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity,...

  4. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-01-01

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan

  5. 40 CFR 721.9507 - Polyester silane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester silane. 721.9507 Section 721... Polyester silane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a polyester silane (P-95-1022) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  6. Composite Preparation of Wood Dust-Polyester-Coconut Choir Fiber Mixture for Particle Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Darsono; Padmono; Betty, Angesti

    2002-01-01

    Experiment on the use of γ-ray of Co 60 radiation has been used for curing of composite which made of wood dust, unsaturated polyester resin and coconut coir mixture. Composite was prepared by mixing of wood dust, polyester and coconut coir at a various mixture composition. Concentration of polyesters were 50, 55 and 60 % by weight based on saw dust and polyester mixture. Irradiation was conducted using 27,6 kCi acti vity Co 60 at a dose rate of 5 kGy/hrs and dose of 8, 10 and 12 kGy. Composite was also prepared conventionally by using peroxide catalyst. Parameters observed were density, pencil hardness and compression strength Experimental results showed that optimum condition wus achieved at irradiation dose of 12 kGy, polyester concentration of 60 % and coconut coir fiber of 4 %. In this condition, the density, hardness and compression strength were 1,115 g/cm 3, 5 Hand 6,815 kN/cm2 respectively. Density, hardness of composite prepared by radiation were almost the same whereas the compression strength was higher than that of composite prepared by conventional method

  7. Mechanical performance of hybrid polyester composites reinforced Cloisite 30B and kenaf fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnia, N. N.; Surip, S. N.; Ratim, S.; Mahat, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    Hybridization of rubber toughened polyester-kenaf nanocomposite was prepared by adding various percentage of kenaf fiber with 4% Cloisite 30B in unsaturated polyester resin. Composite were prepared by adding filler to modified polyester resin subsequently cross-linked using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and the accelerator cobalt octanoate 1%. Three per hundred rubbers (phr) of liquid natural rubber (LNR) were added in producing this composite. This composite expected to be applied in the interior of passenger cars and truck cabins. This is a quality local product from a combination of good properties polyester and high performance natural fiber, kenaf that is suitable for many applications such as in automotive sector and construction sector. The mechanical and thermal properties of composite were characterized using Durometer Shore-D hardness test, Izod impact test, Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Result shows that addition of LNR give good properties on impact, flexural and hardness compare to without LNR composite. DSC curve shows that all composition of composites is fully cured and good in thermal properties. Addition of higher percentage of kenaf will lead the composite to elastic behavior and decrease the toughened properties of the composite. Hybrid system composite showed the flexural properties within the flexural properties of kenaf - polyester and Cloisite 30B.

  8. Effect of functionalized metal oxides addition on the mechanical, thermal and swelling behaviour of polyester/jute composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Adhikari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unsaturated polyester composites were fabricated in hand lay-up method by reinforcing with jute fibre along with alumina or zirconia particles in different filler loading viz. 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%. It was observed that with incorporation of fillers, the microhardness value of the resulting composites increases and reaches its maximum at 20 wt% filler content. Characterizations were performed on the composites fabricated with overall 20 wt% filler content (18 wt% fibre and 2 wt% metal oxide particles. Various characterizations like Vicker’s microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, limiting oxygen index (LOI testing and water absorption test were performed. Tensile, Flexural testing were also performed on the normal and water absorbed samples. SEM analysis ensured good dispersion of filler within the polymer matrix. EDS and XRD were performed to identify the filler in the composites. FITR spectroscopy revealed the bonding of fillers with the matrix. TG analysis showed that thermal stability, degradation temperature of jute-ZrO2 composites were best over the others. LOI testing also shows similar trend, showing better fire resistant property of jute-ZrO2 composites than the Al2O3 dispersed. Water absorption test indicates the stability of different composite in various atmospheres (normal, boiling, simulated marine, alkali and acid water.

  9. Modelling flow through unsaturated zones: Sensitivity to unsaturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    water flow through unsaturated zones and study the effect of unsaturated soil parameters on water movement during different processes such as gravity drainage and infiltration. 2. Modelling Richards equation for vertical unsaturated flow. For one-dimensional vertical flow in unsaturated soil, the pressure-head based ...

  10. Functional polyester materials with tunable degradability: Investigations into the use of reductive amination, ketoxime ether, and hydrazone linkages for functionalization, covalent stabilization and crosslinking of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horn, Brooke Angela

    Aliphatic polyesters represent one class of degradable, polymeric materials that is receiving significant attention in the search for, and design of, biocompatible and bioresorbable synthetic substances. Functional and crosslinked polyesters, having potential biomedical value, are the target of many avenues of current research. This dissertation work expands the utility of a specific aliphatic polyester, poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-2-oxepane-1,5-dione) (P(CL-co-OPD)), which contains backbone ketone units that can be reacted with various functional, nucleophilic agents. Results presented in this dissertation convey both the successes had and the challenges encountered in the employment of different "iminyl" chemistries for the synthesis of functional and crosslinked materials. Specifically, the ketone-functionalized polyester was investigated as a general substrate designed to undergo solution-state intramolecular crosslinking and functionalization upon reductive amination with 1,6-hexanediamine and hexylamine, respectively, in the presence of NaCNBH3. Through detailed analysis of the products from these reactions, and simpler systems including small molecule model compounds, the polymeric gamma-keto ester functionality was determined to be incompatible with the reductive amination chemistry, resulting in chain cleavage via intramolecular lactam formation. Subsequent investigation of ketoxime ether formation using synthetic model hydroxylamines, 1-aminooxydodecane and 1,6-bis(aminooxy)hexane, in solution and in the presence of an acid catalyst, resulted in the targeted graft and crosslinked particulate/gel materials, respectively. With the significant interest in the development of synthetic polymer materials of increasing degrees of complexity, attention has been focused on the efficient and high-yielding conversion of polyesters into multi-functional materials. Facile conjugation of aminooxy- and sulfonyl hydrazide model ligands with P(CL-co-OPD) were also

  11. Properties of honeycomb polyester knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics were studied to understand their advantages. Seven honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics and one common polyester weft-knitted fabric were selected for testing. Their bursting strengths, fuzzing and pilling, air permeability, abrasion resistance and moisture absorption and perspiration were studied. The results show that the honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics have excellent moisture absorption and liberation. The smaller their thicknesses and area densities are, the better their moisture absorption and liberation will be. Their anti-fuzzing and anti-pilling is good, whereas their bursting strengths and abrasion resistance are poorer compared with common polyester fabric's. In order to improve the hygroscopic properties of the fabrics, the proportion of the honeycomb microporous structure modified polyester in the fabrics should not be less than 40%.

  12. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from 2-chloro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 9. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from 2-chloro ... These polyesters exhibited thermotropic liquid crystalline behavior and showed nematic texture except decamethylene spacer. Decamethylene spacer based polyester showed marble ...

  13. Adsorption of uranium ions by crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemal Oezeroglu; Niluefer Metin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the crosslinked polyester resin containing acrylic acid functional groups was used for the adsorption of uranium ions from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the crosslinked polyester resin of unsaturated polyester in styrene monomer (Polipol 353, Poliya) and acrylic acid as weight percentage at 80 and 20%, respectively was synthesized by using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKp, Butanox M60, Azo Nobel)-cobalt octoate initiator system. The adsorption of uranium ions on the sample (0.05 g copolymer and 5 mL of U(VI) solution were mixed) of the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid was carried out in a batch reactor. The effects of adsorption parameters of the contact time, temperature, pH of solution and initial uranium(VI) concentration for U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid were investigated. The adsorption data obtained from experimental results depending on the initial U(VI) concentration were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity and free energy change were determined by using D-R isotherm. The obtained experimental adsorption data depending on temperature were evaluated to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy (ΔH o ), entropy (ΔS o ) and free energy change (ΔG o ) for the U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions. The obtained adsorption data depending on contact time were analyzed by using adsorption models such as the modified Freundlich, Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. (author)

  14. Synthesis of amphiphilic alternating polyesters with oligo(ethylene glycol) side chains and potential use for sustained release drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Jianxun; Xiao, Chunsheng; Tang, Zhaohui; Li, Di; Chen, Jie; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2011-07-11

    Novel amphiphilic alternating polyesters, poly((N-phthaloyl-l-glutamic anhydride)-co-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)methyl)oxirane) (P(PGA-co-ME(2)MO)), were synthesized by alternating copolymerization of PGA and ME(2)MO. The structures of the synthesized polyesters were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, and GPC analyses. Because of the presence of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) side chains, the polyesters could self-assemble into thermosensitive micelles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that these micelles underwent thermoinduced size decrease without intermicellar aggregation. In vitro methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that the polyesters were biocompatible to Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) cells, rendering their potential for drug delivery applications. Two hydrophobic drugs, rifampin and doxorubicin (DOX), were loaded into the polyester micelles and observed to be released in a zero-order sustained manner. The sustained release could be accelerated in lower pH or in the presence of proteinase K, due to the degradation of the polyester under these conditions. Remarkably, in vitro cell experiments showed that the polyester micelles accomplished fast release of DOX inside cells and higher anticancer efficacy as compared with the free DOX. With enhanced stability during circulation condition and accelerated drug release at the target sites (e.g., low pH or enzyme presence), these novel polyesters with amphiphilic structures are promising to be used in sustained release drug delivery systems.

  15. Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2006-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester (WEP) was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (MCNP code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in melts of amphiphilic polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylyev, S.; Damm, C.; Segets, D.; Hanisch, M.; Taccardi, N.; Wasserscheid, P.; Peukert, W.

    2013-03-01

    The current work presents a one-step procedure for the synthesis of amphiphilic silver nanoparticles suitable for production of silver-filled polymeric materials. This solvent free synthesis via reduction of Tollens’ reagent as silver precursor in melts of amphiphilic polyesters consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) blocks and hydrophobic alkyl chains allows the production of silver nanoparticles without any by-product formation. This makes them especially interesting for the production of medical devices with antimicrobial properties. In this article the influences of the chain length of the hydrophobic block in the amphiphilic polyesters and the process temperature on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the stability of the particles against agglomeration are discussed. According to the results of spectroscopic and viscosimetric investigations the silver precursor is reduced to elemental silver nanoparticles by a single electron transfer process from the poly(ethylene glycol) chain to the silver ion.

  17. Synthesis and research of derived oxazol-5-ones based on α,β – unsaturated ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Александрович Петров

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the production of new fluorescent dyes derived oxazol-5-ones based on α, β-unsaturated ketones, as well as confirmation of the structure of the compounds obtained using NMR and IR spectroscopy. The dyes of this series are relevant because one of the important practical problems in organic chemistry and chemical technology is currently seeking new fluorescent dyes for dyeing polyester materials and polymers

  18. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carrión

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate, and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%, and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  19. Mechanical and physical properties of polyester polymer concrete using recycled aggregates from concrete sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco; Montalbán, Laura; Real, Julia I; Real, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate), and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption) was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%), and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and nanocomposites derived from glycolyzed PET waste ... construction industries. PET is widely used in the packaging of beverages and drugs. ... ing the synthesis of saturated polyester (from GPET waste). This has been done for the estimation of the maximum. 277 ...

  1. RHEOLOGY OF CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solution rheology of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent was examined in this study. The solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior over a wide range of polyester concentrations. Also, the relative viscosities of poly(amido...

  2. Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Omidvar, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution has been established for the well known Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow of transports in soils. Despite the importance of Richards’ equation in geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications, most solutions to the problem are generally based on numerical...

  3. Acetalised Galactarate Polyesters: Interplay between Chemical Structure and Polymerisation Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavrila

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the progress that has made so far in the recent years regarding the synthesis of bio-based polymers and in particular polyesters, only few references address the optimisation of these new reactions with respect to conversion and reaction time. Related to this aspect, we here describe the transesterification reaction of two different acetalised galactarate esters with a model aliphatic diol, 1,6-hexanediol. The kinetics of these two apparently similar reactions is compared, with a focus on the conversion while varying the concentration of a di-butyltin oxide catalyst (DBTO, respectively, the used N2 flow-rate. During the first stage of polymerisation, the molecular weight of the end-products is more than doubled when using a 250 mL/min flow as opposed to an almost static N2 pressure. Additionally, the resulted pre-polymers are subjected to further polycondensation and the comparison between the obtained polyesters is extended to their thermal, mechanical and dielectrical characterisation. The influence of the acetal groups on the stability of the polyesters in acidic conditions concludes the study.

  4. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC–MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kächele, Martin [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hochschule Mannheim, Paul-Wittsack-Strasse 10, D-68163 Mannheim (Germany); Monakhova, Yulia B. [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bruker Biospin GmbH, Silbersteifen, 76287 Rheinstetten (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Street 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Kuballa, Thomas [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ministry of Rural Affairs and Consumer Protection, Kernerplatz 10, 70182 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Acrolein in hydroalcoholic solution degrades to 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde. • Hydroquinone (0.2%) at pH 3.0 stabilizes acrolein solutions. • Quantitative HS-SPME/GC–MS determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages was developed (LOD 14 μg L⁻¹. • 6 of 117 samples had acrolein levels above the WHO threshold (1500 μg L⁻¹). Abstract: Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L⁻¹. Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L⁻¹), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L⁻¹), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L⁻¹), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L⁻¹) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L⁻¹). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L⁻¹.

  5. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC–MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kächele, Martin; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Acrolein in hydroalcoholic solution degrades to 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde. • Hydroquinone (0.2%) at pH 3.0 stabilizes acrolein solutions. • Quantitative HS-SPME/GC–MS determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages was developed (LOD 14 μg L −1 ). • 6 of 117 samples had acrolein levels above the WHO threshold (1500 μg L −1 ). - Abstract: Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L −1 . Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L −1 ), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L −1 ), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L −1 ), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L −1 ) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L −1 ). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L −1

  6. Karakteristik Sifat Tarik Dan Mode Patahan Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Astika, I Made; Dwijana, I Gusti Komang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength of composites coconut filter fiber. In the future this material can be used to replace the wood, bamboo and gipsun which are high price and lower water resistance. The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resin unsaturated polyester (UPRs) type Yukalac BQTN 157, with 1% hardener types MEKPO (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) and fiber treatment by  0.5% KMnO4...

  7. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC-MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kächele, Martin; Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-04-11

    Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L(-1). Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L(-1)), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L(-1)), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L(-1)), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L(-1)) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L(-1)). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  9. The EIS investigation of powder polyester coatings on phosphated low carbon steel: The effect of NaNO2 in the phosphating bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegdic, B.V.; Bajat, J.B.; Popic, J.P.; Stevanovic, S.I.; Miskovic-Stankovic, V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effect of NaNO 2 on surface morphology of iron-phosphate coatings were determined. → Better corrosion stability of polyester coating on phosphated steel without NaNO 2 . → EIS results and microscopic examinations correlate well with adhesion measurements. - Abstract: The effect of different type of iron-phosphate coatings on corrosion stability and adhesion characteristic of top powder polyester coating on steel was investigated. Iron-phosphate coatings were deposited on steel in the novel phosphating bath with or without NaNO 2 as an accelerator. The corrosion stability of the powder polyester coating was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), adhesion by pull-off and NMP test, while surface morphology of phosphate coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion and corrosion stability of powder polyester coatings were improved with pretreatment based on iron-phosphate coating deposited from NaNO 2 -free bath.

  10. Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends and Reactive Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulkern, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    .... In this work, the incorporation of HBPs in thermoplastic blends was investigated. Several volume fractions of hydroxyl functionalized hyperbranched polyesters were melt blended with nonreactive polystyrene (PS...

  11. Method of stabilizing wood or lignocellulose materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.

    1973-01-01

    Wood or lignocellulose materials are impregnated with vinyl or allyl monomers and unsaturated polyester resins or with modified epoxy, alkyd or polyurethane resins in a mixture. The mixture contains chemical initiators of polymerization - organic peroxides or peroxyesters in an amount of 3 % max. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation. (B.S.)

  12. Kekuatan Lentur Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki sifat mekanis yaitu kekuatan lentur dari kompositpolyester yang diperkuat dengan serat tapis kelapa. Di masa depan komposit ini dapatdigunakan untuk menggantikan kayu, bambu dan gipsun yang harganya mahal dan tidaktahan air. Komposit dibuat dengan memanfaatkan serat sabut kelapa dan matriks resinUnsaturated-Polyester (UPRs jenis Yucalac 157 BQTN, campuran 1% hardener jenis MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide dan perendaman serat dalam larutan alkali KMnO4 0,5%.Metode produksi yang digunakan adalah press hand lay up dengan orientasi serat acak.Desain komposit dengan variasi fraksi volume serat 20, 25 dan 30% dan variasi panjang serat5, 10 dan 15 mm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar fraksi volume danpanjang serat dalam komposit maka kekuatan lentur semakin tinggi. Mode patahan yangteramati adalah patah getas, debonding, pullout dan crack deflection.Kata kunci: komposit, serat tapis kelapa, kekuatan lentur, mode patahan The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties i.e. flexural strength ofcomposites coconut filter fiber. In the future this material can be used to replace the wood,bamboo and gipsun which are high price and lower water resistance.The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resinunsaturated polyester (UPRs type Yukalac BQTN 157, with 1% hardener types MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and fiber treatment by 0.5% KMnO4. Production methods arepress hand lay-up and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiberlength are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of mechanical properties is flexural test (ASTM - D790The results of research show that the longer of fiber and the bigger of fiber volume fraction,the higher of flexural strength are obtained. The fracture mode are overload, debonding ,pullout and crack deflectionKeywords : composites, coconut filter fiber, flexural strength, fracture mode

  13. Polyesters production from the mixture of phthalic acid, terephthalic and glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.L.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Boaventura, J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Carvalho, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel is currently an environmental and economic problem for producers of this renewable fuel in Brazil and in others parts of the world. In order to offer new proposals for recovery, it is used for the manufacture of polyesters used in applications in diverse areas such as construction and automobile industry. This work reports the production of polymer from the mixture of terephthalic and phthalic acid in three different proportions. The polyesters showed good thermal stability, analyzed by TGA and DSC, with an increase proportional to the terephthalic acid content. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples are semi crystalline polymers. The micrographs indicated the presence of a smoother surface in the polyester that has a larger amount of phthalic acid, as reported in the literature. Therefore, the materials showed good thermal properties and morphological characteristics, so it consists in a new alternative to use glycerin. (author)

  14. Chemical structures and thermal properties of polyesters obtained from different samples of bio diesel epoxidized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, Dimitrios; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Nicolau, Aline; Martini, Denise D.; Chagas, Arthur L. das

    2009-01-01

    In this work new structures from oligo esters and polyesters from different oils (olive oil, sunflower oil and linseed oil) were synthesized and characterized. Oligo esters and polyesters were synthesized from the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy-esters, obtained from different oils, with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). Different amounts of the resin 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE) were added in order to increase the capacity of crosslinking. The molar ratio of BDGE used in system was between 0 and 0.066. The intermediate structures, as well as the oligo esters and polyesters produced, were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H - NMR). The thermal behavior of the products was realized through differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the materials chains increases the bonding capacity resulting in a higher molecular weight material which presents good thermal stability. (author)

  15. Modelling flow through unsaturated zones: Sensitivity to unsaturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A numerical model to simulate moisture flow through unsaturated zones is developed using the finite element method, and is validated by comparing the model results with those available in the literature. The sensitivities of different processes such as gravity drainage and infiltration to the variations in the unsaturated soil ...

  16. Radiation hardening lacquer binding agent based on a polyester resin with at least 3.5 double links pr. 1000 molecular weight units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimlisk, D.J.; Wright, A.; Groves, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The binding agent is suitable for hardening by electrons with an energy of between 100,000 and 500,000eV. It consists mainly of a solution of a polyester resin with at least 3.5 double links per 1000 mol, in an olefine-unsaturated monomer. The molecular weight of the polyester is between 800 and 1100 and the ratio of the number of double links in the monomer to that in the resin (degree of unsaturation) is in the range 0.75-2.0, or more specifically, between 1 and 1.5. Cellulose acetate/butyrate (CAB) and/or a butylated melamine/formaldehyde resin may be added to improve the surface properties. Likewise from 0.1 to 0.5% polyethylene wax may be added to give a better surface finish and hardness. (JIW)

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite coated polyester fabric under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zoufei; Cheng, Cheng; Tan, Lin; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Ludan; Guo, Ronghui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite was reported using one-step hydrothermal method and then coated on the polyester fabric. The samples were systematically characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The self-cleaning property of the fabrics was assessed through removing red wine stain. The results reveal that the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composites with irregular shape are coated on the polyester fabric successfully. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a broad absorption band in the visible region, which extends the scope of absorption spectrum and helps to improve the photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Photocatalytic activities of the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite polyester fabric are associated with the content of TiO2. Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric exhibits the degradation efficiency for RhB and MB up to 98% and 95.1%, respectively, which is much higher than that of pure Bi2WO6 and TiO2 coated polyester fabric. Moreover, Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good cycle stability toward continuous three cycles of photocatalytic experiment for dyes degradation. In addition, the Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good self-cleaning property. This work could be extended to design of other composite photocatalyst coating on the fabric for enhancing activity by coupling suitable wide and narrow band-gap semiconductors.

  18. Rewritable azobenzene polyester for polarization holographic data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, A; Sajti, Sz.; Loerincz, Emoeke

    2000-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester films were examined by polarization holographic measurements. The new amorphous polyester film is the candidate material for the purpose of rewritable holographic memory system. Temporal formation of anisotropic and topographic...... and erasing was tested. The ability of azobenzene polyester for rewriting was found satisfactory after many writing-erasing cycles....

  19. (Citric acid–co–polycaprolactone triol) polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynda V.; Nair, Prabha D.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds enormous challenges for materials science, wherein the ideal scaffold to be used is expected to be biocompatible, biodegradable and possess mechanical and physical properties that are suitable for target application. In this context, we have prepared degradable polyesters in different ratios by a simple polycondensation technique with citric acid and polycaprolactone triol. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the materials were amorphous based the absence of a crystalline melting peak and the presence of a glass transition temperature below 37°C. These polyesters were found to be hydrophilic and could be tailor-made into tubes and films. Porosity could also be introduced by addition of porogens. All the materials were non-cytotoxic in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay and may degrade via hydrolysis to non-toxic degradation products. These polyesters have potential implications in the field of soft tissue engineering on account of their similarity of properties. PMID:23507730

  20. [Polypropylene-polyester prostheses. Experimental studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, J

    1980-01-01

    Polypropylene-polyester prostheses invented by the Research and Development Center of the Textile Industry in łódź are composed of two knitted polyester layers with perpendicular columns arrangement laminated by polypropylene. The prostheses were implanted in 10 pigs into the sternum and shoulder blade, the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity. The autopsies of the animals were made 90 to 180 days after the operation. Both in bone and soft tissues, the prostheses healed up without local or general complications. The results obtained in surgical post-operative, macroscopic and microscopic examinations prove that the polypropylene-polyester prostheses fulfill the basic conditions for biomaterials. The different moulders of these materials may be used as temporary or permanent implants.

  1. Liants Polyethers et Polyesters dans les Propergols Composites (Polyether and Polyester binders in Composite Propellants),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    ticul6 avec los 6poxydes et los sels do chrome pour former un 61astomare. Une 16g~re modification do cc systame est obtenue par r6action du R45M avec um...une amilioration de l’allongement sans modification do 1𔄀nergic du liant (Tableau XI). 4.4.2 Propergols polyesters a partir de R4SM/ACIID Les propri...qu’aprbs 56 jours de vieillissement . 8. L’effet d’un polyester d’aziridine (PEA) employ6 a la place du polyester d’amine (N8C) am~liore tr~s peu les

  2. Holographic recording in thiophene-based polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar Singh; Chambers-Asman, David; Jeeva, Shehzad

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and optical data storage properties of a side-chain thiophene-phenyl azopolyester ThPhAzoP.ol is reported. The polyester is derived from diphenyl tetradecanedioate and a thiophenebased liquid crystalline diol which exhibits a short-lived enantiotropic SmA phase (Cryst 177.7 SmA 180.......4 I). The polyester ThPhAzoPol exhibits amorphous (Tg, 78.6 DC), crystalline and liquid crystalline character as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal polarising microscopy. A grainy texture, which is thermally reversible, with increasing birefringence on cooling from...

  3. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θ s - θ r), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  4. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aging are: salability, stiffness, flexibility, barrier properties, heat resistance and transparency, but it is well known ..... polyester and thus decreasing the acid value. The acid values are the maximum and minimum .... reaction, the hydroxyl value decreases due to the consump- tion of oligomers and EG by an acid. The extent of ...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saturated polyester resin, derived from the glycolysis of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) was examined as an effective way for PET recycling. The glycolyzed PET (GPET) was reacted with the mixture of phthalic anhydride and ethylene glycol (EG) with varied compositions and their reaction kinetic were studied. During ...

  6. Carboxylated Polyurethanes Containing Hyperbranched Polyester Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigon, M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available hyperbranched polyester soft segments (HB PU with functional carboxylic groups in order to enable the preparation of stable HB PU dispersions. Carboxylated hyperbranched polyurethanes were synthesized using a hyperbranched polyester based on 2,2-bis(methylolpropionic acid of the fourth pseudo-generation (Boltorn H40 and hexamethylene (HDI or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI. The reactivity of hyperbranched polyester with HDI was lower than expected, possibly due to the presence of less reactive hydroxyl groups in the linear repeat units. A gel was formed at mole ratios rNCO/OH = 1:2 or 1:4. The synthesis of HB PU was performed with partly esterified hyperbranched polyester with lowered hydroxyl functionality. The carboxyl groups were incorporated in the HB PU backbone by reaction of residual hydroxyl groups with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride. HB PU aqueous dispersions were stable at least for two months, although their films were brittle. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of blends of linear and HB PU decreased with increasing content of HB PU whereas elongation at break remained nearly constant, which was explained in terms of looser chain packing due to more open tree-like hyperbranched structures.

  7. Immobilisation of spent ion exchange resin in polyester-styrene co-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amar

    1999-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resin is generated from primary heat transport system, moderator system and spent fuel storage bay of PHWR which contain large amounts of activated corrosion products and fission products. It was immobilised in crack free monolith of polyester styrene co-polymer. 1.0% of benzoyl peroxide and 0.07% of dimethyl aniline were used as initiator and activator respectively. Gelling time of the polymerisation was 30 minutes. Product has good chemical, mechanical and radiation stability. (author)

  8. Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam Ali, M.; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah, A.; Ishiaku, U.S.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

  9. Application of polyester derived from biomass in petroleum asphalt cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the incorporation of a new additive to asphalt cement oil (CAP. A polyol product was obtained through the oxypropylation reaction of sugarcane bagasse. This polyol was polymerised with pyromellitic anhydride in order to obtain a polyester (BCP to test its suitability in terms of the material properties to be applied as additives. FTIR spectra of the polymerised material (BCP confirmed the occurrence of chemical modification due to the appearance of a new band at 1750 cm-1, characteristic of ester groups. The TGA data showed that the BCP product had higher thermal stability than the polyol. According to the softening point and elastic recovery tests, the incorporation of 11% and 16% w/w BCP in conventional CAP met the specifications of regulatory standards.

  10. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of unsaturated aliphatic polyesters based on green monomers from renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Woortman, Albert J J; van Ekenstein, Gert O R Alberda; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based commercially available succinate, itaconate and 1,4-butanediol are enzymatically co-polymerized in solution via a two-stage method, using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB, in immobilized form as Novozyme® 435) as the biocatalyst. The chemical structures of the obtained products,

  11. Mechanical and durability characteristics of externally GFRP reinforced unsaturated polyester polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguessir, H.; Harkati, E.; Rokbi, M.; Priniotakis, G.; Vassiliadis, S.

    2017-10-01

    The last decades of the XXe century cognized a huge extent of composite materials uses to almost all everyday life’s applications, replacing the conventional materials, due to their outstanding properties especially highest strength-to-weight ratio and the ability to be designed to satisfy specific performance requirements. To get the most out of these wonder materials, a new concept, combining polymer concrete and composite laminates, is currently used in Algeria. This research work has the aim to investigate applicability of this concept in civil engineering through tensile and bending tests. On the other hand, the influence of various chemicals (Sodium hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonates) on our material and its tensile properties retention over long-time exposure was examined. The mechanical properties obtained indicate the convenience of this material for use in civil engineering thanks to its very good tensile and flexural performances in addition to its sufficient residual strength after theoretically 56 years.

  12. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śmiga-Matuszowicz, Monika, E-mail: monika.smiga-matuszowicz@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaczmarek, Marcin [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, de Gaulle' a Street 66, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L. [Medical University of Silesia, Department of General and Molecular Biology and Genetics, Medyków Street 18, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Technology and Fuels, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ziołowa Street 45, 40-635 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3 h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. - Highlights: • Isosorbide-based resin was used as a component of biodegradable scaffolds. • CAC/carboxylic acid system was proven as facile method to obtain porous scaffolds. • Porous scaffolds displayed the formation of hydroxyapatite at their surfaces.

  13. Effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyon, Julien Xavier Eric

    Polyester fibers are widely used as filling in home applications such as pillows or comforters. Silicone finishes can be used to reduce friction between fibers during processing or as softeners to impart a pleasant down like hand on the fibers. However, it has been reported that these added silicone-based finishes may have a negative effect on the burning behavior of polyester. This research examined the possible mechanisms that can modify the response of polyester fibers when subjected to a flame source. In this study, a spunbond needled polyester nonwoven substrate was treated with different commercial silicone-based finishes. A vertical flame test was used to compare the effect of silicone finishes on the burning behavior of polyester to the inherent burning behavior of untreated polyester. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were performed on spunbond polyester fabric samples to investigate the influence of silicone finishes on the thermal degradation of polyester in air. Residues from TGA were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with elemental analysis. Vertical flammability testing showed that even at a low level, the application of silicone-based finishes on a polyester substrate resulted in a dramatic increase of the flame propagation by preventing its inherent response to heat. Thermograms suggested that the silicone finishes had little or no effect on the thermal degradation of polyester substrates.

  14. Obtaining polyester from glycerin for synthesis of polyurethanes; Obtencao de poliester a partir da glicerina para sintese de poliuretanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breves, Rodolfo A.; Ghesti, Grace F.; Sales, Maria J.A., E-mail: eu_sou_o_rodolfo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Silva, Jessica S.; Coelho, Paulo V.M.; Lopes, Roseany V.V. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Faculdade do Gama; Brioude, Michel M. [Freiburg University (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The use of renewable resources has been increasing, due to the development of materials that have viable applications that are environmentally friendly. In this paper, a polyester was synthesized from glycerin, with the addition of adipic acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1.5, with dilauryl tin catalyst, which was added in proportions of 1 to 3% obtained PUs from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and MDI (diphenyl methane diisocyanate). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance {sup 1}H NMR, thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG). The reaction for obtaining the polyester was confirmed by FTIR, the absorption band between 1708-1730 cm{sup -1} and {sup 1}H NMR, in the region 1.4 to 1.8 ppm and 2.2 to 2.6 ppm. The thermal decomposition of polyester occurred with temperature above 300 ° C. PUs showed similar thermal stability. (author)

  15. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Polyester Thin Films at the Nanoscale: Effects of Polyester Structure and Enzyme Active-Site Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, Michael Thomas; Rechsteiner, Daniela; Roduner, Nicolas; Perz, Veronika; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; McNeill, Kristopher; Sander, Michael

    2017-07-05

    Biodegradable polyesters have a large potential to replace persistent polymers in numerous applications and to thereby reduce the accumulation of plastics in the environment. Ester hydrolysis by extracellular carboxylesterases is considered the rate-limiting step in polyester biodegradation. In this work, we systematically investigated the effects of polyester and carboxylesterase structure on the hydrolysis of nanometer-thin polyester films using a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Hydrolyzability increased with increasing polyester-chain flexibility as evidenced from differences in the hydrolysis rates and extents of aliphatic polyesters varying in the length of their dicarboxylic acid unit and of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) polyesters varying in their terephthalate-to-adipate ratio by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and Fusarium solani cutinase. Nanoscale nonuniformities in the PBAT films affected enzymatic hydrolysis and were likely caused by domains with elevated terephthalate contents that impaired enzymatic hydrolysis. Yet, the cutinase completely hydrolyzed all PBAT films, including films with a terephthalate-to-adipate molar ratio of one, under environmentally relevant conditions (pH 6, 20 °C). A comparative analysis of the hydrolysis of two model polyesters by eight different carboxylesterases revealed increasing hydrolysis with increasing accessibility of the enzyme active site. Therefore, this work highlights the importance of both polyester and carboxylesterase structure to enzymatic polyester hydrolysis.

  16. Corn Husk Fiber-Polyester Composites as Sound Absorber: Nonacoustical and Acoustical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasmi Herlina Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the acoustical and nonacoustical properties of composites using corn husk fiber (CHF and unsaturated polyester as the sound-absorbing materials. The influence of the volume fraction of CHF on acoustic performance was experimentally investigated. In addition, the nonacoustical properties, such as air-flow resistivity, porosity, and mechanical properties of composites have been analyzed. The results show that the sound absorptions at low frequencies are determined by the number of lumens in fiber, particularly the absorption coefficient, which increases the amount of fiber. For high-frequency sound, the absorption coefficient is determined by the arrangement of fibers in the composite. An absorption coefficient is close to zero when the fibers are arranged in a conventional pattern; however, when they are arranged in a random pattern, a high absorption coefficient can be obtained. The bond interface between the fiber and resin enhances its mechanical properties, which increases the longevity of the composite panel.

  17. Drop Weight Impact Studies of Woven Fibers Reinforced Modified Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tijani ISA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Low velocity impact tests were conducted on modified unsaturated polyester reinforced with four different woven fabrics using hand-layup method to investigate the effect of fiber type and fiber combinations. The time-load curves were analysed and scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface of the impacted composite laminates. The results indicated that all the composites had ductility index (DI of above two for the test conducted at impact energy of 27J with the monolithic composite of Kevlar having the highest DI. The damage modes observed were mainly matrix cracks and fiber breakages. Hybridization of the fibers in the matrix was observed to minimize these damages.

  18. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering characteris...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values.......Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...... characteristics than the liquid crystalline polyester. The amorphous samples have negligible polarization part orthogonal to the incident beam. the liquid crystalline samples have relative high orthogonal polarization part in light scattering, The light scattering results can be used to give a lower limit...

  19. Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay; Dutch Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized. Special thanks to the Dutch Polymer Institute for financial support

  20. Studies on Wicking Behaviour of Polyester Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arobindo Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate vertical wicking properties of polyester fabric based on change in sample direction and change in tension. Also experimental results are compared with theoretical results. Polyester fabric made out of spun yarn with four types of variation in pick density was used. Theoretical values of vertical wicking were calculated by using Lucas-Washburn equation and experimental results were recorded using strip test method. Maximum height reached experimentally in both warp way and weft way is more than that of the theoretical values. The maximum height attained by fabric experimentally in weft is more as compared to warp way. Vertical wicking increases with increase in tension. This paper is focused on wicking which plays a vital role in determining comfort and moisture transport behavior of fabric.

  1. Effect of Fiber Volume Fraction and Water Absorption toward Bending Strength of Coconut Filters/ Polyester Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Lokantara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The variation of fibre volume and the duration of water soaking take influence on the mechanical properties of composite. This research aim is to know the influence of fraction volume fibre and soaking duration on the mineral watertoward the tensile strength and flexural of polyester-coconut-tapis composite. This research used coconut-tapis fibre which is cut 1 cm in length with 0%, 5%, 7,5%, and 10% fiber volume fraction, unsaturated-polyester (UPRs matrix resin type Yucalac 157 BQTN-EX, and MEKPO hardener. The flexure specimen are made by press hand lay-up method and cut according ASTM D790-03 for the flexure test. The result of flexure test shows that the duration of soaking and the fiber volume fraction give a significant effect on the flexural strength of composite. The highest strength are reached by composite with 10% fibre volume on 48 hour soaking time equal to 41.994 MPa. The flexure modulus happenend shows increasing until 24 hour soaking time. The highest modulus are reached by composite with 10% fibre volume equal to 7.114 GPa while the lowest are reached by composite with 0% fibre volume equal to 3,023 GPa.

  2. Modelling flow through unsaturated zones: Sensitivity to unsaturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 13 October 1997; revised 20 November 2001. Abstract. A numerical model to simulate moisture flow through unsaturated zones is developed using the finite element method, and is validated by comparing the model results with those available in the literature. The sensitivities of different processes such as ...

  3. Bio-based polyesters from cyclic monomers derived from carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Lavilla Aguilar, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Premi extraordinai de doctorat 2013-2014 Polyesters are extremely versatile polymers which can be used in a wide variety of applications ranging from high performance materials to recyclable and degradable polymers. The preparation of polyesters from renewable feedstock is currently receiving increasing attention in both industrial and academic research. This Thesis is specifically addressed to the development of aliphatic and aromatic polyesters with enhanced properties made from carbohyd...

  4. Komposit Hibrid Polyester Berpenguat Serbuk Batang Dan Serat Sabut Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Lumintang, Romels C. A; Soenoko, Rudy; Wahyudi, Slamet

    2011-01-01

    Sawdust coconut trunks of palm trees and fiber coconut coir are two waste materials from the processing of coconuts and coconut tree trunks sawmill waste are plentiful materials can be utilized for producing composites using polyester resins. Both each properties materials as follow polyester resin: liquid in the open air conditions, sawdust coconut and coconut coir fiber properties is lightweight and fragile nature of the polyester adhesive used as a binder (binder) between fiber coconut coi...

  5. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    and holographic storage in one particular polyester are described in detail and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data complementing the optical data are presented. Optical and atomic force microscope investigations point to a laser-induced aggregation as responsible for permanent optical storage.......Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations...

  6. Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe fabrication of polarisation holographic optical elements in azobenzene polyesters. Both liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain polyesters have been utilised. Diffractive optical elements such as lenses and gratings that are sensitive to the polarisation...... of the incident light have been fabricated with polarisation holography. Computer-generated optical elements and patterns have also been written with a single polarised laser beam. Recording of polarisation defects enabling easy visualisation is also shown to be feasible in azobenzene polyesters....

  7. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of sub micron sized fly ash reinforced polyester resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantha Kumar, P.; Rajadurai, A.; Muthuramalingam, T.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of particles reinforced resin matrix composites is being increased owing to its lower density and high strength to weight ratio. In the present study, an attempt has been made to synthesize fly ash particles reinforced polyester resin composite for engine cowling application. The thermal stability and mechanical behaviours such as hardness and flexural strength of the composite with 2, 3 and 4 weight % of reinforcement is studied and analyzed. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates that the higher addition of reinforcement increases the decomposition temperature due to its refractory nature. It is also observed that the hardness increases with higher filler addition owing to the resistance of FA particles towards penetration. The flexural strength is found to increase up to the addition of 3% of FA particles, whereas the polyester resin composite prepared with 4% FA particles addition is observed to have low flexural strength owing to agglomeration of particles.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of poly(ester amide from remewable resources through melt polycondensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(ester amides (PEAs were synthesized from lactic acid and 11-aminoundecanoic acid via melt polycondensation. Molecular weights, chemical structures and thermal properties of the poly(ester amides were characterized in terms of gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively. The PEAs have low molecular weights and display a lower cold crystallization temperature as well as smaller crystallinity by comparison with the pure poly(lactic acid (PLA. The incorporation of the 11-aminoundecanoic acid into the PLA chain not only improved the thermal stability but changed the decomposition process.

  9. INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF METHYLENE SPACERS ON THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF SEVERAL ALIPHATIC-AROMATIC POLYESTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA HURDUC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyesters have a wide range of technical applications and therefore their processing is of the utmost importance. Since polyesters are usually processed by melting, their thermal stability is an extremely important characteristic for the exact determination of the operational parameters. The thermal analysis was carried out using a MOM-Budapest derivatograph at the 10 C/min heating speed, aluminum oxide the reference material, and the air conditions were static. The study lead to conclusions on the thermal stability and degradation mechanism depending on the number of methylene groups in the spacer. Thermal stability is supported by the increase in the number of methylene groups in the spacer. The degradation mechanism is complex through successive reactions. The spacer size influences the nature of the micromolecules formed by spacer fragmenting and by the number of carbon atoms, respectively.

  10. Thermal, electrical, mechanical and fluidity properties of polyester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bariş Şimşek

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... Design of experiment; electrical resistivity; polyester-reinforced concrete composites; thermal conductivity; product design. 1. Introduction. In recent years, polyesters have been widely used in resin systems to provide extraordinary mechanical [1], corrosion and water resistance properties to composite ...

  11. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyester fabric is treated with DCDMS solution by two methods: dipping the fabric directly in DCDMS solution for different intervals and dipping the fabric in DCDMS solution after its exposure into RF plasma chamber for different durations at optimized exposure power conditions. The physical properties of polyester fabric ...

  12. Hyperbranched polyester: single route synthesis, characterization and evaluation as impact modifier of an epoxy resin; Poliester hiperramificado: sintese por uma rota simples, caracterizacao e avaliacao como modificador de impacto de uma resina epoxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, B.H.S.; Sousa, A.R., E-mail: rangel@deii.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (DEMAT/CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Alves, A.P.P.; Silva, G.G. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Lab. de Materiais Polimericos Multicomponentes

    2015-07-01

    Two hyperbranched polyesters were obtained using glycerol and adipic acid as monomers, they were characterized through nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) to branching degree determination, size exclusion chromatography to molar mass obtention and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to evaluate the thermal stability. The polyesters synthesized were added to epoxy resin, at 10% by weight, to evaluate the implication on mechanical properties, impact and stress strain, and thermal (glassy transition temperature - Tg). We observed that rising the synthesis time from 6 to 15,5 hours the degree of branching, molar mass and thermal stability of the polyester increased. The addition of hyperbranched polyesters did not change the mechanical properties of epoxy resin significantly, but the Tg was reduced. (author)

  13. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  14. Photosensitized oxidation of unsaturated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The photosensitized oxidation or singlet oxygenation of unsaturated hydrocarbon polymers and of their model compounds was reviewed. Emphasis was on cis and trans forms of 1,4-polyisoprene, 1,4-polybutadiene and 1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene), and on 1,4-poly(2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene). The microstructural changes which occur in these polymers on reaction with O2-1 in solution were investigated by infrared H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. The polymers were shown to yield allylic hydroperoxides with shifted double bonds according to the ene mechanism established for simple olefins. The photosensitized oxidation of the above unsaturated polymer exhibited zero order kinetics, the relative rates paralleling the reactivities of the corresponding simple olefins towards O2-1.

  15. The effect of mechanical loads on the degradation of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Chu, Zhaowei; Li, Xiaoming; Ding, Xili; Guo, Meng; Zhao, Haoran; Yao, Jie; Wang, Lizhen; Cai, Qiang; Fan, Yubo

    2017-06-01

    Aliphatic biodegradable polyesters have been the most widely used synthetic polymers for developing biodegradable devices as alternatives for the currently used permanent medical devices. The performances during biodegradation process play crucial roles for final realization of their functions. Because physiological and biochemical environment in vivo significantly affects biodegradation process, large numbers of studies on effects of mechanical loads on the degradation of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters have been launched during last decades. In this review article, we discussed the mechanism of biodegradation and several different mechanical loads that have been reported to affect the biodegradation process. Other physiological and biochemical factors related to mechanical loads were also discussed. The mechanical load could change the conformational strain energy and morphology to weaken the stability of the polymer. Besides, the load and pattern could accelerate the loss of intrinsic mechanical properties of polymers. This indicated that investigations into effects of mechanical loads on the degradation should be indispensable. More combination condition of mechanical loads and multiple factors should be considered in order to keep the degradation rate controllable and evaluate the degradation process in vivo accurately. Only then can the degradable devise achieve the desired effects and further expand the special applications of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters.

  16. Synthesis of Cu-Ag@Ag particles using hyperbranched polyester as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Song

    2015-07-01

    In this manuscript, the third-generation hyperbranched polyester was synthesized with 2, 2-dimethylol propionic acid as AB2 monomer and pentaerythrite as core molecule by using step by step polymerization process at first. Then, the Cu-Ag particles were prepared by co-reduction of silver nitrate and copper nitrate with ascorbic acid in the aqueous solution using hyperbranched polyester as template. Finally, the Cu-Ag@Ag particles were prepared by coating silver on the surface of Cu-Ag particles by reduction of silver nitrate. The synthesized hyperbranched polyester and Cu-Ag@Ag particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectra, x-ray diffraction, Laser light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM. UV-vis spectra results showed that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had a strong absorption band at around 420 nm. Laser light scattering and SEM studies confirmed that the most frequent particle sizes of Cu-Ag@Ag particles were 1.2 um. TGA results indicated that the Cu-Ag@Ag particles had good thermal stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohdy, Maged H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hydrazine hydrate (HZH) treatment and/or gamma irradiation on the dyeing, mechanical and thermal properties of polyester fabrics (PET) was studied. The different factors that may affect the dyeing performance, such as concentrations of HZH, benzyl alcohol and pH values, were investigated. In this regard, the colour strength of untreated polyester fabrics dyed with the dyestuffs Dispersol blue BR, Dispersol orange B2R and Dispersol red B2B was found to be 10.34, 10.76 and 10.12 compared to 24.61, 24.90 and 23.00 in the case of irradiated and HZH-treated polyester fabrics, respectively. These colour strength values were achieved by preirradiation at a dose of 75kGy followed by treatment with 15mll-1 of HZH. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition stability was improved by using gamma irradiation and the treatment with HZH as indicated by the calculated activation energies. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with HZH acts as cationizer prior to dyeing with disperse dyes

  18. Protoenzymes: the case of hyperbranched polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamajanov, Irena; Cody, George D.

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands. Synthesis of such elaborate complexes has proven difficult under prebiotically plausible conditions. We explore here that catalysis may have been performed by alternative polymeric structures, namely hyperbranched polymers. Hyperbranched polymers are relatively complex structures that can be synthesized under prebiotically plausible conditions; their globular structure is ensured by virtue of their architecture rather than folding. In this study, we probe the ability of tertiary amine-bearing hyperbranched polyesters to form hydrophobic pockets as a reaction-promoting medium for the Kemp elimination reaction. Our results show that polyesters formed upon reaction between glycerol, triethanolamine and organic acid containing hydrophobic groups, i.e. adipic and methylsuccinic acid, are capable of increasing the rate of Kemp elimination by a factor of up to 3 over monomeric triethanolamine. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  19. Elastic Compositions Based on Polyurethane/ Aliphatic Polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Mazroua, A.M.; Sadek, E.M.; Emam, A.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Aliphatic polyesters were prepared by melt condensation reaction of a dicarboxylic acid such as adipic and sebacic with different types of diol compounds in 1: 1.1 molar ratio. Ethylene glycol, di-, trio, tetra ethylene glycol and poly( ethylene glycol) with different molecular weights 1000, 4000, 6000 as well as the prepared hydroxy natural rubber were used as diol compounds. Polyurethane, with NCO/OH ratio equal 4, was synthesized from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate with poly(ethylene glycol) 1 000. The prepared polyurethane was mixed with different weight percentages of the prepared aliphatic polyesters. The film samples were tested mechanically, electrically and chemically. The results show that the weight percentage 10% of the added polyadipate or poly sebacate glycols improves flexibility, electrical volume resistivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of unmodified rigid polyurethane film sample as well as reduces its swelling by aromatic solvents. All the above mentioned properties improve by increasing the hydrocarbon chain length of the glycol portion in the glycol used and the number of methylene in the aliphatic dicarboxylic acid. Compositions based on hydroxy natural rubber impart better properties than those based on ethylene glycols

  20. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  1. Preparation of polymers suitable for radiation shielding and studying its properties (polyester composites with heavy metals salts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Al-Ajji, Z.; Yousef, S.

    2010-12-01

    Four composites were prepared in this work, based on polyester and heavy metals oxides and salts. The attenuation properties, as well as mechanical properties were studied, and the chemical stability was evaluated. It has been shown, that these composites can be used in radiation shielding for X-rays successfully, and the exact composition of these composites can be optimized according to the radiation energy to prepare the lightest possible shield. (author)

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Ethylene DiamineTetera Acetic Acid Polyester-amides polymer with Aminoalcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakhil Nasser Taha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available linear aromatic and aliphatic polyester-amides (PEAs have been synthesized by polycondensation of aliphatic and aromatic aminoalcohol (Ethanol amine, 2-amino-2-methyl-propan-1-ol, m-amino phenol with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA as a favorable and combined complexing compound was joined into the polymer backbone with poly addition reactions. These polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, solubility studies , elemental analysis, , Thermal analyses such as TGA were measured, intrinsic viscosity. The poly(ester-amides obtained show good thermal stability.

  3. Electrospinning of microbial polyester for cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Oh Hyeong; Lee, Ik Sang; Ko, Young-Gwang; Meng, Wan; Jung, Kyung-Hye; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a copolymer of microbial polyester, was fabricated as a nanofibrous mat by electrospinning. The specific surface area and the porosity of electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat were determined. When the mechanical properties of flat film and electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mats were investigated, both the tensile modulus and strength of electrospun PHBV were less than those of cast PHBV film. However, the elongation ratio of nanofiber mat was higher than that of the cast film. The structure of electrospun nanofibers using PHBV-trifluoroethanol solutions depended on the solution concentrations. When x-ray diffraction patterns of bulk PHBV before and after electrospinning were compared, the crystallinity of PHBV was not significantly affected by the electrospinning process. Chondrocytes adhered and grew on the electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat better than on the cast PHBV film. Therefore, the electrospun PHBV was considered to be suitable for cell culture

  4. Characterization of material composite marble-polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpas, F. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we characterize a new material composite, formed with a polyester and crushed white marble mixture. The final purpose is double: to obtain a material for applications sufficiently competitive after an economic viability study, increasing the yield of the main commodity, using waste marble and improving the jobs in the quarries area. From the results obtained, we deduce then that this material could be used to inside and outside adornment.

    En este trabajo, caracterizamos un nuevo material compuesto, formado con una mezcla de poliéster y de mármol blanco triturado. El propósito final es doble: por un lado obtener un material para aplicaciones lo suficientemente competitivas como para que se pueda iniciar un estudio económico de viabilidad, aumentando el rendimiento de la materia prima y mejorando las salidas laborales de las comarcas extractoras. Para la caracterización del material se ha determinado el porcentaje adecuado de poliéster. Así como las propiedades mecánicas (flexión, compresión y dureza, químicas, fatiga térmica y su influencia a la exposición solar In order to characterized of material, we have determined the suitable porcentage of polyester Also we have carried out a study of the mechanical (stretching, resistance to traction, hardeness and thermal fatigue chemicals properties and solar radiation influence. De los resultados obtenidos, este material podría ser utilizado para ornamentación tanto de interior como de exterior.

  5. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from 2-chloro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAGESH MANURKAR

    2017-08-24

    -hydroxy benzoyloxy]-. 2-chloro-1,4-benzene (BHBOCB) and aliphatic dicarboxylic acid chlorides by interfacial polycondensation methodology is presented. Synthesised polyesters consist of bis[4-hydroxy ...

  6. Nano-biocomposites based on synthetic aliphatic polyesters and nanoclay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the recent developments in the preparation, characterisation, properties, crystallisation behaviour, and melt rheology of clay-containing composites of biodegradable synthetic aliphatic polyesters such as poly...

  7. Amino alcohol-based degradable poly(ester amide) elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Bettinger (Christopher); J.P. Bruggeman (Joost); J.T. Borenstein (Jeffrey); R.S. Langer (Robert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCurrently available synthetic biodegradable elastomers are primarily composed of crosslinked aliphatic polyesters, which suffer from deficiencies including (1) high crosslink densities, which results in exceedingly high stiffness, (2) rapid degradation upon implantation, or (3) limited

  8. Polyesters production from the mixture of phthalic acid, terephthalic and glycerol; Producao de poliesteres a partir da mistura de acido ftalico, tereftalico e glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A.L.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Boaventura, J.S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: adrianaequfba@gmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais; Carvalho, R.F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Ambiental Urbana

    2010-07-01

    Glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel is currently an environmental and economic problem for producers of this renewable fuel in Brazil and in others parts of the world. In order to offer new proposals for recovery, it is used for the manufacture of polyesters used in applications in diverse areas such as construction and automobile industry. This work reports the production of polymer from the mixture of terephthalic and phthalic acid in three different proportions. The polyesters showed good thermal stability, analyzed by TGA and DSC, with an increase proportional to the terephthalic acid content. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples are semi crystalline polymers. The micrographs indicated the presence of a smoother surface in the polyester that has a larger amount of phthalic acid, as reported in the literature. Therefore, the materials showed good thermal properties and morphological characteristics, so it consists in a new alternative to use glycerin. (author)

  9. Application of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish butea monosperma leaves on fabric properties of polyester and cotton/polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Saeed, M.; Kalsoom, S.; Saeed, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to check the effect of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish on 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester woven fabrics. The leaves' extract of Butea monosperma was used as an eco-friendly antimicrobial finish. The fabric was first desized, scoured, bleached and washed then antimicrobial finish was applied by using pad dry cure method. The aesthetic, comfort and mechanical fabrics properties were checked before and after applying antimicrobial finish. Under aesthetic property stiffness and smoothness appearance was checked, under comfort related property absorbency and air permeability was checked and under mechanical property tear and tensile strength was checked. The antimicrobial finish was checked by using ASTEM E2149 Shake Flask method. The AATCC and ISO standard testing methods were used for checking fabric properties. One way ANOVA statistical test was applied for analysis of results. Antimicrobial finish has increased aesthetic (stiffness, smoothness appearance), comfort (absorbency, air permeability) and mechanical (tensile and tear strengths) properties of polyester and cotton/polyester fabrics. The antimicrobial finish was effective on both 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester fabrics up to 25 washes. This study is beneficial to medical industry, paramedical staff, sports wears, home furnishing as well as common people. (author)

  10. In-Situ sonosynthesis of Hedgehog-like nickel nanoparticles on polyester fabric producing magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Sepideh; Montazer, Majid

    2018-04-01

    Recently, nano finishing of textiles is increasingly attracted many researchers to create new features on the products. Here a new fabric is introduced through simultaneous aminolysis and hydrolysis of polyester along with in-situ sonosynthesis of hedgehog shaped nickel nanoparticles on the fabric with magnetic properties. To do this, nickel sulfate, hydrazine hydrate, sodium hydroxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as a precursor, reducing agent, alkali and stabilizer respectively. Nickel sulfate was reduced to nickel nanoparticles with hydrazine hydrate at the adjusted pH with NaOH in the presence of PVP at 75 °C for 2 h. The polyester fabric was aminolyzed and hydrolyzed produced various functional groups on the fabric surface assisted nucleation and stabilization of nickel nanoparticles. The morphology, crystal phase, magnetic properties and chemical structure of the treated fabrics were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The optimized sample treated with 3.19 (mL) hydrazine hydrate, 3.99 (mL) sodium hydroxide and 0.41 (g) nickel sulfate showed reasonable saturation magnetization value of 4.5 emu g -1 . The treated fabrics showed no antibacterial and antifungal behavior indicating the safety of the products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RADIOGRAFIA E MACROSCOPIA DO JOELHO APÓS ESTABILIZAÇÃO EXTRA-ARTICULAR UTILIZANDO FÁSCIA LATA, FIO DE POLIÉSTER TRANÇADO OU FIO DE POLIAMIDA PARA CORREÇÃO DA RUPTURA DO LIGAMENTO CRUZADO CRANIAL EM CÃES RADIOGRAPH AND MACROSCOPY OF STIFLE JOINT AFTER EXTRA-ARTICULAR STABILIZATION EMPLOYING FASCIA LATA, BRAIDED POLYESTER AND POLYAMIDA TO CORRECT CRANIAL CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RUPTURE IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Carvalho Buquera

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial é uma das principais doenças ortopédicas que afetam os cães. Muitas técnicas cirúrgicas foram descritas no intuito de aliviar a dor, restaurar a estabilidade biomecânica do joelho e prevenir a progressão da osteoartrite. Fáscia lata, fio de poliéster trançado e fio de poliamida foram empregados na estabilização do joelho após excisão do ligamento cruzado cranial em cães, os quais foram submetidos à avaliação radiográfica e macroscópica da articulação. Neste estudo, foram utilizados 18 cães com massa corporal superior a 15Kg (peso médio - 19,67kg, separados em 3 grupos eqüitativos correspondentes a cada técnica, avaliados durante 30 e 60 dias. Ao exame radiográfico, independentemente de grupo, os cães apresentaram evidência de efusão articular moderada a severa, distensão da cápsula articular e, na maioria dos casos, ausência de sinais de doença articular degenerativa. Ao exame macroscópico da articulação do joelho observou-se espessamento da cápsula articular e tecidos moles periarticulares, erosão da cartilagem articular dos côndilos femorais em todos os grupos e afrouxamento dos fios nos cães submetidos às técnicas de estabilização extra-articular com fio de poliéster trançado e fio de poliamida.The cranial cruciate ligament rupture is one of the main orthopaedic diseases which affect dogs. Many surgical techniques have been described and they aim to relief the pain, restore stifle biomechanical stability and prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Fascia lata, braided polyester and polyamida were used in lateral fabellar suture to stifle stabilization after induced cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs that were submitted to radiographic and macroscopic evaluation of joint. In this study 18 dogs weighting more than 15kg were used (middleweight - 19.67kg, distributed in three groups corresponding to each technique, evaluated during 30 and 60 days. In

  12. Properties of melt processed chitosan and aliphatic polyester blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correlo, V.M. [3B' s Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Boesel, L.F. [3B' s Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Bhattacharya, M. [3B' s Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal)]. E-mail: bhatt002@umn.edu; Mano, J.F. [3B' s Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Neves, N.M. [3B' s Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Reis, R.L. [3B' s Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal)

    2005-08-25

    Chitosan was melt blended with poly-{epsilon}-caprolactone (PCL), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(butylene terephthalate adipate) (PBTA), and poly(butylene succinate adipate) (PBSA). For the chitosan/PBS blend, the amount of chitosan was varied from 25% to 70% by weight. The remaining polyesters had 50% of chitosan by weight. Addition of chitosan to PBS or PBSA tends to depress the melting temperature of the polyester. The crystallinity of the polyesters (PCL, PBS, PBSA) containing 50% chitosan decreased. Adding chitosan to the blends decreased the tensile strength but increased the tensile modulus. Chitosan displayed intermediate adhesion to the polyester matrix. Microscopic results indicate that the skin layer is polyester rich, while the core is a blend of chitosan and polyester. Fractured surface of chitosan blended with a high T {sub g} polymer, such as PLA, displayed a brittle fracture. Blends of chitosan with PCL, PBTA, or PBSA display fibrous appearances at the fractured surface due to the stretching of the polymer threads. Increasing the amount of chitosan in the blends also reduced the ductility of the fractured surface. The chitosan phase agglomerated into spherical domains or were clustered into sheaths. Pull-out of chitosan particles is evident in tensile-fractured surfaces for blends of chitosan with ductile polymers but absent in the blends with PLA. PBS displays a less lamellar orientation when compared to PCL or PBSA. The orientation of the polyesters (PCL, PBSA) does not seem to be affected by the addition of chitosan. The two main diffraction peaks observed using WAXS are unaffected by the addition of chitosan.

  13. An Undergraduate Experiment in Polyester (PET) Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammidge, Andrew N.

    1999-02-01

    The most important polyester manufactured industrially is PET (polyethyleneterephthalate). We describe an experiment that conveniently mimics the industrial synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory. The first step of the reaction is a base-catalyzed transesterification between ethane diol and dimethylterephthalate. Methanol is distilled off to drive the reaction to completion. Excess ethane diol is employed to suppress formation of higher oligomers. The intermediate (bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate) is isolated by crystallization and filtration and characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the second step the monomer is heated (with and without acid catalyst) to form polymer. Samples are removed at intervals and their physical properties are recorded as they cool. These properties are used to qualitatively monitor polymerization. This experiment reinforces some fundamental chemical concepts and introduces the students to new laboratory procedures. The students perform a distillation and apply their knowledge of the reaction equilibrium to calculate the volume of distillate (methanol) expected. The reversible nature of esterification reactions is emphasized during the polymerization step (acid-catalyzed), where the process is driven towards polymer formation by the removal (evaporation) of ethane diol.

  14. The unsaturated bistable stochastic resonance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenli; Wang, Juan; Wang, Linze

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the characteristics of the output saturation of the classical continuous bistable system (saturation bistable system) and its impact on stochastic resonance (SR). We further proposed a piecewise bistable SR system (unsaturated bistable system) and developed the expression of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using the adiabatic approximation theory. Compared with the saturation bistable system, the SNR is significantly improved in our unsaturated bistable SR system. The numerical simulation showed that the unsaturated bistable system performed better in extracting weak signals from strong background noise than the saturation bistable system.

  15. SOLUTION RHEOLOGY OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS AND THEIR BLENDS WITH LINEAR POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the rheological properties of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solvent and their blends with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) have ben investigated. All the hyperbranched polyester solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior...

  16. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  17. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  18. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  19. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fire-retardant Polyester Composites from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Wastes Reinforced with Coconut Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Munirah Abdullah; Ishak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Coconut fibre reinforced composite was prepared by blending unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) from waste PET with 0.3 v % of coconut fibre. The coconut fibres were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide followed by silane prior to inclusion into the UPR. The untreated coconut fibres reinforced composite were used as a control. DriconR as a phosphate type of flame retardant was then added to the composite to reduce the flammability of the composite. The amount of DriconR was varied from 0 to 10 wt % of the overall mass of resin. The burning properties and limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the treated and untreated composites increased with the addition of Dricon. The tensile strength and modulus of both composites were also increased with the addition of DriconR. The treated fibre composite with 5 wt % DriconR showed the highest burning time and LOI with the values of 101.5 s and 34 s, respectively. The optimum tensile strength and modulus for treated fibre composite was at 5 wt % DriconR whereas the untreated fibre composite was at 2.5 wt % loading of DriconR. Thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis indicated that the degradation temperature increased with the addition of DriconR up to 5 wt % into UPR/ coconut fibre composites. Morphological observations indicated better distribution of DriconR for treated fibre composite resulted in enhancement of the tensile properties of the treated fibre composite. (author)

  1. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  2. 76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-825 and 826...

  3. Aliphatic long-chain C20 polyesters from olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaskowski, Justyna; Quinzler, Dorothee; Bährle, Christian; Mecking, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Self-metathesis of undecenoic acid with [(PCy3)2Cl2Ru=CHPh] (2), followed by exhaustive hydrogenation yielded pure 1,20-eicosanedioic acid (5) (>99%) free of side-products from isomerization. Polycondensation with eicosane-1,20-diol (6), formed by reduction of the diol, yielded polyester 20,20 (Tm = 108 °C). By comparison, the known ADMET polymerization of undec-10-enyl undec-10-enoate (7), and subsequent exhaustive polymer-analogous hydrogenation yielded a polyester (poly-8) with irregular structure of the ester groups in the polymer chain (-O(C=O)- vs. -C(=O)O-) (Tm = 103 °C). Hydrogenation of secondary dispersions of poly-7 yielded aqueous dispersions of the long-chain aliphatic polyester poly-8. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S.; Fiuza, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  5. Rewritable azobenzene polyester for polarization holographic data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, A; Sajti, Sz.; Loerincz, Emoeke

    2000-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester films were examined by polarization holographic measurements. The new amorphous polyester film is the candidate material for the purpose of rewritable holographic memory system. Temporal formation of anisotropic and topographic...... gratings was studied in case of films with and without a hard protective layer. We showed that the dominant contribution to the diffraction efficiency comes from the anisotropy in case of expositions below 1 sec even for high incident intensity. The usage of the same wavelength for writing, reading...

  6. Tandem synthesis of alternating polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Carine; de Montigny, Frédéric; Thomas, Christophe M

    2011-12-13

    The vast majority of commodity materials are obtained from petrochemical feedstocks. These resources will plausibly be depleted within the next 100 years, and the peak in global oil production is estimated to occur within the next few decades. In this regard, biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of polymers. Here we report a new strategy, based on tandem catalysis, to obtain renewable materials. Commercially available complexes are found to be efficient catalysts for alternating polyesters from the cyclization of dicarboxylic acids followed by alternating copolymerization of the resulting anhydrides with epoxides. This operationally simple method is an attractive strategy for the production of new biodegradable polyesters.

  7. Bioremediation of pesticide contaminated water using an organophosphate degrading enzyme immobilized on nonwoven polyester textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Truong, Yen Bach; Cacioli, Paul; Butler, Phil; Kyratzis, Ilias Louis

    2014-01-10

    Bioremediation using enzymes has become an attractive approach for removing hazardous chemicals such as organophosphate pesticides from the environment. Enzymes immobilized on solid carriers are particularly suited for such applications. In this study, the organophosphate degrading enzyme A (OpdA) was covalently immobilized on highly porous nonwoven polyester fabrics for organophosphate pesticide degradation. The fabrics were first activated with ethylenediamine to introduce free amine groups, and the enzyme was then attached using the bifunctional crosslinker glutaraldehyde. The immobilization only slightly increased the Km (for methyl parathion, MP), broadened the pH profile such that the enzyme had significant activity at acidic pH, and enhanced the stability of the enzyme. The OpdA-functionalized fabrics could be stored in a phosphate buffer or in the dry state at 4°C for at least 4 weeks without a large loss of activity. When used in batch mode, the functionalized textiles could degrade 20 μM MP in un-buffered water at liquor to fabric ratios as high as 5000:1 within 2h, and could be used repeatedly. The fabrics could also be made into columns for continuous pesticide degradation. The columns were able to degrade 50 μM MP at high flow rates, and could be used repeatedly over 2 months. These results demonstrate that OpdA immobilized on nonwoven polyester fabrics is useful in environmental remediation of organophosphate compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion Protection Performance of Polyester-Melamine Coating with Natural Wood Fiber Using EIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, PyongHwa; Shon, MinYoung [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, DuHwan [POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, polyester-melamine coating systems with natural wood fiber (NWF) were prepared and the effects of NWF on the corrosion protectiveness of the polyester-melamine coating were examined using EIS analysis. From the results, higher average surface roughness was observed with increase of NWF content. Water diffusivity and water uptake into the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF were much higher than that into the pure polyester-melamine coating. The decrease in the impedance modulus |Z| was associated with the localized corrosion on carbon steel, confirming that corrosion protection of the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF well agrees with its water transport behavior.

  9. Homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, B.; Vlugter, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    The use of copper and cadmium oxides or soaps as catalysts for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols has been investigated. It is shown that copper soaps homogeneously activate hydrogen. When copper and cadmium oxides are used as catalysts, they react with the

  10. Radiocolloid transport in saturated and unsaturated fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Jain, R.; Fertelli, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that radionuclides and toxic materials can attach to colloidal particles in groundwater or are themselves colloids. Since these contaminated particles can migrate several miles, toxic colloids present a potential environmental problem: They can rapidly transfer toxic materials through groundwater and pollute drinking water aquifers. Present in this paper is a colloid transport model for single fractures and the resulting simulations of colloid transport in both saturated and unsaturated fracture flow regimes. Results indicated that colloid diffusion rate in the direction normal to flow was an important parameter which was the rate controlling step in the process of colloids diffusing to the fracture wall and being captured. Colloid diffusion is an important parameter because the rate is approximately three orders of magnitude lower for colloids than for molecular species. An analysis of the average fluid velocities for saturated versus unsaturated cases showed that for the same fluid thickness, maximum and average velocities of unsaturated flow case were four times greater than that of the saturated case. In the unsaturated case where colloids migrate irreversibly to the air/water interface, migration rate will be six times the average rate of a saturated fracture. Therefore, unsaturated flow can potentially enhance colloid migration in comparison to the saturated case. A study of various rock/water boundary conditions was also performed and the results showed that irreversible capture was necessary to fully stop colloid propagation

  11. Synthesis and characterization of gelatin based polyester urethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polyester urethane; scaffold; tensile strength; swelling; degradation; cell culture. 1. Introduction. The development of tissue engineering devices and cell- based artificial organs requires a large number of cells to be cultured for the replacement of the damaged tissue. Porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds would be ideal.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of gelatin based polyester urethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    After 48 h, the culture plates were analysed under microscope for cell growth pattern as well as their adhesion and spreading. 3. Results and discussion. 3.1 Synthesis of gelatin based polyester urethane scaffold. The main objective of this investigation was to design and synthesize some novel biodegradable polyurethane.

  13. Blends of Amphiphilic, Hyperbranched Polyesters and Different Polyolefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaljohann, D.; Pötschke, P.; Hässler, R.; Voit, B.I.; Froehling, P.E.; Mostert, B.; Loontjens, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A hyperbranched polyester based on 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was completely modified with dodecanoyl chloride to result in an amphiphilic, globular polymer, which has a polar core and a nonpolar outer sphere with the ability both to incorporate an organic dye and to interact with a nonpolar matrix.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters from renewable cardol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preparation and thermal characteristics of new polyesters from cardol, a renewable monomer obtained as a by-product of the cashew industry, are reported. Cardol - a diol component of the natural product cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was isolated and reacted with adipoyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in a 1:1 ...

  15. Production of Microbial Polyesters: Fermentation and Downstream Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, B.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Witholt, B.; Eggink, G.

    2001-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) constitute a large and versatile family of polyesters produced by various bacteria. PHAs are receiving considerable attention because of their potential as renewable and biodegradable plastics, and as a source of chiral synthons since the monomers are chiral.

  16. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polyester fabric is treated with DCDMS solution by two methods: dipping the fabric directly in DCDMS solution for different intervals and dipping the fabric in. DCDMS solution after its exposure into RF plasma chamber for different durations at optimized exposure power conditions. The physical properties of ...

  17. 21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accomplish the intended physical or technical effect and does not exceed any limitations prescribed in this.... Reinforcements: Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the condensation of one or more of the acids... following extractives limitations: (1) Net chloroform-soluble extractives not to exceed 0.1 milligram per...

  18. Drilling analysis of coir–fibre-reinforced polyester composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mized for studying drilling characteristics of coir–polyester composites using the Taguchi approach. A drill bit diameter of 6 mm, spindle speed of 600 ... epoxy resin and made suggestions for low-load applica- tions. They assessed only the limited .... the multi-channel charge amplifier. A Rapid-I machine vision system from ...

  19. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency property∗. C J JAHAGIRDAR and L B TIWARI1. Applied Physics Division, Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai,. Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India. 1Present address: B/18, B-304, Gulshan, Gokuldham, Goregaon (East), Mumbai 400 063,.

  20. Advanced microgel-functionalized polyester textiles adaptive to ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.

    2011-01-01

    A new approach toward textile-based multi-functional and stimuli-responsive materials is proposed. Polyelectrolyte microgel technology is combined with conventional functionalization methods of photo- and thermo-crosslinking to activate the surface of polyester textiles, making them interactive with

  1. Adsorption of proteins from plasma at polyester non-wovens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, A.J.A.; Klomp, A.J.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Mol, J.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Polyester non-wovens in filters for the removal of leukocytes from platelet concentrates (PCs) must be platelet compatible. In PC filtration, the adsorption of proteins at the plasma–non-woven interface can be of great importance with respect to the yield of platelets. Unmodified and radio frequency

  2. Electrokinetic extraction of chromate from unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, E.D. [SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, E.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in industrial nations. Remediation by excavation of such sites may not be cost effective or politically acceptable. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible remediation technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Previous papers discussing the work performed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Sat-Unsat, Inc. (SUI) (Lindgren et al., 1991, 1992, 1993) focused on the transport of contaminants and dyes by electrokinetics in unsaturated soils. These experiments were conducted with graphite electrodes with no extraction system. As the contaminants migrated through the soil, they increased in concentration at the electrode creating a diffusion flux in the opposite direction. This paper discusses a technique to remove the contaminants from unsaturated soils once they have reached an electrode.

  3. Electrokinetic extraction of chromate from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, E.D.; Lindgren, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in industrial nations. Remediation by excavation of such sites may not be cost effective or politically acceptable. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible remediation technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Previous papers discussing the work performed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Sat-Unsat, Inc. (SUI) (Lindgren et al., 1991, 1992, 1993) focused on the transport of contaminants and dyes by electrokinetics in unsaturated soils. These experiments were conducted with graphite electrodes with no extraction system. As the contaminants migrated through the soil, they increased in concentration at the electrode creating a diffusion flux in the opposite direction. This paper discusses a technique to remove the contaminants from unsaturated soils once they have reached an electrode

  4. Preparation and properties of copper/polyaniline/polyester composite electromagnetic shielding fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing YU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conductive polyaniline and polyester composite fabric(PANI/PET is prepared by in-situ polymerization, and after it is activated by hyperbranched polyamidomine/Ag+, Cu is uniformly deposited on its surface by electroless copper plating, finally Cu/PANI/PET composite fabric is obtained. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness are used to analyze the samples. The results show that using PANI as the middle layer can reduce the average grain size apparently and improve the thermal stability and the friction resistance, and the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of Cu/PANI/PET can reach 130 dB in the frequency range of 300 kHz~3 GHz.

  5. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Calvimontes, A.; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate

  6. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  7. Correlation equation for predicting attachment efficiency (α) of organic matter-colloid complexes in unsaturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Verónica L; Sang, Wenjng; Fuka, Daniel R; Lion, Leonard W; Gao, Bin; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring polymers such as organic matter have been known to inhibit aggregation and promote mobility of suspensions in soil environments by imparting steric stability. This increase in mobility can significantly reduce the water filtering capacity of soils, thus jeopardizing a primary function of the vadose zone. Improvements to classic filtration theory have been made to account for the known decrease in attachment efficiency of electrostatically stabilized particles, and more recently, of sterically stabilized particles traveling through simple and saturated porous media. In the absence of an established unsaturated transport expression, and in the absence of applicable theoretical approaches for suspensions with asymmetric and nonindifferent electrolytes, this study presents an empirical correlation to predict attachment efficiency (α) for electrosterically stabilized suspensions in unsaturated systems in the presence of nonideal electrolytes. We show that existing models fall short in estimating polymer-coated colloid deposition in unsaturated media. This deficiency is expected given that the models were developed for saturated conditions where the mechanisms controlling colloid deposition are significantly different. A new correlation is derived from unsaturated transport data and direct characterization of microspheres coated with natural organic matter over a range of pH and CaCl(2) concentrations. The improvements to existing transport models include the following: adjustment for a restricted liquid-phase in the medium, development of a quantitative term to account for unsaturated transport phenomena, and adjustments in the relative contribution of steric stability parameters based on direct measurements of the adsorbed polymer layer characteristics. Differences in model formulation for correlations designed for saturated systems and the newly proposed correlation for unsaturated systems are discussed, and the performance of the new model

  8. Chemical structures and thermal properties of polyesters obtained from different samples of bio diesel epoxidized; Estruturas quimicas e propriedades termicas de poliesteres obtidos a partir de diferentes tipos de biodiesel epoxidado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, Dimitrios; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Nicolau, Aline; Martini, Denise D.; Chagas, Arthur L. das, E-mail: dsamios@iq.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Dinamica Molecular

    2009-07-01

    In this work new structures from oligo esters and polyesters from different oils (olive oil, sunflower oil and linseed oil) were synthesized and characterized. Oligo esters and polyesters were synthesized from the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy-esters, obtained from different oils, with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). Different amounts of the resin 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE) were added in order to increase the capacity of crosslinking. The molar ratio of BDGE used in system was between 0 and 0.066. The intermediate structures, as well as the oligo esters and polyesters produced, were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 1}H - NMR). The thermal behavior of the products was realized through differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the materials chains increases the bonding capacity resulting in a higher molecular weight material which presents good thermal stability. (author)

  9. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. REZA TAYEBEE. Department of Chemistry, Sabzevar Teacher Training University, Sabzevar, Iran 397 e-mail: rtayebee@sttu.ac.ir. MS received 4 June ...

  10. Oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, van der F.; Hoorn, van den M.H.; Blaauw, R.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Long-chain internal olefins were prepared by silver(II)-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids by sodium peroxydisulfate. Similar to saturated carboxylic acids, 1-alkenes were the major decarboxylation product in the additional presence of copper(II), whereas in the absence

  11. Influence of Sawdust Bio-filler on the Tensile, Flexural, and Impact Properties of Mangifera Indica Leaf Stalk Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckadka Srinivas Shenoy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to have biodegradable composites is aloft in today’s market as they are environment friendly and are also easy to fabricate. In this study, mangifera indica leaf stalk fibres were used as reinforcement along with saw dust as bio-filler material. Unsaturated isophthalic polyester resin was used as the matrix. The fibres were treated with 6 % vol. NaOH and neutralized with 3 % vol. of dilute HCl. Treatment of sawdust fillers was done by using 2% vol. NaOH solution. Hand layup method and compression moulding technique was used to fabricate the composite laminates. Specimens for evaluating the mechanical properties were prepared by using water jet machining. The results indicated an increase in tensile, flexural and impact strength of composites with addition of sawdust upto 3%. Further addition of the bio-filler resulted in decrease of mechanical properties.

  12. Transcaval Access for TAVR Across a Polyester Aortic Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Robert J.; O’Neill, William W.; Greenbaum, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcaval access to the aorta allows transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients without other good access options. The resulting aortocaval fistula is closed with a nitinol cardiac occluder device. There is no experience traversing a synthetic aortic graft to perform transcaval access and closure. We describe a patient who underwent successful traversal of a polyester aortic graft using radiofrequency energy applied from the tip of a guidewire, to allow retrograde transcatheter aortic valve replacement from a femoral vein, along with details of our technique. The patient did well and was discharged home after 3 days. There was residual aortocaval fistulous flow immediately after implantation of a polyester-seeded nitinol muscular ventricular septal defect occluder device, but this fistula spontaneously occluded within one month. PMID:25510917

  13. Charpy Impact Tests of Polyester Composites Reinforced with PALF Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Gabriel O.; Altoé, Giulio R.; Gomes, Maycon A.; Vieira, Carlos Maurício F.; Teles, Maria Carolina A.; Margem, Frederico M.; Daniel, Glênio; Monteiro, Sergio N.

    With the society's demand for new environmentally friendly materials, new alternatives, such as the PALF fiber, are being developed to replace synthetic fibers which are harmful to the environment. However, there is limited information about the impact resistance of polyester composites incorporated with PALF fibers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the absorbed impact energy of these composites. Impact specimens with up 30% in volume of PALF fibers were fabricated. The fibers were press molded with a orthophtalic polyester resin mixed with the proper hardener and set to cure for 24 hours at room temperature and pressured in the mold up to 5 tons. Specimens were test in a charpy pendulum. The results showed increase in the absorbed impact energy with higher amount of incorporated fiber. This performance can be explained by the difficult of rupture imposed the type of cracks resulting from fiber/matrix interaction.

  14. Tensile Strength of Polyester Composites Reinforced with Fique Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, Giulio Rodrigues; Netto, Pedro Amoy; Teles, Maria Carolina Andrade; Daniel, Glenio; Margem, Frederico Muylaert; Monteiro, Sergio Neves

    The environmental concern is creating pressure for the substitution of high energy consumption materials for natural and sustainable ones. Compared to synthetic fibers, natural fibers have shown advantages in technical aspects such as flexibility and toughness. So there is a growing worldwide interest in the use of these fibers. Fique fiber extracted from fique plant, presents some significant characteristic, but until now only few studies on fique fiber were performed. This work aims to make the analysis of the tensile strength of polyester composites reinforced with fique fibers. The fibers were incorporated into the polyester matrix with volume fraction from 0 to 30%. After fracture the specimens were analyzed by a SEM (scanning electron microscope).

  15. A study on influence of borax to polyester insulators

    OpenAIRE

    ERSOY, Aysel; KUNTMAN, Ayten

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effect of borax on polyester insulators is investigated by evaluating the tracking and erosion resistance using the inclined plane test. The test procedure follows the ASTM D2303 standard. During the test, 50 Hz current was acquired from the ground electrode allowing a sampling rate of 48000 samples per second. The effect of borax concentration on the glass transition and the degradation temperature is studied by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) an...

  16. Fiber Reinforced Polyester Resins Polymerized by Microwave Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, A. M.; Calabrese, L.; Cianciafara, P.; Bonaccorsi, L.; Proverbio, E.

    2007-12-01

    Polyester resin based composite materials are widely used in the manufacture of fiberglass boats. Production time of fiberglass laminate components could be strongly reduced by using an intense energy source as well as microwaves. In this work a polyester resin was used with 2% by weight of catalyst and reinforced with chopped or woven glass fabric. Pure resin and composite samples were cured by microwaves exposition for different radiation times. A three point bending test was performed on all the cured samples by using an universal testing machine and the resulting fracture surfaces were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of mechanical and microscopy analyses evidenced that microwave activation lowers curing time of the composite while good mechanical properties were retained. Microwaves exposition time is crucial for mechanical performance of the composite. It was evidenced that short exposition times suffice for resin activation while long exposure times cause fast cross linking and premature matrix fracture. Furthermore high-radiation times induce bubbles growth or defects nucleation within the sample, decreasing composite performance. On the basis of such results microwave curing activation of polyester resin based composites could be proposed as a valid alternative method for faster processing of laminated materials employed for large-scale applications.

  17. The effect of autoclave resterilisation on polyester vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepe, G; Whiteley, M S; Wente, A; Rogge, A; Schröder, A; Galland, R B; Imig, H

    1999-11-01

    polyester grafts are expensive, single-use items. Some manufacturers of uncoated, woven grafts include instructions for autoclave resterilisation to be performed at the surgeon's own request. Others warn against such manipulation. Theoretically, the glass transition point of polyester at 70-80 degrees C and the possible acceleration of hydrolysis suggest that autoclave resterilisation at 135 degrees C might be a problem. a DeBakey Soft Woven Dacron Vascular Prosthesis (Bard) and a Woven Double Velour Dacron Graft (Meadox) were autoclave-resterilised 0 to 20 times, having been weighed before and after sterilisation. Tactile testing was performed. Mechanical properties were examined by probe puncture and single-filament testing, the surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the degree of hydrolysis by infra-red spectroscopy. tactile testing revealed a change of feeling with increasing cycles of resterilisation. Investigation of weight, textile strength, single-filament strength, electron microscopy of the surface and infra-red spectroscopy showed no change of the material. changes felt are presumably a surface phenomenon, not measurably affecting strength or chemistry of material after autoclave resterilisation. We therefore feel that it is safe to use once-autoclave-resterilised surplus uncoated polyester grafts, provided that sterility is guaranteed. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  18. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  19. Characterizing the sorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to cotton and polyester fabrics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Amandeep [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rauert, Cassandra [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Simpson, Myrna J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Diamond, Miriam L., E-mail: miriam.diamond@utoronto.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, 22 Russell Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Cotton and polyester, physically and chemically different fabrics, were characterized for sorption of gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and BET specific surface area (BET-SSA) analysis showed cotton's high microsurface area; NMR analysis showed richness of hexose- and aromatic-carbon in cotton and polyester, respectively. Cotton and polyester sorbed similar concentrations of gas-phase PBDEs in chamber studies, when normalized to planar surface area. However, polyester concentrations were 20–50 times greater than cotton when normalized to BET-SSA, greater than the 10 times difference in BET-SSA. The difference in sorption between cotton and polyester is hypothesized to be due to ‘dilution’ due to cotton's large BET-SSA and/or greater affinity of PBDEs for aromatic-rich polyester. Similar fabric-air area normalized distribution coefficients (K'{sub D}, 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m) for cotton and polyester support air-side controlled uptake under non-equilibrium conditions. K'{sub D} values imply that 1 m{sup 2} of cotton or polyester fabrics would sorb gas-phase PBDEs present in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume at room temperature over one week, assuming similar air flow conditions. Sorption of PBDEs to fabrics has implications for their fate indoors and human exposure. - Highlights: • Sorption of gas-phase PBDEs by cotton and polyester fabrics • Similar sorption to cotton and polyester per unit planar surface area • Greater sorption by polyester/BET-SSA; cotton's dilution or polyester’s affinity • 1 m{sup 2} fabric sorbs PBDEs in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume • Clothing likely a large indoor sink of PBDEs and influence human exposure.

  20. Influence of additional coupling agent on the mechanical properties of polyester-agave cantala roxb based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Raharjo, Wijang W.; Wibowo, A.; Harjana, Mazlan, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical and morphological properties of the unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs)-agave cantala roxb based composite are investigated in this paper. The cantala fiber woven in 3D angle interlock was utilized as the composite reinforcement. Surface grafting of the cantala fiber through chemical treatment was performed by introducing silane coupling agent to improving the compatibility with the polymer matrix. The fabrication of the composite specimens was conducted using vacuum bagging technique. The effect of additional coupling agent to the morphological appearance of surface fracture was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the influence of additional silane to the mechanical properties was examined using tensile, bending and impact test. The photograph of surface fracture on the treated specimens showed the residual matrix left on the fibers in which the phenomenon was not found in the untreated specimens. Based on mechanical tests, the treated specimens were successfully increased their mechanical properties by 55%, 9.67%, and 92.4% for tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength, respectively, at 1.5% silane coupling agent.

  1. Effect of 60Co gamma-irradiation on interface and abrasive wear of glass-reinforced polyester composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, N.; Fahim, M.; Hussain, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    The fibre-matrix interface in polymer composites is characterized by van der Waals'-like forces, which act between covalently bonded organic polymer and high-strength inorganic glass fibres (physisorption) and chemical bonding between the fibre and polymer, involving reactive groups (chemisorption). These mechanisms at the interface are responsible for the lowering of frictional forces and minimizing wear rate. Crosslinking polymer-like unsaturated polyesters provide sharp interfaces due to their low boundability. Chemical bonding increases the mechanical strength of the interface. In the present study we investigated the effect of gamma-irradiation on the fibre-matrix interface by determining the abrasive wear of the polymer composite. The wear rate of gamma-irradiated glass fibre-reinforced composite has been compared with that of the unirradiated composite. It can be concluded that the abrasive wear of the composite was reduced considerably when exposed to high-energy gamma-irradiation from a Co source. The reasons for this change can be the resin hardening and improved fibre-matrix interfacial bonding due to gamma-irradiation. (5 figures, 10 references). (author)

  2. Synthesis of Functionalized Aliphatic Polyesters by the ``Click'' Copper-Catalyzed Alkyne—Azide Cycloaddition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Philippe; Riva, Raphael; Jerome, Christine

    The functionalization of aliphatic polyesters by the copper-mediated azide—alkyne Huisgen's cycloaddition is very efficient under mild conditions, which prevents degradation from occurring. The implementation of this reaction requires the synthesis of aliphatic polyesters bearing pendant alkynes and azides, which can be carried out either by polycondensation or by ring-opening polymerization.

  3. Biobased, thermoreversibly crosslinked polyesters : A styrene-free alternative to currently employed resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beljaars, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Polyester resins are often used due to their superior chemical and mechanical properties. However, most commercial resins contain high amounts of the toxic chemical styrene. This thesis describes the search for a human-friendly alternative to polyester resins. In this work, mostly biobased (obtained

  4. 76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan...

  5. Biobased furandicarboxylic acids (FDCAs): effects of isomeric substitution on polyester synthesis and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiyagarajan, S.; Vogelzang, W.; Knoop, J.R.I.; Frissen, A.E.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we present the application of different isomers of furandicarboxylic acid, or FDCA, obtained from agro-residues, in polyester synthesis. New polyesters based on 2,4-FDCA and 3,4-FDCA isomers with (linear) diols were thoroughly characterised and compared with their as-synthesised

  6. Life-cycle assessment of textiles manufacture of polyester shirt (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman, Samer; Peter, Oduro Justice; Hassan, Osama

    1998-01-01

    According to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products), It is made possible to perform resource and environmental profile analysis of the 100% polyester shirt. In order to understand the true life-cycle consequences, life-cycle analysis of a typical 100% polyester shirt was carried o...

  7. Determination of Matric Suction and Saturation Degree for Unsaturated Soils, Comparative Study - Numerical Method versus Analytical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Vasile-Florin

    2017-10-01

    Matric suction is a soil parameter which influences the behaviour of unsaturated soils in both terms of shear strength and permeability. It is a necessary aspect to know the variation of matric suction in unsaturated soil zone for solving geotechnical issues like unsaturated soil slopes stability or bearing capacity for unsaturated foundation ground. Mathematical expression of the dependency between soil moisture content and it’s matric suction (soil water characteristic curve) has a powerful character of nonlinearity. This paper presents two methods to determine the variation of matric suction along the depth included between groundwater level and soil level. First method is an analytical approach to emphasize one direction steady state unsaturated infiltration phenomenon that occurs between the groundwater level and the soil level. There were simulated three different situations in terms of border conditions: precipitations (inflow conditions on ground surface), evaporation (outflow conditions on ground surface), and perfect equilibrium (no flow on ground surface). Numerical method is finite element method used for steady state, two-dimensional, unsaturated infiltration calculus. Regarding boundary conditions there were simulated identical situations as in analytical approach. For both methods, was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen (1980) for mathematical expression of soil water characteristic curve. Also for the unsaturated soil permeability prediction model was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen. The fitting parameters of these models were adopted according to RETC 6.02 software in function of soil type. The analyses were performed in both methods for three major soil types: clay, silt and sand. For each soil type were concluded analyses for three situations in terms of border conditions applied on soil surface: inflow, outflow, and no flow. The obtained results are presented in order to highlight the differences

  8. Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair: Polyester versus Polytetraflouroethylene mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Bangash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To compare the frequency of complications of laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia between polyester and Polytetraflouroethylene meshes. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as part of an Interventional multicentre trial at the Rehman Medical Institute Peshawar, Peshawar Institute of Medical Sciences and Pakistan Institute of Medical Science Islamabad from the 1 st of October, 2008 till 30 th September, 2011. The frequency of complications was calculated as the measure of comparing two commercially available meshes for the laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia using the Intrperitoneal placement of mesh (IPOM technique. These patients were admitted via the out-patient department and their demographic data was collected on a proforma. The size of the defect was evaluated clinically or radiologically and if >10cm were excluded from the study. Forty five patients were alternately placed in either group and group I comprised patients with a ventral hernia that was repaired with composite polyester mesh (Parietex R whereas the other group was also repaired laparoscopically but repaired with a Polytetraflouroethylene (Dual R mesh. All data was collected on the individual proforma of each patient and was loaded on the SPSS R version 13.0. Results: The BMI (body mass index in both groups was similar ( P = 1.41. The mean hospital stay was higher in the Polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE mesh group but the values were not significant ( P = 1.12. No peri-operative death was observed in either group. Five patients (11.11% from group I were re-admitted with varying complaints and were diagnosed as having sub-acute intestinal obstruction ( P = 0.04. A higher but insignificant recurrence rate was observed in the polyester group over a one year period of follow up. Four patients (8.8% that were diagnosed with recurrences in group I. Instead the PTFE group had a lower recurrence ( P = 0.91. Conclusion: The frequency of recurrence

  9. Atmospheric pressure H20 plasma treatment of polyester cord threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simor, M.; Krump, H.; Hudec, I.; Rahel, J.; Brablec, A.; Cernak, M.

    2004-01-01

    Polyester cord threads, which are used as a reinforcing materials of rubber blend, have been treated in atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma in order to enhance their adhesion to rubber. The atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma was generated in an underwater diaphragm discharge. The plasma treatment resulted in approximately 100% improvement in the adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates that not only introduced surface polar groups but also increased surface area of the fibres due to a fibre surface roughening are responsible for the improved adhesive strength (Authors)

  10. Bending Mechanical Behavior of Polyester Matrix Reinforced with Fique Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, Giulio Rodrigues; Netto, Pedro Amoy; Barcelos, Mariana; Gomes, André; Margem, Frederico Muylaert; Monteiro, Sergio Neves

    Environmentally correct composites, made from natural fibers, are among the most investigated and applied today. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical behavior of polyester matrix composites reinforced with continuous fique fibers, through bending tensile tests. Specimens containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% in volume of fique fiber were aligned along the entire length of a mold to create plates of these composites, those plates were cut following the ASTM standard to obtained bending tests specimens. The test was conducted in a Instron Machine and the fractured specimens were analyzed by SEM, the results showed the increase in the materials tensile properties with the increase of fiber amount.

  11. Finite element realization of the UH model for unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Ting; Zhang Panpan; Yao Yangping; Liu Yuemiao

    2014-01-01

    Gaomiaozi bentonite which is the buffer/backfill materials of the HLW geological repository will be overconsolidated and unsaturated in a long period. The study of the model for overconsolidated unsaturated soils and its finite element application is of practical value. Based on the user subroutines, the UH model for unsaturated soils is developed in ABAQUS. Numerical simulations of triaxial test are performed using this program. The results obtained show a good agreement with the analytic solutions and the experimental data. (authors)

  12. Bioorthogonal Chemical Reporters for Monitoring Unsaturated Fatty-Acylated Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Thinon, Emmanuelle; Percher, Avital; Hang, Howard C.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, have been shown to be covalently incorporated into a small subset of proteins but the generality and diversity of this protein modification has not been studied. We synthesized unsaturated fatty acid chemical reporters and determined their protein targets in mammalian cells. The unsaturated fatty acid chemical reporters can induce the formation of lipid droplets and be incorporated site-specifically onto known fatty-acylated proteins and la...

  13. Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    KONHEFROVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis with the name "Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients" is divided into a theoretical and a research parts. The theoretical part is focused on sorting out lipids and the recommended daily dosing. Next there are described the chemical structure of fatty acids and basic differences between saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (trans and cis) fatty acids. The biggest part of the theory is formed by the unsaturated fatty acids, their characteristics, food source and their effect o...

  14. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-04-04

    Since the 1960`s, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970`s, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970`s and well into the 1980`s focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M&O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing.

  15. Characterizing unsaturated diffusion in porous tuff gravel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qinhong; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Wang, Joseph, S.Y.

    2003-11-12

    Evaluation of solute diffusion in unsaturated porous gravel is very important for investigations of contaminant transport and remediation, risk assessment, and waste disposal (for example, the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada). For a porous aggregate medium such as granular tuff, the total water content is comprised of surface water and interior water. The surface water component (water film around grains and pendular water between the grain contacts) could serve as a predominant diffusion pathway. To investigate the extent to which surface water films and contact points affect solute diffusion in unsaturated gravel, we examined the configuration of water using x-ray computed tomography in partially saturated gravel, and made quantitative measurements of diffusion at multiple water contents using two different techniques. In the first, diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride in 2-4 mm granular tuff at multiple water contents were calculated from electrical conductivity measurements using the Nernst-Einstein equation. In the second, we used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to perform micro-scale mapping, allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients for a mixture of chemical tracers for tuff cubes and tetrahedrons having two contact geometries (cube-cube and cube-tetrahedron). The x-ray computed tomography images show limited contact between grains, and this could hinder the pathways for diffusive transport. Experimental results show the critical role of surface water in controlling transport pathways and hence the magnitude of diffusion. Even with a bulk volumetric water content of 1.5%, the measured solute diffusion coefficient is as low as 1.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s for tuff gravel. Currently used diffusion models relating diffusion coefficients to total volumetric water content inadequately describe unsaturated diffusion behavior in porous gravel at very low water contents.

  16. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    Since the 1960's, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970's, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970's and well into the 1980's focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M ampersand O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M ampersand O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing

  17. Hydrocarbons biodegradation in unsaturated porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, C.

    2007-12-01

    Biological processes are expected to play an important role in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. However, factors influencing the kinetics of biodegradation are still not well known, especially in the unsaturated zone. To address these biodegradation questions in the unsaturated zone an innovative experimental set up based on a physical column model was developed. This experimental set up appeared to be an excellent tool for elaboration of a structured porous medium, with well defined porous network and adjusted water/oil saturations. Homogeneous repartition of both liquid phases (i.e., aqueous and non aqueous) in the soil pores, which also contain air, was achieved using ceramic membranes placed at the bottom of the soil column. Reproducible interfaces (and connectivity) are developed between gas, and both non mobile water and NAPL phases, depending on the above-defined characteristics of the porous media and on the partial saturations of these three phases (NAPL, water and gas). A respirometric apparatus was coupled to the column. Such experimental set up have been validated with hexadecane in dilution in an HMN phase. This approach allowed detailed information concerning n-hexadecane biodegradation, in aerobic condition, through the profile of the oxygen consumption rate. We have taken benefit of this technique, varying experimental conditions, to determine the main parameters influencing the biodegradation kinetics and compositional evolution of hydrocarbons, under steady state unsaturated conditions and with respect to aerobic metabolism. Impacts of the nitrogen quantity and of three different grain sizes have been examined. Biodegradation of petroleum cut, as diesel cut and middle distillate without aromatic fraction, were, also studied. (author)

  18. Amide-modified poly(butylene terepthalate): thermal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, A.C.M.; van Bennekom, A.C.M.; Willemsen, P.A.A.T.; Willemsen, P.A.A.T.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The thermal stability of a poly(ester amide) copolymer (PBTA) based on poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and nylon-4,T with the diamide of butanediamine and dimethyl terephthalate (N,N′-bis(p-carbomethoxybenzoyl)butanediamine) and homopolymer PBT was studied. The development of inherent viscosity

  19. Thermal Cyclic Resistance Polyester Resin Composites Reinforce Fiber Nut Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Hendriwan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of study is to determine the effect of fiber length and thermal cyclic of the bending strength of polyester resin composite reinforced by fibers nut shell. The materials used in this study is a nut shell fibers with fiber length of 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm and polyester resin with composition 70-30%wt. Fiber nut shell treated soaking in NaOH 30% for 30 minutes, then rinse with clean water so that the fiber free of alkali and then dried. Furthermore, the composite is heated in an oven to a temperature of 100°C for 1 hour and then cooled in the open with a variety of thermal cyclic 30, 40, and 50 times. Bending properties of composites known through the testing process using a three-point bending test equipment universal testing machine. The test results show that the bending strength bending highest in fiber length of 3 cm with 30 treatment cycles of thermal to the value of 53.325 MPa, while the lowest occurred in bending strength fiber length of 1 cm with no cycles of thermal treatment to the value of 30.675 MPa.

  20. Properties of injection-molded thermoplastic polyester denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the properties of injection-molded thermoplastic polyester denture base resins. Two injection-molded thermoplastic polyester denture base resins (polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer) were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated for flexural properties testing, Charpy impact testing and shear bond testing (n = 10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit, elastic modulus, Charpy impact strength and the shear bond strength of the two denture base materials were estimated. The polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin had significantly lower flexural strength at the proportional limit, lower elastic modulus, higher impact strength and lower shear bond strength compared to the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin. The properties of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins composed of polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer were different from each other. The polycycloalkylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin had significantly lower flexural strength at the proportional limit, lower elastic modulus, higher impact strength and lower shear bond strength compared to the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer denture base resin.

  1. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  2. Base flow recession from unsaturated-saturated porous media considering lateral unsaturated discharge and aquifer compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuyu; Zhan, Hongbin; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith

    2017-09-01

    Unsaturated flow is an important process in base flow recessions and its effect is rarely investigated. A mathematical model for a coupled unsaturated-saturated flow in a horizontally unconfined aquifer with time-dependent infiltrations is presented. The effects of the lateral discharge of the unsaturated zone and aquifer compressibility are specifically taken into consideration. Semianalytical solutions for hydraulic heads and discharges are derived using Laplace transform and Cosine transform. The solutions are compared with solutions of the linearized Boussinesq equation (LB solution) and the linearized Laplace equation (LL solution), respectively. A larger dimensionless constitutive exponent κD (a smaller retention capacity) of the unsaturated zone leads to a smaller discharge during the infiltration period and a larger discharge after the infiltration. The lateral discharge of the unsaturated zone is significant when κD≤1, and becomes negligible when κD≥100. The compressibility of the aquifer has a nonnegligible impact on the discharge at early times. For late times, the power index b of the recession curve -dQ/dt˜ aQb, is 1 and independent of κD, where Q is the base flow and a is a constant lumped aquifer parameter. For early times, b is approximately equal to 3 but it approaches infinity when t→0. The present solution is applied to synthetic and field cases. The present solution matched the synthetic data better than both the LL and LB solutions, with a minimum relative error of 16% for estimate of hydraulic conductivity. The present solution was applied to the observed streamflow discharge in Iowa, and the estimated values of the aquifer parameters were reasonable.

  3. Unsaturated flow parameters of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Zheng, Qi-Teng; Chen, H X

    2017-05-01

    Leachate pollution/recirculation and landfill gas emission are the major environmental concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. A good understanding and prediction of MSW unsaturated properties are critical for the design of piping systems and the control of these problems within landfills. This paper reviews the recent studies of unsaturated properties of MSW, including experimental methods, theoretical models and corresponding model parameters. For experimental methods, the sample size is a common and significant limitation and large test apparatuses (e.g., >80cm in diameter) are generally required and valuable. The theoretical models for MSW also have some limitations due to the changes in waste composition and particle size distribution caused by biodegradation. Thus, the available data of intrinsic permeabilities, water retention curves, relative permeabilities and anisotropy of MSW were summarized to investigate the influences of porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. A series of estimation methods were subsequently proposed to determine the parameters of water retention curve like θ Lm , θ Lr , n v and α. The other parameters such as the pore connectivity term (l) and the degree of anisotropy (k) were significantly lacking data, thus only their relationships with porosity were proposed. The results show that it is possible to define the second order effects caused by variations in porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. However, the estimation methods still need more experimental data for improvement, especially their dependence on waste composition and particle size distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of radon transport in unsaturated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Thomas, D.M.; Green, R.

    1995-01-01

    This study applies a recently developed model, LEACHV, to simulate transport of radon through unsaturated soil and compares calculated soil radon activities against field-measured values. For volatile and gas phase transport, LEACHV is modified from LEACHP, a pesticide version of LEACHM, as well-documented one-dimensional model for water and chemical movement through unsaturated soil. LEACHV adds consideration of air temperature changes and air flow driven by barometric pressure change to the other soil variables currently used in LEACHP. It applies diurnal barometric pressure and air temperature changes to reflect more accurately the typical field conditions, Sensitivity analysis and simulated results have clearly demonstrated the relative importance of barometric pressure change, rainfall events, changes in water content, gas advection, and radon source term in radon transport process. Comparisons among simulated results illustrated that the importance of barometric pressure change and its pumping phenomenon produces both fluctuation in soil gas radon activities and an elevation of the long-term average radon activity in shallow soils of an equal magnitude to the disturbed source parameter. Comparisons between measured and simulated soil radon activities showed that LEACHV can provide realistic estimates of radon activity concentration in the soil profile. 41 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Unsaturated zone flow modeling for GWTT-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; McKenna, S.A.; Arnold, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation regarding groundwater travel times at geologic repositories, various models of unsaturated flow in fractured tuff have been developed and implemented to assess groundwater travel times at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Kaplan used one-dimensional models to describe the uncertainty and sensitivity of travel times to various processes at Yucca Mountain. Robey and Arnold et al. used a two-dimensional equivalent continuum model (ECM) with inter- and intra-unit heterogeneity in an attempt to assess fast-flow paths through the unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain (GWTT-94). However, significant flow through the fractures in previous models was not simulated due to the characteristics of the ECM, which requires the matrix to be nearly saturated before flow through the fractures is initiated. In the current study (GWTT-95), four two-dimensional cross-sections at Yucca Mountain are simulated using both the ECM and dual-permeability (DK) models. The properties of both the fracture and matrix domains are geostatistically simulated, yielding completely heterogeneous continua. Then, simulations of flow through the four cross-sections are performed using spatially nonuniform infiltration boundary conditions. Steady-state groundwater travel times from the potential repository to the water table are calculated

  6. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  7. The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGreal, G

    2012-02-03

    We use a braided polyester suture in place of cerclage wire in tension band fixations. The objective of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of this technique. Sixteen cadaveric patellae were fractured and repaired by modified tension band fixation. Eight were fixed using eighteen gauge stainless steel wire as a tension band and eight using braided polyester. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing. Polyester was 75.0% as strong as wire. For dynamic testing, the patellae of seven cadaveric knees were fractured and then fixed with polyester tension bands. These were mounted in a device capable of extending the knees from 90 degrees to neutral against an applied force. None of the fixations failed. Three of the specimens fixed using 18 gauge stainless steel wire were compared with three fixed using polyester over 2000 cycles of knee flexion and extension. Polyester performed as well as wire. We conclude that polyester is an acceptable alternative to wire in tension band fixation.

  8. The Comfort Properties of Two Differential-Shrinkage Polyester Warp Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-layered warp knitted fabrics were produced by the 60D/36F (containing 36 filaments polyester yarn with differential shrinkage (DS property in this study. Due to the differential shrinkage property, the fabric becomes curly and bulkier, simulating cotton fabric in terms of its appearance and fabric handle. The performance and appearance of these DS polyester warp knitted fabrics were evaluated objectively and subjectively. The testing results demonstrated that the DS polyester warp knitted fabric had better abrasion property, worse pilling resistance due to the mechanical property of polyester yarn when compared with 100% cotton warp knitted fabric. Meanwhile, lower water vapour permeability and air resistance were found for DS polyester warp knitted fabric resulting from the dense structure of yarn shrinkage after heat-moisture treatment. Besides, the fabric handle was evaluated by Kawabata evaluation system and subject to trial under dry and wet fabric condition. DS polyester warp knitted fabrics provide better recovery under low stress mechanical pressure. The subjective evaluation result shows that the warp knitted fabrics made of DS polyester had similar handle against cotton warp knitted fabric in terms of prickle, smooth, comfort and dry feeling in both dry and wet testing conditions.

  9. Recent Advances in the Design of Water Based-Flame Retardant Coatings for Polyester and Polyester-Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Alongi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last ten years a new trend of research activities regarding the flame retardancy of polymeric materials has arisen. Indeed, the continuous search for new flame retardant systems able to replace the traditional approaches has encouraged alternative solutions, mainly centred on nanotechnology. In this context, the deposition of nanostructured coatings on fabrics appears to be the most appealing and performance suitable approach. To this aim, different strategies can be exploited: from the deposition of a single monolayer consisting of inorganic nanoparticles (single-step adsorption to the building-up of more complex architectures derived from layer by layer assembly (multi-step adsorption. The present paper aims to review the application of such systems in the field of polyester and polyester-cotton blend fabrics. The results collated by the authors are discussed and compared with those published in the literature on the basis of the different deposition methods adopted. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages exhibited by these approaches is also presented.

  10. Unsaturated fatty acids and viability of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazell, S L; Graham, D Y

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori was found to be sensitive to the toxic effects of an unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid). Data are presented that support the hypothesis that exogenous catalase added to basal media enhances the growth of H. pylori by preventing the formation of toxic peroxidation products from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Unsaturated fatty acid: Metabolism, synthesis and gene regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both plants and animals, unsaturated fatty acids are considered to be essential membrane components. Also they play key roles in many cellular events. The synthesis and metabolism of unsaturated fatty acid are very complex processes, involving a variety of enzymes and regulated pathways. Most recently, research has ...

  12. Study on the improvement of hydrophilic character on polyvinylalcohol treated polyester fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pitchai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric was treated with polyvinyl alcohol in alkaline medium. The moisture regain, water retention and wettability of the PVA treated polyester fabric were tested. The PVA treated PET fabric was dyed with disperse dye. The presence of PVA in the treated PET fabric was assessed by spot test. The treated fabric was also characterized by scanning electron microscope, FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. The PVA treated polyester fabric showed improved hydrophilic character over intact and sodium hydroxide treated PET fabrics.

  13. Study of the properties and biodegradability of polyester/starch blends submitted to microbial attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Gloria M.; Almeida, Yeda M.B. de; Lima, Maria Alice Gomes de Andrade; Santos, Livia Almeida

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the biodegradation of blends of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate)/starch and poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate)/ starch. The blends were obtained by evaporation of the solvent in the mixture of the polymers in chloroform. Tests were carried out in presence of micro-organisms which acted as biodegradation agents. The blends were consumed as carbon substrate and the production of CO 2 was evaluated in the process. In addition, the polyesters' mechanical properties were reduced by the incorporation of starch in its structure. ( 1 H) NMR and infrared spectroscopy detected some characteristic polyester degradation groups in the polyesters' chemical structure, thus confirming the alteration suffered by it. (author)

  14. Photoinduced anisotropy in a family of amorphous azobenzene polyesters for optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, Lian; Matharu, Avtar S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2003-01-01

    We investigate parameters associated with optical data storage in a variety of amorphous side-chain azobenzene-containing polyesters denoted as E1aX. The polyesters possess a common cyano-substituted azobenzene chromophore as a side chain, but differ in their main-chain polyester composition....... Seventeen different polymers from the E1aX family divided into four classes, depending on the type of the main-chain substituent (one-, two-, and three-ring aromatic or alicyclic) have been thoroughly investigated. Various parameters characterizing the photoinduced birefringence in these materials...

  15. Abstracts of the symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Abstract titles are: Recent developments in modeling variably saturated flow and transport; Unsaturated flow modeling as applied to field problems; Coupled heat and moisture transport in unsaturated soils; Influence of climatic parameters on movement of radionuclides in a multilayered saturated-unsaturated media; Modeling water and solute transport in soil containing roots; Simulation of consolidation in partially saturated soil materials; modeling of water and solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous fields; Fluid dynamics and mass transfer in variably-saturated porous media; Solute transport through soils; One-dimensional analytical transport modeling; Convective transport of ideal tracers in unsaturated soils; Chemical transport in macropore-mesopore media under partially saturated conditions; Influence of the tension-saturated zone on contaminant migration in shallow water regimes; Influence of the spatial distribution of velocities in porous media on the form of solute transport; Stochastic vs deterministic models for solute movement in the field; and Stochastic analysis of flow and solute transport

  16. Characterization of ZnO coated polyester fabrics for UV protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broasca, G.; Borcia, G.; Dumitrascu, N.; Vrinceanu, N.

    2013-08-01

    The textile industry aims to develop fabrics adapted to environmental conditions, in particular to UV radiation. Taking into account the demand for such materials, we prepare an inorganic-organic material, based on ZnO microparticles impregnation of polyester textiles, to perform combined UV-protection properties and high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, UV reflectance, Impedance Spectroscopy, contact angle, air permeability, resistance to vapor transfer and tensile strength measurement are used for analysis of the surface and volume properties, related to the performance of the material under environmental conditions, as UV radiation, water and water vapors. The impregnation method ensures a good homogeneity and dispersion of ZnO microparticles into the textile polymeric matrix. The optimum level of impregnation of the fabrics is established to 3-5% ZnO, yielding stable properties, without overloading the fabric. The response of the coated polymer indicates better absorbing the UV radiation and dissipating the surface charge, time stability against UV and higher hydrophobic character, without modification of the mechanical properties, offering enhanced performance and comfort under environmental conditions.

  17. Modelling pH-Optimized Degradation of Microgel-Functionalized Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bürgermeister

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a novel mathematical model to describe and analyze pH levels in the vicinity of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate-co-N-vinylimidazole (VCL/AAEM/VIm microgel-functionalized polymers during biodegradation. Biodegradable polymers, especially aliphatic polyesters (polylactide/polyglycolide/polycaprolactone homo- and copolymers, have a large range of medical applications including delivery systems, scaffolds, or stents for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most of those applications are limited by the inherent drop of pH level during the degradation process. The combination of polymers with VCL/AAEM/VIm-microgels, which aims at stabilizing pH levels, is innovative and requires new mathematical models for the prediction of pH level evaluation. The mathematical model consists of a diffusion-reaction PDE system for the degradation including reaction rate equations and diffusion of acidic degradation products into the vicinity. A system of algebraic equations is coupled to the degradation model in order to describe the buffering action of the microgel. The model is validated against the experimental pH-monitored biodegradation of microgel-functionalized polymer foils and is available for the design of microgel-functionalized polymer components.

  18. Optimization of biological wastewater treatment conditions for 1,4-dioxane decomposition in polyester manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J S; So, M H; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    The solvent stabilizer 1,4-dioxane could have harmful effects on an ecosystem. The discharge limit of 1,4-dioxane in a body of water will be regulated at 5 mg/L in Republic of Korea. Thus, the currently operating activated sludge used in the manufacture of polyester should be properly treated to meet the regulations. Accordingly, the removal rate of 1,4-dioxane and its microbial properties was assessed at K, H and T corporations. The highest removal efficiencies were recorded at H. However, the concentration of 1,4-dioxane in the effluent of T exceeded the criterion. In addition, a microbial degradation test was conducted on 100 mg/L of 1,4-dioxane inoculated with the activated sludge from each of the three corporations. After 7 days, the 1,4-dioxane was completely removed with the H sludge and efficiencies were 67% in the T sludge and 52% in the K sludge. These results confirm that the biodegradability of 1,4-dioxane may vary in relation to the microbial properties. The microbial diversity of activated sludge of each company was therefore investigated by 16S rDNA cloning methods. In conclusion, the activated sludge of H is the most effective for the biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane. This fact is of significant concern for the industrial sector.

  19. Experimental studies on unsaturated zone surrounding rock using Characterizing Laboratory test on Unsaturated zonE (CLUE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hirohito; Suzuki, Hideaki; Sugita, Yutaka; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Komatsu, Mitsuru; Nishigaki, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    In geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), unsaturated zone will be developed around the disposal tunnel due to the construction of the tunnel. The development of the unsaturated zone would lead to the intrusion of the air into the surrounding rock and then oxygen would dissolve into ground water. Dissolved air affects the redox potential of the ground water and also oxidizes minerals existed in surrounding rock and changes their sorption capacity. These influences would change the geochemical conditions of the repository and affect the corrosion behavior of the overpack. Therefore, Characterizing Laboratory test on Unsaturated zonE (CLUE) was designed and assembled to understand the development process of the unsaturated zone. The CLUE is designed from the viewpoint of the hydraulic characteristics. CLUE has two test tanks. The test tank A uses glass beads to simulate rock mass, the test tank B uses rock block sample. Fundamental hydraulic data of the glass beads on saturation/unsaturation conditions for numerical analysis was obtained. Tests using the test tank A used the piezometer and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) to measure the unsaturation behavior. From the results of the test tank A, the unsaturated zone was developed around the tunnel. The piezometer and FDR measured the distribution and the time history of the unsaturated zone well. In stable condition, measurement data was in good agreement with the analytical results. (author)

  20. Selective Synthesis of Unsaturated N-Acylethanolamines by Lipase-Catalyzed N-Acylation of Ethanolamine with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plastina, P.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.; Witkamp, R.F.; Gabriele, B.

    2009-01-01

    The selective synthesis of unsaturated N-acylethanolamines 1b-6b by lipase-catalyzed direct condensation between unsaturated fatty acids 1a-6a and ethanolamine is reported. Reactions were carried out in hexane at 40 °C, in the presence of Candida antarctica Lipase B as the catalyst, to give the

  1. Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V. M.

    2009-05-01

    Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12-10 13 Ω cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ˜800 kΩ/square to 1 MΩ/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred kΩ/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ˜18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ˜ few hundred kΩ/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing machine

  2. An Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Mechanical Crimp Textured Polyester Yarn by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Someshwar S.; Shaikh, Tasnim N.; Pratap, Arun

    2010-06-01

    Deficiencies related to the lack of bulk in flat continuous filament yarns make them unsuitable for apparel, home textiles as well as other applications such as car seat covering. Hence, texturising is employed to impart lofty and bulky characteristics to them. The two major texturising techniques employed for polyester yarn are false-twist and air-jet texturising. Out of these earlier technique depends on the thermoplasticity of the yarn being textured whereas the later one demands subsequent amount of compressed air to carry out cold fluid texturising. A new concept of mechanical crimp texturising has been designed to overcome these limitations of commercially successful techniques. In this new technique, pre-twisted FDY (Fully Drawn Yarn) flat multifilament yarn has been subjected to the higher false-twisting (depending on yarn fineness) action under the condition of underfeed (depending on ductility of parent yarn). The torque caused due to high level of false-twisting, forces the filaments to follow helical path at a certain angle (depends on magnitude of twist and denier per filament) to the filament yarn longitudinal axis. Internal stresses arising in single filaments tend to bend the filament and take the shape of spatial helical spring. After the yarn has passed through the false twisting unit, the initial twist would reassert itself and lock the already formed crimpy convolutions in position. Mechanical crimp textured polyester yarns with different pre-twist and false-twist levels have been subjected to thermal stress analysis using differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in heat-cool-heat mode. The samples were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute. Almost all samples appear to be crystalline in nature. However, the melting endotherm does not show sharp peak. Instead, the diffuse nature of the peak is a signature of a partial crystalline nature (48%) of the samples. After melting the specimens, cooling of the same leads to crystallization of the material

  3. Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12 -10 13 Ω cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ∼800 kΩ/square to 1 MΩ/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred kΩ/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ∼18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ∼ few hundred kΩ/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing

  4. The Unsaturated Hydromechanical Coupling Model of Rock Slope Considering Rainfall Infiltration Using DDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water flow and hydromechanical coupling process in fractured rocks is more different from that in general porous media because of heterogeneous spatial fractures and possible fracture-dominated flow; a saturated-unsaturated hydromechanical coupling model using a discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA similar to FEM and DEM was employed to analyze water movement in saturated-unsaturated deformed rocks, in which the Van-Genuchten model differently treated the rock and fractures permeable properties to describe the constitutive relationships. The calibrating results for the dam foundation indicated the validation and feasibility of the proposed model and are also in good agreement with the calculations based on DEM still demonstrating its superiority. And then, the rainfall infiltration in a reservoir rock slope was detailedly investigated to describe the water pressure on the fault surface and inside the rocks, displacement, and stress distribution under hydromechanical coupling conditions and uncoupling conditions. It was observed that greater rainfall intensity and longer rainfall time resulted in lower stability of the rock slope, and larger difference was very obvious between the hydromechanical coupling condition and uncoupling condition, demonstrating that rainfall intensity, rainfall time, and hydromechanical coupling effect had great influence on the saturated-unsaturated water flow behavior and mechanical response of the fractured rock slopes.

  5. Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebger, I; Rutloh, M; Hoffmann, U

    2002-01-01

    The photoorientation process in a polyester with 4-cyano-4'-alkoxyazobenzene side group and long methylene spacers in the side and the main-chain was studied as a function of irradiation with linearly polarized light of 488 nm under systematic variation of the power density and temperature....... This model polymer is characterized by liquid crystallinity (g 24 S-X 26 S-A 34 n 47 i) and a strong aggregation tendency. The photoorientation is cooperative, i.e., the orientation of the photochromic side group induces the alignment of the ester unit (which is a part of the main-chain) and both methylene...... segments in the side- and main-chain. The very high values of the normalized linear dichroism up to 0.8 and the birefringence (above 0.3) are due to the interaction of photoorientation and thermotropic self-organization. The induction of anisotropy shows a pronounced dependence on the power density...

  6. Degradation Mechanisms of Poly(ester urethane) Elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Alexander S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-30

    This report describes literature regarding the degradation mechanisms associated with a poly(ester urethane) block copolymer, Estane® 5703 (Estane), used in conjunction with Nitroplasticizer (NP), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane, also known as high molecular weight explosive (HMX) to produce polymer bonded explosive PBX 9501. Two principal degradation mechanisms are reported: NO2 oxidative reaction with the urethane linkage resulting in crosslinking and chain scission events, and acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester linkage. This report details future work regarding this PBX support system, to be conducted in late 2017 and 2018 at Engineered Materials Group (MST-7), Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is the first of a series of three reports on the degradation processes and trends of the support materials of PBX 9501.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-BASED POLYESTER POLYOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MİTHAT ÇELEBİ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes are versatile polymeric materials and are usually synthesised by isocyanate reactions with polyols. Due to the variety of isocyanates and polyols, particularly polyols, polyurethanes can be easily tailored for wide applications, such as rigid and flexible foams, coatings, adhesives, and elastomers. Considerable efforts have been recently devoted to developing bio-based substitutes for petroleum-based polyuretahanes due to increasing concerns over the depletion of petroleum resources, environment, and sustainability. Polyester polyols based on aliphatic and aromatic dicarboxylic acids are one of the most important materials in polymer technologies. Large volume of plants oils are used as renewable resources to produce various chemicals which are industrially important to make soaps, cosmetic products, surfactants, lubricants, diluents, plasticizers, inks, agrochemicals, composite materials, food industry. This study introduces synthesis and properties of bio-based polyols from different renewable feedstocks including vegetable oils and derivatives. A comparison of bio-based polyol properties with their petroleum-based analogues were investigated.

  8. Study of the indoor decontamination using nanocoated woven polyester fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Hafeezullah; Kumari, Naveeta; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Khoso, Nazakat Ali

    2017-11-01

    This research primarily deals with the photocatalytic degradation of methanol in indoor air using nanocoated indoor textiles used for curtains as household textiles. The woven polyester was coated by titanium dioxide by sol gel method, using silicon-based binder. The characterization of the coating has been done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis, energy dispersive analysis using X-ray (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The DIY instrument providing the similar environment as of indoor was designed to assess the performance of the degradation of formaldehyde under UV light. The photocatalytic degradation rate was measured using the absorption value of the solutions obtained in the result of liquid chromatography of test solution and reagent solution. Different amount of dosages (1-3 %) and different time period of coatings (half hour to 3 h) have been evaluated for optimization.

  9. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric behavior of banana–glass hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pothan, LA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites of glass and banana fiber (obtained from the pseudo stem of Musa sapientum) in polyester matrix, are subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis over a range of temperature and three different frequencies. The effect of temperature...

  10. Effect of structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics having flame retardancy property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeven, E. K.; Günaydın, G. K.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is filling the gap in the literature about investigating the effect of yarn and fabric structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics. According to the experimental design three different fabric types, three different weft densities and two different weave types were selected and a total of eighteen different polyester drapery fabrics were produced. All statistical procedures were conducted using the SPSS Statistical software package. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests indicated that; there were statistically significant (5% significance level) differences between the mass loss ratios (%) in weft and mass loss ratios (%) in warp direction of different fabrics calculated after the flammability test. The Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) results for mass loss ratios (%) both in weft and warp directions revealed that the mass loss ratios (%) of fabrics containing Trevira CS type polyester were lower than the mass loss ratios of polyester fabrics subjected to washing treatment and flame retardancy treatment.

  11. Influence of the substituent on azobenzene side-chain polyester optical storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M; Hvilsted, Søren; Holme, NCR

    1999-01-01

    , chloro, and bromo. C-13 NMR spectroscopic and molecular mass investigations substantiate good film forming characteristics. The optical storage performance of thin polyester films are investigated through polarization holography. The resulting diffraction efficiency is mapped and discussed as a function...

  12. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopichander

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, polyester fiber reinforcements improved the mechanical properties of heat-polymerized PMMA, cold-polymerized PMMA, and bis-acrylic provisional FPD materials.

  13. Effect of Argon Plasma Treatment Variables on Wettability and Antibacterial Properties of Polyester Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Pandurangan; Karthik, Thangavelu

    2016-04-01

    In this research work, the effect of argon plasma treatment variables on the comfort and antibacterial properties of polyester fabric has been investigated. The SEM micrographs and FTIR analysis confirms the modification of fabric surface. The Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization of plasma process variables and to evaluate the effects and interactions of the process variables, i.e. operating power, treatment time and distance between the electrodes on the characteristics of polyester fabrics. The optimum conditions of operating power 600 W, treatment time 30 s, and the distance between the electrodes of 2.8 mm was arrived using numerical prediction tool in Design-Expert software. The plasma treated polyester fabrics showed better fabric characteristics particularly in terms of water vapour permeability, wickability and antibacterial activity compared to untreated fabrics, which confirms that the modified structure of polyester fabric.

  14. 78 FR 17637 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce.../CVD Operations, Office 1, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department...

  15. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  16. New UV-curable acrylated polyester prepolymers from palm oil based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azam Ali; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah Ahmad; Umaru, S.I.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    1999-01-01

    Acrylated polyester prepolymers (PEPP-1 and PEPP-2) were synthesized from palm oil and its products. UV-curing and characteristic properties of UV-cured films of synthesized polyester resins were studied. The characteristic properties studied include pendulum hardness, gel content, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength and elongation at break. The materials have good potential for the production of radiation curable coating applications

  17. Biobased, thermoreversibly crosslinked polyesters: A styrene-free alternative to currently employed resins

    OpenAIRE

    Beljaars, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Polyester resins are often used due to their superior chemical and mechanical properties. However, most commercial resins contain high amounts of the toxic chemical styrene. This thesis describes the search for a human-friendly alternative to polyester resins. In this work, mostly biobased (obtained from renewable sources) chemicals are used to end up with a green compound. However, just "going green" does not solve the problem of waste generated at the end of product life, in order to addres...

  18. A route to quantitative 13C NMR analysis of multicomponent polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.

    1991-01-01

    A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations are synthe......A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations...

  19. Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Merve Küçük; M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution ...

  20. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Diols and Dicarboxylic Acids: From Polyesters to Poly(ester amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(alkylene dicarboxylates constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amides derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed.

  1. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  2. Phase diagrams in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid with various aliphatic polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phase behavior with immiscibility, miscibility, crystalline morphology, and kinetic analysis in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB with aliphatic polyesters such as poly(butylene adipate (PBA, poly(ethylene adipate (PEA, poly(trimethylene adipate (PTA, or poly(ethylene succinate (PESu, respectively, were explored mainly using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and polarized-light optical microscopy (POM. Immiscibility phase behavior with reversible upper-critical-solution-temperature (UCST is common in the PHB/polyester blends. The polyester/polyester blend of PHB/PTA is partially miscible with no UCST in melt and amorphous glassy states within a composition range of PTA less than 50 wt%. The miscible crystalline/crystalline blend exhibits ring-banded spherulites at Tc = 50~100°C, with inter-ring spacing dependent on Tc. All immiscible or partially miscible PHB/polyester blends, by contrast, exhibit disrupted ringbanded spherulites or discrete spherical phase domains upon cooling from UCST to crystallization. The blends of PHB with all other aliphatic polyesters, such as PESu, PEA, PBA, etc. are only partially miscible or immiscible with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST at 180~221°C depending on blend composition. UCST with reversibility was verified.

  3. Metal-free hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons employing molecular hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The metal-free activation of hydrogen by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is a valuable method for the hydrogenation of polarized unsaturated molecules ranging from imines, enamines, and silyl enol ethers to heterocycles. However, one of the most important applications of hydrogenation technology is the conversion of unsaturated hydrocarbons into alkanes or alkenes. Despite the fast development of the FLP chemistry, such reactions proved as highly challenging. This Minireview provides an overview of the basic concepts of FLP chemistry, the challenge in the hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, and first solutions to this central transformation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K.; Watanabe, K.; Sugawara, H.; Minemura, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Accurate ab initio description of adsorption on coordinatively unsaturated Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) sites in MOFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajciar, Lukáš; Nachtigall, Petr; Bludský, Ota; Rubeš, Miroslav

    2015-01-13

    The performance of different exchange-correlation functionals was evaluated for the description of the interaction of small molecules with (i) cluster models containing Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) coordinatively unsaturated metal sites and (ii) HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF). Adsorbates forming dispersion-bound complexes (CH4), complexes with important dispersion and electrostatic contributions (H2, N2, CO2), and complexes stabilized also by a partial dative bond (CO, H2O, and NH3) were considered. The interaction with coordinatively unsaturated sites was evaluated with respect to the coupled-cluster calculations for Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) centers represented by cluster models. The adsorption on dispersion-stabilized sites was examined for the cage-window and the cage-center sites in HKUST-1 with respect to the experimental and DFT/CC results. None of the functionals considered can accurately describe the interaction of all seven adsorbates with Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) sites and with dispersion-dominated adsorption sites. The interaction with coordinatively unsaturated sites was frequently underestimated, for adsorbates forming a partial dative bond in particular, while the adsorption at dispersion-stabilized sites was overestimated. Consequently, interaction energies calculated for different adsorption sites were often in qualitatively incorrect order. The optimal exchange-correlation functional for a particular adsorbate/MOF can thus be found by comparing the performance of various functionals with respect to highly accurate calculations on smaller cluster models as a good representative of MOF structural building blocks.

  6. In-vitro examination of the biocompatibility of fibroblast cell lines on alloplastic meshes and sterilized polyester mosquito mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessner, R; Kleber, T; Ekwelle, N; Ludwig, K; Richter, D-U

    2017-06-01

    The use of alloplastic implants for tissue strengthening when treating hernias is an established therapy worldwide. Despite the high incidence of hernias in Africa and Asia, the implantation of costly mesh netting is not financially feasible. Because of that various investigative groups have examined the use of sterilized mosquito netting. The animal experiments as well as the clinical trials have both shown equivalent short- and long-term results. The goal of this paper is the comparison of biocompatibility of human fibroblasts on the established commercially available nets and on sterilized polyester mosquito mesh over a period of 12 weeks. Three commercially available plastic mesh types and a gas-sterilized mosquito polyethylenterephtalate (polyester) mesh were examined. Human fibroblasts from subcutaneous healthy tissue were used. Various tests for evaluating the growth behavior and the cell morphology of human fibroblasts were conducted. The semi-quantitative (light microscopy) and qualitative (scanning electron microscopy) analyses were performed after 1 week and then again after 12 weeks. The cell proliferation and cytotoxicity of the implants were investigated with the help of the 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-cell proliferation test and the LDH-cytotoxicity test. The number of live cells per ml was determined with the Bürker counting chamber. In addition, analyses were made of the cell metabolism (oxidative stress) by measuring the pH value, hydrogen peroxide, and glycolysis. After 12 weeks, a proliferation of fibroblasts on all mesh is documented. No mesh showed a complete apoptosis of the cells. This qualitative observation could be confirmed quantitatively in a biochemical assay by marking the proliferating cells with BrdU. The biochemical analysis brought the proof that the materials used, including the polyester of the mosquito mesh, are not cytotoxic for the fibroblasts. The vitality of the cells was between 94 and 98%. The glucose metabolism

  7. Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P

    1984-02-01

    Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow was compared by adding poliovirus to sewage water and applying the water at different rates to a 250-cm-long soil column equipped with ceramic samplers at different depths. Movement of viruses during unsaturated flow of sewage through soil columns was much less than during saturated flow. Viruses did not move below the 40-cm level when sewage water was applied at less than the maximum infiltration rate; virus penetration in columns flooded with sewage was at least 160 cm. Therefore, virus movement in soils irrigated with sewage should be less than in flooded groundwater recharge basins or in saturated soil columns. Management of land treatment systems to provide unsaturated flow through the soil should minimize the depth of virus penetration. Differences in virus movement during saturated and unsaturated flow must be considered in the development of any model used to simulate virus movement in soils.

  8. Synthesis and study of novel silicon-based unsaturated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jibing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-19

    Novel unsaturated polymers have been synthesized and studied as precursors to silicon carbide and third order nonlinear optical materials. X ray structures were obtained. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of the unique thermal isomerization of dimethylenedisilacyclobutane to a carbene were conducted.

  9. Aliphatic polyester block polymers: renewable, degradable, and sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2014-08-19

    Nearly all polymers are derived from nonrenewable fossil resources, and their disposal at their end of use presents significant environmental problems. Nonetheless, polymers are ubiquitous, key components in myriad technologies and are simply indispensible for modern society. An important overarching goal in contemporary polymer research is to develop sustainable alternatives to "petro-polymers" that have competitive performance properties and price, are derived from renewable resources, and may be easily and safely recycled or degraded. Aliphatic polyesters are particularly attractive targets that may be prepared in highly controlled fashion by ring-opening polymerization of bioderived lactones. However, property profiles of polyesters derived from single monomers (homopolymers) can limit their applications, thus demanding alternative strategies. One such strategy is to link distinct polymeric segments in an A-B-A fashion, with A and B chosen to be thermodynamically incompatible so that they can self-organize on a nanometer-length scale and adopt morphologies that endow them with tunable properties. For example, such triblock copolymers can be useful as thermoplastic elastomers, in pressure sensitive adhesive formulations, and as toughening modifiers. Inspired by the tremendous utility of petroleum-derived styrenic triblock copolymers, we aimed to develop syntheses and understand the structure-property profiles of sustainable alternatives, focusing on all renewable and all readily degradable aliphatic polyester triblocks as targets. Building upon oxidation chemistry reported more than a century ago, a constituent of the peppermint plant, (-)-menthol, was converted to the ε-caprolactone derivative menthide. Using a diol initiator and controlled catalysis, menthide was polymerized to yield a low glass transition temperature telechelic polymer (PM) that was then further functionalized using the biomass-derived monomer lactide (LA) to yield fully renewable PLA

  10. Boundary integral methods for unsaturated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.J.; McTigue, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Many large simulations may be required to assess the performance of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the nations first high level nuclear waste repository. A boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is described for numerical analysis of quasilinear steady unsaturated flow in homogeneous material. The applicability of the exponential model for the dependence of hydraulic conductivity on pressure head is discussed briefly. This constitutive assumption is at the heart of the quasilinear transformation. Materials which display a wide distribution in pore-size are described reasonably well by the exponential. For materials with a narrow range in pore-size, the exponential is suitable over more limited ranges in pressure head. The numerical implementation of the BIEM is used to investigate the infiltration from a strip source to a water table. The net infiltration of moisture into a finite-depth layer is well-described by results for a semi-infinite layer if αD > 4, where α is the sorptive number and D is the depth to the water table. the distribution of moisture exhibits a similar dependence on αD. 11 refs., 4 figs.,

  11. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayler, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report details some recent field measurements and compares predicted and measured values of hydraulic conductivities for three locations at the Hanford Site. Measurements from small (6-cm-dia) /open quotes/point/close quotes/ and large (2-m by 2-m) /open quotes/plot/close quotes/ areas utilized inflitration and drainage techniques to obtain in situ data for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The Guelph permeameter was used for point sampling, and the unsteady drainage-flux method was used on plots for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measurements. Steady-state techniques were used to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in small columns in the laboratory for one of the three soils tested to provide a comparison with data obtained from the field. Measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and those predicted from particle-size distribution and bulk density data agree within one-half to one and one-half orders of magnitude, depending on soil type. To use a particle-size distribution to estimate water retention characteristics and, subsequently, to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, measurements of water-retention characteristics are necessary to determine a parameter value used in one of the models. No single method for measuring or calculating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities was found appropriate for all Hanford Site soils. Ideally, several methods should be used to take advantage of the strengths of each method, considering the data needs and resources available. 45 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayler, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report details some recent field measurements and compares predicted and measured values of hydraulic conductivities for three locations at the Hanford Site. Measurements from small (6-cm-dia) /open quotes/point/close quotes/ and large (2-m by 2-m) /open quotes/plot/close quotes/ areas utilized inflitration and drainage techniques to obtain in situ data for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The Guelph permeameter was used for point sampling, and the unsteady drainage-flux method was used on plots for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measurements. Steady-state techniques were used to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in small columns in the laboratory for one of the three soils tested to provide a comparison with data obtained from the field. Measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and those predicted from particle-size distribution and bulk density data agree within one-half to one and one-half orders of magnitude, depending on soil type. To use a particle-size distribution to estimate water retention characteristics and, subsequently, to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, measurements of water-retention characteristics are necessary to determine a parameter value used in one of the models. No single method for measuring or calculating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities was found appropriate for all Hanford Site soils. Ideally, several methods should be used to take advantage of the strengths of each method, considering the data needs and resources available. 45 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs

  13. Optimum Drafting Conditions Of Polyester And Viscose Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the influence of the total draft, break draft, distance between the aprons (Clips and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum drafting conditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex × 38 mm long and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%/CV (30% blend ratio. When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controlling and leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a high quality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained under drafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure of the production top roller (18daN.

  14. Disposable polyester-toner electrophoresis microchips for DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Gabriela R M; Coltro, Wendell K T; Borba, Juliane C; Price, Carol W; Landers, James P; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2012-06-07

    Microchip electrophoresis has become a powerful tool for DNA separation, offering all of the advantages typically associated with miniaturized techniques: high speed, high resolution, ease of automation, and great versatility for both routine and research applications. Various substrate materials have been used to produce microchips for DNA separations, including conventional (glass, silicon, and quartz) and alternative (polymers) platforms. In this study, we perform DNA separation in a simple and low-cost polyester-toner (PeT)-based electrophoresis microchip. PeT devices were fabricated by a direct-printing process using a 600 dpi-resolution laser printer. DNA separations were performed on PeT chip with channels filled with polymer solutions (0.5% m/v hydroxyethylcellulose or hydroxypropylcellulose) at electric fields ranging from 100 to 300 V cm(-1). Separation of DNA fragments between 100 and 1000 bp, with good correlation of the size of DNA fragments and mobility, was achieved in this system. Although the mobility increased with increasing electric field, separations showed the same profile regardless of the electric field. The system provided good separation efficiency (215,000 plates per m for the 500 bp fragment) and the separation was completed in 4 min for 1000 bp fragment ladder. The cost of a given chip is approximately $0.15 and it takes less than 10 minutes to prepare a single device.

  15. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  16. Adsorption of proteins from plasma at polyester non-wovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, A J; Engbers, G H; Mol, J; Terlingen, J G; Feijen, J

    1999-07-01

    Polyester non-wovens in filters for the removal of leukocytes from platelet concentrates (PCs) must be platelet compatible. In PC filtration, the adsorption of proteins at the plasma-non-woven interface can be of great importance with respect to the yield of platelets. Unmodified and radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) treated poly(ethylene terephthalate) non-woven (NW-PET) and two commercial surface-modified non-wovens were contacted with human plasma. Protein desorption by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The desorbed proteins were characterized by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Compared to the commercial surface-modified non-wovens, unmodified and RFGD-treated NW-PETs adsorbed a relatively high amount of protein. Significantly more protein was removed from the hydrophobic NW-PET by SDS than from the hydrophilic RFGD-treated non-wovens. RFGD treatment of NW-PET reduces the reversibility of protein adsorption. Less albumin and fibrinogen were removed from the RFGD-treated non-wovens than from NW-PET. In addition, a large amount of histidine-rich glycoprotein was removed from RFGD-treated non-wovens, but not from NW-PET. The different behaviour of RFGFD-treated non-wovens towards protein adsorption is probably caused by differences in the chemical reactivity of the non-woven surfaces.

  17. Properties of aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters in dilute solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA VUKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation of the influence of the synthesis procedure, number of pseudo generations and degree of branching of hydroxy-functional aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters (AHBP on the values of limiting viscosity number, [η], hydrodynamic radius, Rη, molar mass and polydispersity index, Q, are presented in this paper. Two series of AHBP, synthesized from 2,2-bis(hydroxylmethylpropionic acid and di-trimethylolpropane using a pseudo-one-step and a one-step procedure were investigated. The obtained results show that the values of [η] and Rη for all examined samples are the highest in a 0.7 mass % solution of LiCl in N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc, which indicates that this solvent is the best from the investigated ones. The values of [η] in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP increased up to the sixth pseudo generation, after which a slight decrease occurred as the consequence of the presence of side-reaction products, formed during the synthesis. The appearance of these side-reaction products was also confirmed from the characteristic the GPC chromatograms. For the samples of AHBP synthesized using the pseudo-one-step procedure, a good linear dependence between log [η] and log Mw was obtained up to the fifth pseudo generation, when LiCl/DMAc, NMP and DMAc were used as solvents. The values of the “shrinking” factor, g’, were calculated for all investigated AHBPs.

  18. Microstructure Changes in Polyester Polyurethane upon Thermal and Humid Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of compression molded Estane 5703 films exposed to 11%, 45%, and 80% relative humidity and 70 °C for 1 and 2 months has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Scattering data indicated increase of the interdomain distance and domain size with a higher humidity and longer aging time. GPC data showed a progressive shortening of polyurethane chains with increasing humidity and aging time. The shortening of the polyurethane chains caused a drop of the glass transition temperature of soft segments, and promoted crystallization of the soft segments during long-time storage of the aged samples at room temperature. FTIR showed a substantial increase in the number of inter-urethane H-bonds in the aged samples. This correlates with the increase of the hard domain size and the degree of phase separation as measured by SANS. The data collected reveals that the reduced steric hindrance caused by hydrolysis of ester links in polybutylene adipate residues promotes the organization of hard segments into domains, leading to the increase of domain size and distance, as well as phase segregation in aged Estane. These findings provide insight into the effects of humidity and thermal aging on the microstructure of aged polyester urethane from molecular to nanoscale level.

  19. Polyester composite versus PTFE in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Modesto J; Telem, Dana A; Chin, Edward; Weber, Kaare; Divino, Celia M; Nguyen, Scott Q

    2011-01-01

    Both polyester composite (POC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh are commonly used for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, sparse information exists comparing perioperative and long-term outcome by mesh repair. A prospective database was utilized to identify 116 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 2004-2009. Patients were grouped by type of mesh used, PTFE versus POC, and retrospectively compared. Follow-up at a mean of 12 months was achieved by telephone interview and office visit. Of the 116 patients, 66 underwent ventral hernia repair with PTFE and 50 with POC mesh. Patients were well matched by patient demographics. No difference in mean body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC group (31.8 vs. 32.5, respectively; P=NS). Operative time was significantly longer in the PTFE group (136 vs.106 minutes, PPTFE group and none in the POC group (P NS). No other major complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period (30 days). At a mean follow-up of 12 months, no significant difference was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC groups in hernia recurrence (3% vs. 2%), wound complications (1% vs. 0%), mesh infection, requiring removal (3% vs. 0%), bowel obstruction (3% vs. 2%), or persistent pain or discomfort (28% vs. 32%), respectively (P=NS). Our study demonstrated no significant association between types of mesh used and postoperative complications. In the 12-month follow-up, no differences were noted in hernia recurrence.

  20. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin

    2017-01-01

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed. PMID:29295559

  1. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Chiulan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid (PLA and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed.

  2. EMI shielding based on MWCNTs/polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Lee Yeng; Wee, F. H.; Rahim, H. A.; Malek, F.; You, K. Y.; Liyana, Z.; Jamlos, M. A.; Ezanuddin, A. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the dielectric properties and shielding effectiveness (SE) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyester (MWCNTs/PE) composite. A rectangular waveguide transmission line technique was used to measure dielectric properties, ɛ r, SE of MWCNTs (1-20 weight percentage, wt%) and PE composite in microwave frequency region from 8.2 to 18 GHz. It was observed that the increase of MWCNTs resulted in the increase of dielectric properties, loss tangent, and conductivity. MWCNTs/PE composite samples with high conductivity had led to greater SE. The results show SE of the composites increased as the amount of the MWCNTs increased. The average values of electromagnetic interference SE of the MWCNTs/PE samples with 1 wt% MWCNTs and 20 wt.% MWCNTs were 3 and 35.2 dB, respectively. Simulated and measured results of shielding effectiveness had been compared with various of MWCNTs/PE composite over the entire frequency range with a 3 mm thickness. From the results, observed that the MWCNTs/PE composite has potential use as EMI shielding materials.

  3. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiulan, Ioana; Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin; Panaitescu, Denis Mihaela

    2017-12-24

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed.

  4. New hydrophilic polyesters and related polymers as bioerodible polymeric matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, E; Solaro, R; Bemporad, L; D'Antone, S; Giannasi, D; Leonardi, G

    1995-01-01

    A survey is reported on our activity performed in the last few years on the preparation of new synthetic and semisynthetic polymeric materials endowed with bioerodible-biodegradable characteristics and designed for applications in the practice of controlled release of active principles of pharmaceutical and agrochemical significance. The presentation of the results will be arranged into the following sections: (1) hydroxyl containing polyesters, that comprise polymerization products based on racemic and optically active glyceric acid, or attained by polyaddition reactions among cyclic anhydrides, including also carbon dioxide, with monoglycidyl ethers of reversibly protected polyols. In this class are also presented the related polyhydroxylated systems obtained by selective grafting functional epoxides on cyclodextrins. (2) Bioerodible carboxyl containing polymeric systems as derived from the alternating copolymerization of maleic anhydride with alkyl vinyl ethers followed by partial esterification of maleic anhydride groups. (3) Linear and cross-linked functional polymers of synthetic and semisynthetic origin with hydrogel forming capability. Typical examples of their applications in the release of drugs and phytodrugs are also presented.

  5. Unsaturated Zone Flow Patterns and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ahlers

    2001-10-17

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents the development of an expected-case model for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport that will be described in terms of the representativeness of models of the natural system. The expected-case model will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the natural barriers, assess the impact of conservatism in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), and support the development of further models and analyses for public confidence building. The present models used in ''Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation'' (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) 2000 [1532461]) underestimate the natural-barrier performance because of conservative assumptions and parameters and do not adequately address uncertainty and alternative models. The development of an expected case model for the UZ natural barrier addresses issues regarding flow-pattern analysis and modeling that had previously been treated conservatively. This is in line with the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS) philosophy of treating conservatively those aspects of the UZ flow and transport system that are not important for achieving regulatory dose (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153246], Section 1.1.1). The development of an expected case model for the UZ also provides defense-in-depth in areas requiring further analysis of uncertainty and alternative models. In general, the value of the conservative case is to provide a more easily defensible TSPA for behavior of UZ flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This AMR has been prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) 2001 [155051], Section 1.3 - Work Package 4301213UMG). The work scope is to examine the data and current models of flow and transport in the Yucca Mountain UZ to identify models and analyses

  6. Unsaturated Zone Flow Patterns and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, C.

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents the development of an expected-case model for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport that will be described in terms of the representativeness of models of the natural system. The expected-case model will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the natural barriers, assess the impact of conservatism in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), and support the development of further models and analyses for public confidence building. The present models used in ''Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation'' (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O) 2000 [1532461]) underestimate the natural-barrier performance because of conservative assumptions and parameters and do not adequately address uncertainty and alternative models. The development of an expected case model for the UZ natural barrier addresses issues regarding flow-pattern analysis and modeling that had previously been treated conservatively. This is in line with the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS) philosophy of treating conservatively those aspects of the UZ flow and transport system that are not important for achieving regulatory dose (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153246], Section 1.1.1). The development of an expected case model for the UZ also provides defense-in-depth in areas requiring further analysis of uncertainty and alternative models. In general, the value of the conservative case is to provide a more easily defensible TSPA for behavior of UZ flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This AMR has been prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) 2001 [155051], Section 1.3 - Work Package 4301213UMG). The work scope is to examine the data and current models of flow and transport in the Yucca Mountain UZ to identify models and analyses where conservatism may be

  7. Synthesis of rearranged unsaturated drimane derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Domingos S. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A full account to the preparation and application of three appropriately substituted vinylcyclohexenes (2,2-dimethyl-3-vinylcyclohex-3-en-1-ol, 2,2-dimethyl-3-vinylcyclohex-3-en-1-one and 3,3-dimethyl-2-vinylcyclohexene in thermal Diels-Alder reactions with alpha,beta-unsaturated esters (methyl tiglate and methyl angelate is given. This approach delivered the racemic synthesis of ten octalin derivatives bearing a rearranged drimane skeleton (4 diastereomers of 1-methoxycarbonyl-6-hydroxy-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7, 8,8a-octahydronaphthalene; 1-methoxycarbonyl-6-oxo-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalene; 2-methoxycarbonyl-6-oxo-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene; 3 diastereomers of 1-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene and 2-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene . Central synthetic features included preparation of enoltriflates by Stang's protocol and the successful palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction (Stille reaction of the triflate with the tri-n-butylvinylstannane. The octalins relative stereochemistry was unequivocally ascertained by spectroscopic methods and/or X-ray crystallography and these data now stand as useful tools to support the correct assignment of related natural products usually isolated in minute amounts.

  8. Estimating the timing and location of shallow rainfall-induced landslides using a model for transient, unsaturated infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow rainfall-induced landslides commonly occur under conditions of transient infiltration into initially unsaturated soils. In an effort to predict the timing and location of such landslides, we developed a model of the infiltration process using a two-layer system that consists of an unsaturated zone above a saturated zone and implemented this model in a geographic information system (GIS) framework. The model links analytical solutions for transient, unsaturated, vertical infiltration above the water table to pressure-diffusion solutions for pressure changes below the water table. The solutions are coupled through a transient water table that rises as water accumulates at the base of the unsaturated zone. This scheme, though limited to simplified soil-water characteristics and moist initial conditions, greatly improves computational efficiency over numerical models in spatially distributed modeling applications. Pore pressures computed by these coupled models are subsequently used in one-dimensional slope-stability computations to estimate the timing and locations of slope failures. Applied over a digital landscape near Seattle, Washington, for an hourly rainfall history known to trigger shallow landslides, the model computes a factor of safety for each grid cell at any time during a rainstorm. The unsaturated layer attenuates and delays the rainfall-induced pore-pressure response of the model at depth, consistent with observations at an instrumented hillside near Edmonds, Washington. This attenuation results in realistic estimates of timing for the onset of slope instability (7 h earlier than observed landslides, on average). By considering the spatial distribution of physical properties, the model predicts the primary source areas of landslides.

  9. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  10. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Quest for Converting Biorenewable Bifunctional α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone into Degradable and Recyclable Polyester: Controlling Vinyl-Addition/Ring-Opening/Cross-Linking Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-10-04

    α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL), a naturally occurring and biomass-sourced bifunctional monomer, contains both a highly reactive exocyclic C═C bond and a highly stable five-membered γ-butyrolactone ring. Thus, all previous work led to exclusive vinyl-addition polymerization (VAP) product P(MBL)VAP. Now, this work reverses this conventional chemoselectivity to enable the first ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of MBL, thereby producing exclusively unsaturated polyester P(MBL)ROP with Mn up to 21.0 kg/mol. This elusive goal was achieved through uncovering the thermodynamic, catalytic, and processing conditions. A third reaction pathway has also been discovered, which is a crossover propagation between VAP and ROP processes, thus affording cross-linked polymer P(MBL)CLP. The formation of the three types of polymers, P(MBL)VAP, P(MBL)CLP, and P(MBL)ROP, can be readily controlled by adjusting the catalyst (La)/initiator (ROH) ratio, which is determined by the unique chemoselectivity of the La–X (X = OR, NR2, R) group. The resulting P(MBL)ROP is degradable and can be readily postfunctionalized into cross-linked or thiolated materials but, more remarkably, can also be fully recycled back to its monomer thermochemically. Computational studies provided the theoretical basis for, and a mechanistic understanding of, the three different polymerization processes and the origin of the chemoselectivity.

  12. Study on the mechanism of the unsaturated zone in rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigaki, Makoto; Komatsu, Mitsuru; Akagi, Yosuke; Sugita, Yutaka

    2002-02-01

    In geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), unsaturated zone will be expected to appear around the disposal tunnel due to the construction of the tunnel. Cooperative research between JNC and Okayama University has done to understand the mechanism of the unsaturation process and the re-saturation process around the tunnel from FY1998 to FY2000. Characterizing Laboratory test on Unsaturated zone (CLUE) of JNC was used to simulate the Unsaturated process, and the piezometer and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) of Okayama University were used to measure the unsaturation behavior of the CLUE. During this study, the laboratory experiments were performed and the saturation-unsaturation hydraulic characteristics of the material were obtained. The applicability of the FDR to measure the unsaturation condition was examined. Unsaturation hydraulic analysis technique was also applied. These studies supplied the fundamental data on unsaturation processes around the tunnel. (author)

  13. Preparation and characterization of tablet formulation based on solid dispersion of glimepiride and poly(ester amide) hyperbranched polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reven, Sebastjan; Homar, Miha; Peternel, Luka; Kristl, Julijana; Žagar, Ema

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a solid dispersion containing poorly soluble antidiabetic drug glimepiride and poly(ester amide) hyperbranched polymer into a tablet using a direct-compression tabletting technique was investigated. Tablet cores were additionally coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate in order to protect the extremely hygroscopic solid dispersion from atmospheric moisture. Preliminary stability studies show that glimepiride, which is in amorphous form within solid dispersion, is chemically stable, even if tablets are exposed to elevated temperature and/or moisture. In-vitro dissolution studies show some impact of storage conditions on the tablet cores disintegration time and, consequently, drug release rate. Glimepiride solubility also deteriorates somewhat, most probably due to its partial recrystallization. Storage conditions much less affect the physical stability of coated tablets, which was ascribed to reduced tablet hygroscopicity due to the presence of protecting coating. The hyperbranched polymers are rather new and complex macromolecules. Therefore, we addressed also the biocompatibility of hyperbranched polymer, i.e., its impact on haemolysis of the red blood cells. The concentration required for the haemolytic effect on the red blood cells is around 100-times higher than its expected gastrointestinal luminal concentration, which makes the occurrence of hyperbranched polymer mediated cytotoxicity very unlikely.

  14. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  15. Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles

  16. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs

  17. Toluene diffusion and reaction in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, P.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Firestone, M.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-20

    Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, the authors have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. They experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, the authors measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Their studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems.

  18. Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters with outstanding optical storage properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Pedersen, M; Holme, NCR

    1998-01-01

    . Atomic force and scanning near-held optical microscopic investigations of gratings prepared with orthogonally polarized overlapping beams have demonstrated that the anisotropy is preserved in the film despite extensive mass transport and surface corrugation after the irradiation process. However......A flexible azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline (SCLC) polyester architecture employed for reversible optical storage is described. The modular design allows four structural parameters to be individually modified. These parameters: i- the methylene side-chain spacer length, ii- the substituent...... on azobenzene, iii- the methylene main-chain segment length, and iv-the polyester molecular mass, all influence the optical storage properties. A general synthetic route to novel mesogenic azobenzene diols comprising parameters i and ii is outlined. Polyesters with molecular masses (parameter iv) up to 100...

  19. Surface engineering of polyester-degrading enzymes to improve efficiency and tune specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biundo, Antonino; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2018-04-01

    Certain members of the carboxylesterase superfamily can act at the interface between water and water-insoluble substrates. However, nonnatural bulky polyesters usually are not efficiently hydrolyzed. In the recent years, the potential of enzyme engineering to improve hydrolysis of synthetic polyesters has been demonstrated. Regions on the enzyme surface have been modified by using site-directed mutagenesis in order to tune sorption processes through increased hydrophobicity of the enzyme surface. Such modifications can involve specific amino acid substitutions, addition of binding modules, or truncation of entire domains improving sorption properties and/or dynamics of the enzyme. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on different strategies developed in the recent years for enzyme surface engineering to improve the activity of polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes.

  20. Corrosion Behavior of Primid Solidified Polyester Powder Coating in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU He-rong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of primid-curing solidified polyester powder coating defects in marine environment was investigated by CASS test, immersion test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning Kelvin probe (SKP. The results show that the primid-curing polyester powder coating has a small amount of blisters along the scratch edge, the maximu single side corrosion width is less than 0.5mm, and the surface adhesion is 0 after 240 hours' CASS test. The EIS map in 0.6mol/L NaCl solution exhibits that the corrosion rate of aluminu alloy is decreased with increasing immersion time and gradually stable. The scanning Kelvin spectrum reveals that the corrosion of the metal under the coating of the polyester powder is extended from scratch to the coating, the anode and the cathode are alternately changed, which leads to the expansion of the corrosion area.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Anionic Polyester-Polyurethane Dispersion as Environmentally-Friendly Waterbased Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf i F. Manouchehri F., and Shaabanz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous polyurethane dispersions (PUDs have recently emerged as important alternatives to their solvent-based counterparts for various applications due to increasing health and environmental awareness (green chemistry. Anionic polyester-polyurethane dispersions were synthesized by three steps. In the first step, macromonomer diisocyanate having carboxylic acid was prepared by isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA in percent of acetone as solvent and dibutyldtin dilaurate (DBTDL as catalyst. Then, carboxylic polyurethane was prepared by reaction macromonomer diisocyanate having carboxylic acid with linear aliphatic polyester (Mw=2000, trifunctional polyester (Mw=2800 and butanediol (BDO as chain extender. The next step involved neutralization and dispersion in water, where acidic polyurethane was neutralized by the addition of triethylamine (TEA.  Factors influencing the synthesis of polyurethane dispersion mainly involve reaction temperature, reaction time, the concentration of catalyst, DMPA content and BDO content, were studied. The polymers have been characterized with DSC and FTIR.

  2. A new polyester based on allyl α-hydroxy glutarate as shell for magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Feher, Ioana Coralia

    2017-12-01

    Allyl side-chain-functionalized lactide was synthesized from commercially available glutamic acid and polymerized by ring opening polymerization using 4-dimethylaminopyridine as an organocatalyst in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. The resulting magnetic nanostructures coated with the allyl-containing polyester were then functionalized with cysteine by thiol-ene click reaction leading to highly functionalized magnetic nano-platforms of practical interest. The polyester precursors were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The morphology of magnetic nanostructures based on the functionalized polyester was determined by transmission electron microscopy TEM, while the chemical structure was investigated by FT-IR. TGA investigations and the magnetic properties of the magnetic nanostructures are also described.

  3. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface Modification of Polyester by Nano Titanium Dioxide in Alkaline Media and Their Synergism Effect on the Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Allahyarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alkaline hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide on nano titanium dioxide (nano TiO2 adsorption was studied on polyester fabric surface as well as the influence of nano TiO2 on the alkaline hydrolysis of polyester. To do this, the polyester fabrics were treated with different concentrations of nano TiO2 and boiling sodium hydroxide solution for 1 h. The results revealed that alkaline hydrolysis reduced the weight of the fabric, which was more prominent in presence of nano TiO2. Field emission scanning electronic microscope and energy dispersive X-ray confirmed the presence of nano TiO2 on the polyester fabric surface. Increasing sodium hydroxide and nanoTiO2 concentrations led to higher loading of nano particles on the polyester fabric surface. Also, the photocatalytic activity of nano TiO2 particles on the polyester fabric was confirmed by the degradation of methylene blue as a model stain under daylight irradiation. The results indicated that increasing sodium hydroxide and nano TiO2 concentrations led to higher photocatalytic activities of the alkali-treated polyester fabrics. Further, the bending rigidity of the treated polyester fabrics decreased while the water absorption of the fabric improved. Unexpectedly, the tensile strength of the nano TiO2 treated polyester fabrics improved even with the action of alkali and surface hydrolysis that usually produce fabric with lower tensile strength. The synergism influence of nano TiO2 particles in alkali hydrolysis of polyester fabric indicated to lower weight fabrics. Overall, this treatment was considered as another useful property such as higher self-cleaning, hydrophilicity and tensile strength.

  5. Towards a Guided Regeneration of Renal Tubules at a Polyester Interstitium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will W. Minuth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for a therapy of renal failure. However, sound knowledge about implantation and regeneration is lacking. Therefore, mechanisms leading from stem/progenitor cells into tubules are under research. Renal stem/progenitor cells were isolated from neonatal rabbit kidney and mounted between layers of polyester fleece. It creates an artificial interstitium and replaces coating by extracellular matrix proteins. Tubulogenic development is induced by aldosterone. Electron microscopy illuminates growth of tubules in close vicinity to polyester fibers. Tubules contain a differentiated epithelium. The spatial extension of tubules opens a new strategy for testing morphogenic drugs and biocompatible fleece materials.

  6. Novel side-chain liquid crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Andruzzi, Fulvio; Kulinna, Chrisian

    1995-01-01

    have molecular masses in the range 5000-89 000. Solution C-13 NMR spectroscopy has been employed to identify carbons of polyester repeat units and of both types of end groups. Polyester phases and phase transitions have been investigated in detail by polarizing optical microscopy and differential....../mm and diffraction efficiencies of about 40% have been achieved. Lifetimes greater than 30 months for information stored have been obtained, even though the glass transition temperatures are about 20 degrees C. Complete erasure of the information can be obtained by heating the films to about 80 degrees C...

  7. Antifungal activity of fabrics knitted by metalized Silver/Polyester composite yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İ.; Duru Baykal, P.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, antifungal properties of fabric knitted from metalized silver/polyester composite yarn were investigated. Intermingling is an alternative technique for yarn blending process. Yarns having different features can be combined by feeding the same intermingling jet. This process is defined as commingling. In the study, intermingling process was used to produce metalized silver/polyester composite yarn. Commingled yarns were knitted to single jersey fabrics by IPM brand sample type circular knitting machine. Antifungal activity test was applied to samples against Aspergillus Niger according to AATCC 30 test procedure. It has been identified that the application provides antifungal activity to fabric.

  8. Measurement of salivary cortisol--effects of replacing polyester with cotton and switching antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger

    2008-01-01

    measurements in our laboratory were affected by: 1) changes in the tampon material and 2) changes in the antibody of the analytical kit. In study 1, saliva from healthy subjects (n = 19) was split and spiked to Salivette polyester and cotton tampons, respectively, and treated as ordinary samples before being...... analysed for cortisol using a Spectria RIA kit for cortisol. In study 2, 68 anonymous saliva samples were analysed with the Spectria Cortisol RIA kit both before and after the manufacturer changed the antibody. The change from polyester to cotton tampons reduced the measured concentration of salivary...

  9. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Steel Fiber/Polyester Composites: Experiments and Micromechanical Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Bech, Jakob Ilsted

    2016-01-01

    the role of material and process parameters on material properties. Two types of SFRP were studied: polyester resin reinforced by both steel fabric containing unidirectional fibers and steel fibers wound on a metal frame with 0° orientations. The effects of the fiber volume fraction and the role of polymer......The article introduces steel fiber reinforced polymer composites, which is considered new for composite product developments. These composites consist of steel fibers or filaments of 0.21 mm diameter embedded in a polyester resin. The goal of this investigation is to characterize the mechanical...

  10. Purification and Properties of a Polyester Polyurethane-Degrading Enzyme from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35

    OpenAIRE

    Akutsu, Yukie; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    1998-01-01

    A polyester polyurethane (PUR)-degrading enzyme, PUR esterase, derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35, a bacterium that utilizes polyester PUR as the sole carbon source, was purified until it showed a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This enzyme was bound to the cell surface and was extracted by addition of 0.2% N,N-bis(3-d-gluconamidopropyl)deoxycholamide (deoxy-BIGCHAP). The results of gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that the PUR este...

  11. Oligoesters and polyesters produced by the curing of sunflower oil epoxidized biodiesel with cis-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiznautt, Quelen B. [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Garcia, Irene T.S. [Department of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios, E-mail: dsamios@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-08-31

    Oligoesters and polyesters produced from sunflower oil biodiesel were synthesized and characterized. The polymers were obtained through the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy esters (EE) with cis-1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride (CH) and triethylamine (TEA) as initiator. Some reactions were conducted by adding small amounts of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE). The intermediate products of the synthesis process, including sunflower oil, methyl ester, epoxidised methyl esters, and the oligoesters and polyesters produced, were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance. The products obtained from the curing of the epoxidised esters with different compositions present similar chemical structures; however, they still depend on the amount of the epoxy resin BDGE that was added in the polymerization reaction. Thermoplastic materials with molecular weights (MW) starting at 3800 g/mol and reaching very high MWs, resulted in cross linked polymers. The thermal behaviour of the different products was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the structure of the materials increases the bonding capacity, resulting in higher molecular weight materials, which present good thermal stability.

  12. Polyurethane coating from prepolymers and Crambe oil polyesters in oxygenates and green solvents; Revestimento de poliuretano a partir de pre-polimeros e poliesteres de oleo de crambe em solventes oxigenados e verdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Elaine R.P.; Messaddeq, Younes, E-mail: elainerpp@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Polito, Wagner Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Matinelli, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2015-07-01

    The PU coatings are extremely used in areas that require high-performance. For several applications PU resin, the solvent base is commonly used, the problem is the solvents with high content of volatile organic compounds (VCO) like: toluene, xylene, benzene, etc.. In this work, we were synthesized and characterized four kinds of prepolymers with low-VCO from renewable sources such as castor oil and crambe oil with oxygenate and green solvents. The PU prepolymers had been synthesized in the proportions NCO/OH 2:1 and 3:1. The curing process was carried out with atmospheric moisture in the films. Characterization was made from prepolymers, oligomers and polyesters and PU films by FTIR, TGA / DTA, NMR, GPC and GC-FID, besides this the coatings were applied on aluminum and glass plates and, subjected to analysis chamber saline, hardness and adhesion. The results indicated that the reaction occurred between the prepolymers with oligomers or polyesters, because disappearance of the NCO band at 2270 cm{sup -1}. The PU films showed good thermal stability (> 270 °C), high tensile strength and deformation. Surround the formulations, the PU films with HDI prepolymers showed the best results with polyesters from crambe oil (PEC 02 and PEC 03). (author)

  13. Parametric effects of glass reaction under unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Woodland, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Eventual liquid water contact of high-level waste glass stored under the unsaturated conditions anticipated at the Yucca Mountain site will be by slow intrusion of water into a breached container/canister assembly. The water flow patterns under these unsaturated conditions will vary, and the Unsaturated Test method has been developed by the YMP to study glass reaction. The results from seven different sets of tests done to investigate the effect of systematically varying parameters, such as glass composition, composition and degree of sensitization of 304L stainless steel, water input volume, and the interval of water contact are discussed. Glass reaction has been monitored over a period of five years, and the parametric effects can result in up to a ten-fold variance in the degree of glass reaction

  14. Second European Conference on Unsaturated Soils, E-UNSAT 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Jommi, Cristina; D’Onza, Francesca; Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications

    2012-01-01

    These volumes contain the contributions to the Second European Conference on Unsaturated Soils, E-UNSAT 2012, held in Napoli, Italy, in June 2012. The event is the second of a series of European conferences, and follows the first successful one, organised in Durham, UK, in 2008. The conference series is supported by Technical Committee 106 of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering on Unsaturated Soils. The published contributions were selected after a careful peer-review process. A collection of more than one hundred papers is included, addressing the three thematic areas experimental, including advances in testing techniques and soil behaviour, modelling, covering theoretical and constitutive issues together with numerical and physical modelling, and engineering, focusing on approaches, case histories and geo-environmental themes. The areas of application of the papers embrace most of the geotechnical problems related to unsaturated soils. Increasing interest in geo-environm...

  15. Antimicrobial wool, polyester and a wool/polyester blend created by silver particles embedded in a silica matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenčič, Danijela; Tomšič, Brigita; Kovač, Franci; Žerjav, Metka; Simončič, Andrej; Simončič, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    A two-step antimicrobial finishing procedure was applied to wool (WO) and polyester (PES) fabrics and a WO/PES fabric blend, in which the pad-dry-cure method was performed to create a functional silica matrix through the application of an inorganic-organic hybrid sol-gel precursor (RB) followed by the in situ synthesis of AgCl particles on the RB-treated fibres using 0.10 and 0.50mM AgNO3 and NaCl. The bulk concentration of Ag on the cotton fibres was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity was determined for the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the highest concentration of the adsorbed Ag compound particles was on the WO samples followed by the WO/PES and PES samples. The antimicrobial activity of the finished fabric samples strongly depended not only on the amount of adsorbed Ag but also on the properties of the fabric samples. Whereas Ag biocidal activity was generated for the finished PES samples at Ag particle concentrations of less than 10mg/kg, the 34-times higher Ag particle concentration on the WO samples was insufficient to impart satisfactory antimicrobial activity because Ag chemically binds to the thiol groups on wool. The presence of wool fibres in WO/PES samples decreased the antimicrobial protection of the fabric blend compared with that of the PES fabric. A lethal concentration of adsorbed Ag compound particles for bacteria and fungi was produced only through the treatment of the WO and WO/PES samples with 0.5mM AgNO3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates based on unsaturated polyester resin reinforced by plain-weave woven e-glass fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal, M.A.; Beng, Y.K.

    2010-01-01

    A successful curing process in composite fabrication yields outstanding properties to meet requirements for designing certain standard specimen geometry in testing and analysis. This paper describes a curing process of hand lay-up plain-weave woven GFRP composite. A standard curing cycle and pressure were applied to produce the composite panel for evaluation of its physical properties. A standard methodology was utilized according to the British Standard coded: BS 1268. The analysis on volume and weight fraction (%) and void volume content (%) has been also carried out according to ASTM coded: D 2734. This paper also partly describes the association of experimental study on the tensile properties of hand lay-up plain-weave woven GFRP panels. Tests were conducted on the GFRP specimens fabricated at different curing pressure of 35.8 kg/ m 2 , 70.1 kg/ m 2 , 104 kg/ m 2 , 104 kg/ m 2 and 138.2 kg/ m 2 . The two types of woven GFRP lay-up which are designed with symmetrically and non-symmetrically arrangement at the center-plane of the composite are also investigated. (author)

  17. Influence of wool and thermo-binder fibers relative fractions on the adhesion of non-woven Alfa fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Omri, Med; Triki, A.; Ben Hassen, Med; Arous, M.; Bulou, A.

    2016-10-01

    Alfa/wool/thermo-binder fibers hybrid composites were investigated in order to analyze adhesion state. Bearing in mind the chemical structure of wool and thermo-binder fibers, this study revealed a good compatibility between the reinforcement and the matrix. Dielectric measurements revealed the presence of two dielectric relaxations in the composite. The first relaxation was attributed to the α mode relaxation and the second one was associated with the conductivity noted for high temperature. This study allowed the analysis of the interfacial polarization effect using the Havrilliak-Negami model in the electric modulus formalism. The lowness of this relaxation intensity revealed a good adhesion of the fibers in the matrix. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed a slow decrease of the Tg glass transition temperature compared to the matrix, which could be explained by the existence of interactions between the fibers and the matrix. Vibrational analysis, based on FTIR measurements, showed a less hydrophilic character of Alfa fibers owing to a basic dissociation that occurs between the wool fibers and the water molecules associated with Alfa fibers. Furthermore, adhesion mechanism in the composite material was established by covalent and hydrogen bonds. Tensile testing performed on this composite confirmed that such adhesion was improved by increasing the thermo-binder fibers relative fraction.

  18. Study of the Photo-oxidation and Photolysis of Unsaturated and Cross-linked Polyesters (UP) in the Presence of Photoactive or not Inorganic Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zahi; Koubaissy, Bachar; Akil, Mariam

    Disturbances of the photochemical evolution involved in the photolysis and in the photo-oxidation at long wavelengths (ë?300 nm) of poly(propylene glycol-maleatophtalate cross-linked by the styrene (UP),caused by the addition of photo-active pigment such as zinc sulphide or black iron oxides,and no photoactive inorganic fillers such as calcium carbonate have been analysed by means of FTIR and U.V. spectrophotometry. The photo-oxidation observed by FTIR of the polymer UP in the presence of inorganic fillers leads to the same photoproducts such as ones of the photo-oxidation of the virgin polymer, but the oxidation rate is greatly affected by the nature and the percentage of the inorganic filler. Zinc sulfide and black iron are incorporated in the film of polymers, the absorption spectra of ZnS reveals that this pigment is not as absorbent as titanium oxide in a more limited field. On the other hand, with a very low inner filter effect, black iron oxides promote the formation of absorbing photoproducts. The addition of Calcium carbonate non- absorbing filler to the UP, causes a slight decrease in the evolution of the I.R

  19. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  20. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports on a series of experiments that were conducted to study the effect of moisture content on the electromigration rate of anionic contaminants in unsaturated soil and determine the limiting moisture content for which electromigration occurs

  1. Influence of Immersion Conditions on The Tensile Strength of Recycled Kevlar®/Polyester/Low-Melting-Point Polyester Nonwoven Geotextiles through Applying Statistical Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Chzi Hsieh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recycled Kevlar®/polyester/low-melting-point polyester (recycled Kevlar®/PET/LPET nonwoven geotextiles are immersed in neutral, strong acid, and strong alkali solutions, respectively, at different temperatures for four months. Their tensile strength is then tested according to various immersion periods at various temperatures, in order to determine their durability to chemicals. For the purpose of analyzing the possible factors that influence mechanical properties of geotextiles under diverse environmental conditions, the experimental results and statistical analyses are incorporated in this study. Therefore, influences of the content of recycled Kevlar® fibers, implementation of thermal treatment, and immersion periods on the tensile strength of recycled Kevlar®/PET/LPET nonwoven geotextiles are examined, after which their influential levels are statistically determined by performing multiple regression analyses. According to the results, the tensile strength of nonwoven geotextiles can be enhanced by adding recycled Kevlar® fibers and thermal treatment.

  2. Unsaturated soil moisture drying and wetting diffusion coefficient measurements in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTTransient moisture flow in an unsaturated soil in response to suction changes is controlled by the unsaturated moisture diffusion coefficient. The moisture diffusion coefficient can be determined by measuring suction profiles over time. The l...

  3. Visualization of microscale phase displacement proceses in retention and outflow experiments: nonuniquensess of unsaturated flow properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annette Pia; Glass, R.J.; Hollenbeck, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    -scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these microscale processes yields macroscale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. Such results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties....

  4. Lipase catalyzed HEMA initiated ring-opening polymerization: in situ formation of mixed polyester methacrylates by transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takwa, Mohamad; Xiao, Yan; Simpson, Neil; Malmström, Eva; Hult, Karl; Koning, Cor E; Heise, Andreas; Martinelle, Mats

    2008-02-01

    2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was used as initiator for the enzymatic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of omega-pentadecalactone (PDL) and epsilon-caprolactone (CL). The lipase B from Candida antarctica was found to catalyze the cleavage of the ester bond in the HEMA end group of the formed polyesters, resulting in two major transesterification processes, methacrylate transfer and polyester transfer. This resulted in a number of different polyester methacrylate structures, such as polymers without, with one, and with two methacrylate end groups. Furthermore, the 1,2-ethanediol moiety (from HEMA) was found in the polyester products as an integral part of HEMA, as an end group (with one hydroxyl group) and incorporated within the polyester (polyester chains acylated on both hydroxyl groups). After 72 h, as a result of the methacrylate transfer, 79% (48%) of the initial amount of the methacrylate moiety (from HEMA) was situated (acylated) on the end hydroxyl group of the PPDL (PCL) polyester. In order to prepare materials for polymer networks, fully dimethacrylated polymers were synthesized in a one-pot procedure by combining HEMA-initiated ROP with end-capping using vinyl methacrylate. The novel PPDL dimethacrylate (>95% incorporated methacrylate end groups) is currently in use for polymer network formation. Our results show that initiators with cleavable ester groups are of limited use to obtain well-defined monomethacrylated macromonomers due to the enzyme-based transesterification processes. On the other hand, when combined with end-capping, well-defined dimethacrylated polymers (PPDL, PCL) were prepared.

  5. Ultrastructural insights in the interface between generated renal tubules and a polyester interstitium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia; Meese, Christine; Rachel, Reinhard; Roessger, Anne

    2009-04-21

    In regenerative medicine, stem/progenitor cells are emerging as potential candidates for the treatment of renal failure. However, the mechanism of regeneration of renal tubules from stem/progenitor cells is not well-elucidated. In this study, a new method was developed for the generation of tubules replacing coating by extracellular matrix proteins. Renal stem/progenitor cells are mounted between layers of polyester fleece. This artificial interstitium supports spatial development of tubules within 13 days of perfusion culture in chemically defined Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM) containing aldosterone as the tubulogenic factor. Whole mount label by soybean agglutinin (SBA) showed that generated tubules exhibited a lumen and a continuously developed basal lamina. Immuno-labeling for cytokeratin Endo-A demonstrated the presence of isoprismatic epithelial cells, and laminin gamma1, occludin, and Na/K-ATPase alpha5 labeling revealed typical features of a polarized epithelium. To get first insight in the interface between tubules and polyester interstitium, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed. The results showed that the generated tubules exhibited polar differentiation with a continuously developed basal lamina consisting of a lamina rara interna, lamina densa, and lamina rara externa. Collagen type III was found to be the linking molecule between the basal lamina and the surrounding polyester fibers by immuno labeling studies. Thus, the findings demonstrate that the spatial development involves the interface between the tubular basal lamina and the polyester interstitium of tubules and is not restricted to the epithelial portion.

  6. Segmented block copolymers based on poltbutylene terephthalate and telechelic polyesters and polyamides of dimirized fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, H.J.; Manuel, H.J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers (SBCs) based on poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and telechelics based on dimerized fatty acids have been synthesized in the melt. The dimerized fatty acids were coupled with diols or diamines to synthesize polyesters and polyamides of low molar mass. With these

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of hollow polyester fibers effect on impact behavior of composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasr-Isfahani, Mohammad; Amani Tehran, M.; Latifi, M.; Halvaei, M.; Warnet, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of utilizing hollow polyester fibers as reinforcement in composite material in comparison with solids is investigated. The three-point bending impact test is carried out to study the impact behavior and mode of failure of composites. After that, the finite element method is

  8. The identification of cutin synthase: formation of the plant polyester cutin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Martin, Laetitia B. B.; Viart, Helene Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    A hydrophobic cuticle consisting of waxes and the polyester cutin covers the aerial epidermis of all land plants, providing essential protection from desiccation and other stresses. We have determined the enzymatic basis of cutin polymerization through characterization of a tomato extracellular a...

  9. Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Todorov, T

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the polarization properties of holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters in which an anisotropic grating that is due to photoinduced linear and circular birefringence is recorded in the volume of the material and a relief grating appears on the surface. A theoretical...... in the appearance of a surface relief with doubled frequency....

  10. Semi-Aromatic Polyesters Based on a Carbohydrate-Derived Rigid Diol for Engineering Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Eduard, P.; Thiyagarajan, S.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Es, van D.S.; Koning, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    New carbohydrate-based polyesters were prepared from isoidide- 2,5-dimethanol (extended isoidide, XII) through melt polymerization with dimethyl esters of terephthalic acid (TA) and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), yielding semi-crystalline prepolymers. Subsequent solid-state post-condensation

  11. Material characterization of a polyester resin system for the pultrusion process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the chemo-rheology of an industrial “orthophthalic” polyester system specifically prepared for a pultrusion process is characterized. The curing behaviour is first characterized using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal and dynamic scans are performed to

  12. Modification with alkyl chains and the influence on thermal and mechanical properties of aromatic hyperbranched polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaljohann, Dirk; Häußler, Liane; Pötschke, Petra; Voit, Brigitte I.; Loontjens, Ton J.A.

    2000-01-01

    All-aromatic hyperbranched polyesters with hydroxy endgroups were functionalized with aliphatic n-alkyl carboxylic acids. The length of the n-alkyl chain as well as the degree of modification were varied and the resulting, partially amphiphilic polymers were characterized by differential scanning

  13. 50-Hz plasma treatment of glass fibre reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50-Hz dielectric barrier discharge at peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of around...

  14. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters from polyester and polypropylene fibre nonwovens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boguslavsky, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available polypropylene (PP) and polyester (PET) fibres. The nonwoven spunlaced filters made from these fibres are softer and more flexible compared to traditional glass fibre filters for this application. They also have relatively smaller pores which render high air...

  15. AB(2) functional polyesters via ring opening polymerization: synthesis and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthoen, I.W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Aliphatic AB2 functional polyesters were conveniently prepared by the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and L-lactide in the presence of the AB2 functional initiator 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) and Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst. In L-lactide polymerization, both bis-MPA

  16. Eco-friendly surface modification on polyester fabrics by esterase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jindan; Cai, Guoqiang; Liu, Jinqiang; Ge, Huayun; Wang, Jiping, E-mail: jipingwanghz@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We used a simple and easy way to measure the enzyme activity. • We studied the mechanism by characterizing the chemical changes in the surface of fabric. • We studied the advantages in surface wettability, fiber integrity and mechanical performance of cutinase treated fabrics. • Cutinase pretreated fibers exhibited much improved fabric wicking and better fiber integrity comparing to alkali treated ones. • Cutinase pretreatment technology promotes energy conservation and emission reduction. - Abstract: Currently, traditional alkali deweighting technology is widely used to improve the hydrophilicity of polyester fabrics. However, the wastewater and heavy chemicals in the effluent cause enormous damage to the environment. Esterase treatment, which is feasible in mild conditions with high selectivity, can provide a clean and efficient way for polyester modification. Under the optimum conditions, the polyester fabric hydrolysis process of esterase had a linear kinetics. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) results showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were produced only on the surface of modified fiber without changing the chemical composition of the bulk. These fibers exhibited much improved fabric wicking, as well as greatly improved oily stain removal performance. Compared to the harsh alkali hydrolysis, the enzyme treatment led to smaller weight loss and better fiber integrity. The esterase treatment technology is promising to produce higher-quality polyester textiles with an environmental friendly approach.

  17. Thermal studies of poly(esters) containing silicon or germanium in the main chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagle, L.H.; Terraza, C.; Valenzuela, P.; Leiva, A.; Urzua, M.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal properties of poly(esters) containing Si and/or Ge in the main chain derived from the acid dichlorides bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-dimethyl-silane, bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-dimethyl-germane, bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-diphenyl-silane and bis(4-chloroformyl-phenyl)-diphenyl-silane, and the diphenols bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-dimethyl-silane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-dimethyl-germane, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenyl-silane and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-diphenyl-germane were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic thermogravimetry. Poly(esters) with two Si atoms in the main chain showed higher values of T g than those with two Ge atoms, and the same was observed for poly(esters) with phenyl groups bonded to the heteroatoms, instead of those with methyl groups. Thermal decomposition temperatures were also higher for those poly(esters) with two Si atoms in the main chain and those in which the heteroatom is bonded to phenyl groups, due to the higher polarity of the Si-C bond in front of the Ge-C

  18. Synthesis of a novel polyester building block from pentoses by tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Andersen, Christian; Tolborg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    a product containing functional groups originating from trans-2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentenoic acid methyl ester in the polyester backbone. The reactivity of the incorporated olefin and hydroxyl moieties was investigated using trifluoroacetic anhydride and thiol-ene chemisitry, thus illustrating the potential...

  19. Corona Glow Discharge Plasma Treatment for Hidrophylicity Improvement of Polyester and Cotton Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan, A. I.; Widodo, M.; Nur, M.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of irradiation by a corona glow discharge plasma on hidrophylicity properties of polyester and cotton fabrics were investigated. We used a corona glow discharge plasma reactor with multiple points to plane electrodes, which was generated by a high voltage DC. Factors that affect the hidrophylicity properties were identified and evaluated as functions of irradiation parameters, which include duration of treatment, distance between electrodes, and bias voltage. It was readily observed from SEM examinations that plasma changed the surface morphology of both polyester and cotton fibers, giving result to an increased roughness to both of them. Results also showed that the hidrophylicityof polyester and cotton fabrics improved by the treatment, which is proportional to the time of treatment and voltage, but inversely proportional to the distance between electrodes. Time of treatment that provided the optimum enhancement of hidrophylicity for cotton is 15 minutes which improved the wetting time from 8.16 seconds to 1.26 seconds. For polyester, it took 15 minutes of irradiation time to improve the wetting time from 7340 seconds to 2905 seconds. The optimum distance between electrodes for both fabrics in this study was found to be 2 cm. Further analysis showed that the improved hidrophylicity properties is due to the creation of surface radicals by free radicals in the plasma leading to the formation of new water-attracting functional groups on the fiber surface.

  20. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  1. Exploring the Substrate Scope of Baeyer–Villiger Monooxygenases with Branched Lactones as Entry towards Polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgove, Marie; Fürst, Maximilian; Fraaije, Marco; Bernaerts, Katrien; de Wildeman, Stefaan

    2018-01-01

    Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts that are able to convert cyclic ketones into lactones by the insertion of oxygen. The aim of this study was to explore the substrate scope of several BVMOs with (biobased) cyclic ketones as precursors for the synthesis of branched polyesters.

  2. Exploring the substrate scope of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases with branched lactones as entry towards polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgove, Marie; Fürst, Maximilian; Fraaije, Marco; Bernaerts, Katrien; De Wildeman, Stefaan M A

    2018-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts able to convert cyclic ketones to lactones by the insertion of oxygen. The aim of this study was to explore the substrate scope of several BVMOs with (biobased) cyclic ketones as precursors for the synthesis of branched polyesters.The product

  3. Design and Applications of Biodegradable Polyester Tissue Scaffolds Based on Endogenous Monomers Found in Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin G. Barrett

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polyesters have deeply impacted various biomedical and engineering fields, such as tissue scaffolding and therapeutic delivery. Currently, many applications involving polyesters are being explored with polymers derived from monomers that are endogenous to the human metabolism. Examples of these monomers include glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, and lactic, sebacic, citric, succinic, α-ketoglutaric, and fumaric acids. In terms of mechanical versatility, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, and biocompatibility, polyesters synthesized partially or completely from these monomers can display a wide range of properties. The flexibility in these macromolecular properties allows for materials to be tailored according to the needs of a particular application. Along with the presence of natural monomers that allows for a high probability of biocompatibility, there is also an added benefit that this class of polyesters is more environmentally friendly than many other materials used in biomedical engineering. While the selection of monomers may be limited by nature, these polymers have produced or have the potential to produce an enormous number of successes in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Analysis of pultrusion process for thick glass/polyester composites: transverse shear stress formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet

    2017-01-01

    In the present work process-induced residual stress development is described for a 100 × 100 mm pultruded square profile made of glass/polyester. A thermo-chemical model developed in MATLAB is coupled with a mechanical model developed in ABAQUS. The temperature and degree of cure distributions are

  5. Analysis of adhesion of radiation curable compositions to polyester substrate. [. gamma. rays or electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, W.K.; Barbery, J.; Gupta, B.S.

    1977-07-01

    Properties of bonds produced by radiation curing of adhesives on polyester film were studied. Investigation of bonding in polyester non-wovens had revealed that adhesion of binders to fibers was weak, which resulted in interfacial failures, judged from electron micrographs. If a binder droplet surrounds a cluster of fibers, tearing of binder took place but fibers still peeled out of droplets with interfacial separation. In order to understand the failure mechanism, a study was carried out on Mylar film bonded with adhesives cured by electron beam or gamma-rays from /sup 60/Co. Mixtures of isodecyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate were copolymerized between Mylar films to produce adhesives with a wide range of glass transition temperatures. Hexanediol diacrylate was added in various amounts to produce different degrees of cross-linking. Small amounts of fumed silica (Cab-O-Sil) were added to thicken the monomers used in the /sup 60/Co experiments. By varying rheological properties in this fashion, a maximum peel force of 3.5 lb/in. was obtained. This value is in line with peel strengths from polyester using commercial, prepolymerized adhesives with solubility parameters similar to those used here delta = 8.3 to 9.3). These results show that the primary reason for the poor adhesion of radiation curable adhesives to polyester is their high degree of cross-linking and that radiation curable adhesives are not basically different from other types, except in cases where their unique properties could be utilized with advantage.

  6. Method to determine the thermal expansion of epoxies, inorganic cements and polyester resins at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereinig, W.; Gross, F.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the integral thermal expansions at cryogenic temperatures is described. The thermal expansions are given for a number of commercial epoxy resins, commercial polyester resins and inorganic cements. A method to reduce the thermal expansion of the resins by the use of quartz powder fillers is reported. (author)

  7. BIODEGRADATION OF HYDROCARBON VAPORS IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time-averaged concentration of hydrocarbon and oxygen vapors were measured in the unsaturated zone above the residually contaminated capillary fringe at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan. Total hydrocarbon and oxygen vapor concentrations were observe...

  8. Transport of E. coli in saturated and unsaturated porous media ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Madumathi

    transport of pathogenic bacteria through a porous medium. Such studies will aid in policy decisions for protecting drinking groundwater sources from improper sanitation systems. Therefore, in this study, saturated and unsaturated, sand and soil column experiments were conducted with active and inactive E. coli bacteria.

  9. Uncertainty analyses of unsaturated zone travel time at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, W.E.; Freshley, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis method can be applied to numerical models of ground-water flow to estimate the relative importance of physical and hydrologic input variables with respect to ground-water travel time. Monte Carlo numerical simulations of unsaturated flow in the Calico Hills nonwelded zeolitic (CHnz) layer at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that variability in recharge, and to a lesser extent in matrix porosity, explains most of the variability in predictions of water travel time through the unsaturated zone. Variations in saturated hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated curve-fitting parameters were not statistically significant in explaining variability in water travel time through the unsaturated CHnz unit. The results of this study suggest that the large uncertainty associated with recharge rate estimates for the Yucca Mountain site is of concern because the performance of the potential repository would be more sensitive to uncertainty in recharge than to any other parameter evaluated. These results are not exhaustive because of the limited site characterization data available and because of the preliminary nature of this study, which is limited to a single stratigraphic unit, one dimension, and does not account for fracture flow or other potential fast pathways at Yucca Mountain

  10. Heat and mass transfer in unsaturated porous media. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, S.W.; Malstaff, G.

    1982-02-01

    A preliminary study of heat and water transport in unsaturated porous media is reported. The project provides background information regarding the feasibility of seasonal thermal energy storage in unconfined aquifers. A parametric analysis of the factors of importance, and an annotated bibliography of research findings pertinent to unconfined aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) are presented. This analysis shows that heat and mass transfer of water vapor assume dominant importance in unsaturated porous media at elevated temperature. Although water vapor fluxes are seldom as large as saturated medium liquid water fluxes, they are important under unsaturated conditions. The major heat transport mechanism for unsaturated porous media at temperatures from 50 to 90/sup 0/C is latent heat flux. The mechanism is nonexistent under saturated conditions but may well control design of unconfined aquifer storage systems. The parametric analysis treats detailed physical phenomena which occur in the flow systems study and demonstrates the temperature and moisture dependence of the transport coefficients of importance. The question of design of an unconfined ATES site is also addressed by considering the effects of aquifer temperature, depth to water table, porous medium flow properties, and surface boundary conditions. Recommendations are made for continuation of this project in its second phase. Both scientific and engineering goals are considered and alternatives are presented.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF 2,3-UNSATURATED FURANIC HEX- AND PENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... presence of catalytic amount of ceric(IV) ammonium nitrate under neutral condition or using Lewis acid-catalysed proceeds smoothly to afford the corresponding 2,3-unsaturated glycosides in good yields. In the hexose series predominantly α-D-anomers resulted while β-D-anomers are predominant in the pentose serie.

  12. Numerical convergence improvements for porflow unsaturated flow simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Section 3.6 of SRNL (2016) discusses various PORFLOW code improvements to increase modeling efficiency, in preparation for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (WSRC 2008) revision. This memorandum documents interaction with Analytic & Computational Research, Inc. (http://www.acricfd.com/default.htm) to improve numerical convergence efficiency using PORFLOW version 6.42 for unsaturated flow simulations.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF 2,3-UNSATURATED FURANIC HEX- AND PENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    [12] and reduction in two steps of 3-(2-furyl)-acrolein[13] in good yields. The reaction of alcohols 2a-e with glucal 1, carried out in presence of boron trifluoride [7]. (method A), ferric chloride [11] (method B) and CAN [10] (method C), afforded the corresponding 2,3-unsaturated glucopyranosides 3a-e (Table 1). Table 1.

  14. A Unified Elastoplastic Model of Unsaturated Soils Considering Capillary Hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike its saturated counterparts, the mechanical behavior of an unsaturated soil depends not only upon its stress history but also upon its hydraulic history. In this paper, a soil-water characteristic relationship which is capable of describing the effect of capillary hysteresis is introduced to characterize the influence of hydraulic history on the skeletal deformation. The capillary hysteresis is viewed as a phenomenon associated with the internal structural rearrangements in unsaturated soils, which can be characterized by using a set of internal state variables. It is shown that both capillary hysteresis and plastic deformation can be consistently addressed in a unified theoretical framework. Within this context, a constitutive model of unsaturated soils is developed by generalizing the modified Cam-Clay model. A hardening function is introduced, in which both the matric suction and the degree of saturation are explicitly included as hardening variables, so that the effect of hydraulic history on the mechanical response can be properly addressed. The proposed model is capable of capturing the main features of the unsaturated soil behavior. The new model has a hierarchical structure, and, depending upon application, it can describe the stress-strain relation and the soil-water characteristics in a coupled or uncoupled manner.

  15. Bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids via tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new catalytic route to bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids will be described. At the heart of the process, the catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by both dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds in an aliphatic chain and, subsequently, decarboxylating specific isomers...

  16. Effect Of Intraruminal Infussion Of Saturated And Unsaturated Fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the effect of intraruminal infusion of diferent proportions of palmitic (saturated fatty acid) and linolenic (unsaturated fatty acid) on rumen degradability of organic matter fraction of Pennisetium purpureum, total volatile fatty acid and total methane productions in West African Dwarf sheep. Five combination ...

  17. Transport of E. coli in saturated and unsaturated porous media ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saturated and unsaturated sand and soil column experiments were conducted to study the complex interaction between the effects of biological and hydrological factors on the transport of bacteria through a porous medium. These experiments were conducted with continuous input of bacteria and substrate at the inlet to ...

  18. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spannring, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325783802

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid

  19. Movement of contaminants in the unsaturated zone of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsurface conditions consisted nominally of a 1 m thick layer of silty sand with denser gravel at the bottom of it, underlain by a stiff sandy clay (residual granite), with the natural water table more than 15 m below ground surface. In summary, it can be deduced that movement in the unsaturated zone of bacterial indicators, ...

  20. Vertical hydrochemical profiles in the unsaturated zone of louga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchangeable cation (EC) experiments, together with chemical analysis of the interstitial water carried out through the entire unsaturated zone profile have revealed that base exchange reactions and dissolution of silicate minerals are the dominant processes controlling the water ...

  1. Low temperature irradiation of vitrifiable mixtures of unsaturated monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, I.; Ito, A.; Hayashi, K.

    1975-01-01

    A specific mixture containing at least one polymerizable unsaturated monomer which is not vitrifiable by itself can advantageously be polymerized by irradiating the mixture at a temperature not higher than 100 0 C above glass transition temperature of the mixture with an ionizing radiation and/or a light. 12 claims, 6 drawings, figures

  2. The synthesis of some unsaturated 4-substituted-g-lactones

    OpenAIRE

    SUREN HUSINEC; VLADIMIR SAVIC

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of conjugated and nonconjugated unsaturated 4-substituted lactones of type 1 and 2 are described. The type 1 lactone was prepared by a two step procedure employing Bredereck's reagent. The type 2 lactone was synthesised by combining the Claisen-Ireland rearrangement and selenolactonisation.

  3. The synthesis of some unsaturated 4-substituted-g-lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUREN HUSINEC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of conjugated and nonconjugated unsaturated 4-substituted lactones of type 1 and 2 are described. The type 1 lactone was prepared by a two step procedure employing Bredereck's reagent. The type 2 lactone was synthesised by combining the Claisen-Ireland rearrangement and selenolactonisation.

  4. Heuristical Strategies on the Study Theme "The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons -- Alkenes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumescu, Adrienne Kozan; Pasca, Roxana-Diana

    2011-01-01

    The influence of heuristical strategies upon the level of two experimental classes is studied in this paper. The didactic experiment took place at secondary school in Cluj-Napoca, in 2008-2009 school year. The study theme "The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons--Alkenes" has been efficiently learned by using the most active methods: laboratory…

  5. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumahor, Samuel K.; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO 3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  6. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahor, Samuel K., E-mail: samuel.kumahor@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Hron, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hron@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, Raum 422, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Vogel, Hans-Jörg, E-mail: hans-joerg.vogel@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO{sub 3} as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  7. Co-immobilization of different enzyme activities to non-woven polyester surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouaimi-Bachmann, Meryem; Skilewitsch, Olga; Senhaji-Dachtler, Saida; Bisswanger, Hans

    2007-03-01

    Co-immobilization was applied to combine complementary enzyme reactions. Therefore, trypsin was co-immobilized together with both, lipase and alpha-amylase, onto the surface of non-woven polyester material. The progress of the immobilization reaction was directly monitored by investigating covalent fixation of the enzymes to the polyester flees using (1)H-MAS-NMR. Co-immobilization of the different types of enzymes to the polyester support showed retained enzymatic activity. However, a competition of binding to the support was observed. Increasing amounts of one type of enzyme reduced the degree of immobilization for the other type. In order to investigate the distribution of trypsin and alpha-amylase on the polyester support, the flees was treated with a mixture of rhodamine isothiocyanate labeled with anti-trypsin antibodies and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled with anti-alpha-amylase antibodies. Using fluorescence microscopy, the co-immobilization was analyzed by selective excitation of both chromophores at 480 and 530 nm, respectively. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy was applied by direct labeling of trypsin and lipase prior to co-immobilization to the polyester support. A special prism of plexiglass was constructed, which fit into a 10 x 10 mm fluorescence cuvette in that way that a diagonal plane was formed within the cuvette. The non-woven support was fixed in the cuvette and fluorescence spectra were obtained to characterize the amount of different enzymes linked to the support. Using FRET it was demonstrated that a uniform distribution of the various enzyme species was achieved, where the different enzyme activities are bound on the support in close neighborhood to one another.

  8. Dynamic solid phase DNA extraction and PCR amplification in polyester-toner based microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Gabriela R M; Price, Carol W; Augustine, Brian H; Carrilho, Emanuel; Landers, James P

    2011-07-01

    A variety of substrates have been used for fabrication of microchips for DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and DNA fragment separation, including the more conventional glass and silicon as well as alternative polymer-based materials. Polyester represents one such polymer, and the laser-printing of toner onto polyester films has been shown to be effective for generating polyester-toner (PeT) microfluidic devices with channel depths on the order of tens of micrometers. Here, we describe a novel and simple process that allows for the production of multilayer, high aspect-ratio PeT microdevices with substantially larger channel depths. This innovative process utilizes a CO(2) laser to create the microchannel in polyester sheets containing a uniform layer of printed toner, and multilayer devices can easily be constructed by sandwiching the channel layer between uncoated cover sheets of polyester containing precut access holes. The process allows the fabrication of deep channels, with ~270 μm, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of multilayer PeT microchips for dynamic solid phase extraction (dSPE) and PCR amplification. With the former, we found that (i) more than 65% of DNA from 0.6 μL of blood was recovered, (ii) the resultant DNA was concentrated to greater than 3 ng/μL (which was better than other chip-based extraction methods), and (iii) the DNA recovered was compatible with downstream microchip-based PCR amplification. Illustrative of the compatibility of PeT microchips with the PCR process, the successful amplification of a 520 bp fragment of λ-phage DNA in a conventional thermocycler is shown. The ability to handle the diverse chemistries associated with DNA purification and extraction is a testimony to the potential utility of PeT microchips beyond separations and presents a promising new disposable platform for genetic analysis that is low cost and easy to fabricate.

  9. Iterative tandem catalysis of secondary diols and diesters to chiral polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, Bart A C; van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Mes, Tristan; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2007-01-01

    The well-known dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols and esters was extended to secondary diols and diesters to afford chiral polyesters. This process is an example of iterative tandem catalysis (ITC), a polymerization method where the concurrent action of two fundamentally different catalysts is required to achieve chain growth. In order to procure chiral polyesters of high enantiomeric excess value (ee) and good molecular weight, the catalysts employed need to be complementary and compatible during the polymerization reaction. We here show that Shvo's catalyst and Novozym 435 fulfil these requirements. The optimal polymerization conditions of 1,1'-(1,3-phenylene) diethanol (1,3-diol) and diisopropyl adipate required 2 mol% Shvo's catalyst and 12 mg Novozym 435 per mmol alcohol group in the presence of 0.5 M 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol as the hydrogen donor. With these conditions, chiral polyesters were obtained with peak molecular weights up to 15 kDa, an ee value up to 99% and with 1-3 % ketone end groups. Also with the structural isomer, 1,4-diol, a chiral polyester was obtained, albeit with lower molecular weight (8.3 kDa) and slightly lower ee (94%). Aliphatic secondary diols also resulted in enantio-enriched polymers but at most an ee of 46 % was obtained with molecular weights in the range of 3.3-3.7 kDa. This low ee originates from the intrinsic low enantioselectivity of Novozym 435 for this type of secondary aliphatic diols. The results presented here show that ITC can be applied to procure chiral polyesters with good molecular weight and high ee from optically inactive AA-BB type monomers.

  10. Study on the response of unsaturated soil slope based on the effects of rainfall intensity and slope angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohd Ashraf Mohamad; Hamzah, Nur Hasliza

    2017-07-01

    Rainfall has been considered as the major cause of the slope failure. The mechanism leading to slope failures included the infiltration process, surface runoff, volumetric water content and pore-water pressure of the soil. This paper describes a study in which simulated rainfall events were used with 2-dimensional soil column to study the response of unsaturated soil behavior based on different slope angle. The 2-dimensional soil column is used in order to demonstrate the mechanism of the slope failure. These unsaturated soil were tested with four different slope (15°, 25°, 35° and 45°) and subjected to three different rainfall intensities (maximum, mean and minimum). The following key results were obtained: (1) the stability of unsaturated soil decrease as the rainwater infiltrates into the soil. Soil that initially in unsaturated state will start to reach saturated state when rainwater seeps into the soil. Infiltration of rainwater will reduce the matric suction in the soil. Matric suction acts in controlling soil shear strength. Reduction in matric suction affects the decrease in effective normal stress, which in turn diminishes the available shear strength to a point where equilibrium can no longer be sustained in the slope. (2) The infiltration rate of rainwater decreases while surface runoff increase when the soil nearly achieve saturated state. These situations cause the soil erosion and lead to slope failure. (3) The steepness of the soil is not a major factor but also contribute to slope failures. For steep slopes, rainwater that fall on the soil surface will become surface runoff within a short time compare to the water that infiltrate into the soil. While for gentle slopes, water that becomes surface runoff will move slowly and these increase the water that infiltrate into the soil.

  11. Unsaturation of very-long-chain ceramides protects plant from hypoxia-induced damages by modulating ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Xie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1 predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  12. Unsaturation of very-long-chain ceramides protects plant from hypoxia-induced damages by modulating ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Qin-Fang; Chen, Mo-Xian; Yu, Lu-Jun; Huang, Li; Chen, Liang; Wang, Feng-Zhu; Xia, Fan-Nv; Zhu, Tian-Ren; Wu, Jian-Xin; Yin, Jian; Liao, Bin; Shi, Jianxin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Aharoni, Asaph; Yao, Nan; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2015-03-01

    Lipid remodeling is crucial for hypoxic tolerance in animals, whilst little is known about the hypoxia-induced lipid dynamics in plants. Here we performed a mass spectrometry-based analysis to survey the lipid profiles of Arabidopsis rosettes under various hypoxic conditions. We observed that hypoxia caused a significant increase in total amounts of phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and oxidized lipids, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Particularly, significant gains in the polyunsaturated species of PC, PE and phosphatidylinositol, and losses in their saturated and mono-unsaturated species were evident during hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia led to a remarkable elevation of ceramides and hydroxyceramides. Disruption of ceramide synthases LOH1, LOH2 and LOH3 enhanced plant sensitivity to dark submergence, but displayed more resistance to submergence under light than wild type. Consistently, levels of unsaturated very-long-chain (VLC) ceramide species (22:1, 24:1 and 26:1) predominantly declined in the loh1, loh2 and loh3 mutants under dark submergence. In contrast, significant reduction of VLC ceramides in the loh1-1 loh3-1 knockdown double mutant and lacking of VLC unsaturated ceramides in the ads2 mutants impaired plant tolerance to both dark and light submergences. Evidence that C24:1-ceramide interacted with recombinant CTR1 protein and inhibited its kinase activity in vitro, enhanced ER-to-nucleus translocation of EIN2-GFP and stabilization of EIN3-GFP in vivo, suggests a role of ceramides in modulating CTR1-mediated ethylene signaling. The dark submergence-sensitive phenotypes of loh mutants were rescued by a ctr1-1 mutation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that unsaturation of VLC ceramides is a protective strategy for hypoxic tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  13. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing.

  14. Properties of polyester based powder coating containing Cloisite®30B modified with silane 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuoli, P.T.; Frizzo, V.P.; Zattera, A.J.; Scienza, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of clay into a polymer matrix results in nanocomposites with mechanical strength, thermal and barrier properties superior to the free filler matrix. With the aim to obtain a powder coating with better thermal properties than the coating free of filler, the organoclay Cloisite®30B was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and incorporated to a polyester based powder coating, on proportions of 2 to 8 wt% in the melt state. The powder coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The powder coating containing clay showed no alteration in the basal spacing compared to that basal spacing of the clay. Compared to the powder coating free of the clay, powder coatings containing clay had lower thermal stability due to the presence of the organic modifier. The presence of clay reduced the crosslinking temperature and the incorporation of 2 wt% of the clay caused the increase in the energy released in the crosslinking process. (author)

  15. Hyperbranched polyester polyol modified with polylactic acid as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch/polylactic acid blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mesias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hyperbranched polyester polyol of the second generation (HBP2 was modified with polylactic acid (HBP2-g-PLA and employed as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch (TPS/polylactic acid (PLA blends. The effect of the compatibilizer HBP2- g-PLA was evaluated in comparison to the control sample (TPS/PLA blend without HBP2-g-PLA. The torque value of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2- g-PLA was lower than that of the control sample, while thermal stability and crystallinity followed opposite behavior. The glass transition temperature (Tg and degree of crystallinity of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g-PLA decreased with increasing mass fraction of HBP2-g-PLA. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM, it was observed that the morphology of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g -PLA was more homogeneous than that of the control sample, confirming that HBP2- g-PLA acted as a compatibilizer and plasticizing agent to the TPS/PLA blends. Rheological analysis of the compatibilized TPS/PLA blends indicated the presence of microstructure.

  16. Hydro-mechanical mechanism and thresholds of rainfall-induced unsaturated landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongji; Lei, Xiaoqin; Huang, Dong; Qiao, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    The devastating Ms 8 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 created the greatest number of co-seismic mountain hazards ever recorded in China. However, the dynamics of rainfall induced mass remobilization and transport deposits after giant earthquake are not fully understood. Moreover, rainfall intensity and duration (I-D) methods are the predominant early warning indicators of rainfall-induced landslides in post-earthquake region, which are a convenient and straight-forward way to predict the hazards. However, the rainfall-based criteria and thresholds are generally empirical and based on statistical analysis,consequently, they ignore the failure mechanisms of the landslides. This study examines the mechanism and hydro-mechanical behavior and thresholds of these unsaturated deposits under the influence of rainfall. To accomplish this, in situ experiments were performed in an instrumented landslide deposit, The field experimental tests were conducted on a natural co-seismic fractured slope to 1) simulate rainfall-induced shallow failures in the depression channels of a debris flow catchment in an earthquake-affected region, 2)explore the mechanisms and transient processes associated with hydro-mechanical parameter variations in response to the infiltration of rainfall, and 3) identify the hydrologic parameter thresholds and critical criteria of gravitational erosion in areas prone to mass remobilization as a source of debris flows. These experiments provided instrumental evidence and directly proved that post-earthquake rainfall-induced mass remobilization occurred under unsaturated conditions in response to transient rainfall infiltration, and revealed the presence of transient processes and the dominance of preferential flow paths during rainfall infiltration. A hydro-mechanical method was adopted for the transient hydrologic process modelling and unsaturated slope stability analysis. and the slope failures during the experimental test were reproduced by the model

  17. Cycloalkyl-based unsymmetrical unsaturated (U2)-NHC ligands: Flexibility and dissymmetry in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Rouen, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Air-stable Ru-indenylidene and Hoveyda-type complexes bearing new unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands combining a mesityl unit and a flexible cycloalkyl moiety as N-substituents were synthesised. Structural features, chemical stabilities and catalytic profiles in olefin metathesis of this new library of cycloalkyl-based U2-NHC Ru complexes were studied and compared with their unsymmetrical saturated NHC-Ru homologues as well as a set of commercially available Ru-catalysts bearing either symmetrical SIMes or IMes NHC ligands. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  18. Easy and stereoselective approach to alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones fused to pyranoses from furanose scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Nuno M; Rauter, Amélia P

    2007-08-16

    The first facile and efficient route to pyranose-fused butenolides from furanose scaffolds, convenient for scaling up production, is described. Wittig olefination of 1,2-O-isopropylidene pentofuranos- or hexofuranos-3-uloses with a resonance-stabilized ylide led to the stereoselective formation of the (Z)-alpha,beta-unsaturated ester. In the presence of acid labile 5-O- or 5,6-di-O-protecting groups, acid hydrolysis of the Wittig product resulted in isomerization to the pyranose form and spontaneous lactonization to give the target molecules in good overall yield.

  19. Upscaling of adsorptive transport under unsaturated conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, A.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of colloid transport mechanisms in unsaturated porous media has recently attracted significant attention, especially in the case of groundwater polluted by contaminants that could adsorb to colloids. In general, the transport mechanisms of colloids in saturated porous media have been studied in detail. However, the mechanisms of colloid transport in the unsaturated porous media needed to be understood in greater detail. This is especially the case for the upscaling issues, which relate the adsorptive behavior of the system at the macro scale to the transport processes happening at the scale of individual pores (i.e., pore scale). Under unsaturated conditions, existence of the non-wetting phase causes a greater velocity variation and thus more dispersion, since only a fraction of the pore space is involved in the flow processes. So, dispersion coefficient varies with Darcy velocity and saturation. Flow mechanisms in the unsaturated zone could be dominated by preferential flows causes by the saturated pore system. Under unsaturated conditions, the system contains three phases: air, water, and solid. The principal interaction usually occurs at the solid-water interfaces (SWI) and air-water interfaces (AWI), thus greatly influenced by water content. In this study, we have investigated the adsorptive transport process under unsaturated conditions. We have considered absorption to the solid-water interfaces (SWI) as well as air-water interfaces (AWI). We modeled porous medium with a network of pore bodies and pore throats of finite volumes. The pore space was modeled using a Multi-Directional Pore Network (MDPN) which allows a distribution of coordination number ranging between zero and 26. This topological property together with geometrical distributions was used to reconstruct the microstructure of real porous media. Upon construction of pore network, adsorptive transport parameters have been calculated by solving mass balance equations with adsorption

  20. Investigating Unsaturated Zone Travel Times with Tritium and Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Van der Velde, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Travel times in the unsaturated zone are notoriously difficult to assess. Travel time tracers relying on the conservative transport of dissolved (noble) gases (tritium-helium, CFCs or SF6) are not applicable. Large water volume requirements of other cosmogenic radioactive isotopes (sulfur-35, sodium-22) preclude application in the unsaturated zone. Prior investigations have relied on models, introduced tracers, profiles of stable isotopes or tritium, or a combination of these techniques. Significant unsaturated zone travel times (UZTT) complicate the interpretation of stream water travel time tracers by ranked StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Close examination of rSAS functions in a sloping soil lysimeter[1] show the effect of the UZTT on the shape of the rSAS cumulative distribution function. We studied the UZTT at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SS-CZO) using profiles of tritium and stable isotopes (18O and 2H) in the unsaturated zone, supported by soil water content data. Tritium analyses require 100-500 mL of soil water and therefore large soil samples (1-5L), and elaborate laboratory procedures (oven drying, degassing and noble gas mass spectrometry). The high seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation of the Mediterranean climate, variable snow pack and high annual ET/P ratios lead to a dynamic hydrology in the deep unsaturated soils and regolith and highly variable travel time distributions. Variability of the tritium concentration in precipitation further complicates direct age estimates. Observed tritium profiles (>3 m deep) are interpreted in terms of advective and dispersive vertical transport of the input variability and radioactive decay of tritium. Significant unsaturated zone travel times corroborate previously observed low activities of short-lived cosmogenic radioactive nuclides in stream water. Under these conditions, incorporating the UZTT is critical to adequately reconstruct stream water travel time distributions. 1

  1. Approval of California Air Plan Revisions, San Diego County Air District; VOC Emissions From Polyester Resin Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) relating to volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from polyester resin operations.

  2. 78 FR 38939 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ...; and (3) low-melt PSF defined as a bi- component fiber with an outer, non-polyester sheath that melts... refinement to its assessment practice in non-market economy (``NME'') cases.\\5\\ Pursuant to this refinement...

  3. A study of the antibacterial efficiency and coloration of dyed polyamide and polyester fabrics modified with colloidal Ag nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA ILIĆ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of dyeing on the antibacterial efficiency of polyamide and polyester fabrics loaded with colloidal Ag nanoparticles and the influence of the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the color change of dyed fabrics were investigated. Dyes C.I. acid green 25 and C.I. disperse blue 3 were used for dyeing of polyamide fabrics, while dye C.I. disperse violet 8 was used for dyeing of polyester fabrics. The influence of Ag nanoparticles on the color change of polyamide fabrics depends on the dye type, but generally it was lower compared to polyester fabrics. Polyester fabrics exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, independent of the order of dyeing and Ag loading. Polyamide fabrics provided a desirable level of antibacterial activity only if the Ag loading was performed after dyeing.

  4. Safety of intradiscal injection and biocompatibility of polyester amide microspheres in a canine model predisposed to intervertebral disc degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Nicole; Mihov, George; Grinwis, Guy C M; van Dijk, Maarten; Schumann, Detlef; Bos, Clemens; Strijkers, Gustav J; Dhert, Wouter J A; Meij, Björn P; Creemers, Laura B.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    Repair of degenerated intervertebral discs (IVD) might be established via intradiscal delivery of biologic therapies. Polyester amide polymers (PEA) were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, and thereafter intradiscal application of PEA microspheres (PEAMs) in a canine

  5. Biodiversity Models: What If Unsaturation Is the Rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rubén G; Mokany, Karel; Guisan, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Improving biodiversity predictions is essential if we are to meet the challenges posed by global change. As knowledge is key to feed models, we need to evaluate how debated theory can affect models. An important ongoing debate is whether environmental constraints limit the number of species that can coexist in a community (saturation), with recent findings suggesting that species richness in many communities might be unsaturated. Here, we propose that biodiversity models could address this issue by accounting for a duality: considering communities as unsaturated but where species composition is constrained by different scale-dependent biodiversity drivers. We identify a variety of promising advances for incorporating this duality into commonly applied biodiversity modelling approaches and improving their spatial predictions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Unsaturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Maninder; Flury, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex organic molecules containing 2 or more fused benzene rings. Being hydrophobic and non-polar, PAHs tend to partition to the organic matter in the soil from bulk aqueous phase. Though transport of these contaminants has been well studied in saturated environment, interactive mechanisms of these fluorescent compounds in unsaturated (identified by presence of air-water interface) porous media is still not well understood. We studied is the transport of fluoranthene in unsaturated porous media as facilitated by moving air-water interfaces. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the interactions of fluoranthene particles in a glass channel packed with quartz glass beads. The packed glass channel was used to mimic a porous media and effects of an advancing and receding capillary fringe on the detachment of fluoranthene.

  7. Simple Numerical Model to Simulate Penetration Testing in Unsaturated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarast S. Pegah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone penetration test in unsaturated sand is modelled numerically using Finite Element Method. Simple elastic-perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model is modified with an apparent cohesion to incorporate the effect of suction on cone resistance. The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE remeshing algorithm is also implemented to avoid mesh distortion problem due to the large deformation in the soil around the cone tip. The simulated models indicate that the cone resistance was increased consistently under higher suction or lower degree of saturation. Sensitivity analysis investigating the effect of input soil parameters on the cone tip resistance shows that unsaturated soil condition can be adequately modelled by incorporating the apparent cohesion concept. However, updating the soil stiffness by including a suction-dependent effective stress formula in Mohr-Coulomb material model does not influence the cone resistance significantly.

  8. Thermal conductivity measurements in unsaturated hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Cha, Jong-Ho; Rosenbaum, Eilis J.; Zhang, Wu; Seol, Yongkoo

    2015-08-01

    Current database on the thermal properties of hydrate-bearing sediments remains limited and has not been able to capture their consequential changes during gas production where vigorous phase changes occur in this unsaturated system. This study uses the transient plane source (TPS) technique to measure the thermal conductivity of methane hydrate-bearing sediments with various hydrate/water/gas saturations. We propose a simplified method to obtain thermal properties from single-sided TPS signatures. Results reveal that both volume fraction and distribution of the pore constituents govern the thermal conductivity of unsaturated specimens. Thermal conductivity hysteresis is observed due to water redistribution and fabric change caused by hydrate formation and dissociation. Measured thermal conductivity increases evidently when hydrate saturation Sh > 30-40%, shifting upward from the geometric mean model prediction to a Pythagorean mixing model. These observations envisage a significant drop in sediment thermal conductivity when residual hydrate/water saturation falls below ~40%, hindering further gas production.

  9. Fractal analysis of permeability of unsaturated fractured rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoping; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lili

    2013-01-01

    A physical conceptual model for water retention in fractured rocks is derived while taking into account the effect of pore size distribution and tortuosity of capillaries. The formula of calculating relative hydraulic conductivity of fractured rock is given based on fractal theory. It is an issue to choose an appropriate capillary pressure-saturation curve in the research of unsaturated fractured mass. The geometric pattern of the fracture bulk is described based on the fractal distribution of tortuosity. The resulting water content expression is then used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the fractured medium based on the well-known model of Burdine. It is found that for large enough ranges of fracture apertures the new constitutive model converges to the empirical Brooks-Corey model.

  10. Fractal Analysis of Permeability of Unsaturated Fractured Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A physical conceptual model for water retention in fractured rocks is derived while taking into account the effect of pore size distribution and tortuosity of capillaries. The formula of calculating relative hydraulic conductivity of fractured rock is given based on fractal theory. It is an issue to choose an appropriate capillary pressure-saturation curve in the research of unsaturated fractured mass. The geometric pattern of the fracture bulk is described based on the fractal distribution of tortuosity. The resulting water content expression is then used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the fractured medium based on the well-known model of Burdine. It is found that for large enough ranges of fracture apertures the new constitutive model converges to the empirical Brooks-Corey model.

  11. Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Two-dimensional unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous sand was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of five homogeneous sands and three heterogeneous systems composed of these five sands was measured using a steady state flux...... controlled method. The heterogeneous sand systems were established in a laboratory tank for three realizations of random distributions of the homogeneous sands comprising a system of 207 grid cells. The water flux was controlled at the upper boundary, while a suction was applied at the lower boundary...... realizations of the heterogeneous sand were quite similar, thus suggesting that this type of heterogeneous flow system can be treated as an equivalent homogeneous medium characterized by effective parameters....

  12. Numerical simulation of radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchiv, Alexandru; Didita, Liana; Ilie, Petre

    2001-01-01

    In dealing with numerical modeling of flow in the unsaturated zone two main difficulties arise, both of them due to the strong nonlinearly of the governing equation, namely solution convergence and parameter identification. In the first part of the paper a finite element model of Richards equation is presented where both Picard and Newton scheme are implemented. While Picard method is cheaper computationally but fails or converges slowly, the Newton method has a higher rate of convergence. In order to use the advantages of both methods a simple strategy is suggested in which Picard and Newton method are alternatively used according to the rate of solution convergence. The second part of the paper analyses the possibilities of determining the unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters that are assumed to be described by Mualem-van Genuchten model. The inverse problem is formulated as a least square problem and solved by an efficient Levenberg-Marquard algorithm. (author)

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contamination from unsaturated soil: Field application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ technique under development at Sandia National Laboratories for removal of ionic contaminants from soil. While to date most other studies of this technique have focused on saturated soils, usually clays, the work at Sandia has been to extend the process to unsaturated sandy soils typical of arid regions. The impetus for this study is a chromate plume located beneath an old Sandia chemical waste landfill. Working in unsaturated soils is complicated by moisture control requirements, both to prevent undesired hydraulic transport of contamination outside the treatment zone and to optimize soil properties for efficient electrokinetic remediation. Two field tests will be discussed. First, a field test in clean soil is in progress to demonstrate moisture control with the Sandia electrode system. The second field demonstration, planned to begin the Fall of 1995, involves chromate removal from a in a chemical waste landfill

  14. Highly Functionalised Cyclopentanes by Radical Cyclisation of Unsaturated Bromolactones. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horneman, Anne Marie; Lundt, Inge

    1997-01-01

    -D-glycero-L-gluco-heptono-1,4-lactone. 2,3-Unsaturated 7-bromo-7-deoxy-heptono-1,4-lactones were prepared by reductive elimination of the starting compounds. The key step was a highly regio- and stereoselective 5-exo-trig radical cyclisation of the unsaturated bromolactones to give bicyclic cyclopentane derivatives......Three carbasugars: 5-Deoxycarba-alpha-L-xylo-hexofuranose, 5-deoxycarba-alpha-L-lyxo-hexofuranose and 5-deoxycarba-beta-D-lyxo-hexofuranose have been prepared starting from readily available 2,7-dibromo-2,7-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-ido-heptono-1,4-lactone and 2,7-dibromo-2,7-dideoxy....... The lactone moiety of these compounds were reduced using H3B . S(CH3)(2) to give the above-mentioned carbahexofuranoses. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  15. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  16. A simple hysteretic constitutive model for unsaturated flow

    OpenAIRE

    Soldi, Mariangeles; Guarracino, Luis; Jougnot, Damien

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a constitutive model to describe unsaturated flow that considers the hysteresis phenomena. This constitutive model provides simple mathematical expressions for both saturation and hydraulic conductivity curves, and a relationship between permeability and porosity. The model is based on the assumption that the porous media can be represented by a bundle of capillary tubes with throats or "ink-bottles" and a fractal pore size distribution. Under these hypotheses, hyster...

  17. Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Roberto; Jeanne-Julien, Louis; René, Adeline; Martinez, Jean; Cavelier, Florine

    2015-06-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids was performed by asymmetric alkylation. Two methods were investigated and their enantiomeric excess measured and compared. The first route consisted of an enantioselective approach induced by the Corey-Lygo catalyst under chiral phase transfer conditions while the second one involved the hydroxypinanone chiral auxiliary, both implicating Schiff bases as substrate. In all cases, the use of a prochiral Schiff base gave higher enantiomeric excess and yield in the final desired amino acid.

  18. Fully substituted unsaturated lactones from endophytic Myrothecium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Ye; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Cui, Jiang-Tao; Song, Yong-Chun; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    Two new α,β-unsaturated γ-lactones, myrolactones A (1) and B (2), were characterized from the culture broth of the Myrothecium sp. IFB-E106 isolated from the roots of Vatica mangachapoi Blauco. The absolute configuration was determined by the computational electronic circular dichroism approach. Myolactone B showed neuraminidase inhibitory activity with the IC(50) value of 13.95 μM.

  19. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-12-31

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10{sup -6} to 9.8 x 10{sup -6} foot per day (2 x 10{sup -6} to 3 x 10{sup -6} meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10{sup -5} to 2.9 x 10{sup -2} foot per day (8 x 10{sup -6} to 9 x 10{sup -3} meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10 -6 to 9.8 x 10 -6 foot per day (2 x 10 -6 to 3 x 10 -6 meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10 -5 to 2.9 x 10 -2 foot per day (8 x 10 -6 to 9 x 10 -3 meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. In situ measurements of oxygen dynamics in unsaturated archaeological deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hollesen, Jørgen; Dunlop, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is a key parameter in the degradation of archaeological material, but little is known of its dynamics in situ. In this study, 10 optical oxygen sensors placed in a 2 m deep test pit in the cultural deposits at Bryggen in Bergen have monitored oxygen concentrations every half hour for more ...... of the soil exceeds 10–15% vol, while oxygen dissolved in infiltrating rainwater is of less importance for the supply of oxygen in the unsaturated zone....

  2. Saturated versus unsaturated hydrocarbon interactions with carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivasigamani eUmadevi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons in both saturated and unsaturated forms with the carbon nanostructures (CNSs have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT calculations. Model systems representing armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene have been considered to investigate the effect of chirality and curvature of the CNSs towards these interactions. Results of this study reveal contrasting binding nature of the acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons towards CNSs. While the saturated molecules show stronger binding affinity in acyclic hydrocarbons; the unsaturated molecules exhibit higher binding affinity in cyclic hydrocarbons. In addition, acyclic hydrocarbons exhibit stronger binding affinity towards the CNSs when compared to their corresponding cyclic counterparts. The computed results excellently corroborate the experimental observations. The interaction of hydrocarbons with graphene is more favourable when compared with CNTs. Bader’s theory of atoms in molecules has been invoked to characterize the noncovalent interactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Our results are expected to provide useful insights towards the development of rational strategies for designing complexes with desired noncovalent interaction involving CNSs.

  3. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    1997-09-01

    Application of numerical models for predicting future spreading of contaminants into ground water aquifers is dependent on appropriate characterization of the soil hydraulic properties controlling flow and transport in the unsaturated zone. This thesis reviews the current knowledge on two aspects of characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters; estimation of the basic hydraulic parameters for homogeneous soils and statistical representation of heterogeneity for spatially variable soils. The retention characteristic is traditionally measured using steady-state procedures, but new ideas based on dynamic techniques have been developed that reduce experimental efforts and that produce retention curves which compare to those measured by traditional techniques. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is difficult to establish by steady-state procedures, and extensive research efforts have been focused on alternative methods that are based on inverse estimation. The inverse methods have commonly been associated with problems of numerical instability and ill-posedness of the parameter estimates, but recent investigations have shown that the uniqueness of parameter estimates can be improved by including additional, independent information on, for instance, the retention characteristic. Also, uniqueness may be improved by careful selection of experimental conditions are parametric functions. (au) 234 refs.

  4. A quasilinear model for solute transport under unsaturated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Leem, J.

    2009-01-01

    We developed an analytical solution for solute transport under steady-state, two-dimensional, unsaturated flow and transport conditions for the investigation of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The two-dimensional, unsaturated flow problem is treated using the quasilinear flow method for a system with homogeneous material properties. Dispersion is modeled as isotropic and is proportional to the effective hydraulic conductivity. This leads to a quasilinear form for the transport problem in terms of a scalar potential that is analogous to the Kirchhoff potential for quasilinear flow. The solutions for both flow and transport scalar potentials take the form of Fourier series. The particular solution given here is for two sources of flow, with one source containing a dissolved solute. The solution method may easily be extended, however, for any combination of flow and solute sources under steady-state conditions. The analytical results for multidimensional solute transport problems, which previously could only be solved numerically, also offer an additional way to benchmark numerical solutions. An analytical solution for two-dimensional, steady-state solute transport under unsaturated flow conditions is presented. A specific case with two sources is solved but may be generalized to any combination of sources. The analytical results complement numerical solutions, which were previously required to solve this class of problems.

  5. Selenite transport in unsaturated tuff from Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    Direct measurements of unsaturated selenite retardation coefficients and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were obtained on two tuff samples from Yucca Mountain using the UFA trademark technology. The retardation factor for the selenite species was only 2.5 in both Yucca Mountain vitric member at 62.6% saturation and zeolitized nonwelded tuff from G-tunnel at 52.8% saturation with respect to J-13 well water from the Nevada Test Site contaminated with selenium at 1.31 mg/l (ppm). In batch tests on the same material using 1.2 mg/l (ppm), the average K d was determined to be 13, giving retardation factors higher than the UFA column breakthrough tests by an order of magnitude. The difference could result from preferential flow paths in the UFA column as might occur in the field or differences in residence times between the two types of test. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivities during the experiments were 2.49 x 10 -8 cm/s for the Yucca Mountain vitric member and 1.16 x 10 -8 cm/s for the zeolitized nonwelded tuff

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05).

  7. Structure of unsaturated fatty acids in 2D system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo Rodríguez, J L; Dynarowicz-Latka, P; Miñones Conde, J

    2017-10-01

    The behaviour of Langmuir monolayers corresponding to unsaturated fatty acids belonging to the omega-9 (oleic acid), omega-3 (α-linolenic and stearidonic acids) and omega-6 (linoleic, γ-linolenic and eicosadienoic acids) series was studied in order to get insight into the influence of various factors (such as subphase temperature, length, degree of unsaturation and position of the double bonds in the aliphatic chains) on the molecular conformation of these fatty acids spread at the A/W interface. The obtained results derived from the surface pressure - area isotherms, compressibility modulus and monolayer thickness prove that the lift-off and the limiting areas of investigated films increase both with the number of double bonds and length of the hydrocarbon chain. Also, the monolayers are more compressible (more fluid) upon increasing their tails unsaturation degree. However, eicosadienoic (EA) film is more rigid due to its longer acyl chain. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) monolayers, except for EA, exhibit anomalous temperature dependence (area contraction with increasing temperature), which was attributed to the increased solubility of PUFAs molecules with temperature. The recorded thickness values of the monolayers were compared with those estimated from theoretical molecular conformations in order to establish the orientation and configuration of molecules in different surface states of their monolayer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Karen; Aranda, Mario; Asenjo, Sylvia; Sáez, Katia; Bustos, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) that interfere with insulin signaling. The aim of our study was to assess the FFA profile in obese children and adolescents and to determine their relation with different degrees of insulin resistance. A transversal study was conducted of 51 children and adolescents (mean age, 11.7±1.6 years; 47% males) with obesity (body mass index ≥95 percentile). Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters were assessed. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Plasma fatty acids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with heptadecanoic acid as the internal standard. The mean concentration of myristic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and total fatty acids was 9.3±2.2, 86.5±38.3, 93.0±35.5, 177.0±83.6, 48.5±14.9, and 414.3±160.9 μmol/L, respectively. Total fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid showed an inverse significant correlation with insulin resistance. Children with high insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.5) showed a decrease in unsaturated fatty acids compared with children having a HOMA-IR of fatty acid concentrations between those groups. A decrease in unsaturated fatty acids was correlated with insulin resistance in childhood obesity.

  9. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  10. Evaluation of Unsaturated Zone Air Permeability Through Pneumatic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Hult, Marc F.

    1991-10-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of air pressure in the unsaturated zone resulting from a pneumatic test provides a method for determining air-phase permeability. This technique is analogous to the inverse problem of well hydraulics; however, air flow is more complicated than ground water flow because of air compressibility, the Klinkenberg effect, variations in air density and viscosity that result from temperature fluctuations in the unsaturated zone and the possibility of inducing water movement during the pneumatic test. An analysis of these complicating factors reveals that, when induced water movement can be neglected, a linear version of the airflow equation can provide an appropriate approximation for the purpose of determining air-phase permeability. Two analytical solutions for steady state, two-dimensional, axisymmetric airflow to a single well partially screened in the unsaturated zone are developed. One solution applies where there is a stratum of relatively low air permeability, separating the stratum in which the well is completed, from the atmosphere. The other solution applies where there is no separating stratum between the domain and atmosphere. In both situations the water table forms the lower horizontal boundary. Applications of both solutions to determine air permeability from data collected during pneumatic tests are presented.

  11. TOUGH, Unsaturated Groundwater Transport and Heat Transport Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.A.; Cooper, C.; Osnes, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures (water, water with tracer; water, CO 2 ; water, air; water, air with vapour pressure lowering, and water, hydrogen), facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. TOUGH (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat) is a multi-dimensional numerical model for simulating the coupled transport of water, vapor, air, and heat in porous and fractured media. The program provides options for specifying injection or withdrawal of heat and fluids. Although primarily designed for studies of high-level nuclear waste isolation in partially saturated geological media, it should also be useful for a wider range of problems in heat and moisture transfer, and in the drying of porous materials. For example, geothermal reservoir simulation problems can be handled simply by setting the air mass function equal to zero on input. The TOUGH simulator was developed for problems involving strongly heat-driven flow. To describe these phenomena a multi-phase approach to fluid and heat flow is used, which fully accounts for the movement of gaseous and liquid phases, their transport of latent transitions between liquid and vapor. TOUGH takes account of fluid flow in both liquid and gaseous phases occurring under pressure, viscous, and gravity forces according to Darcy's law. Interference between the phases is represented by means of relative permeability functions. The code handles binary, but not Knudsen, diffusion in the gas phase and capillary and phase absorption effects for the liquid phase. Heat transport occurs by means of conduction with thermal conductivity dependent on water saturation, convection, and binary diffusion, which includes both sensible and latent heat. 2 - Method of solution: All

  12. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, D.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of hybrid composite with Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fibers (PPLSF) and jute. • Composites fabricated with continuous, unidirectional fibers. • Alkali treatment and hybridizing jute imparted good static and dynamic properties. • Properties are comparable with well know natural/glass fiber composites. • New hybrid composite can be an alternative in place of synthetic fiber composites. - Abstract: Alkali treated continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber (PPLSF) and jute fibers were used as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. Continuous PPLSF and jute fibers were aligned unidirectionally in bi-layer arrangement and the hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding process. Positive hybrid effect was observed for the composites due to hybridization. Increasing jute fiber loading showed a considerable increase in tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites as compared to treated PPLSF composites. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surfaces showed the nature of fiber/matrix interface. The impact strength of the hybrid composites were observed to be less compared to pure PPLSF composites. Addition of jute fibers to PPLSF and alkali treatment of the fibers has enhanced the storage and loss modulus of the hybrid composites. A positive shift of Tan δ peaks to higher temperature and reduction in the peak height of the composites was also observed. The composites with higher jute loading showed maximum damping behavior. Overall the hybridization was found to be efficient showing increased static and dynamic mechanical properties. A comparative study of properties of this hybrid composite with other hybrids made out of using natural/glass fibers is elaborated. Hybridization of alkali treated jute and PPLSF has resulted in enhanced properties which are comparable with other natural/glass fiber composites thus increasing the scope of

  13. Development auxiliaries for dyeing polyester with disperse dyes at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Fite, F. J.; Radei, S.

    2017-10-01

    High-molecular weight organic compounds known as carriers are widely used to expedite polyester dyeing at atmospheric pressure at 100 °C. However, carriers are usually poorly biodegradable and can partially plasticize fibres. Also, dyeing at temperatures above 100 °C in the absence of a carrier entails using expensive equipment. In this work, we developed an alternative method for dyeing polyester at temperatures below 100 °C that reduces energy expenses, dispenses with the need to invest in new equipment and avoids the undesirable effects of non-biodegradable carriers. The method uses disperse dyes in a microemulsion containing a low proportion of a non-toxic organic solvent and either of two alternative development auxiliaries (coumarin and o-vanillin) that is prepared with the aid of ultrasound.

  14. Fatigue resistance of randomly oriented short glass fiber reinforced polyester composite materials immersed in seawater environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghader, Djamel; Redjel, Bachir

    2018-02-01

    Randomly oriented short fiber mat reinforced polyester composite laminates immersed in natural seawater for various periods were tested in static and cyclic fatigue loading under three-point bending conditions. Water absorption increased the weight of the specimen while the extraction of soluble compounds induces a weak weight loss. Wöhler curves carried out from repetitive fatigue tests were drawn for the different periods of immersion time. These curves, which are characterized by an important and a significant scatter in their lifetime, were modeled by straight lines. These glass-polyester laminates deteriorate in fatigue tests at a constant rate by cycle decade. This rate increases with increasing immersion time in seawater at a constant speed. A comparison between different mathematical models of endurance curves shows that Wöhler's equation gives a good representation of the average part of the curve.

  15. Processing parameters optimisation of nonwoven kenaf reinforced acrylic based polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, M. S.; Rasyid, M. F. Ahmad; Taib, R. Mat; Ishak, Z. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    The present work studies the dependence of mechanical properties of kenaf fibre (KF) reinforced acrylic based polyester composites on the processing parameters. Prior to moulding, non-woven kenaf fibre (NWKF) with areal density of 1200 g/m2 was impregnated by acrylic based polyester resin using an impregnation line followed by a post-drying step. The flexural properties of the composites were investigated with respect to changes in impregnation and moulding conditions based on Design of Experiment (DOE) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). RSM through Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to develop a model of flexural properties with respect to the combination of processing variables. The mathematical regression models of the flexural properties were derived from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the model significance. All processing variables in linear terms exhibit significant effect on the flexural strength of the composites. Optimisation of the independent variables to maximise the flexural properties was estimated and verified.

  16. Production of alkyd resins starting from the wastes of the polyester process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Liliana; Perez, Yolanda; Espinel, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the results of the bibliographic search of alternatives for the reuse of the waste of the polyester polymerization process and the experimental evaluation at laboratory scale of the process of obtaining alkyd resins. Also a feasibility analysis for applying this resin in the production of enamels was done. A characterization of the material with the purpose of determining the compounds and the present quantities was done. It was carried out a comparison of the raw material costs for the obtained resins using recovered material and without this. It was demonstrated that alkyd resins of commercial quality could be made from the waste of the process of polymerization of the polyester with a sensitive decrease in the raw material costs in comparison to the resins obtained without recovered material

  17. New technique of leukocytapheresis by the use of nonwoven polyester fiber filter for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, A; Saitoh, M; Yonekawa, M; Horie, T; Ohizumi, H; Tamaki, T; Kukita, K; Meguro, J

    1999-11-01

    Leukocytapheresis (LCAP) is widely used for the treatment of immunological diseases. We studied a new treatment of LCAP using a nonwoven polyester fiber filter. In a basic study, 30-70% of leukocytes were removed. Also, 30-68% of the leukocyte subsets were removed. Sixteen inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, mainly with ulcerative colitis (UC), were treated by this method. Their cytokine activity was normalized in the filter and in the peripheral blood. Eleven of 12 patients with UC were induced to remission. Four patients with Crohn's disease (CD) exhibited improvement. The LCAP using a nonwoven polyester fiber filter was very efficient for treating the patients with IBD. Also, it will be a very useful treatment for immunological diseases and extracorporeal immunomodulation.

  18. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun Bilal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B. The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate and poly(d-sorbitol adipate were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM.

  19. Technology change priorities influencing competition quality promotion: Case study of Iran Keaton Polyester Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Nour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the changing world with various customers’ demands the businesses tend to improve their advantages to beat their rivals by means of better quality, lower prices and so. For Iranian polyester market quality is of crucial importance and is achieved through changing and updating technologies. According to highly regarded model of CAPTECH, which is recommended by UNIDO, technology parameters are defined in each phase and not generally as a whole. In the end the biggest gaps are defined. The main goal is to prioritize the main parameters affecting Iranian polyester company's quality. In order to fulfill our goal, 20 high and medium managers were questioned for this paper. The questions were gathered according to UNIDO samples. After a qualitative and quantitative test we concluded that the biggest gap is for supply chain(56.91 and the lowest gap is for combination phase(43.97.

  20. Comparison of the analytical performance of electrophoresis microchannels fabricated in PDMS, glass, and polyester-toner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Lunte, Susan M; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2008-12-01

    This paper compares the analytical performance of microchannels fabricated in PDMS, glass, and polyester-toner for electrophoretic separations. Glass and PDMS chips were fabricated using well-established photolithographic and replica-molding procedures, respectively. PDMS channels were sealed against three different types of materials: native PDMS, plasma-oxidized PDMS, and glass. Polyester-toner chips were micromachined by a direct-printing process using an office laser printer. All microchannels were fabricated with similar dimensions according to the limitations of the direct-printing process (width/depth 150 microm/12 microm). LIF was employed for detection to rule out any losses in separation efficiency due to the detector configuration. Two fluorescent dyes, coumarin and fluorescein, were used as model analytes. Devices were evaluated for the following parameters related to electrophoretic separations: EOF, heat dissipation, injection reproducibility, separation efficiency, and adsorption to channel wall.

  1. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  2. Toughness of polyester matrix composites reinforced with sugarcane bagasse fibers evaluated by Charpy impact tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Scarpini Candido

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fibers extracted from the sugarcane bagasse have been investigated as possible reinforcement for polymer matrix composites. The use of these composites in engineering applications, associated with conditions such as ballistic armor, requires information on the impact toughness. In the present work, Charpy tests were performed in ASTM standard specimens of polyester matrix composites, reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 vol% of continuous and aligned sugarcane bagasse fibers, in order to evaluate the impact energy. Within the standard deviation, the composite absorbed impact energy increased with the volume fraction of sugarcane bagasse fiber. This toughness performance was found by scanning electron microscopy to be associated with the fiber/matrix delamination. Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse fiber, Polyester composites, Charpy test, Impact toughness

  3. Polymeric blends from post-consumer PET and polyester becoming of glycerol and phthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, C.S.; Brioude, M.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of physical mixture or polymer blends is a very important method to obtain a final product with excellent balance of properties, where one component can compensate for the poor property of another, and is often a modified low cost compared to development and synthesis of a new polymer. PET has become a major waste of post-consumer plastics and aiming to remedy this problem, this work aims to obtain blends from recycled PET and polyesters derived from glycerol and phthalic acid. The material with higher proportion of PET showed better thermal properties, observed by TGA and DSC, with a similar profile of pure PET. In XRD analysis showed a semicrystalline, while the SEM is a smooth surface on all materials, characteristic of pure polyester. The ratio of 50% its surface showed a probable immiscibility of polymers. (author)

  4. Performance of Plain Woven Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composite in Multilayered Ballistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic tests were conducted using high velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The depth of penetration caused by the bullet in a block of clay witness, simulating a human body, was used to evaluate the MAS ballistic performance according to the international standard. The fractured materials after tests were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicated that jute fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger Kevlar™, which is an aramid fabric laminate, as MAS second layer with the same thickness. The mechanism of this similar ballistic behavior as well as the comparative advantages of the jute fabric composites over the Kevlar™ are discussed.

  5. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, I.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Haameem, J. M.A.; Haslan, M.; Helmi, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  6. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaohong; Xu, Wenzheng; Huang, Fenglin; Chen, Dongsheng; Wei, Qufu

    2016-12-01

    Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag2O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  7. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my; Haameem, J. M.A., E-mail: mhaameem@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau (Malaysia); Haslan, M., E-mail: haslan@sirim.my; Helmi, E. A., E-mail: hilmi@sirim.my [Advanced Material Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Kulim (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  8. Evaluation of Polybutylate-Coated Braided Polyester (Ethibond) Sutures for Levator-Advancement Blepharoptosis Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulish, Michael; Pikkel, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polybutylate-coated braided polyester (Ethibond* 5-0) suture for levator aponeurosis suturing to the anterior tarsal surface in involutional blepharoptosis repair surgery. Methods. Ten consecutive patients (16 eyes) with acquired blepharoptosis which resulted from levator aponeurosis dehiscence with good levator function had gone through surgery and were followed up for, at least, one year. Results. There was no significant change between postoperative MRD1 measurements. No serious complications, such as infection of the sutures, inflammation, granuloma formation or ptosis recurrence, were registered. Conclusion. Polybutylate-coated braided polyester (Ethibond* 5-0) suture is a safe and effective material for involutional blepharoptosis repair surgery. PMID:24558592

  9. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Hemp/E-Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R SANJAY

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work has been focusing on Hemp fibers has an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites due to its eco-friendly and biodegradable characteristics. This work has been carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of hemp/E-glass fabrics reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Vacuum bagging method was used for the preparation of six different kinds of hemp/glass fabrics reinforced polyester composite laminates as per layering sequences. The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests of these hybrid composites were carried out experimentally according to ASTM standards. It reveals that an addition of E-glass fabrics with hemp fabrics can increase the mechanical properties of composites and decrease the water absorption of the hybrid composites.

  10. Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Sotiriadis; Olesia Mikhailova

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5% PES waste; (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste; (c) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and bending strength measurements, water absorption test and determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed. The results showed that the addition of sand...

  11. Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccoli, L.; Müller, U.; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 149, September (2017), s. 29-36 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : rammed earth * pseudo-dynamic loads * shear-compression tests * strengthening * polyester fabric strips Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061817310000

  12. Disperse Dyes Based on Thiazole, Their Dyeing Application on Polyester Fiber and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zadafiya, S. K.; Tailor, J. H.; Malik, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Various diazotized aryl amines were coupled with N-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-[(4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)amino]acetamide to give the corresponding various azo disperse dyes (D1-D13). These dyes were applied to polyester fiber by HTHP method and their fastness properties were evaluated. Dyes were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, and NMR spectral studies. These dyes showed very good antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  13. Preparation and characterization of metal complex hydrogels crosslinked with hyperbranched polyester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haroun, A. A.; Hakeim, O. A.; Trhlíková, Olga; Šlouf, Miroslav; Netopilík, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2017), s. 849-856 ISSN 0449-2285 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC17-04258J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) ASRT-16-02 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hyperbranched polyester * chitosan * miniemulsion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  14. Polyester-Based, Biodegradable Core-Multishell Nanocarriers for the Transport of Hydrophobic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A. Walker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble, core-multishell (CMS nanocarrier based on a new hyperbranched polyester core building block was synthesized and characterized towards drug transport and degradation of the nanocarrier. The hydrophobic drug dexamethasone was encapsulated and the enzyme-mediated biodegradability was investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The new CMS nanocarrier can transport one molecule of dexamethasone and degrades within five days at a skin temperature of 32 °C to biocompatible fragments.

  15. Hydrodynamic parameters of linear aromatic polyester of 3-phenylglutaric acid and bisphenol A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Schallausky, F.; Reichelt, S.; Lederer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2007), s. 285-300 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0659; GA AV ČR IAA400500703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chain parameters * linear polyester * size exclusion chromatography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.386, year: 2007

  16. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Gopichander, N.; Halini Kumarai, K.V.; Vasanthakumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different reinforcements currently available for interim fixed partial denture (FPD) materials do not provide the ideal strength for long-term use. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a more ideal provisional material for long-term use with better mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effectiveness of polyester fiber reinforcement on different interim FPD materials. Methods: Thirty resin-bonded FPDs were constructed from three provisional interim F...

  17. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an

  18. Azobenzene Polyesters Used as Gate‐Like Scaffolds in Nanoscopic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardos, Andrea; Mondragón, Laura; Javakhishvili, Irakli

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of new capped silica mesoporous nanoparticles for on‐command delivery applications is reported. Functional capped hybrid systems consist of MCM‐41 nanoparticles functionalised on the external surface with polyesters bearing azobenzene derivatives and rhodamine B...... with the cytotoxic drug camptothecin (CPT‐PAzo6‐S). Following cell internalisation and lysosome resident enzyme‐dependent gate opening, CPT‐PAzo6‐S induced CPT‐dependent cell death in HeLa cells....

  19. Crosslinking of Semiaromatic Polyesters toward High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers with Full Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidt, Thomas; Schmidt, Martin; Tiller, Joerg C; Katzenberg, Frank

    2018-01-17

    In this work, high-temperature shape memory polymers are realized by end-group crosslinking of the semiaromatic polyesters polyethylene terephthalate as well as polybutylene terephthalate. Both networks exhibit trigger temperatures distinctly higher than 200 °C and excellent shape memory properties such as storable strains of 200%, full fixity of the applied strain in the temporary shape, and full recovery of the permanent shape. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Side-chain liquid-crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Andruzzi, F.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report erasable holographic recording with a resolution of at least 2500 lines/mm on unoriented films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polyesters. Recording energies of approximately 1 J/cm2 have been used. We have obtained a diffraction efficiency of approximately 30% with polarization record...... recording of holograms. The holograms can be erased by heating them to approximately 80-degrees-C for approximately 2 min and are available for rerecording....

  1. [Research on structure and UV curing behaviors of novel cardanol-based unsaturated resins using FTIR spectrum analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shou-Hai; Yang, Xue-Juan; Li, Mei; Huang, Kun; Xia, Jian-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Two dissimilar cardanol-based unsaturated resin monomers were prepared via simple ring-opening and etherification reaction by utilizing the reactivity between phenolic hydroxyl and epoxy group with the aid of cardanol as raw material. The transformations of different groups were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) during the synthesis process, the resin monomers' structure was further analyzed using the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and the UV curing behaviors of resin monomers were studied by means of FTIR method. In addition, the thermal stability of UV cured resin monomers were also tested by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The molecular structure analysis demonstrated that these two target products were successfully synthesized. UV curing behaviors analysis showed that the prepared cardanol-based unsaturated resin monomers could reach ultimate curing level within 30 s. TGA results showed that the molecular structure and the content of double bond had critical influence on their thermal stability. The main initial thermal decomposition temperature of these two cured resin monomers was all above 350 degrees C.

  2. Potential of stem/progenitor cell cultures within polyester fleeces to regenerate renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Anne; Denk, Lucia; Minuth, Will W

    2009-08-01

    The cell biological mechanism controlling the regeneration of renal tubules in renal failure after application of stem/progenitor cells is subject of actual research. Unsolved issues are the integration of stem/progenitor cells in a diseased organ environment, the differentiation into epithelial tissue and the formation of tubules in a spatial environment. Following this therapeutic strategy new biomaterials have to be found promoting spatial development of tubules. To obtain new information about the growth of tubules renal stem/progenitor cells from neonatal rabbit kidney were isolated and mounted in a tissue carrier between a selection of commercially available polyester fleeces. This procedure replaces coating by extracellular matrix proteins and creates an artificial interstitium supporting development of tubules. Perfusion culture was performed with chemically defined IMDM containing aldosterone as tubulogenic factor. Polyester fleeces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The spatial development of tubules was registered on whole-mount specimens and on cryosections labeled with SBA and antibodies indicating tubule differentiation. It is found that some polyester fleeces promote the spatial development of tubules between the fibers, whereat each of them produces its individual growth pattern.

  3. Experimental ultrasonic characterization of polyester-based materials for cultural heritage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniegas, Andres; Martinez, Loic; Briand, Arnaud; Prieto, Sophie; Serfaty, Stéphane; Wilkie-Chancellier, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    For several years, the Réunion des musées nationaux - Grand-Palais has produced polyester resin reproductions in order to replace marble sculptures that have weakened by outdoor exposure. These objects are made of a complex multilayered polyester composite material including reinforcements to ensure the mechanical strength of the final structure and mineral fillers that allow to imitate the original aesthetics. However, the final structure also weakens because of constant outdoor exposure and ageing. This observation leads today to conduct research related to the structural health monitoring of reproductions for preventive conservation of cultural heritage. This paper presents a nondestructive technique to study the properties of the composite material used to produce reproductions of marble sculptures. Firstly, classical ultrasonic contact measurements were performed to estimate bulk properties and Rayleigh wave velocity. Secondly, experimental Rayleigh wave was measured using contact and laser vibrometry methods. The results show the potential of using ultrasonic surface wave propagation and laser vibrometry method to develop a minimum contact technique to study these polyester-based materials. The maximum relative uncertainty with respect to the expected theoretical Rayleigh wave velocity was close to 12%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thread angle dependency on flame spread shape over kenaf/polyester combined fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahari Razali, Mohd; Sapit, Azwan; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Nor Anuar Mohamad, Md; Nordin, Normayati; Sadikin, Azmahani; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Khalid, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Understanding flame spread behavior is crucial to Fire Safety Engineering. It is noted that the natural fiber exhibits different flame spread behavior than the one of the synthetic fiber. This different may influences the flame spread behavior over combined fabric. There is a research has been done to examined the flame spread behavior over kenaf/polyester fabric. It is seen that the flame spread shape is dependent on the thread angle dependency. However, the explanation of this phenomenon is not described in detail in that research. In this study, explanation about this phenomenon is given in detail. Results show that the flame spread shape is dependent on the position of synthetic thread. For thread angle, θ = 0°, the polyester thread is breaking when the flame approach to the thread and the kenaf thread tends to move to the breaking direction. This behavior produces flame to be ‘V’ shape. However, for thread angle, θ = 90°, the polyester thread melts while the kenaf thread decomposed and burned. At this angle, the distance between kenaf threads remains constant as flame approaches.

  5. Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordoghli, Bessem; Khiari, Ramzi; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Sakli, Faouzi; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper, an original technique was present to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. ► The modification of PET fabric was carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. ► We fully characterized the modified and untreated fabrics. - Abstract: This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of -SO 3 H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

  6. Fabrication and integration of planar electrodes for contactless conductivity detection on polyester-toner electrophoresis microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; da Silva, José Alberto Fracassi; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2008-06-01

    In this report, we describe the microfabrication and integration of planar electrodes for contactless conductivity detection on polyester-toner (PT) electrophoresis microchips using toner masks. Planar electrodes were fabricated by three simple steps: (i) drawing and laser-printing the electrode geometry on polyester films, (ii) sputtering deposition onto substrates, and (iii) removal of toner layer by a lift-off process. The polyester film with anchored electrodes was integrated to PT electrophoresis microchannels by lamination at 120 degrees C in less than 1 min. The electrodes were designed in an antiparallel configuration with 750 microm width and 750 microm gap between them. The best results were recorded with a frequency of 400 kHz and 10 Vpp using a sinusoidal wave. The analytical performance of the proposed microchip was evaluated by electrophoretic separation of potassium, sodium and lithium in 150 microm wide x 6 microm deep microchannels. Under an electric field of 250 V/cm the analytes were successfully separated in less than 90 s with efficiencies ranging from 7000 to 13,000 plates. The detection limits (S/N = 3) found for K+, Na+, and Li+ were 3.1, 4.3, and 7.2 micromol/L, respectively. Besides the low-cost and instrumental simplicity, the integrated PT chip eliminates the problem of manual alignment and gluing of the electrodes, permitting more robustness and better reproducibility, therefore, more suitable for mass production of electrophoresis microchips.

  7. Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordoghli, Bessem [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); Textile Research Laboratory (LRT) - ISET Kasr Hellal, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Khiari, Ramzi, E-mail: khiari_ramzi2000@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); LGP2 - Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science, 461, Rue de la Papeterie - BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk [Laboratory of Applied Chemical and Environment (UR-CAE) - University of Monastir (Tunisia); Sakli, Faouzi [Textile Research Laboratory (LRT) - ISET Kasr Hellal, University of Monastir (Tunisia); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur [LGP2 - Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science, 461, Rue de la Papeterie - BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, an original technique was present to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modification of PET fabric was carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We fully characterized the modified and untreated fabrics. - Abstract: This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of -SO{sub 3}H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

  8. Mechanic and Acoustic Properties of the Sound-Absorbing Material Made from Natural Fiber and Polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sound-absorbing composite material made of wood fiber and polyester fiber was produced using polyester foam technology and wood-based composite technology. This study investigated the physical and mechanical properties and the effects of the airflow resistivity of the materials and the depth of the cavities behind on sound-absorbing performance of the composite material. The results showed that the composite of best physical and mechanical properties and sound absorption was made with a 150°C hot-pressing temperature, 10 min hot-press time, 3 : 1 the ratio of wood fiber to polyester fiber, foaming agent content of 8%, and the nominal density of 0.2 g/cm3; the composite material yielded superior sound absorption property with the airflow resistivity of 1.98 × 105 Pa·s/m2; the acoustic absorption peak moved to lower frequencies when length of the cavities was increased.

  9. Preparation and properties of aromatic polyester/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites from polyethylene terephthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonardo Moreira dos; Carone, Carlos Leonardo Pandolfo; Einloft, Sandra Mara Oliveira; Ligabue, Rosane Angelica, E-mail: rligabue@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2016-01-15

    The development of polyester based materials with enhanced properties as well as the use of post- consumer plastics as raw material has been an increasing market demand. This work aims the synthesis and characterization of aromatic polyesters/titanium dioxide nanocomposites from PET and using TiO{sub 2} (0, 1, 3 and 5% w/w) as filler by in situ polymerization. The results obtained by DSC, XRD and FTIR analyzes evidenced an interaction between the OH groups on the TiO{sub 2} surface with the ester groups of the polymer leading to decrease of the polymer crystallinity and of hydrophilicity. By SEM images was possible to note a homogeneous distribution of the filler into polymer matrix with 1%w/w TiO{sub 2} (average particle size of 199 nm), however for larger amounts of filler (3 and 5% TiO{sub 2}) revealed the aggregates formation. The results showed an improvement of thermal properties and hardness of the nanocomposites containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles compared to pristine polyester. (author)

  10. High Throughput Screening of Valganciclovir in Acidic Microenvironments of Polyester Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teilo Schaller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ganciclovir and valganciclor are antiviral agents used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. The conventional method for administering ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis patients is repeated intravitreal injections. In order to obviate the possible detrimental effects of repeated intraocular injections, to improve compliance and to eliminate systemic side-effects, we investigated the tuning of the ganciclovir pro-drug valganciclovir and the release from thin films of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polycaprolactone (PCL, or mixtures of both, as a step towards prototyping periocular valganciclovir implants. To investigate the drug release, we established and evaluated a high throughput fluorescence-based quantification screening assay for the detection of valganciclovir. Our protocol allows quantifying as little as 20 ng of valganciclovir in 96-well polypropylene plates and a 50× faster analysis compared to traditional HPLC measurements. This improvement can hence be extrapolated to other polyester matrix thin film formulations using a high-throughput approach. The acidic microenvironment within the polyester matrix was found to protect valganciclovir from degradation with resultant increases in the half-life of the drug in the periocular implant to 100 days. Linear release profiles were obtained using the pure polyester polymers for 10 days and 60 days formulations; however, gross phase separations of PCL and acid-terminated PLGA prevented tuning within these timeframes due to the phase separation of the polymer, valganciclovir, or both.

  11. Analytical approaches to identify potential migrants in polyester-polyurethane can coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise Bradley, Emma; Driffield, Malcolm; Guthrie, James; Harmer, Nick; Thomas Oldring, Peter Kenneth; Castle, Laurence

    2009-12-01

    The safety of a polyester-polyurethane can coating has been assessed using a suite of complementary analytical methods to identify and estimate the concentrations of potential chemical migrants. The polyester was based on phthalic acids and aliphatic diols. The polyisocyanate cross-linking agent was 1-isocyanato-3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethyl cyclohexane homopolymer (IPDI) blocked with methylethylketone oxime (MEKO) to make a one-part formulation. The overall migrate, obtained using solvent extraction of cured films, comprised almost completely of 12 cyclic and one linear polyester oligomer up to molecular weight 800 and containing up to six monomer units. These 13 oligomers covered a total of 28 isomeric forms. Other minor components detected were plasticisers and surfactants as well as impurities present in the starting materials. There was no detectable residue of either the blocked isocyanate (formulation over several months. These studies allow parameters to be specified to ensure that commercial production coatings receive a full cure giving low migration characteristics.

  12. Biodegradable polyester-based shape memory polymers: Concepts of (supramolecular architecturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karger-Kocsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers (SMPs are capable of memorizing one or more temporary shapes and recovering to the permanent shape upon an external stimulus that is usually heat. Biodegradable polymers are an emerging family within the SMPs. This minireview delivers an overlook on actual concepts of molecular and supramolecular architectures which are followed to tailor the shape memory (SM properties of biodegradable polyesters. Because the underlying switching mechanisms of SM actions is either related to the glass transition (Tg or melting temperatures (Tm, the related SMPs are classified as Tg- or Tm-activated ones. For fixing of the permanent shape various physical and chemical networks serve, which were also introduced and discussed. Beside of the structure developments in one-way, also those in two-way SM polyesters were considered. Adjustment of the switching temperature to that of the human body, acceleration of the shape recovery, enhancement of the recovery stress, controlled degradation, and recycling aspects were concluded as main targets for the future development of SM systems with biodegradable polyesters.

  13. Biodegradable polyesters reinforced with triclosan loaded polylactide micro/nanofibers: Properties, release and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. del Valle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties and drug release behavior were studied for three biodegradable polyester matrices (polycaprolactone, poly(nonamethylene azelate and the copolymer derived from 1,9-nonanediol and an equimolar mixture of azelaic and pimelic acids reinforced with polylactide (PLA fibers. Electrospinning was used to produce suitable mats constituted by fibers of different diameters (i.e. from micro- to nanoscale and a homogeneous dispersion of a representative hydrophobic drug (i.e. triclosan. Fabrics were prepared by a molding process, which allowed cold crystallization of PLA micro/nanofibers and hot crystallization of the polyester matrices. The orientation of PLA molecules during electrospinning favored the crystallization process, which was slightly enhanced when the diameter decreased. Incorporation of PLA micro/nanofibers led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus and tensile strength, and in general to a decrease in the strain at break. The brittle fracture was clearer when high molecular weight samples with high plastic deformation were employed. Large differences in the release behavior were detected depending on the loading process, fiber diameter size and hydrophobicity of the polyester matrix. The release of samples with the drug only loaded into the reinforcing fibers was initially fast and then became slow and sustained, resulting in longer lasting antimicrobial activity. Biocompatibility of all samples studied was demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays using HEp-2 cell cultures.

  14. Soil-release behaviour of polyester fabrics after chemical modification with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, T. M. R.; Santos, J.; Soares, G. M. B.

    2017-10-01

    The fibres cleanability depends, among other characteristics, on their hydrophilicity. Hydrophilic fibres are easy-wash materials but hydrophobic fibres are difficult to clean due to their higher water-repellent surfaces. This type of surfaces, like polyester (PET), produce an accumulation of electrostatic charges, which favors adsorption and retention of dirt. Thus, the polyester soil-release properties can be increased by finishing processes that improve fiber hydrophilicity. In present study, PET fabric modification was described by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N,N´-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) chemically modified resin. Briefly, the modification process was carried out in two steps, one to hydrolyse the polyester and create hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups on the surface and other to crosslink the PEG chains. The resulting materials were characterized by contact angle, DSC and FTIR-ATR methods. Additionally, the soil release behavior and the mechanical properties of modified PET were evaluated. For the best process conditions, the treated PET presented 0° contact angle, grade 5 stain release and acceptable mechanical performance.

  15. Release of polyester and cotton fibers from textiles in machine washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Markus; Sainio, Pirjo

    2017-08-01

    Microplastics are widely spread in the environment, which along with still increasing production have aroused concern of their impacts on environmental health. The objective of this study is to quantify the number and mass of two most common textile fibers discharged from sequential machine washings to sewers. The number and mass of microfibers released from polyester and cotton textiles in the first wash varied in the range 2.1 × 10 5 to 1.3 × 10 7 and 0.12 to 0.33% w/w, respectively. Amounts of released microfibers showed a decreasing trend in sequential washes. The annual emission of polyester and cotton microfibers from household washing machines was estimated to be 154,000 (1.0 × 10 14 ) and 411,000 kg (4.9 × 10 14 ) in Finland (population 5.5 × 10 6 ). Due to the high emission values and sorption capacities, the polyester and cotton microfibers may play an important role in the transport and fate of chemical pollutants in the aquatic environment.

  16. Purification and Properties of a Polyester Polyurethane-Degrading Enzyme from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Y; Nakajima-Kambe, T; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T

    1998-01-01

    A polyester polyurethane (PUR)-degrading enzyme, PUR esterase, derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35, a bacterium that utilizes polyester PUR as the sole carbon source, was purified until it showed a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This enzyme was bound to the cell surface and was extracted by addition of 0.2% N,N-bis(3-d-gluconamidopropyl)deoxycholamide (deoxy-BIGCHAP). The results of gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that the PUR esterase was a monomer with a molecular mass of about 62,000 Da. This enzyme, which is a kind of esterase, degraded solid polyester PUR, with diethylene glycol and adipic acid released as the degradation products. The optimum pH for this enzyme was 6.5, and the optimum temperature was 45 degrees C. PUR degradation by the PUR esterase was strongly inhibited by the addition of 0.04% deoxy-BIGCHAP. On the other hand, deoxy-BIGCHAP did not inhibit the activity when p-nitrophenyl acetate, a water-soluble compound, was used as a substrate. These observations indicated that this enzyme degrades PUR in a two-step reaction: hydrophobic adsorption to the PUR surface and hydrolysis of the ester bond of PUR.

  17. Measurement of water diffusion in epoxy and polyester resins with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozisek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A brief characteristic is given of diffusion processes in polymers and their importance in the corrosion of plastics and synthetic resins. The method and equipment are described for the application of radionuclides in measuring the diffusion of water in epoxy and polyester resins. The desorption of water labelled with tritium and the diffusion coefficients of water molecules were investigated in five samples of resins. The experimental results show that there are evident differences between the individual evaluated synthetic resins in the diffusion rate of water molecules at temperatures within the region of 15 to 55 degC. Of the epoxy resins, the smallest diffusion rate of water was found for ChS Epoxifurol EFF hardened with the EFF 33 setting agent, and for ChS Epoxi 110 Bg 15. The ChS Epoxifurol EFF 33 type set by adding 20% aminoamide has a higher diffusion rate probably due to the presence of polar functional groups. The epoxy resin Eprosin E 26 containing a considerable amount of inorganic filler has a substantially higher diffusion rate for water molecules than the other types of evaluated resins. The polyester resin ChS Polyester 221 has the lowest rate of water diffusion. (J.B.)

  18. Microbial dispersal in unsaturated porous media: Characteristics of motile bacterial cell motions in unsaturated angular pore networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali N.; Or, Dani

    2014-09-01

    The dispersal rates of self-propelled microorganisms affect their spatial interactions and the ecological functioning of microbial communities. Microbial dispersal rates affect risk of contamination of water resources by soil-borne pathogens, the inoculation of plant roots, or the rates of spoilage of food products. In contrast with the wealth of information on microbial dispersal in water replete systems, very little is known about their dispersal rates in unsaturated porous media. The fragmented aqueous phase occupying complex soil pore spaces suppress motility and limits dispersal ranges in unsaturated soil. The primary objective of this study was to systematically evaluate key factors that shape microbial dispersal in model unsaturated porous media to quantify effects of saturation, pore space geometry, and chemotaxis on characteristics of principles that govern motile microbial dispersion in unsaturated soil. We constructed a novel 3-D angular pore network model (PNM) to mimic aqueous pathways in soil for different hydration conditions; within the PNM, we employed an individual-based model that considers physiological and biophysical properties of motile and chemotactic bacteria. The effects of hydration conditions on first passage times in different pore networks were studied showing that fragmentation of aquatic habitats under dry conditions sharply suppresses nutrient transport and microbial dispersal rates in good agreement with limited experimental data. Chemotactically biased mean travel speed of microbial cells across 9 mm saturated PNM was ˜3 mm/h decreasing exponentially to 0.45 mm/h for the PNM at matric potential of -15 kPa (for -35 kPa, dispersal practically ceases and the mean travel time to traverse the 9 mm PNM exceeds 1 year). Results indicate that chemotaxis enhances dispersal rates by orders of magnitude relative to random (diffusive) motions. Model predictions considering microbial cell sizes relative to available liquid pathways sizes were

  19. Efficient intramolecular cyclizations of phenoxyethynyl diols into multisubstituted α,β-unsaturated lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Masahiro; Ota, Yuya; Nishimura, Yuka; Shimizu, Kaori; Azechi, Kenji; Akai, Shuji

    2013-08-16

    AgOTf-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of phenoxyethynyl diols proceeded under mild conditions to afford the multisubstituted α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactones in 55-98% yields. This method was also applicable to the synthesis of α,β-unsaturated-δ-lactones. A similar cyclization proceeded when AgOTf was replaced with a stoichiometric amount of N-bromosuccinimide to furnish the α-bromo-substituted α,β-unsaturated lactones.

  20. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.