Sample records for stabilized subgrade soils

  1. Soil stabilization with recycled materials improves subgrade performance : research spotlight. (United States)


    The use of recycled materials for subgrade stabilization can provide the support needed for construction vehicle loading and more typical long-term traffic loading. This is a particular need in Michigan due to the prevalence of weak subgrade soils. U...

  2. Long-Term benefits of stabilizing soil subgrades. (United States)


    The main intent of this study was an attempt to address questions concerning bearing strengths, longevity, durability, structural credit, economics, and performance of pavements resting on soil subgrades mixed with chemical admixtures. In-depth field...

  3. Engineering properties of stabilized subgrade soils for implementation of the AASHTO 2002 pavement design guide. (United States)


    A comprehensive laboratory study was undertaken to determine engineering properties of cementitiously stabilized common subgrade soils in Oklahoma for the design of roadway pavements in accordance with the AASHTO 2002 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement D...

  4. Subgrade stabilization alternatives to lime and cement. (United States)


    This project involved four distinct research activities, (1) the influence of temperature on lime-stabilized soils, (2) the influence of temperature on cement-stabilized soils (3) temperature modeling of stabilized subgrade and (4) use of calcium chl...

  5. Expansive soil stabilization with coir waste and lime for flexible pavement subgrade (United States)

    Narendra Goud, G.; Hyma, A.; Shiva Chandra, V.; Sandhya Rani, R.


    Expansive soil properties can be improved by various methods to make it suitable for construction of flexible pavement. The coir pith is the by-product (bio-waste) generated from coir industry during extraction of coir fiber from coconut husk. Openly disposed coir pith can make the surrounding areas unhygienic. This bio-waste can be one of the potential materials to stabilize the expansive soils. In the present study coir pith and lime are used as stabilizers. Different combinations of coir pith contents (1%, 2% and 3%) and lime contents (2%, 3% and 4%)are used to study the behavior of expansive soil. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of unstabilized and stabilized soils was determined. Optimum content of coir pith and lime are determined based on UCS of the soil. California bearing ratio of soil determined at optimum contents of coir pith and lime. Flexible pavement layer compositions for two levels of traffic using stabilized soil subgrade.

  6. Performance evaluation of subgrade stabilization with recycled materials. (United States)


    Due to rising costs of good quality acceptable materials for remove/replace options and traditional : subgrade stabilization materials, MDOT is in need to identify potential recycled materials to treat : unacceptable subgrade soils. Use of recycled m...

  7. Evaluation and field verification of strength and structural improvement of chemically stabilized subgrade soil. (United States)


    Often subgrade soils exhibit properties, particularly strength and/or volume change properties that limit their performance as a support element for pavements. : Typical problems include shrink-swell, settlement, collapse, erosion or simply insuffici...

  8. Stabilization treatment of soft subgrade soil by sewage sludge ash and cement. (United States)

    Chen, Li; Lin, Deng-Fong


    In this study, incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is mixed with cement in a fixed ratio of 4:1 for use as a stabilizer to improve the strength of soft, cohesive, subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in wt%: 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%) of ISSA/cement admixture are mixed with cohesive soil to make soil samples. In order to understand the influences of admixtures on the soil properties, tests of the pH value, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength, and triaxial compression were performed on those samples. The study shows that the unconfined compressive strength of specimens with the ISSA/cement addition was improved to approximately 3-7 times better than that of the untreated soil; furthermore, the swelling behavior was also effectively reduced as much as 10-60% for those samples. In some samples, the ISSA/cement additive improved the CBR values by up to 30 times that of untreated soil. This suggests that ISSA/cement has many potential applications in the field of geotechnical engineering.

  9. Experimental Study on the Utilization of Fine Steel Slag on Stabilizing High Plastic Subgrade Soil

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    Hussien Aldeeky


    Full Text Available The three major steel manufacturing factories in Jordan dump their byproduct, steel slag, randomly in open areas, which causes many environmental hazardous problems. This study intended to explore the effectiveness of using fine steel slag aggregate (FSSA in improving the geotechnical properties of high plastic subgrade soil. First soil and fine steel slag mechanical and engineering properties were evaluating. Then 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% dry weight of soil of fine steel slag (FSSA were added and mixed into the prepared soil samples. The effectiveness of the FSSA was judged by the improvement in consistency limits, compaction, free swell, unconfined compression strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR. From the test results, it is observed that 20% FSSA additives will reduce plasticity index and free swell by 26.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Furthermore, 20% FSSA additives will increase the unconfined compressive strength, maximum dry density, and CBR value by 100%, 6.9%, and 154%. By conclusion FSSA had a positive effect on the geotechnical properties of the soil and it can be used as admixture in proving geotechnical characteristics of subgrade soil, not only solving the waste disposal problem.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of enzyme-based liquid chemical stabilizers on subgrade soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to asses the strength of enzyme treated soil material. Thus the aim of the paper is to present laboratory results on the effects of two enzyme-based liquid chemicals as soil stabilizers. Soil samples were prepared...

  11. Evaluation of Subgrade Soils using California Bearing Ratio (Cbr) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two options that are fit for the upgrade are the over – excavation and stabilization options. The over - excavation method of enhancement of the performance of the subgrade materials that have been studied will require the excavation of the sub- grade soil to the depth of 0.7m and the subsequent replacement with ...

  12. Validation and refinement of chemical stabilization procedures for pavement subgrade soils in Oklahoma : volume I. (United States)


    Additions of byproduct chemicals, such as fly ash or cement kiln dust, have been shown to increase the unconfined compression strength (UCS) of soils. To be considered effective, the soil must exhibit a strength increase of at least 50 psi. Many curr...

  13. Use of Coal Bottom Ash as Mechanical Stabiliser in Subgrade Soil

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    Abdus Salaam Cadersa


    Full Text Available This paper presents the laboratory investigation work which forms part of a full scale research road project in Mauritius where coal bottom ash is used as mechanical stabiliser in a saprolitic subgrade soil. Three mixtures of subgrade soil and CBA were investigated in the laboratory, each containing varying percentages of coal bottom ash by weight (15%, 30%, and 40%, resp.. The laboratory research indicated that the mechanical properties of the subgrade soil are improved with the addition of bottom ash. Highest values for soaked and unsoaked CBR values were obtained for the mixture containing 30% by weight of bottom ash, which were 145% and 95%, respectively, as compared to 40% and 55% for the subgrade soil alone. Upon addition of coal bottom ash, a considerable decrease in swelling potential during soaking was observed for the mixture containing 40% by weight of CBA. The swell decreased from 0.17% for the subgrade soil alone to 0.04% for the mixture containing 40% by weight of CBA. Moreover, a CBA content of 30% resulted in a mix of intermediate plasticity as compared to the subgrade soil which is highly plastic. It is concluded that coal bottom ash can be used successfully as a mechanical stabilizer in the experimental subgrade soil by addition of 30 to 40% of CBA.

  14. Instability improvement of the subgrade soils by lime addition at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt (United States)

    El Shinawi, A.


    Subgrade soils can affect the stability of any construction elsewhere, instability problems were found at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt. This paper investigates geoengineering properties of lime treated subgrade soils at Borg El-Arab. Basic laboratory tests, such as water content, wet and dry density, grain size, specific gravity and Atterberg limits, were performed for twenty-five samples. Moisture-density (compaction); California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) were conducted on treated and natural soils. The measured geotechnical parameters of the treated soil shows that 6% lime is good enough to stabilize the subgrade soils. It was found that by adding lime, samples shifted to coarser side, Atterberg limits values of the treated soil samples decreased and this will improve the soil to be more stable. On the other hand, Subgrade soils improved as a result of the bonding fine particles, cemented together to form larger size and reduce the plastiCity index which increase soils strength. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is point to the presence of innovative aggregated cement materials which reduce the porosity and increase the strength as a long-term curing. Consequently, the mixture of soil with the lime has acceptable mechanical characteristics where, it composed of a high strength base or sub-base materials and this mixture considered as subgrade soil for stabilizations and mitigation the instability problems that found at Borg Al-Arab, Egypt.

  15. Drying shrinkage problems in high PI subgrade soils. (United States)


    The main objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal cracking in pavements due to drying : shrinkage of high PI subgrade soils. The study involved laboartory soil testing and modeling. The : shrinkage cracks usually occur within the v...

  16. Effect of Cement Replacement with Carbide Waste on the Strength of Stabilized Clay Subgrade

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    Muntohar A.S.


    Full Text Available Cement is commonly used for soil stabilization and many other ground improvement techniques. Cement is believed to be very good to improve the compressive and split-tensile strength of clay subgrades. In some application cement could be partly or fully replaced with carbide waste. This research is to study the effectiveness of the cement replacement and to find the maximum carbide waste content to be allowed for a clay subgrade. The quantities of cement replaced with the carbide waste were 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% by its mass. The results show that replacing the cement with carbide waste decreased both the compressive and split tensile strength. Replacing cement content with carbide waste reduced its ability for stabilization. The carbide waste content should be less than 70% of the cement to provide a sufficient stabilizing effect on a clay subgrade.

  17. Engineering properties of common subgrade soils below pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports findings of laboratory testing of common sub-grade soils in pavement structures in Kenya. The materials were collected from different parts of the country. The results are intended to form a database for use by practicing engineers and researchers in the field of pavement engineering. The investigated ...

  18. Improvement of poor subgrade soils using cement kiln dust

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    Ahmed Mancy Mosa


    Full Text Available Construction of pavements layers on subgrade with excellent to good properties reduces the thickness of the layers and consequently reduces the initial and maintenance cost of highways and vice versa. However, construction of pavements on poor subgrade is unavoidable due to several constrains. Improvement of subgrade properties using traditional additives such as lime and Portland cement adds supplementary costs. Therefore, using by-products in this domain involves technical, economic, and environmental advantages. Cement kiln dust (CKD is generated in huge quantities as a by-product material in Portland cement plants. Therefore, it can be considered as an excellent alternative in this domain. In Iraq, Portland cement plants generate about 350000 tons of CKD annually which is available for free. Therefore, Iraq can be adopted as a case study. This paper covers using CKD to improve the properties of poor subgrade soils based on series of California Bearing Ration (CBR tests on sets of untreated samples and samples treated with different doses of CKD in combination with different curing periods to investigate their effects on soil properties. The results exhibited that adding 20% of CKD with curing for 14 days increases the CBR value from 3.4% for untreated soil to 48% for treated soil; it, also, decreases the swelling ratio. To determine the effects of using this dose under the mentioned curing period on the designed thicknesses of pavements layers, a case study was adopted. The case study results exhibited that treatment of the subgrade soil by 20% of CKD with curing for 14 days reduces the cost of the pavements by $25.875 per square meter.

  19. Evaluation of techniques for the improvement of subgrade soils in flood and rainfall inundation affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.


    Highways are amongst the most costly resources contributing directly to the growth of any Country's economy. Subgrade soils as component of highways deteriorate normally from numerous factors resulting into flushing or excessive settlements of embankment involving huge maintenance costs. In this research, an attempt has been made to evaluate suitable technique for stabilization of commonly available subgrade soils of Pakistan based on cost effectiveness and ease in construction. The soils identified as A-3(0) by American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) criteria has been stabilized with conventional additives i.e. cement and bitumen in this research. The optimum content of each additive for stabilization based on their relative effectiveness was used. Trials were also made to economize the cost of stabilization from both conventional additives by controlled replacing of them with waste polythene and polyester fibers. The construction methodology for stabilization using waste fibers was also proposed. Cement was observed to be the most effective stabilizer with respect to strength and durability for A-3(0) soils. Bitumen was found effective but uneconomical for A-3(0) soils. Waste polythene and polyester wastes (organic materials) have potential to economize the cost of stabilization with cement and bitumen for A-3(0) soils. However, long term degradation of these organic materials in soil stabilized mixtures needs further exploration. (author)

  20. The estimation of parameter compaction values for pavement subgrade stabilized with lime (United States)

    Lubis, A. S.; Muis, Z. A.; Simbolon, C. A.


    The type of soil material, field control, maintenance and availability of funds are several factors that must be considered in compaction of the pavement subgrade. In determining the compaction parameters in laboratory desperately requires considerable materials, time and funds, and reliable laboratory operators. If the result of soil classification values can be used to estimate the compaction parameters of a subgrade material, so it would save time, energy, materials and cost on the execution of this work. This is also a clarification (cross check) of the work that has been done by technicians in the laboratory. The study aims to estimate the compaction parameter values ie. maximum dry unit weight (γdmax) and optimum water content (Wopt) of the soil subgrade that stabilized with lime. The tests that conducted in the laboratory of soil mechanics were to determine the index properties (Fines and Liquid Limit/LL) and Standard Compaction Test. Soil samples that have Plasticity Index (PI) > 10% were made with additional 3% lime for 30 samples. By using the Goswami equation, the compaction parameter values can be estimated by equation γd max # = -0,1686 Log G + 1,8434 and Wopt # = 2,9178 log G + 17,086. From the validation calculation, there was a significant positive correlation between the compaction parameter values laboratory and the compaction parameter values estimated, with a 95% confidence interval as a strong relationship.

  1. Electrical resistivity and geotechnical assessment of subgrade soils in southwestern part of Nigeria (United States)

    Adebisi, N. O.; Ariyo, S. O.; Sotikare, P. B.


    The subgrade soils in areas underlain by the slightly Migmatized to Non-migmatized Metasedimentary and Metaigneous rocks of Southwestern Nigeria have been considerably investigated. However, a serious research which employs electrical resistivity method for insight into the profile development, as well as estimation of resistance to deformation for predicting the stability of flexible highway pavements is yet to be carried out. In this study, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were carried out after a reconnaissance survey based on stable and unstable locations on the road. Index and strength tests related to road construction were also carried out on bulk samples obtained from stable and failed (unstable) locations of the Ago-Iwoye/Ishara highway. Results show mostly three (3) layers in the profiles with H, HK, and HKH curve types. The subgrade soils below the stable locations have better vertical and interval variations in the resistivities (89-1095 Ωm) to a depth of 3.4 m as against those from the failed portions. Those from the stable locations also have higher specific gravity (2.72), low-medium plasticity and A-2-6 kaolinitic clayey soils with higher compacted density (2090 kg/m3) compared to subgrade soils from the failed locations. On the basis of Califonia Bearing Ratio (CBR), subgrade soils at stable locations have greater strength than those obtained from failed locations. Estimated resistance to deformation (R-value) and resilient modulus (MR) proved to be the overriding parameters for predicting the stability of the flexible highway pavements.

  2. Evaluation of Carbonation Effects on Cement-Solidified Contaminated Soil Used in Road Subgrade

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    Yundong Zhou


    Full Text Available Cement solidification/stabilization is widely used towards contaminated soil since it has a low price and significant improvement for the structural capacity of soil. To increase the usage of the solidified matrix, cement-solidified contaminated soil was used as road subgrade material. In this study, carbonation effect that reflected the durability on strength characteristics of cement-solidified contaminated soil and the settlement of pavement were evaluated through experimental and numerical analysis, respectively. According to results, compressive strengths of specimens with 1% Pb(II under carbonation and standard curing range from 0.44 MPa to 1.17 MPa and 0.14 MPa to 2.67 MPa, respectively. The relatively low strengths were attributed to immobilization of heavy metal, which consumed part of SiO2, Al2O3, and CaO components in the cement or kaolin and reduced the hydration and pozzolanic reaction materials. This phenomenon further decreased the strength of solidified soils. The carbonation depth of 1% Cu(II or Zn(II contaminated soils was 18 mm, which significantly increased with the increase of curing time and contamination concentration. Furthermore, the finite element calculation results showed that surface settlements decreased with the increase of modulus of subgrade and the distance away from the center. At the center, the pavement settlement was proportional to the level of traffic load.

  3. Field investigation of geosynthetics used for subgrade stabilization : [project summary]. (United States)


    Roadways are commonly constructed on weak native soil deposits. When excavation and replacement of these soils is not cost effective, soil stabilization may be necessary to provide a working platform so that the base course gravel layer can be proper...

  4. Research on filling scheme and deformation properties of wide subgrade of foamed lightweight soil on soft ground (United States)

    Zhang, Faru; Yang, Deguang; Zhang, Liujun


    The wide subgrade on soft soil ground has the significantly different transverse settlement curve characteristics and the lacation of the maximum asymmetrical transverse settlement compared with ordinary subgrade. Especially when the subgrade filled with materials of different densities, the synergism deformation of ground-subgrade-pavement and the pavement structure stress become more complex. Combining with the engineering example, the settlement deformation characteristics of wide subgrade adopting the different filling scheme and the stress distribution of pavement structure are analyzed. Results show that the settlement curve of wide subgrade has a shape of flat middle with steep sides, and the maximum transverse asymmetrical settlement locates in close to the shoulder position. The maximum stress within the pavement structure is also in close to the shoulder position. Regarding the wide subgrade composed of main road and relief road, the post-construction settlement can be greatly reduced when both roads are filled with foamed lightweight soil.

  5. Study on the subgrade deformation under high-speed train loading and water-soil interaction (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhao, Guo-Tang; Sheng, Xiao-Zhen; Jin, Xue-Song


    It is important to study the subgrade characteristics of high-speed railways in consideration of the water-soil coupling dynamic problem, especially when high-speed trains operate in rainy regions. This study develops a nonlinear water-soil interaction dynamic model of slab track coupling with subgrade under high-speed train loading based on vehicle-track coupling dynamics. By using this model, the basic dynamic characteristics, including water-soil interaction and without water induced by the high-speed train loading, are studied. The main factors-the permeability coefficient and the porosity-influencing the subgrade deformation are investigated. The developed model can characterize the soil dynamic behaviour more realistically, especially when considering the influence of water-rich soil.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of the Effects of 3-Chloride Compounds on the Geotechnical Properties of an Expansive Subgrade Soil (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Anjan Kumar, M.; Raju, G. V. R. Prasada


    Expansive soils are known to be problematic due to their nature and behavior. These soils show volume changes due to changes in moisture content, which cause distortions to structures constructed on them. Relentless efforts are being made all over the world to find solution to the problems of expansive soils. In the case of flexible pavements, unless the subgrade is appropriately treated during the construction stage, the maintenance cost will increase substantially due to deterioration. There are many methods of stabilising expansive subgrade soils. Chemical stabilisation is one such technique employed in improving the engineering properties of the expansive soil. Investigations on chemical stabilization of expansive soils revealed that conventionally used lime could be replaced by the chloride compound chemicals because of their ready dissolvability in water, ease of mixing with soil and supply of sufficient cations for ready cation exchange. The main objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of three chloride compound chemicals, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the geotechnical properties of an expansive soil. The chemicals content up to 2% were added to the soil and its effect on the index limits, swell pressure, compaction characteristics as well as California bearing ratio are studied. It was observed that aluminum chloride chemical content has a significantly higher influence than the other two chemicals and it could be recognized as an effective chemical stabilizer.

  7. Characterization of cementitiously stabilized subgrades for mechanistic-empirical pavement design (United States)

    Solanki, Pranshoo

    Pavements are vulnerable to subgrade layer performance because it acts as a foundation. Due to increase in the truck traffic, pavement engineers are challenged to build more strong and long-lasting pavements. To increase the load-bearing capacity of pavements, subgrade layer is often stabilized with cementitious additives. Thus, an overall characterization of stabilized subgrade layer is important for enhanced short- and long-term pavement performance. In this study, the effect of type and amount of additive on the short-term performance in terms of material properties recommended by the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) is examined. A total of four soils commonly encountered as subgrades in Oklahoma are utilized. Results show that the changes in the Mr, ME and UCS values stabilized specimens depend on the soil type and properties of additives. The long-term performance (or durability) of stabilized soil specimens is investigated by conducting freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling, vacuum saturation and tube suction tests on 7-day cured P-, K- and C-soil specimens stabilized with 6% lime, 10% CFA and 10% CKD. This study is motivated by the fact that during the service life of pavement stabilized layers are subjected to F-T cycles and moisture variations. It is found that that UCS value of all the stabilized specimens decreased with increase in the number of F-T cycles. A strong correlation was observed between UCS values retained after vacuum saturation and F-T cycles indicating that vacuum saturation could be used as a time-efficient and inexpensive method for evaluating durability of stabilized soils. In this study, short- and long-term observations from stabilization of sulfate bearing soil with locally available low (CFA), moderate (CKD) and high (lime) calcium-based stabilizers are determined to evaluate and compare the effect of additive type on the phenomenon of sulfate-induced heave. The impact of different factors on the development of the

  8. Mechanical behavior of embankments overlying on loose subgrade stabilized by deep mixed columns

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    Morteza Esmaeili


    Full Text Available Deep mixed column (DMC is known as one of the effective methods for stabilizing the natural earth beneath road or railway embankments to control stability and settlements under traffic loads. The load distribution mechanism of embankment overlying on loose subgrades stabilized with DMCs considerably depends on the columns' mechanical and geometrical specifications. The present study uses the laboratory investigation to understand the behavior of embankments lying on loose sandy subgrade in three different conditions: (1 subgrade without reinforcement, (2 subgrade reinforced with DMCs in a triangular pattern and horizontal plan, and (3 subgrade reinforced with DMCs in a square pattern and horizontal plan. For this purpose, by adopting the scale factor of 1:10, a reference embankment with 20 cm height, 250 cm length, and 93% maximum dry density achieved in standard Proctor compaction test was constructed over a 70 cm thick loose sandy bed with the relative density of 50% in a loading chamber, and its load-displacement behavior was evaluated until the failure occurred. In the next two tests, DMCs (with 10 cm diameter, 40 cm length, and 25 cm center-to-center spacing were placed in groups in two different patterns (square and triangular in the same sandy bed beneath the embankment and, consequently, the embankments were constructed over the reinforced subgrades and gradually loaded until the failure happened. In all the three tests, the load-displacement behaviors of the embankment and the selected DMCs were instrumented for monitoring purpose. The obtained results implied 64% increase in failure load and 40% decrease in embankment crest settlement when using the square pattern of DMCs compared with those of the reference embankment, while these values were 63% and 12%, respectively, for DMCs in triangular pattern. This confirmed generally better performance of DMCs with a triangular pattern.

  9. Characterizing shear properties of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests were conducted to determine shear properties of a fine-grained subgrade soil at the optimum moisture content and 3% above and below the optimum. The complete test results provided an extensive database of material...

  10. Effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils predicted by cone penetration test. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient characteristics of subgrade soil predicted by the cone penetration test. An experimental program was conducted in which cone penetratio...

  11. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

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    Mousa Rabah


    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  12. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik


    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  13. Improvement of strength characteristics of lateritic sub-grade soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shredded high density polyethylene High Density Polyethylene Waste of maximum size 20 × 25mm was used for the improvement of lateritic soil at various percentages which are; 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% respectively. Series of laboratory tests such as, Compaction and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) were conducted to ...

  14. Evaluation of the base/subgrade soil under repeated loading : phase II, in-box and ALF cyclic plate load tests. (United States)


    This research study aims at evaluating the performance of base and subgrade soil in flexible pavements under repeated loading test conditions. For this purpose, an indoor cyclic plate load testing equipment was developed and used to conduct a series ...

  15. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction including non-destructive testing of roadways. (United States)


    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and : lime kiln dust. The laboratory program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, : resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud C...

  16. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction-including non-destructive testing of roadways. (United States)


    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and lime kiln dust. The laboratory : program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud Com...

  17. Evaluation of Guidelines for Subgrade Treatments : Executive Summary Report (United States)


    Wet, unstable subgrade soil conditions are often encountered during new or reconstruction projects. The problems are often unidentified during plan development stage. Once the existing pavement is removed, the unstable subgrade must be modified or re...


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    V. D. Petrenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  19. Special Provisions for Intelligent Compaction of Stabilized Soil Subgrades (United States)


    Slowing the deterioration of highway infrastructure, reducing carbon emissions, conserving resources, repurposing industrial waste-this Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program project is pursuing multiple benefits through a unique experimental ap...

  20. The role of curing period on the engineering characteristics of a cement-stabilized soil

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    Athanasopoulou Antonia


    Full Text Available Very often, pavements constructed in an economical manner or matching surface elevations of adjacent lanes cannot be designed for the soil conditions of the existing subgrade. Therefore, there is a need to stabilize the soil with an appropriate chemical substance in order to increase its strength to a satisfactory level. For the enhancement of subgrade soil strength characteristics, lime and cement are the most commonly used stabilizers. An experimental program was directed to the evaluation of a clayey soil and its mixtures with different cement contents performing tests on the index properties, the moisture-density relation, the unconfined compressive strength, and linear shrinkage. There is a definite improvement in strength. The time interval used to cure the prepared specimens affected positively both strength and plasticity features of the mixtures. A comparison with mixtures of the same soil with lime has been made, because of the wide use of lime in clay soil stabilization projects.

  1. Efficacy of road bond and condor as soil stabilizers : final report. (United States)


    The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) uses lime-based stabilizers including quick lime, hydrated lime, Class C fly ash (CFA) and cement kiln dust (CKD) to increase bearing capacity of fine-grained subgrade soils within the state of Oklahom...

  2. Soft Soil Improvement for Sub-grade Layer Using Hexagonal Micropiles Layout (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Abdullah, N. A. H.; Yusoff, M. F.; Abidin, M. H. Z.


    Soft soil problems are often associated with sediment and stability where it represents a major challenge in Geotechnical Engineering. Research on a soft soil was carried out to determine the level of sediment resulting from the applied load and thus compare the most ideal form of arrangement by the results obtained from bearing capacity. The study was conducted at Research Centre for Soft Soil (RECESS), UTHM by using kaolin. There are several tests conducted on kaolin before the arrangement of pile which is liquid limit test. Through these tests, the level of water content can be maintained which is 1.2 liquid limit where it is in the homogeneous condition. Density test also carried to know weight of kaolin and water that needed in the model. Meanwhile, large strain consolidation test carried on the soil by placing a load of 8 kPa. Then, the pile was arranged in the soil in the shape of a hexagon and square. Load was increased to 12 kPa and imposed on the surface of the pile with a different forms. After 24 hours, the reading of sediment was measured everyday and the process collecting data conducted for 3 week. Based on data obtained, time against sediment can be plotted. To determine the bearing capacity, direct shear test was conducted to get the value coefficient of cohesion, c as a parameter in the calculation of the soil bearing capacity. The results showed that the rate of settlement occurs is different where hexagonal form less the rate of settlement compared to square form which is 64.2% while the results of bearing capacity have the same value.

  3. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available problem is the mobility (trafficability) of large haul trucks and shovels during field operations on these soils. Cohesive fine-grained and cohesionless granular soils constitute the foundation of highway and airport pavements as well as railroad track..., and other fine-grained cohesive soils with similar characteristics. Acknowledgements The author would like to acknowledge Professor Erol Tutumluer of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Dr. Liqun Chi of Caterpillar, Inc. of Peoria, Illinois...

  4. Enzyme based soil stabilization for unpaved road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjith Rintu


    Full Text Available Enzymes as soil stabilizers have been successfully used in road construction in several countries for the past 30 years. However, research has shown that the successful application of these enzymes is case specific, emphasizing that enzyme performance is dependent on subgrade soil type, condition and the type of enzyme used as the stabilizer. A universal standard or a tool for road engineers to assess the performance of stabilized unbound pavements using well-established enzymes is not available to date. The research aims to produce a validated assessment tool which can be used to predict strength enhancement within a generalized statistical framework. The objective of the present study is to identify new materials for developing the assessment tool which supports enzyme based stabilization, as well as to identify the correct construction sequence for such new materials. A series of characterization tests were conducted on several soil types obtained from proposed construction sites. Having identified the suitable soil type to mix with the enzyme, a trial road construction has been performed to investigate the efficiency of the enzyme stabilization along with the correct construction sequence. The enzyme stabilization has showed significant improvement of the road performance as was evidenced from the test results which were based on site soil obtained before and after stabilization. The research will substantially benefit the road construction industry by not only replacing traditional construction methods with economical/reliable approaches, but also eliminating site specific tests required in current practice of enzyme based road construction.

  5. Implementation of the UV-VIS method to measure organic content in clay soils : technical report. (United States)


    The Texas Department of Transportation has been having problems with organic matter in soils that they : stabilize for use as subgrade layers in road construction. The organic matter reduces the effectiveness of : common soil additives (lime/cement) ...

  6. Test procedure for determining organic matter content in soils : UV-VIS method. (United States)


    The Texas Department of Transportation has been having problems with organic matter in soils that they : stabilize for use as subgrade layers in road construction. The organic matter reduces the effectiveness of : common soil additives (lime/cement) ...

  7. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang


    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  8. GPR measurements and estimation for road subgrade damage caused by neighboring train vibration load (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Lu, Gang; Ge, Shuangcheng


    Generally, road can be simplified as a three-layer structure, including subgrade, subbase and pavement. Subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road. It is commonly compacted before the road construction, and sometimes stabilized by the addition of asphalt, lime or other modifiers. As the mainly supporting structure, subgrade damage would lead in pavement settlement, displacement and crack. Assessment and monitoring of the subgrade condition currently involves trial pitting and subgrade sampling. However there is a practical limit on spatial density at which trail pits and cores can be taken. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely used to characterize highway pavement profiling, concrete structure inspection and railroad track ballast estimation. GPR can improve the economics of road maintenance. Long-term train vibration load might seriously influence the stability of the subgrade of neighboring road. Pavement settlement and obvious cracks have been found at a municipal road cross-under a railway with culvert box method. GPR test was conducted to estimate the subgrade and soil within 2.0 m depth for the further road maintenance. Two survey lines were designed in each lane, and total 12 GPR sections have been implemented. Considering both the penetrating range and the resolution, a antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency was chosen for on-site GPR data collection. For data acquisition, we used the default operating environment and scanning parameters for the RAMAC system: 60kHz transmission rate, 50 ns time window, 1024 samples per scan and 0.1 m step-size. Continuous operation was used; the antenna was placed on the road surface and slowly moved along the road. The strong surrounding disturbance related to railroad and attachments, might decrease the reliability of interpretation results. Some routine process methods (including the background removing, filtering) have been applied to suppress the background noise. Additionally, attribute

  9. Estimation of subgrade resilient modulus using the unconfined compression test. (United States)


    To facilitate pavement design, the new proposed mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide recommends the resilient : modulus to characterize subgrade soil and its use for calculating pavement responses attributable to traffic and environmental : lo...

  10. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin


    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  11. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko


    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  12. Subgrade design models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL


    Full Text Available procedure commonly used in South Africa, namely the South African Mechanistic-Empirical Design Method (SAMDM). This was achieved through the development of a new design approach and permanent deformation model for the pavement subgrade. The new distress...

  13. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study of Subgrade Moisture Variation and Underground Antidrainage Technique under Groundwater Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jie


    Full Text Available Groundwater is a main natural factor impacting the subgrade structure, and it plays a significant role in the stability of the subgrade. In this paper, the analytical solution of the subgrade moisture variations considering groundwater fluctuations is derived based on Richards’ equation. Laboratory subgrade model is built, and three working cases are performed in the model to study the capillary action of groundwater at different water tables. Two types of antidrainage materials are employed in the subgrade model, and their anti-drainage effects are discussed. Moreover, numerical calculation is conducted on the basis of subgrade model, and the calculate results are compared with the experimental measurements. The study results are shown. The agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is good. Capillary action is obvious when the groundwater table is rising. As the groundwater table is falling, the moisture decreases in the position of the subgrade near the water table and has no variations in the subgrade where far above the table. The anti-drainage effect of the sand cushion is associated with its thickness and material properties. New waterproofing and drainage material can prevent groundwater entering the subgrade effectively, and its anti-drainage effect is good.

  14. Chemically stabilized soils. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to conduct laboratory evaluations to quantify the effects of compaction and moisture conditions on the strength of chemically treated soils typical utilized in pavement construction in Mississippi.

  15. Numerical Analysis Method considering Coupled Effects of THMC Multifields on Unsaturated Expansive Soil Subgrade Treated with Lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu


    Full Text Available The response model subjected to coupled effect of thermo-hydro-mechano-chemical (THMC was built in the context of basic theories in the polyporous polyphasic medium mechanics, the mixture theory in the continuum mechanics, and the thermodynamic theories. The finite element discretization of the response model was implemented based on the Galerkin method. The processes of salt leaching and accumulating were analyzed in the numerical results. The results among the numerical results and measured results were compared and discussed. Finally, the solutes migration rule of the soil subjected to the atmosphere eluviations was revealed, and the reasonableness of the coupling model and the finite element method was proved. The agreement between the numerical and the measured results was good, which indicates that the THMC model and finite element program were useful in solving the coupling problems of unsaturated soil. Moreover, the salt dissolution process has a larger effect on the salt movement compared to that of the salt accumulation process. Comparing with the salt leaching effect caused by rainfall, the salt accumulation effect caused by evaporation was smaller.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to stabilization parameters determination of reinforced railway bed. At the present time, the railway plays the leading role in transport system to ensure the needs of freight and passenger traffic. In modern conditions railway operation concentrates on ensuring the necessary level of track reliability, including the roadbed, this is one of the main elements of road structures. The purpose of this article is the determination of basic parameters of stress-strain state to stabilize the soil subgrade embankment by reinforced materials. Methodology. To achieve this goal the following tasks of researches were solved: the effect of reinforcing layer of geomaterial on deformation properties of soil subgrade in various design of strengthening was investigated, the distributions of stresses in the subgrade were determined, reinforced of geomaterials under state load. Experimental studies to explore the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress were carried out. Findings. The analysis of the results of performed experimental and theoretical studies permitted to do the following conclusions. In conducting researches determined the distribution of stresses in the subgrade reinforced geomaterials under static load. The complex of experimental studies allows exploring the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress. Originality. On the basis of the theoretical studies have been regarded the problem of determining the stress-strain state of subgrade reinforced geomaterials by measuring stresses in its application for step loads. Practical value. The practical value was presented by the results of evaluating the effect of reinforcing way for changing the stress-strain state of subgrade.

  17. Assessment of trace element stabilization in soil


    Kumpiene, Jurate


    The thesis deals with the remediation of trace element contaminated soil by the chemical stabilization technique. The objective is to complement the knowledge about possibilities of applying the stabilization either (1) as an alternate soil remediation method to excavation and landfilling or (2) for a pre-treatment of contaminated soil before landfilling. The work is based on two case studies of the stabilization of 1) Cr, Cu, As, and Zn contaminated soil using metallic iron and 2) Pb and Cu ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this work is to identify dependencies and options to strengthen the roadbed and a weak base by grouting piles. Analysis of software package SCAD to assess the effect of the selected option of strengthening the construction of spatial subgrade models. Methodology. In this paper the method of calculation of the soil mass in the software package SCAD is considered, which is a universal accounting system of finite-element analysis of structures and is focused on solving problems of designing buildings and structures rather complex structure. The finite element method is among the most modern and effective methods for the calculation of structures for various purposes. In the simulation, we get a complete picture of the stress-strain state of the study area, as well as the value of the limit load, rainfall, and so on. The spatial model based on the finite element volume, to better address the real characteristics of the soil mass, meets all the geometric characteristics of size and natural subgrade and the top structure the path that has been adopted in Ukraine. Findings. It was found that the most effective option to strengthen the roadbed, when applying grouting piles at the base of the subgrade and body, is to strengthen the five piles. At the same time there is even strengthen the soil mass at the level of 25 … 30% of the entire depth. However, even with the strengthening of the only two piles at the base of the effect of the strengthening of 14.1%. Established equation is linear and describes the decrease in strain. Taking into account the results of the research can be concluded that the consolidation is proportional to the depth with any number of piles. The dependence of the strain on the number of piles adheres to a polynomial function. Strengthening the bases of the subgrade and body depth also occurs in proportion with any number of piles. Originality. Design scheme generation algorithm for the calculation of the

  19. Geophysical Methods for Monitoring Soil Stabilization Processes (United States)

    Soil stabilization involves methods used to turn unconsolidated and unstable soil into a stiffer, consolidated medium that could support engineered structures, alter permeability, change subsurface flow, or immobilize contamination through mineral precipitation. Among the variety...

  20. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Cesar Avanzi


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the aggregate stability of tropical soils under eucalyptus plantation and native vegetation, and assess the relationships between aggregate stability and some soil chemical and physical properties. Argisols, Cambisol, Latosols and Plinthosol within three eucalyptus-cultivated regions, in the states of Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais, Brazil, were studied. For each region, soils under native vegetation were compared to those under minimum tillage with eucalyptus cultivation. The aggregate stability was measured using the high-energy moisture characteristic (HEMC technique, i.e., the moisture release curve at very low suctions. This method compares the resistance of aggregates to slaking on a relative scale from zero to one. Thus, the aggregate stability from different soils and management practices can be directly compared. The aggregate stability ratio was greater than 50% for all soils, which shows that the aggregate stability index is high, both in eucalyptus and native vegetation areas. This suggests that soil management adopted for eucalyptus cultivation does not substantially modify this property. In these soils, the aggregate stability ratio does not show a good relationship with clay or soil organic matter contents. However, soil organic matter shows a positive relationship with clay content and cation exchange capacity.

  1. Stabilization of soil using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.


    The economy in a soil stabilization project depends on the cost of the stabilizing material. Cheaper the stabilizing material, lesser will be the project cost. Specially manufactured geotextiles are successfully being used for soil stabilization, but the cost is higher. In this study, the cuttings of the waste polyethylene shopper bags have been used to stabilize the soil. The polyethylene shopper bags are transformed to cuttings for easy mixing with the soil by conventional methods. The plastic cuttings acted similar to the non-woven geotextile fibers. Different quantities of the shopper bag cuttings were mixed with the soil. The soil was compacted in the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test molds according to the British Standards. CBR values of the soil with varying quantities of the plastic cuttings were determined both for the un-soaked and soaked conditions. The tests showed significant increase in the CBR values of the stabilized soil under un-soaked conditions. However, the improvement in the CBR values under the soaked condition was comparatively lesser than that of the un-soaked condition. This method of stabilization proved economical due to low cost of the waste shopper bags. (author)

  2. Biological soil crusts as soil stabilizers: Chapter 16 (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Buedel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina; Buedel, Burkhard; Belnap, Jayne


    Soil erosion is of particular concern in dryland regions, as the sparse cover of vascular plants results in large interspaces unprotected from the erosive forces of wind and water. Thus, most of these soil surfaces are stabilized by physical or biological soil crusts. However, as drylands are extensively used by humans and their animals, these crusts are often disturbed, compromising their stabilizing abilities. As a result, approximately 17.5% of the global terrestrial lands are currently being degraded by wind and water erosion. All components of biocrusts stabilize soils, including green algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, and bryophytes, and as the biomass of these organisms increases, so does soil stability. In addition, as lichens and bryophytes live atop the soil surface, they provide added protection from raindrop impact that cyanobacteria and fungi, living within the soil, cannot. Much research is still needed to determine the relative ability of individual species and suites of species to stabilize soils. We also need a better understanding of why some individuals or combination of species are better than others, especially as these organisms become more frequently used in restoration efforts.

  3. Stability of pentobarbital in soil. (United States)

    Bagsby, Chasity; Saha, Anita; Goodin, Granville; Siddiqi, Sheeba; Farone, Mary; Farone, Anthony; Kline, Paul C


    Intravenous injection of barbiturates, particularly pentobarbital (5-ethyl-5-pentan-2-yl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,5-trione), is a widely used method to euthanize large animals such as horses. However, one concern with this method is the fate of pentobarbital after the disposal of the carcass. As tissues decompose, pentobarbital may leach into the soil and from there migrate to groundwater. A method using methanol extraction, solid phase concentration, and liquid chromatography (LC/MS) has been developed to measure pentobarbital in soils. Recovery of pentobarbital from soil averaged approximately 85% from different soil types including topsoil, potting soil, sand, stall sweepings, and loam. The method was capable of detecting pentobarbital levels of 0.1 ppm. A calibration curve was constructed with a linear range of 1 ppm to 100 ppm. The limit of quantification was 0.5 ppm. The rate of degradation of pentobarbital in sand, topsoil, and potting soil was measured over a 17-week period. At the end of week 17, approximately 17% of the pentobarbital remained in the sand, 19% remained in the topsoil, and 10% remained in the potting soil. While there was a significant decrease in the pentobarbital recovered from the soil, there were still detectable amounts of pentobarbital present in the soil after 17 weeks. To determine the importance of bacterial degradation, the three soil types were autoclaved before addition of pentobarbital. After autoclaving, no degradation of pentobarbital was observed in sand and one topsoil sample, while there was no difference in the degradation of pentobarbital in autoclaved potting soil versus potting soil that had not undergone autoclaving.

  4. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.


    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... of the most significant parameters involved, such as the flexibility of the sliding system, the mechanical properties of the soil and of the geosynthetics material, the frequency content of the excitation and the interface shear strength....

  5. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement (United States)

    Zambri, Nadhirah Mohd; Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md.


    This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  6. Ballast and Subgrade requirements study : railroad track substructure - design and performance evaluation practices (United States)


    Earth materials--i.e., soil and rock--form the substructure (ballast, subballast, and subgrade) of all railroad track. In this report, the most suitable technology and design criteria as related to design of the substructure are identified based on a...

  7. Stabilization of marly soils with portland cement (United States)

    Piskunov, Maksim; Karzin, Evgeny; Lukina, Valentina; Lukinov, Vitaly; Kholkin, Anatolii


    Stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement will increase the service life of motor roads in areas where marl is used as a local road construction material. The result of the conducted research is the conclusion about the principal possibility of stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement, and about the optimal percentage of the mineral part and the binding agent. When planning the experiment, a simplex-lattice plan was implemented, which makes it possible to obtain a mathematical model for changing the properties of a material in the form of polynomials of incomplete third order. Brands were determined for compressive strength according to GOST 23558-94 and variants of stabilized soils were proposed for road construction.

  8. Rapid Stabilization/Polymerization of Wet Clay Soils; Literature Review (United States)


    Fibre Reinforced Soil." Journal of the Institu- tion of Engineers ( India ), Civil Engineering Division, 83, 135-138. 57. Gow, A. J., Davidson, D. T., and...the Institution of Engineers ( India ) Publication Date: 2002 Purpose of Stabilizer: Stabilizer - Earth Structures Stabilizers Tested: Coir...Purpose of Stabilizer: Stabilizer - Swell potential Stabilizers Tested: Gypsum, lignite , flyash, lime, slime tailings Soil Tested USCS Primary

  9. Method of strengthening and stabilizing compressible soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, L.; Loughney, R.W.


    A method and means are described for stabilizing soil, consisting essentially of spacing holes about an area of the soil which is to be strengthened and stabilized. Each hole has placed therein a pipe which may be of approximately 2 to 4 in. in diam. Each pipe is provided with an expandable member capable of being expanded to a diameter of several feet. After the pipe with the expandable member fixed to it is placed in the hole, sand is placed around it, filling the sapce between the exterior walls of the expandable member and the walls of the hole, thus forming a sand drain. Thereafter the expandable member is put under pressure and expanded against the walls of the hole, placing pressure upon the soil and causing the water to be drained therefrom into the sand drains through which it rises to the surface and many be disposed of. (14 claims)

  10. Evaluation of the base/subgrade soil under repeated loading : phase II, in-box and ALF cyclic plate load tests [tech summary]. (United States)


    The inadequacy of many existing roads due to rapid growth in traffic volume provides a motivation for exploring alternatives to : existing methods of constructing and rehabilitating roads. The use of geosynthetics to stabilize and reinforce paved and...

  11. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Soil Stabilization


    Muhammad Qasim; Aroj Bashir; Mubashar Tanvir; Malik Muhammad Anees


    The soil frequently is fragile and has low stability in heavy loading. The objective of this study is to review the stabilization of soil using sustainable methods. Some strengthening approaches are available for stabilization of expansive soils. These methods consist of stabilization with soil replacement, chemical additives, moisture control, rewetting, surcharge loading, compaction control and thermal methods. The disadvantages may be associated with all these methods due to ineffectivenes...

  12. Evaluation of Resilient Modulus of Subgrade and Base Materials in Indiana and Its Implementation in MEPDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ji


    Full Text Available In order to implement MEPDG hierarchical inputs for unbound and subgrade soil, a database containing subgrade MR, index properties, standard proctor, and laboratory MR for 140 undisturbed roadbed soil samples from six different districts in Indiana was created. The MR data were categorized in accordance with the AASHTO soil classifications and divided into several groups. Based on each group, this study develops statistical analysis and evaluation datasets to validate these models. Stress-based regression models were evaluated using a statistical tool (analysis of variance (ANOVA and Z-test, and pertinent material constants (k1, k2 and k3 were determined for different soil types. The reasonably good correlations of material constants along with MR with routine soil properties were established. Furthermore, FWD tests were conducted on several Indiana highways in different seasons, and laboratory resilient modulus tests were performed on the subgrade soils that were collected from the falling weight deflectometer (FWD test sites. A comparison was made of the resilient moduli obtained from the laboratory resilient modulus tests with those from the FWD tests. Correlations between the laboratory resilient modulus and the FWD modulus were developed and are discussed in this paper.

  13. Synthesize of Emulsion Polymer Latex for Sub-Grade CBR Improvement in The Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keba Moto


    Full Text Available Synthesize of emulsion polymer latex for sub-grade CBR improvement in the road construction. Latex polymer for California Bearing Ratio (CBR enhancement in sub-grade soil of road building has been prepared by emulsion polymerizations technique. The prepared polymer then characterize by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. For application purpose, CBR test was done to the compacted polymer added-soil. The CBR test is done also for both soaked and unsoaked samples. It is found that our latex polymer is better then other imported latex polymer. For the latex polymer, which is design to have Temperatur glass (Tg around 9.8-19.6o, indicating the formation of C=O and -C-O-C- bonds at 1732-1736 cm-1 energy absorption as binder groups. CBR test results show that our latex polymer has CBR value around 15-18 % compare to the soil without polymer binder.

  14. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU


    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  15. Potential of Using Nanocarbons to Stabilize Weak Soils


    Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Taha, Mohd Raihan; Firoozi, Ali Akbar; Govindasamy, Panbarasi


    Soil stabilization, using a variety of stabilizers, is a common method used by engineers and designers to enhance the properties of soil. The use of nanomaterials for soil stabilization is one of the most active research areas that also encompass a number of disciplines, including civil engineering and construction materials. Soils improved by nanomaterials could provide a novel, smart, and eco- and environment-friendly construction material for sustainability. In this case, carbon nanomateri...

  16. Numerical Study on Soil Arching Effects of Stabilizing Piles


    Fan, Fusong; Chen, Guangqi; Hu, Xinli; Wang, Wei


    The Soil arching effect, the transfer of soil pressure from the yielding soil to the piles support, is a phenomena commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering for stabilizing landslides. In this paper, the (finite element method) FEM and (discontinuous deformation analysis) DDA were used to study on the soil arching effects of stabilizing piles in landslides. This paper proposes a method for two dimensional numerical simulation to perform three dimensional soil-pile interaction so that t...


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    SUBGRADE MODELING. Asrat Worku. Department of ... The models give consistently larger stiffness for the Winkler springs as compared to previously proposed similar continuum-based models that ignore the lateral stresses. ...... (ν = 0.25 and E = 40MPa); (b) a medium stiff clay (ν = 0.45 and E = 50MPa). In contrast to this, ...

  18. Soil manganese redox cycling in suboxic zones: Effects on soil carbon stability (United States)

    Suboxic soil environments contain a disproportionately higher concentration of highly reactive free radicals relative to the surrounding soil matrix, which may have significant implications for soil organic matter cycling and stabilization. This study investigated how Mn-ozidizin...

  19. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee


    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  20. Erosion and stability of a mine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.H.; Stadler, A.T.; Low, C.


    Mine soils developed from mine spoils commonly have a wide range of particle size. The slopes of old spoil piles usually are marked by gullies due to years of uncontrolled erosion. These characteristics raise questions about applicability of available theories and models for estimating runoff and erosion. An investigation was made to determine whether available erosion models can work for mine soils and can account for gully erosion. The investigation at an abandoned surface mine consisted of measurement of soil and sediment properties, measurement of runoff and erosion, observations of armor by rock fragments on gully floor, and calculations with available theories of sediment transport and slope stability. The results at this site suggest that (1) predictions with the ANSWERS model have about the same accuracy as those made for agricultural lands; (2) armor provided by rock fragments are temporary as they are periodically removed by debris flows; (3) detachment by rainfall impact is the primary cause of erosion on short steep slopes; and (4) a simplified method can be used for estimating erosion on such slopes

  1. Managing compost stability and amendment to soil to enhance soil heating during soil solarization. (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; Guo, Hongyun; Claypool, Joshua T; Marshall, Megan N; Perano, Kristen M; Stapleton, James J; Vandergheynst, Jean S


    Soil solarization is a method of soil heating used to eradicate plant pathogens and weeds that involves passive solar heating of moist soil mulched (covered) with clear plastic tarp. Various types of organic matter may be incorporated into soil prior to solarization to increase biocidal activity of the treatment process. Microbial activity associated with the decomposition of soil organic matter may increase temperatures during solarization, potentially enhancing solarization efficacy. However, the level of organic matter decomposition (stability) necessary for increasing soil temperature is not well characterized, nor is it known if various amendments render the soil phytotoxic to crops following solarization. Laboratory studies and a field trial were performed to determine heat generation in soil amended with compost during solarization. Respiration was measured in amended soil samples prior to and following solarization as a function of soil depth. Additionally, phytotoxicity was estimated through measurement of germination and early growth of lettuce seedlings in greenhouse assays. Amendment of soil with 10%(g/g) compost containing 16.9 mg CO2/gdry weight organic carbon resulted in soil temperatures that were 2-4 °C higher than soil alone. Approximately 85% of total organic carbon within the amended soil was exhausted during 22 days of solarization. There was no significant difference in residual respiration with soil depth down to 17.4 cm. Although freshly amended soil proved highly inhibitory to lettuce seed germination and seedling growth, phytotoxicity was not detected in solarized amended soil after 22 days of field solarization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Untangling the biological contributions to soil stability in semiarid shrublands (United States)

    Chaudhary, V. Bala; Bowker, Matthew A.; O'Dell, Thomas E.; Grace, James B.; Redman, Andrea E.; Rillig, Matthias C.; Johnson, Nancy C.


    Communities of plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to influence soil stability individually, but their relative contributions, interactions, and combined effects are not well understood, particularly in arid and semiarid ecosystems. In a landscape-scale field study we quantified plant, BSC, and AM fungal communities at 216 locations along a gradient of soil stability levels in southern Utah, USA. We used multivariate modeling to examine the relative influences of plants, BSCs, and AM fungi on surface and subsurface stability in a semiarid shrubland landscape. Models were found to be congruent with the data and explained 35% of the variation in surface stability and 54% of the variation in subsurface stability. The results support several tentative conclusions. While BSCs, plants, and AM fungi all contribute to surface stability, only plants and AM fungi contribute to subsurface stability. In both surface and subsurface models, the strongest contributions to soil stability are made by biological components of the system. Biological soil crust cover was found to have the strongest direct effect on surface soil stability (0.60; controlling for other factors). Surprisingly, AM fungi appeared to influence surface soil stability (0.37), even though they are not generally considered to exist in the top few millimeters of the soil. In the subsurface model, plant cover appeared to have the strongest direct influence on soil stability (0.42); in both models, results indicate that plant cover influences soil stability both directly (controlling for other factors) and indirectly through influences on other organisms. Soil organic matter was not found to have a direct contribution to surface or subsurface stability in this system. The relative influence of AM fungi on soil stability in these semiarid shrublands was similar to that reported for a mesic tallgrass prairie. Estimates of effects that BSCs, plants, and AM fungi have

  3. Aggregate stability and soil degradation in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.


    Aggregate stability is a measure of the structural stability of soils. Factors that influence aggregate stability are important in evaluating the ease with which soils erode by water and/or wind, the potential of soils to crust and/or seal, soil permeability, quasi-steady state infiltration rates and seedling emergence and in predicting the capacity of soils to sustain long-term crop production. Aggregate stability of soils can be measured by the wet-sieving or raindrop techniques. A reduction in soil aggregate stability implies an increase in soil degradation. Hence aggregate stability and soil degradation are interwoven. The measures used can either be preventive or remedial. Preventive practices minimize the chances of soil degradation occurring or the magnitude or severity of the damage when the degradation manifests. These include in Nigeria, (i) manuring and mulching, (ii) planted fallows and cover crops, (iii) sustainable farming systems, (iv) adequate rotations, (v) home gardens or compound farms, (vi) alley cropping and related agro forestry systems, and (vii) chemical fertilizers which are mainly remedial measures. Because of alterations in soil properties that affect particular land uses, soils may degrade for one crop (maize rather sorghum). As long as some land use is possible soil degradation is not always an absolute concept. Decline in agricultural productivity should be evaluated in terms of inputs such as fertilizer use, water management and tillage methods. We can alleviate some types of soil degradation by use of micronutrients, inorganic fertilizers and organic residues. Soil that responds to management practices cannot be said to be degraded. Since crop growth depends on weather, degraded soils may be more sensitive to harsh weather (e.g. drought, temperature) than undegraded soils. A soil is degraded if its productivity falls below the economic threshold even under favourable weather conditions or with judicious inputs. All human

  4. Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 31, 2017 ... lime and cement are the two major additives for the stabilization of soils. The cost of the materials has however ... improving additives like cement, and lime, has made the cost of road construction on stabilized soils huge. Thus .... with sugarcane straw ash. American J. Sci. Ind.Res. (2):323-331. Asiagwu, AK ...

  5. Stabilization of Highway Expansive Soils with High Loss on Ignition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of high loss on ignition content cement kiln dust on the stabilization of highway expansive soils. Laboratory tests were performed on the natural and stabilized soil samples in accordance with BS 1377 (1990) and BS 1924 (1990), respectively. The preliminary investigation ...

  6. Stabilization of expansive soil using bagasse ash & lime | Wubshet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7-5 soil on the AASHTO classification was stabilized using 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 15% bagasse ash in combination with 3% lime by dry weight of the soil. The effect of the additives on the soil was investigated with respect to plastcity, ...

  7. Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Granular Layers Stiffness on Fatigue Life of Hot Mix Asphalts - HMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana


    Full Text Available The mainly factors studied to predict fatigue life of hot mix asphalt-HMA in flexible pavements are the loading effect, type of test, compaction methods, design parameters of HMA (e.g., particle size and size distribution curve, fine content, type of bitumen and the variables associated with the environment (mainly moisture, temperature, aging. This study evaluated through a computer simulation, the influence of the granular layers and subgrade on the fatigue life of asphalt layers in flexible pavement structures. Mechanics parameters of granular layers of subgrade, base and subbase were obtained using the mathematical equations currently used for this purpose in the world. The emphasis of the study was the city of Bogotá, where the average annual temperature is 14°C and soils predominantly clay, generally experience CBR magnitudes between 1% and 4%. General conclusion: stiffness of the granular layers and subgrade significantly affect the fatigue resistance of HMA mixtures. Likewise, the use of different equations reported in reference literature in order to characterize granular layers may vary the fatigue life between 4.6 and 48.5 times, varying the thickness of the pavement layers in the design.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink


    The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

  9. Geometric models for lateritic soil stabilized with cement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Thus this study attempted to investigate into the effects of bagasse ash on compaction and strength characteristics of cement-stabilized lateritic soil and also to develop geometric models. The compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined ...

  10. Calcium Stabilized And Geogrid Reinforced Soil Structures In Seismic Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, Pietro; Intra, Edoardo


    In many areas of Italy, and particularly in high seismic areas, there is no or very little availability of granular soils: hence embankments and retaining structures are often built using the locally available fine soil. For improving the geotechnical characteristics of such soils and/or for building steep faced structures, there are three possible techniques: calcium stabilization, geogrid reinforcement, and the combination of both ones, that is calcium stabilized and reinforced soil. The present paper aims to evaluate these three techniques in terms of performance, design and construction, by carrying out FEM modeling and stability analyses of the same reference embankments, made up of soil improved with each one of the three techniques, both in static and dynamic conditions. Finally two case histories are illustrated, showing the practical application of the above outlined techniques

  11. Formation and Stability of Microbially Derived Soil Organic Matter (United States)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Creamer, C.; Foster, A. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Mcfarland, J. W.; Schulz, M. S.


    Soil carbon is vital to soil health, food security, and climate change mitigation, but the underlying mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of soil carbon are still poorly understood. There has been a conceptual paradigm shift in how soil organic matter is formed which now emphasizes the importance of microbial activity to build stable (i.e. long-lived) and mineral-associated soil organic matter. In this conceptual model, the consumption of plant carbon by microorganisms, followed by subsequent turnover of microbial bodies closely associated with mineral particles, produces a layering of amino acid and lipid residues on the surfaces of soil minerals that remains protected from destabilization by mineral-association and aggregation processes. We tested this new model by examining how isotopically labeled plant and microbial C differ in their fundamental stabilization and destabilization processes on soil minerals through a soil profile. We used a combination of laboratory and field-based approaches to bridge multiple spatial scales, and used soil depth as well as synthetic minerals to create gradients of soil mineralogy. We used Raman microscopy as a tool to probe organic matter association with mineral surfaces, as it allows for the simultaneous quantification and identification of living microbes, carbon, minerals, and isotopes through time. As expected, we found that the type of minerals present had a strong influence on the amount of C retained, but the stabilization of new C critically depends on growth, death, and turnover of microbial cells. Additionally, the destabilization of microbial residue C on mineral surfaces was little affected by flushes of DOC relative to wet-dry cycles alone. We believe this new insight into microbial mechanisms of C stabilization in soils will eventually lead to new avenues for measuring and modeling SOM dynamics in soils, and aid in the management of soil C to mediate global challenges.

  12. Analysis of railway subgrade frost heave deformation based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxun Ma


    Full Text Available In order to analyze the connection between the railway subgrade frost heave deformation and temperature variation, five GPS stations' data were used to monitor the deformation on a certain section of railway subgrade in northeast China. GAMIT software is used to process the data, providing daily solution, daytime solution and nighttime solution. Vertical trends of these five stations were analyzed to investigate frost heave effect on railway subgrade deformation. The results show that the temperature difference between daytime and night induces stations, significant vertical displacement, and the temperature difference between seasons causes settlement of station which appears linear trend.

  13. Behavior of Stabilized Peat Soils in Unconfined Compression Tests


    Wong L. Sing; Roslan Hashim; Faisal H. Ali


    Problem statement: Deep stabilized peat columns were known to be economical at forming foundations to support highway embankments constructed on deep peat land. However, failure in the formation of the columns with adequate strength was often attributed to unsuitable type and insufficient dosage of binder added to the soil. Organic matter in peat was known to impede the cementing process in the soil, thus retarding the early strength gain of stabilized peat. Approach: To evaluate the strength...

  14. Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 31, 2017 ... increase in energy cost since 1970s (Neville, 2000). Much dependence on the use of manufactured soil improving additives like cement, and lime, has made the cost of road construction on stabilized soils huge. Thus, the use of waste materials such as rice husk ash, sawdust ash etc., which are pozzolanic ...

  15. Cement Stabilization of Bama Ridge Soil | Kundiri | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cm high and it is approximately 50-100 m wide and 350 km long. The non-plastic Bama ridge soil stabilized at 7% could be deemed viable as a good base course material for lightly trafficked highway pavement. Keywords: keyword; keyword; keyword. Nigerian Journal of Soil and Environmental Research Vol. 7 2007: pp.

  16. New Technique for Soil Reclamation and Conservation: In Situ Stabilization of Trace Elements in Contaminated Soils


    Negim, Osama


    The accumulation of toxic metals in the soil is mainly inherited from parent materials or inputs through human activities. New techniques are being developed to remediate trace elements in contaminated soils such as phytoremediation and in situ stabilization. In situ stabilization technique is one of the common practices for reducing negative effects of metals and metalloids such as As, Cr, Cu and Zn in contaminated soils by adding amendments. The application of alkaline materials such as bas...

  17. Soil aggregate stability within morphologically diverse areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakšík, O.; Kodešová, R.; Kubiš, A.; Stehlíková, I.; Drábek, O.; Kapička, Aleš


    Roč. 127, April (2015), s. 287-299 ISSN 0341-8162 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1230319 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : soil degradation due to erosion * WSA index * coefficients of vulnerability * magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.612, year: 2015

  18. Thermal stability of soils and detectability of intrinsic soil features (United States)

    Siewert, Christian; Kucerik, Jiri


    Soils are products of long term pedogenesis in ecosystems. They are characterized by a complex network of interactions between organic and inorganic constituents, which influence soil properties and functions. However, the interrelations cannot easily be determined. Our search for unifying principles of soil formation focuses on water binding. This approach was derived from water-dependent soil formation. It considers the importance of water binding in theories about the origin of genes, in the structural arrangement and functionality of proteins, and in the co-evolution of organism species and the biosphere during the history of earth. We used thermogravimetry as a primary experimental technique. It allows a simple determi-nation of bound water together with organic and inorganic components in whole soil samples without a special preparation. The primary goal was to search for fingerprinting patterns using dynamics of thermal mass losses (TML) caused by water vaporization from natural soils, as a reference base for soil changes under land use. 301 soil samples were collected in biosphere reserves, national parks and other areas as-sumingly untouched by human activity in Siberia, North and South America, Antarctica, and in several long term agricultural experiments. The results did not support the traditional data evaluation procedures used in classical differ-ential thermogravimetry. For example, peak positions and amplitudes did not provide useful information. In contrast, using thermal mass losses (TML) in prefixed smaller, e.g. 10 °C temperature intervals allowed the determination of the content of carbon, clay, nitrogen and carbonates with high accuracy. However, this approach was applicable for soils and neither for soil-like carbon containing mineral substrates without pedogenetic origin, nor for plant residues or soils containing ashes, cinder, or charcoal. Therefore, intrinsic soil regulation processes are discussed as a possible factor causing

  19. Induced polarization for characterizing and monitoring soil stabilization processes (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.


    Soil stabilization is critical in addressing engineering problems related to building foundation support, road construction and soil erosion among others. To increase soil strength, the stiffness of the soil is enhanced through injection/precipitation of a chemical agents or minerals. Methods such as cement injection and microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) are commonly applied. Verification of a successful soil stabilization project is often challenging as treatment areas are spatially extensive and invasive sampling is expensive, time consuming and limited to sporadic points at discrete times. The geophysical method, complex conductivity (CC), is sensitive to mineral surface properties, hence a promising method to monitor soil stabilization projects. Previous laboratory work has established the sensitivity of CC on MICP processes. We performed a MICP soil stabilization projects and collected CC data for the duration of the treatment (15 days). Subsurface images show small, but very clear changes, in the area of MICP treatment; the changes observed fully agree with the bio-geochemical monitoring, and previous laboratory experiments. Our results strongly suggest that CC is sensitive to field MICP treatments. Finally, our results show that good quality data alone are not adequate for the correct interpretation of field CC data, at least when the signals are low. Informed data processing routines and the inverse modeling parameters are required to produce optimal results.

  20. [Stabilization and long-term effect of chromium contaminated soil]. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Qi-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Bo; Tan, Liang; Li, Xu


    Short-term (3 d and 28 d) and long-term (1 a) stabilization effects of Cr contaminated soil were investigated through nature curing, using four amendments including ferrous sulfide, ferrous sulfate, zero-valent iron and sodium dithionite. The results indicated that ferrous sulfide and zero-valent iron were not helpful for the stabilization of Cr(VI) when directly used because of their poor solubility and immobility. Ferrous sulfate could effectively and rapidly decrease total leaching Cr and Cr(VI) content. The stabilization effect was further promoted by the generation of iron hydroxides after long-term curing. Sodium dithionite also had positive effect on soil stabilization. Appropriate addition ratio of the two chemicals could help maintain the soil pH in range of 6-8.

  1. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report II. (United States)


    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft sections to investigate several alternative...

  2. Stabilization of Clay Soil Using Tyre Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Dheyab Ahmed


    Full Text Available The planning, designing, construction of excavations and foundations in soft to very soft clay soils are always difficult. They are problematic soil that caused trouble for the structures built on them because of the low shear strength, high water content, and high compressibility. This work investigates the geotechnical behavior of soft clay by using tyre ash material burnt in air. The investigation contains the following tests: physical tests, chemical tests, consolidation test, Compaction tests, shear test, California Bearing Ratio test CBR, and model tests. These tests were done on soil samples prepared from soft clay soil; tyre ash was used in four percentages (2, 4, 6, and 8%. The results of the tests were; The soil samples which gave the value of plasticity test were 2% (25, 4% (25.18, 6% (25.3, and 8% (26.7.The soil samples which gave the value of specific gravity were 2% (2.65, 4% (2.61, 6% (2.5, and 8% (2.36.The value of maximum dry density in a compaction test observed with 2% percentage gave the value 15.8 kN/m3, the 4% gave the value 15.4 kN/m 3 34 , 6% gave 15.3 kN/m 3 and 8%with 15.2 kN/m3 .Samples that gave the values of undrained shear strength test were 2% (55 kN/m 2 , 4% (76 kN/m2 , 6% (109 kN/m 2, and 8% (122 kN/m 2. The best of them is 8%. The sample that gave the best value for swelling test was 8%.The best value for compression index Cc was in 8%.The results of CBR test, were improved in all soil samples. The soil samples which gave the value for CBR were 2% (3.507%, 4% (4.308%, 6% (5.586%, and 8% (9.569%. The best value was obtained from 8%.

  3. Stabilities of ant nests and their adjacent soils (United States)

    Echezona, B. C.; Igwe, C. A.


    Nests habour ants and termites and protect them from harsh environmental conditions. The structural stabilities of nests were studied to ascertain their relative vulnerability to environmental stresses. Arboreal-ant nests were pried from different trees, while epigeous-termite nests were excavated from soil surface within the sample area. Soils without any visible sign of ant or termite activity were also sampled 6 m away from the nests as control. Laboratory analysis result showed that irrespective of the tree hosts, the aggregate stabilities of the ant nests were lower than those of the ground termite, with nests formed on Cola nitida significantly showing lower aggregate stability (19.7%) than other antnest structures. Clay dispersion ratio, moisture content, water stable aggregate class 2.00 mm but path analysis demonstrated that water stable aggregate class <0.25 mm contributed most to the higher aggregate stability of the termite nest than the other nest. Nest aggregates had greater structural stability compared to the control soil. The higher structural stability of termite nests over other nest and soil was considered a better adaptive mechanism against body desiccation.

  4. Iron addition to soil specifically stabilized lignin (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Whendee L. Silver; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Kenneth E. Hammel


    The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical...

  5. Biomimetic Hydrogel Composites for Soil Stabilization and Contaminant Mitigation. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi; Hamdan, Nasser; Shen, Li; Nan, Hanqing; Almajed, Abdullah; Kavazanjian, Edward; He, Ximin


    We have developed a novel method to synthesize a hyper-branched biomimetic hydrogel network across a soil matrix to improve the mechanical strength of the loose soil and simultaneously mitigate potential contamination due to excessive ammonium. This method successfully yielded a hierarchical structure that possesses the water retention, ion absorption, and soil aggregation capabilities of plant root systems in a chemically controllable manner. Inspired by the robust organic-inorganic composites found in many living organisms, we have combined this hydrogel network with a calcite biomineralization process to stabilize soil. Our experiments demonstrate that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) can work synergistically with enzyme-induced carbonate precipitation (EICP) to render a versatile, high-performance soil stabilization method. PAA-enhanced EICP provides multiple benefits including lengthening of water supply time, localization of cementation reactions, reduction of harmful byproduct ammonium, and achievement of ultrahigh soil strength. Soil crusts we have obtained can sustain up to 4.8 × 10 3 kPa pressure, a level comparable to cementitious materials. An ammonium removal rate of 96% has also been achieved. These results demonstrate the potential for hydrogel-assisted EICP to provide effective soil improvement and ammonium mitigation for wind erosion control and other applications.

  6. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad


    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  7. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report. (United States)


    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying : the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field : trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several al...

  8. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report I. (United States)


    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several altern...

  9. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report III. (United States)


    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several altern...

  10. Shear Strength of Stabilized Kaolin Soil Using Liquid Polymer (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Fazlina, M. I. S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Hakimi, M. N. A.; Riduan, Y.; Faizal, P.


    The purpose of this research is to investigate the suitability of polymer in soil stabilization by examining its strength to withstand compressive strength. Throughout this research study, manufactured polymer was used as a chemical liquid soil stabilizer. The liquid polymer was diluted using a proposed dilution factor of 1 : 3 (1 part polymer: 3 parts distilled water) to preserve the workability of the polymer in kaolin mixture. A mold with a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 100 mm was prepared. Kaolin soil was mixed with different percentages of polymer from 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% of the mass of the kaolin clay sample. Kaolin mixtures were tested after a curing period of 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days respectively. The physical properties were determined by conducting a moisture content test and Atterberg limit test which comprise of liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the soil shear strength were identified through an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test. Stabilized kaolin soil showed the highest compressive strength value when it was mixed with 35% of polymer compared to other percentages that marked an increment in strength which are 45.72% (3 days), 67.57% (7 days), 81.73% (14 days) and 77.84% (28 days). Hence, the most effective percentage of liquid polymer which should be used to increase the strength of kaolin soil is 35%.

  11. Stability of titania nanoparticles in soil suspensions and transport in saturated homogeneous soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jing; Shan Xiaoquan; Wen Bei; Lin Jinming; Owens, Gary


    The stability of TiO 2 nanoparticles in soil suspensions and their transport behavior through saturated homogeneous soil columns were studied. The results showed that TiO 2 could remain suspended in soil suspensions even after settling for 10 days. The suspended TiO 2 contents in soil suspensions after 24 h were positively correlated with the dissolved organic carbon and clay content of the soils, but were negatively correlated with ionic strength, pH and zeta potential. In soils containing soil particles of relatively large diameters and lower solution ionic strengths, a significant portion of the TiO 2 (18.8-83.0%) readily passed through the soils columns, while TiO 2 was significantly retained by soils with higher clay contents and salinity. TiO 2 aggregate sizes in the column outflow significantly increased after passing through the soil columns. The estimated transport distances of TiO 2 in some soils ranged from 41.3 to 370 cm, indicating potential environmental risk of TiO 2 nanoparticles to deep soil layers. - TiO 2 nanoparticles could efficiently suspend in soil suspensions and potentially transport to deeper soil layers

  12. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.


    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  13. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.


    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  14. Rapid Soil Stabilization of Soft Clay Soils for Contingency Airfields (United States)


    microfine cement, lime, calcium carbide, sodium silicates, super absorbent polymers, superplasticizers , accelerators, polypropylene fibers, nylon fibers...secondary stabilizers (sodium silicates, superplasticizers , accelerators and absorbent polymers) were all ineffective in strength enhancement of soft clay...polyacrylic acid as well (Karol 2003). 8 2.1.7 Dispersants/ Superplasticizer /Water Reducers Naudts et al. (2002) maintain that dispersants

  15. Friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil after 5 years of biochar application (United States)

    Utomo, Wani; Ganika, Shaory; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Islami, Titiek


    The effect of biochar application on soil friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil was studied at Brawijaya University field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The soil has been planted with cassava for 4 years continuously and 1 year planted with maiz. The biochar applied was made from cassava stem and farm yard manure. It was found that biochar application, either made from cassava stem or farm yard manure improved soil qualities. Soil applied with biochar was more friable compared to that of the no biochar soil, although biochar application did not influence Atterberg limits. It seems that the higher friability of biochar applied soil was associated with the higher soil organic matter. It was found that until 5 years application, the biochar treated soil had a higher soil organic matter content. Soil applied with biochar possessed a better soil aggregate stability, both dry and wet stability. This was shown by the higher aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) of biochar applied soil. The cassava biochar applied soil had MWD of 2.22 mm (dry stability) and 1.56 mm (wet stability), whereas the control soil had MWD of 1.45 mm (dry stability) and 1.25 (wet stability). There was a significant positive correlation between soil friability and dry aggregate stability. The biochar applied soils also had higher soil permeability. Key words: soil qualities, soil physical properties, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity

  16. Interfacial stability of soil covers on lined surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Gates, T.E.


    The factors affecting the interfacial stability of soil covers on geomembranes were examined to determine the maximum stable slopes for soil cover/geomembrane systems. Several instances of instability of soil covers on geomembranes have occurred at tailings ponds, leaving exposed geomembranes with the potential for physical ddamage and possibly chemical and ultraviolet degradation. From an operator's viewpoint, it is desirable to maximize the slope of lined facilities in order to maximize the volume-to-area ratio; however, the likelihood for instability also increases with increasing slope. Frictional data obtained from direct shear tests are compared with stability data obtained using a nine-square-meter (m 2 ) engineering-scale test stand to verify that direct shear test data are valid in slope design calculations. Interfacial frictional data from direct shear tests using high-density polyethylene and a poorly graded sand cover agree within several degrees with the engineering-scale tests. Additional tests with other soils and geomembranes are planned. The instability of soil covers is not always an interfacial problem; soil erosion and limited drainage capacity are additional factors that must be considered in the design of covered slopes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Potential of Using Nanocarbons to Stabilize Weak Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal M. A. Alsharef


    Full Text Available Soil stabilization, using a variety of stabilizers, is a common method used by engineers and designers to enhance the properties of soil. The use of nanomaterials for soil stabilization is one of the most active research areas that also encompass a number of disciplines, including civil engineering and construction materials. Soils improved by nanomaterials could provide a novel, smart, and eco- and environment-friendly construction material for sustainability. In this case, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs have become candidates for numerous applications in civil engineering. The main objective of this paper is to explore improvements in the physical properties of UKM residual soil using small amounts (0.05, 0.075, 0.1, and 0.2% of nanocarbons, that is, carbon nanotube (multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs and carbon nanofibers (CNFs. The parameters investigated in this study include Atterberg’s limits, optimum water content, maximum dry density, specific gravity, pH, and hydraulic conductivity. Nanocarbons increased the pH values from 3.93 to 4.16. Furthermore, the hydraulic conductivity values of the stabilized fine-grained soil samples containing MWCNTs decreased from 2.16E-09 m/s to 9.46E-10 m/s and, in the reinforcement sample by CNFs, the hydraulic conductivity value decreased to 7.44E-10 m/s. Small amount of nanocarbons (MWCNTs and CNFs decreased the optimum moisture content, increased maximum dry density, reduced the plasticity index, and also had a significant effect on its hydraulic conductivity.

  18. Response of soil aggregate stability to storage time of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Roessner, H.


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the well known phenomenon of changing aggregate stability values as result of soil sample storage. In order to evaluate the impact of soil microbial activity, the soil sample was split into three subsamples. Two samples were sterilized by means of chloroform fumigation and gamma irradiation, respectively. However, the aggregate stability measurements at three different dates were not correlated with the microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity). The moisture content of the aggregate samples seems to be of higher significance. Samples with lower moisture content (range: 0.4 to 1.9%) exhibited higher aggregate stabilities. Thus, airdried aggregate samples without further treatment don't seem to be suitable for standardized stability measurements. (authors)

  19. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study in the Danish Road Testing Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman Larsen, Hans Jørgen


    Most existing pavement subgrade criteria are based on the AASHO Road Test, where only one material was tested and for only one climatic condition. To study the validity of these criteria and to refine the criteria a co-operative research program entitled the "International Pavement Subgrade...... Performance Study" was sponsored by the FHWA with American, Finnish and Danish partners. This paper describes the first test series which was carried out in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM).The first step in this program is a full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Testing Machine....... Pressure gauges and strain cells were installed in the upper part of the subgrade, for measuring stresses and strains in all three directions. During and after construction FWD testing was carried out to evaluate the elastic parameters of the materials. These parameters were then used with the theory...

  20. [Study on composite stabilization of arsenic (As) contaminated soil]. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Pan, Li-xiang; Zhang, Xiang-yu; Li, Meng; Song, Bao-hua


    Since the contaminated soil may contain various kinds of heavy metals, use of single chemical reagent leads to poor remediation and high cost. In this study, soil containing As, Zn, Cd was sampled, and different reagents were selected to carry out the rapid stabilization of contaminated soil. The TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) was used to evaluate the leachate toxicity of heavy metals and the results indicated that calcium-containing, sulphur-containing and iron-containing reagents had good performance in reducing the metal mobility. The stabilization efficiency of the six reagents tested ranked in the order of CaO > Na2S > organic sulfur > Chitosan > FeSO4 > (C2H5)2NCS2Na. Two types of reagents (six reagents) were combined based on the target properties of different reagents and the stabilization efficiency was evaluated and analyzed. The results indicated that the composite reagents had higher stabilization efficiency: the efficiency of 3% FeSO4 + 5% CaO was 81.7%, 97.2% and 68.2% for As, Cd and Zn, respectively, and the efficiency of 3% CaO + 5% organic sulfur was 76.6%, 95.7% and 93.8% for these three metals, respectively. Speciation analysis was carried out in this study and the results suggested that it was the change of metals from the exchangeable state to the reduction (for inorganic reagent) or oxidation state (for organic reagent) that caused the soil stabilization and the degree of change determined the stabilization efficiency.

  1. Stability of embankments over cement deep soil mixing columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilla Moar, P.; Melentijevic, S.


    The deep soil mixing (DSM) is one of the ground improvement methods used for the construction of embankments over soft soils. DSM column-supported embankments are constructed over soft soils to accelerate its construction, improve embankment stability, increase bearing capacity and control of total and differential settlements. There are two traditional design methods, the Japanese (rigid columns) and the scandinavian (soft and semi-rigid columns). Based on Laboratory analysis and numerical analysis these traditional approaches have been questioned by several authors due to its overestimation of the embankment stability considering that the most common failures types are not assumed. This paper presents a brief review of traditional design methods for embankments on DSM columns constructed in soft soils, studies carried out determine the most likely failure types of DSM columns, methods to decrease the overestimation when using limit equilibrium methods and numerical analysis methods that permit detect appropriate failure modes in DSM columns. Finally a case study was assessed using both limited equilibrium and finite element methods which confirmed the overestimation in the factors of safety on embankment stability over DSM columns. (Author)

  2. Bioavailability and stability of mercury sulfide in Armuchee (USA) soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Su, Yi; Monts, David L.; Waggoner, Charles A.; Matta, Frank B.


    Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate mercury-contaminated DOE sites. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the ecosystem. We have conducted pilot scale experiments to study the bioavailability of mercury sulfide in an Armuchee (eastern US ) soil. The effects of plants and incubation time on chemical stability and bioavailability of HgS under simulated conditions of the ecosystem have been examined, as has the dynamics of the dissolution of mercury sulfide by various extractants. The results show that mercury sulfide in contaminated Armuchee soil was still to some extent bioavailable to plants. After planting, soil mercury sulfide is more easily dissolved by both 4 M and 12 M nitric acid than pure mercury sulfide reagent. Dissolution kinetics of soil mercury sulfide and pure chemical reagent by nitric acid are different. Mercury release by EDTA from HgS-contaminated soil increased with time of reaction and soil mercury level. Chelating chemicals increase the solubility and bioavailability of mercury in HgS-contaminated soil. (authors)

  3. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils in the Andes (United States)

    Jansen, Boris; Cammeraat, Erik


    The volcanic ash soils of the Andes contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute significant potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Climate and/or land use change potentially have a strong effect on these large SOM stocks. To clarify the role of chemical and physical stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils in the montane tropics, we investigated carbon stocks and stabilization mechanisms in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under forest and grassland (páramo), including a site where vegetation cover changed in the last century. We applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along the transect. In addition, from several soils the molecular composition of SOM was further characterized with depth in the current soil as well as the entire first and the top of the second paleosol using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks in the mineral soil under forest a páramo vegetation were roughly twice as large as global averages for volcanic ash soils, regardless of whether the first 30cm, 100cm or 200cm were considered. We found the carbon stabilization mechanisms involved to be: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity of the soil (Tonneijck et al., 2010; Jansen et al. 2011). When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin in the topsoil while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved in the subsoil (Nierop and Jansen, 2009). Both vegetation

  4. Field soil aggregate stability kit for soil quality and rangeland health evaluations (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Whitford, W.G.; de Soyza, A. G.; Van Zee, J. W.; Havstad, K.M.; Seybold, C.A.; Walton, M.


    Soil aggregate stability is widely recognized as a key indicator of soil quality and rangeland health. However, few standard methods exist for quantifying soil stability in the field. A stability kit is described which can be inexpensively and easily assembled with minimal tools. It permits up to 18 samples to be evaluated in less than 10 min and eliminates the need for transportation, minimizing damage to soil structure. The kit consists of two 21??10.5??3.5 cm plastic boxes divided into eighteen 3.5??3.5 cm sections, eighteen 2.5-cm diameter sieves with 1.5-mm distance openings and a small spatula used for soil sampling. Soil samples are rated on a scale from one to six based on a combination of ocular observations of slaking during the first 5 min following immersion in distilled water, and the percent remaining on a 1.5-mm sieve after five dipping cycles at the end of the 5-min period. A laboratory comparison yielded a correlation between the stability class and percent aggregate stability based on oven dry weight remaining after treatment using a mechanical sieve. We have applied the method in a wide variety of agricultural and natural ecosystems throughout western North America, including northern Mexico, and have found that it is highly sensitive to differences in management and plant community composition. Although the field kit cannot replace the careful laboratory-based measurements of soil aggregate stability, it can clearly provide valuable information when these more intensive procedures are not possible.

  5. Lime stabilization of expansive soil from Sergipe - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Rafaella


    Full Text Available Expansive soils are characterized by volumetric changes caused by variations in moisture. They can cause several damages to civil constructions, especially to lightweight structures, including cracks and fissures. Chemical stabilization through addition of lime is one of the most effective techniques used to treat this type of soil. Due to cationic exchanges, lime can significantly reduce swell potential. This research studied a disturbed sample of expansive soil collected in Nossa Senhora do Socorro – Sergipe, Brazil, through the following laboratory tests: sieve and hydrometer tests, Atterberg Limits, compaction, free swell and swell pressure. All direct and indirect methods mentioned in this paper indicated that the natural soil presented high to very high degree of expansion, which reached approximately 20% of free swell and nearly 200 kPa of swell pressure. In order to evaluate the effect of lime, the same tests were conducted in soil-lime mixtures, using lime contents of 3%, 6% and 9%. The results confirmed the efficiency of lime stabilization. It was noted that, as lime content increased, there was reduction of clay fraction and increment of silt fraction; plasticity index decreased to nearly its half; compaction curve was displaced; and free swell and swell pressure reduced significantly.

  6. Calcium-based stabilizer induced heave in Oklahoma sulfate-bearing soils. (United States)


    The addition of lime stabilizers can create problems in soils containing sulfates. In most cases, lime is mixed with expansive soils rendering them non-expansive; however, when a certain amount of sulfate is present naturally in expansive soils, the ...

  7. Stability and instability on Maya Lowlands tropical hillslope soils (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Cook, Duncan; Krause, Samantha; Doyle, Colin; Eshleman, Sara; Wells, Greta; Dunning, Nicholas; Brennan, Michael L.; Brokaw, Nicholas; Cortes-Rincon, Marisol; Hammond, Gail; Terry, Richard; Trein, Debora; Ward, Sheila


    Substantial lake core and other evidence shows accelerated soil erosion occurred in the Maya Lowlands of Central America over ancient Maya history from 3000 to 1000 years ago. But we have little evidence of the wider network of the sources and sinks of that eroded sediment cascade. This study begins to solve the mystery of missing soil with new research and a synthesis of existing studies of tropical forest soils along slopes in NW Belize. The research aim is to understand soil formation, long-term human impacts on slopes, and slope stability over time, and explore ecological implications. We studied soils on seven slopes in tropical forest areas that have experienced intensive ancient human impacts and those with little ancient impacts. All of our soil catenas, except for one deforested from old growth two years before, contain evidence for about 1000 years of stable, tropical forest cover since Maya abandonment. We characterized the physical, chemical, and taxonomic characteristics of soils at crest-shoulder, backslopes, footslopes, and depression locations, analyzing typical soil parameters, chemical elements, and carbon isotopes (δ13C) in dated and undated sequences. Four footslopes or depressions in areas of high ancient occupation preserved evidence of buried, clay-textured soils covered by coarser sediment dating from the Maya Classic period. Three footslopes from areas with scant evidence of ancient occupation had little discernable deposition. These findings add to a growing corpus of soil toposequences with similar facies changes in footslopes and depressions that date to the Maya period. Using major elemental concentrations across a range of catenas, we derived a measure (Ca + Mg) / (Al + Fe + Mn) of the relative contributions of autochthonous and allochthonous materials and the relative age of soil catenas. We found very low ratios in clearly older, buried soils in footslopes and depressions and on slopes that had not undergone ancient Maya erosion. We

  8. Highly Organic Soil Stabilization by Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Talib Mohd Khaidir


    Full Text Available The study objective is to develop alternative binders that are environment friendly by utilizing sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA in the organic soil stabilization. Together with SCBA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, calcium chloride (CaCl2 and silica sand (K7 were used as additives to stabilize the peat. In obtaining the optimal mix design, specimens of stabilized peat were tested in unconfined compression. It was found that stabilized peat comprising 20% and 5% (PCB1-20 and PCB2-5 partial replacement of OPC with SCBA 1 and SCBA 2 attain the maximum unconfined compressive strength (UCS and discovered greater than UCS of peat-cement (PC specimen. At the optimal mix design, the UCS of the stabilized peat specimens increased with increasing of curing time, preloading rate, OPC and K7 dosage. For PCB1-20 mixture, inclusion of a minimum OPC of 300kg/m3 and K7 of 500kg/m3 along with curing under 20kPa pressure is recommendable for the peat stabilization to be effective. However for PCB2-5, it suggested to use more OPC and K7 dosage or alternatively increase the preloading during curing to 40kPa in order to achieve target UCS. It can be concluded that SCBA 1 has better quality than SCBA 2 in peat stabilization especially the contribution made by its fine particle size.

  9. Soil Stabilization with Lime for the Construction of Forest Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Sérgio Pereira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mechanical performance of soil stabilization using lime to improve forest roads was assessed. This study was conducted with lateritic soil (LVAd30 using lime content of 2% in the municipality of Niquelândia, Goiás state, Brazil. Geotechnical tests of soil characterization, compaction, and mechanical strength were performed applying different compaction efforts and curing periods. The results showed that lime content significantly changed the mechanical performance of natural soil, increasing its mechanical strength and load-carrying capacity. Compaction effort and curing time provided different responses in the unconfined compressive strength (UCS and California Bearing Ratio (CBR tests. The best UCS value (786.59 kPa for the soil-lime mixture was achieved with modified compaction effort and curing time of 28 days. In the CBR test, soil-lime mixtures compacted at intermediate and modified efforts and cured for 28 days were considered for application as subbase material of flexible road pavements, being a promising alternative for use in layers of forest roads.

  10. Microstructure characteristics of cement-stabilized sandy soil using nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asskar Janalizadeh Choobbasti


    Full Text Available An experimental program was conducted to explore the impact of nanosilica on the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of cemented sandy soil. Cement agent included Portland cement type II. Cement content was 6% by weight of the sandy soil. Nanosilica was added in percentages of 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% by weight of cement. Cylindrical samples were prepared with relative density of 80% and optimum water content and cured for 7 d, 28 d and 90 d. Microstructure characteristics of cement-nanosilica-sand mixtures after 90 d of curing have been explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD tests. Effects of curing time on microstructure properties of cemented sandy soil samples with 0% and 8% nanosilica have been investigated using SEM test. Unconfined compression test (for all curing times and compaction test were also performed. The SEM and AFM tests results showed that nanosilica contributes to enhancement of cemented sandy soil through yielding denser, more uniform structure. The XRD test demonstrated that the inclusion of nanosilica in the cemented soil increases the intensity of the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH peak and decreases the intensity of the calcium hydroxide (CH peak. The results showed that adding optimum percentages of nanosilica to cement-stabilized sandy soil enhances its mechanical and microstructure properties.

  11. Winkler's single-parameter subgrade model from the perspective of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tensor are taken into consideration, whereas the shear stresses are intentionally dropped with the purpose of providing a useful perspective, with which Winkler's model and its associated coefficient of subgrade reaction can be viewed. The formulation takes into account the variation of the elasticity modulus with depth.

  12. Testing the effect of a microbial-based soil amendment on aggregate stability and erodibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malozo, Mponda; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    Minimizing soil erosion is essential for maintaining proper soil quality and thus preserving soil productivity. The erodibility of a soil is closely linked to its structural stability as well as its infiltrability. This study focuses on testing the effect of two different soil amendments on soil...... aggregate stability and erodibility. Two commercial products, gypsum and a microbial-based solution were used for the experiment and were tested on two Danish sandy loamy soils as well on a sandy soil from Tanzania. The carrier of the microbial-based product, a glycerol solution, was tested as well....... In the laboratory, soils were treated with the soil amendments in a two-step procedure at controlled water contents following aerobic incubation in closed containers. Water-aggregate stability and clay dispersion were measured on soil aggregates less than 8 mm in diameter. Aggregate stability was measured...

  13. Linking soil permeability and soil aggregate stability with root development: a pots experiment (preliminary results) (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Graf, Frank; Gerber, Werner


    Quantifying and monitoring the contribution of vegetation to the stability of the slopes is a key issue for implementing effective soil bioengineering measures. This topic is being widely investigated both from the hydrological and mechanical point of view. Nevertheless, due to the high variability of the biological components, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the role of plants in slope stabilization, especially if the different succession phases and the temporal development of vegetation is considered. Graf et al., 2014, found within the scope of aggregate stability investigations that the root length per soil volume of alder specimen grown for 20 weeks under laboratory conditions is comparable to the one of 20 years old vegetation in the field. This means that already relatively short time scales can provide meaningful information at least for the first stage of colonization of soil bioengineering measures, which is also the most critical. In the present study we analyzed the effect of root growth on two soil properties critical to evaluate the performance of vegetation in restoring and re-stabilizing slopes: permeability and soil aggregate stability. We set up a laboratory experiment in order to work under controlled conditions and limit as much as possible the natural variability. Alnus incana was selected as the study species as it is widely used in restoration projects in the Alps, also because of its capacity to fix nitrogen and its symbiosis with both ecto and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. After the first month of growth in germination pots, we planted one specimen each in big quasi cylindrical pots of 34 cm diameter and 35 cm height. The pots were filled with the soil fraction smaller than 10 mm coming from an oven dried moraine collected in a subalpine landslide area (Hexenrübi catchment, central Switzerland). The targeted dry unit weight was 16 kN/m3. The plants have been maintained at a daily temperature of 25°C and relative

  14. An alternative soil nailing system for slope stabilization: Akarpiles (United States)

    Lim, Chun-Lan; Chan, Chee-Ming


    This research proposes an innovative solution for slope stabilization with less environmental footprint: AKARPILES. In Malaysia, landslide has become common civil and environmental problems that cause impacts to the economy, safety and environment. Therefore, effective slope stabilization method helps to improve the safety of public and protect the environment. This study focused on stabilizing surfacial slope failure. The idea of AKARPILES was generated from the tree roots system in slope stabilization. After the piles are installed in the slope and intercepting the slip plane, grout was pumped in and discharged through holes on the piles. The grout then filled the pores in the soil with random flow within the slip zone. SKW mixture was used to simulate the soil slope. There were two designs being proposed in this study and the prototypes were produced by a 3D printer. Trial mix of the grout was carried out to obtain the optimum mixing ratio of bentonite: cement: water. A series of tests were conducted on the single-pile-reinforced slope under vertical slope crest loading condition considering different slope gradients and nail designs. Parameters such as ultimate load, failure time and failure strain were recorded and compared. As comparison with the unreinforced slope, both designs of AKARPILES showed better but different performances in the model tests.

  15. Black carbon and organic matter stabilization in soil (United States)

    Lehmann, J.; Liang, B.; Sohi, S.; Gaunt, J.


    Interaction with minerals is key to stabilization of organic matter in soils. Stabilization is commonly perceived to occur due to entrapment in pore spaces, encapsulation within aggregates or interaction with mineral surfaces. Typically only interactions between organic matter and minerals are considered in such a model. Here we demonstrate that black carbon may act very similar to minerals in soil in that it enhances the stabilization of organic matter. Mineralization of added organic matter was slower and incorporation into intra-aggregate fractions more rapid in the presence of black carbon. Added double-labeled organic matter was recovered in fractions with high amounts of black carbon. Synchrotron-based near-edge x-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy coupled to scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) suggested a possible interaction of microorganisms with black carbon surfaces and metabolization of residues. These findings suggest a conceptual model that includes carbon-carbon interactions and by-passing for more rapid stabilization of litter into what is commonly interpreted as stable carbon pools.

  16. Stabilization/Solidification Remediation Method for Contaminated Soil: A Review (United States)

    Tajudin, S. A. A.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Nabila, A. T. A.


    Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) is typically a process that involves a mixing of waste with binders to reduce the volume of contaminant leachability by means of physical and chemical characteristics to convert waste in the environment that goes to landfill or others possibly channels. Stabilization is attempts to reduce the solubility or chemical reactivity of the waste by changing the physical and chemical properties. While, solidification attempt to convert the waste into easily handled solids with low hazardous level. These two processes are often discussed together since they have a similar purpose of improvement than containment of potential pollutants in treated wastes. The primary objective of this review is to investigate the materials used as a binder in Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) method as well as the ability of these binders to remediate the contaminated soils especially by heavy metals.

  17. Soil Organic Matter Stabilization via Mineral Interactions in Forest Soils with Varying Saturation Frequency (United States)

    Possinger, A. R.; Inagaki, T.; Bailey, S. W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.


    Soil carbon (C) interaction with minerals and metals through surface adsorption and co-precipitation processes is important for soil organic C (SOC) stabilization. Co-precipitation (i.e., the incorporation of C as an "impurity" in metal precipitates as they form) may increase the potential quantity of mineral-associated C per unit mineral surface compared to surface adsorption: a potentially important and as yet unaccounted for mechanism of C stabilization in soil. However, chemical, physical, and biological characterization of co-precipitated SOM as such in natural soils is limited, and the relative persistence of co-precipitated C is unknown, particularly under dynamic environmental conditions. To better understand the relationships between SOM stabilization via organometallic co-precipitation and environmental variables, this study compares mineral-SOM characteristics across a forest soil (Spodosol) hydrological gradient with expected differences in co-precipitation of SOM with iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) due to variable saturation frequency. Soils were collected from a steep, well-drained forest soil transect with low, medium, and high frequency of water table intrusion into surface soils (Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Woodstock, NH). Lower saturation frequency soils generally had higher C content, C/Fe, C/Al, and other indicators of co-precipitation interactions resulting from SOM complexation, transport, and precipitation, an important process of Spodosol formation. Preliminary Fe X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) characterization of SOM and metal chemistry in low frequency profiles suggest co-precipitation of SOM in the fine fraction (soils showed greater SOC mineralization per unit soil C for low saturation frequency (i.e., higher co-precipitation) soils; however, increased mineralization may be attributed to non-mineral associated fractions of SOM. Further work to identify the component of SOM contributing to rapid mineralization using 13C

  18. Soil Organic Matter Stability and Soil Carbon Storage with Changes in Land Use Intensity in Uganda (United States)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.


    As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (fractions was dissociated, purified and chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand

  19. Hillslope scale temporal stability of soil water storage in diverse soil layers (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yunqiang


    Knowledge of the soil water storage (SWS) of soil profiles on the scale of a hillslope is important for the optimal management of soil water and revegetation on sloping land in semi-arid areas. This study aimed to investigate the temporal stability of SWS profiles (0-1.0, 1.0-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 m) and to identify representative sites for reliably estimating the mean SWS on two adjacent hillslopes of the Loess Plateau in China. We used two indices: the standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD) and the mean absolute bias error (MABE). We also endeavored to identify any correlations between temporal stability and soil, topography, or properties of the vegetation. The SWS of the soil layers was measured using neutron probes on 15 occasions at 59 locations arranged on two hillslopes (31 and 28 locations for hillslope A (HA) and hillslope B (HB), respectively) from 2009 to 2011. The time-averaged mean SWS for the three layers differed significantly (P management of soil water on sloping land on the Loess Plateau.

  20. Stability Analysis of Methane Hydrate-Bearing Soils Considering Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Iwai


    Full Text Available It is well known that the methane hydrate dissociation process may lead to unstable behavior such as large ground deformations, uncontrollable gas production, etc. A linear instability analysis was performed in order to investigate which variables have a significant effect on the onset of the instability behavior of methane hydrate-bearing soils subjected to dissociation. In the analysis a simplified viscoplastic constitutive equation is used for the soil sediment. The stability analysis shows that the onset of instability of the material system mainly depends on the strain hardening-softening parameter, the degree of strain, and the permeability for water and gas. Then, we conducted a numerical analysis of gas hydrate-bearing soil considering hydrate dissociation in order to investigate the effect of the parameters on the system. The simulation method used in the present study can describe the chemo-thermo-mechanically coupled behaviors such as phase changes from hydrates to water and gas, temperature changes and ground deformation. From the numerical results, we found that basically the larger the permeability for water and gas is, the more stable the simulation results are. These results are consistent with those obtained from the linear stability analysis.

  1. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material (United States)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.


    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  2. REGULATION OF deflationary stability OF Polissya agrolandscapes soil cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barvinskyi A.V.


    Full Text Available In the Ukrainian Polissya soil cover is dominated by sod-podzolic soils, that due tolight particle size distribution and relatively small amount of humus, have weak aggregationand low resistance to deflation processes. Soil deflation here is often in the spring, when arable land have the lowest level of vegetation protection.Drywall southeast winds dry up much upper layers of soil, destroy its structure and cause local deflation, particularly in the areas of drained peat and mineral soils of sandyand sandy-loamygranulometric composition.Display of local deflation on the same land for several years, leading to significant loss of soil. The intensity of these hazards depends largely deflationary stability of the soil, of which the main criterion in the literature defined mechanical strength (cohesion of soil aggregates and main indicator - content in soil aggregates with a diameter greater than 1 mm. Based on experimental data obtained in the Kyiv Polissya proven ability to adjust the deflationarydurability of sod-podzolic sandy-loamy soils by rational combining fertilizer plants and chemical reclamation.Increasing the strength of the structure at the joint application of lime and fertilizers due, based on a close correlation, positive changes in soil absorbing complex caused by calcium of lime and humus content increase and improve its quality composition: accumulationof calcium humates that play a leading role in grouting units. In addition, liming of unsaturated bases soils prevents the destruction and removal of these most valuable in agriculturally parts thereof: silt fraction.When applying lime on organo-mineral background of relative content increased by 8,2-18,4%, and the application of some fertilizers - on the contrary, decreased by 10,2%. Liming of acid soils increases the "grain rate structuring" at 0,3-0,6% compared to organo-mineral background, while the separate application of fertilizers reduces it to 2,1-2,7%. Comparison of

  3. The effect of simulated acid rain on the stabilization of cadmium in contaminated agricultural soils treated with stabilizing agents. (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Wu, Chunfa; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xumei


    Stabilization technology is one of widely used remediation technologies for cadmium (Cd)-contaminated agricultural soils, but stabilized Cd in soil may be activated again when external conditions such as acid rain occurred. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of acid rain on the performance of different stabilizing agents on Cd-polluted agriculture soils. In this study, Cd-contaminated soils were treated with mono-calcium phosphate (MCP), mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), and artificial zeolite (AZ) respectively and incubated 3 months. These treatments were followed by two types of simulated acid rain (sulfuric acid rain and mixed acid rain) with three levels of acidity (pH = 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6). The chemical forms of Cd in the soils were determined by Tessier's sequential extraction procedure, and the leaching toxicities of Cd in the soils were assessed by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results show that the three stabilizing agents could decrease the mobility of Cd in soil to some degree with or without simulated acid rain (SAR) treatment. The stabilization performances followed the order of AZ Acid rain soaking promoted the activation of Cd in stabilized soil, and both anion composition and pH of acid rain were two important factors that influenced the stabilization effect of Cd.

  4. Numerical analysis and comparison of three types of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection (United States)

    Nie, Yihua; Tang, Saiqian; Xu, Yang; Mao, Kunli


    In order to obtain mechanical response distribution of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection and select the best structure type, 3D numerical models of three types herringbone frame structure were established and analyzed in finite element software ANSYS. Indoor physical model of soil slope protected by herringbone frame structure was built and mechanical response of the frame structure was measured by loading tests. Numerical results indicate slope foot is the stress most disadvantageous location. Comparative analysis shows that structure composed of mortar rubble base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for resisting deformation and structure with cement mortar base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for being of low stress.

  5. Plume Mitigation for Mars Terminal Landing: Soil Stabilization Project (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.


    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has led the efforts for lunar and Martian landing site preparation, including excavation, soil stabilization, and plume damage prediction. There has been much discussion of sintering but until our team recently demonstrated it for the lunar case there was little understanding of the serious challenges. Simplistic sintering creates a crumbly, brittle, weak surface unsuitable for a rocket exhaust plume. The goal of this project is to solve those problems and make it possible to land a human class lander on Mars, making terminal landing of humans on Mars possible for the first time.

  6. Plant stimulation of soil microbial community succession: how sequential expression mediates soil carbon stabilization and turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Mary [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    It is now understood that most plant C is utilized or transformed by soil microorganisms en route to stabilization. Hence the composition of microbial communities that mediate decomposition and transformation of root C is critical, as are the metabolic capabilities of these communities. The change in composition and function of the C-transforming microbial communities over time in effect defines the biological component of soil C stabilization. Our research was designed to test 2 general hypotheses; the first two hypotheses are discussed first; H1: Root-exudate interactions with soil microbial populations results in the expression of enzymatic capacities for macromolecular, complex carbon decomposition; and H2: Microbial communities surrounding roots undergo taxonomic succession linked to functional gene activities as roots grow, mature, and decompose in soil. Over the term of the project we made significant progress in 1) quantifying the temporal pattern of root interactions with the soil decomposing community and 2) characterizing the role of root exudates in mediating these interactions.

  7. Phyto stabilization of cadmium contaminated soils by Lupinus uncinatus Schldl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsan, M.; Santamaria-Delgado, K.; Vazquez-Alarcon, A.; Alderete-Chavez, A.; Cruz de la, N.; Jaen-Contreras, D.; Augustine Molumeli, P.


    Phyto remediation offers the benefits of being in situ, low cost and environmentally sustainable. Lupinus species is starting to generate interest for phyto remediation of soils showing intermediate metal pollution. The aim of this study was to explore the accumulating behavior and tolerance of Lupinus uncessant Schldl. towards increasing Cd concentrations in soil. For this purpose the effects of different Cd treatments on plant growth, survival, metal tolerance, Cd accumulation and distribution in various plant organs were investigated. An 18 week pot trial was performed under greenhouse conditions. Cd was added as CdCl 2 .2 1 /2H 2 O at the rate of 0, 3, 6 and 9 mg Cd kg - 1 soil at three different occasions (after 4th, 12th and 15th week of plant growth) with four replicates. The Cd treatments applied, thus, were 9, 18 and 27 mg kg - 1. Cd inhibited plant height and number of leaves and induced a significant change in dry matter yield of roots, stems and leaves. Metal tolerance indices of 88, 82 and 49% were obtained for 9, 18 and 27 mg Cd kg - 1 treatments. The maximal shoot Cd concentration (stem+leaves) of 540 mg Cd kg - 1 dry matter was found at 27 mg Cd kg - 1 treatment. The poor translocation of Cd from roots to shoot was evident from shoot:root ratios <1. The present work is the first report about the growth performance of L. uncinatus under Cd stress, its degree of tolerance and pattern of Cd accumulation in response to varying Cd treatments in soil suggesting the use of L. uncinatus for phyto stabilization and revegetation of Cd polluted soils. (Author)

  8. Co-Relationship between California Bearing Ratio and Index Properties of Jamshoro Soil


    Iqbal, Faisal; Kumar, Aneel; Murtaza, Ali


    International audience; Subgrade is a most important part of a pavement structure, which should have a reasonable stiffness modulus and shear strength. CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test is performed to evaluate stiffness modulus and shear strength of subgrade soils. However, CBR test is laborious and time consuming, particularly when soil is highly plastic like Jamshoro soil. In order to overcome this limitation, it may be appropriate to correlate CBR value of soil with its index properties...

  9. Stabilization of Horseshoe Lake Road using Geofibers and Soil-Sement (United States)


    One solution to reducing the cost of importing gravel in areas where available soils are predominately silts and : sands is to stabilize the local soils with geofibers and synthetic fluids. There have been several studies which : have evaluated impro...


    This project involved the evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology as a BDAT for contaminated soil. Three binding agents were used on four different synthetically contaminated soils. Performance evaluation data included unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the T...

  11. Stability of a novel synthetic amorphous manganese oxide in contrasting soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komárek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Bordas, F.; Mihaljevič, M.; Klementová, Mariana; Šebek, O.


    Roč. 214, FEB (2014), s. 2-9 ISSN 0016-7061 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Amorphous manganese oxide * Stability * Soils * Chemical stabilization * Pollution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2014

  12. Soil Stabilization Methods with Potential for Application at the Nevada National Security Site: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shillito, Rose [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI


    Nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has resulted in large areas of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Much of the radionuclide contamination is found at or near the soil surface, and due to the dry climate setting, and the long half-life of radioactive isotopes, soil erosion poses a long-term health risk at the NNSS. The objective of this literature review is to present a survey of current stabilization methods used for minimizing soil erosion, both by water and wind. The review focuses on in situ uses of fundamental chemical and physical mechanisms for soil stabilization. A basic overview of the physical and chemical properties of soil is also presented to provide a basis for assessing stabilization methods. Some criteria for stabilization evaluation are identified based on previous studies at the NNSS. Although no specific recommendations are presented as no stabilization method, alone or in combination, will be appropriate in all circumstances, discussions of past and current stabilization procedures and specific soil tests that may aid in current or future soil stabilization activities at the NNSS are presented. However, not all Soils Corrective Action Sites (CASs) or Corrective Action Units (CAUs) will require stabilization of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Each Soils CAS or CAU should be evaluated for site-specific conditions to determine if soil stabilization is necessary or practical for a given specific site closure alternative. If stabilization is necessary, then a determination will be made as to which stabilization technique is the most appropriate for that specific site.

  13. [Effects of soil properties on the stabilization process of cadmium in Cd alone and Cd-Pb contaminated soils]. (United States)

    Wu, Man; Xu, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Wu, Hai-Wen


    In order to clarify the effects of soil properties on the stabilization process of the cadmium (Cd) added, 11 different soils were collected and incubated under a moisture content of 65%-70% at 25 degrees C. The changes of available Cd contents with incubation time (in 360 days) in Cd and Cd-Pb contaminated treatments were determined. The stabilization process was simulated using dynamic equations. The results showed that after 1.0 mg x kg(-1) Cd or 500 mg x kg(-1) Pb + 1.0 mg x kg(-1) Cd were added into the soil, the available Cd content decreased rapidly during the first 15 days, and then the decreasing rate slowed down, with an equilibrium content reached after 60 days' incubation. In Cd-Pb contaminated soils, the presence of Pb increased the content of available Cd. The stabilization process of Cd could be well described by the second-order equation and the first order exponential decay; meanwhile, dynamic parameters including equilibrium content and stabilization velocity were used to characterize the stabilization process of Cd. These two key dynamic parameters were significantly affected by soil properties. Correlation analysis and stepwise regression suggested that high pH and high cation exchange capacity (CEC) significantly retarded the availability of Cd. High pH had the paramount effect on the equilibrium content. The stabilization velocity of Cd was influenced by the soil texture. It took shorter time for Cd to get stabilized in sandy soil than in the clay.

  14. Assessment of zerovalent iron for stabilization of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Ore, Solvita; Renella, Giancarlo; Mench, Michel; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian


    Stabilization of soil contaminated with trace elements is a remediation practice that does not reduce the total content of contaminants, but lowers the amounts of mobile and bioavailable fractions. This study evaluated the efficiency of Fe to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of Cr, Cu, As and Zn in a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil using chemical, biochemical and biotoxicity tests. Contaminated soil was stabilized with 1% iron grit. This treatment decreased As and Cr concentrations in leachates (by 98% and 45%, respectively), in soil pore water (by 99% and 94%, respectively) and in plant shoots (by 84% and 95%, respectively). The stabilization technique also restored most of analyzed soil enzyme activities and reduced microbial toxicity, as evaluated by the BioTox TM test. After stabilization, exchangeable and bioaccessible fractions of Cu remained high, causing some residual toxicity in the treated soil. - Zerovalent iron effectively reduces mobility and bioavailability of As and Cr, but does not adequately stabilize Cu

  15. Investigating local controls on soil moisture temporal stability using an inverse modeling approach (United States)

    Bogena, Heye; Qu, Wei; Huisman, Sander; Vereecken, Harry


    A better understanding of the temporal stability of soil moisture and its relation to local and nonlocal controls is a major challenge in modern hydrology. Both local controls, such as soil and vegetation properties, and non-local controls, such as topography and climate variability, affect soil moisture dynamics. Wireless sensor networks are becoming more readily available, which opens up opportunities to investigate spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture with unprecedented resolution. In this study, we employed the wireless sensor network SoilNet developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich to investigate soil moisture variability of a grassland headwater catchment in Western Germany within the framework of the TERENO initiative. In particular, we investigated the effect of soil hydraulic parameters on the temporal stability of soil moisture. For this, the HYDRUS-1D code coupled with a global optimizer (DREAM) was used to inversely estimate Mualem-van Genuchten parameters from soil moisture observations at three depths under natural (transient) boundary conditions for 83 locations in the headwater catchment. On the basis of the optimized parameter sets, we then evaluated to which extent the variability in soil hydraulic conductivity, pore size distribution, air entry suction and soil depth between these 83 locations controlled the temporal stability of soil moisture, which was independently determined from the observed soil moisture data. It was found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was the most significant attribute to explain temporal stability of soil moisture as expressed by the mean relative difference (MRD).

  16. Characteristics of soil stability and carbon sequestration under water storage and drainage model (United States)

    Li, J.; Han, J. C.; Chen, C.; Yang, J. J.


    This research was conducted to investigate the influence of saline alkali soil on soil physical properties, stability and organic carbon storage under water storage and drainage, and to provide scientific basis for improving soil quality in Fuping County of Shaanxi Province, China. Saline alkali soil model test was conducted and the process was assessed with two different methods: i) traditional drainage and ecological water storage, measure and analyze 0-30 cm soil bulk density, porosity, field water capacity, mean mass diameter (MWD), geological mean diameter (GMD), stability of water stable aggregate (WASR), aggregate destruction rate (PAD), fractal dimension (D) and; ii) organic carbon storage, comprehensively analyze the relationship between stability index and soil organic carbon. The results show that: (1) compared with traditional drainage treatment, water treatment may effectively reduce the soil bulk density by 1.3%-4.2%, and improve soil porosity and field capacity at the same time; (2) under dry and wet screen treatment, soil stability, the water storing treatment is higher than the drainage treatment. Performance trend of soil MWD and GMD increases with the increase of soil depth. The stability of soil water stable aggregates increased 14.5%-53.4%. The average aggregate destruction rate was 3.2% lower than that of the drainage treatment and the difference is obvious (Pfractal dimension and soil organic carbon storage. The correlation coefficient is, respectively, R2=0.86 and R2=0.94, and the difference is obvious (P<0.05). To sum up, the water storage treatment can effectively improve the soil quality, improve soil stability and soil organic carbon storage, which can be a good control of saline alkali soil.

  17. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.; Conway, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

  18. Calculation of moisture of soil reserves at the construction of motorway subgrade / Расчет увлажнения грунтовых резервов при сооружении земляного полотна автомобильных дорог


    Aleksikov Sergey Vasilevich / Алексиков Сергей Васильевич; Simonchuk Dmitry Nikolaevich / Симончук Дмитрий Николаевич


    The authors use the method of calculation of moisture of soil reserves at the construction of mo-torway subgrade / Приведена методика расчета увлажнения грунтового резерва при сооружении земляного полотна автомобильных дорог

  19. Soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site (United States)

    Acord, Amy L.; Cohenour, Mark W.; Ephraim, Daniel; Gochoel, Dennis; Roberts, Jefferson G.


    Facilities which are capable of handling frequent arrivals and departures of spaceships between Earth and a lunar colony are necessary. The facility must be able to provide these services with minimal interruption of operational activity within the colony. The major concerns associated with the space traffic are the dust and rock particles that will be kicked up by the rocket exhaust. As a result of the reduced gravitation of the Moon, these particles scatter over large horizontal distances. This flying debris will not only seriously interrupt the routine operations of the colony, but could cause damage to the equipment and facilities surrounding the launch site. An approach to overcome this problem is presented. A proposed design for a lunar take-off/landing mat is presented. This proposal goes beyond dealing with the usual problems of heat and load resistances associated with take-off and landing, by solving the problem of soil stabilization at the site. Through adequate stabilization, the problem of flying debris is eliminated.

  20. Experimental study on the solidification and influence factors of MSW stabilized soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiping


    Full Text Available The effect of kinds and dosage of curing agent on the curing effect and strength characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW stabilized soil is very obvious. In order to reveal these effects, this paper uses cement, fly ash, lime and gypsum as main curing agent and additives to make MSW stabilized soil samples of different components and contents and its strength is obtained using unconfined compressive strength test. The results showed that the curing age, dosage of cement, fly ash, lime and gypsum have effect on the strengths of stabilized MSW soil. The bigger the content of cement and fly ash, the higher the strength of stabilized soil. But the amount of lime and gypsum has a critical value. Within the critical value, the strength of the stabilized soil increases with the increasing of the content of the additives, and decreases with the increase of the additives content if the content of the additives exceeds the critical value. The curing age has much effect on the strength of the stabilized soil. The strength of the samples for 7 days is far less than that for 28 days. This can be explained that: when the curing agent is added into the stabilized soil, the connection among the particles of the MSW soil is changed from weak connection to bond connection, and therefore the strength of the curing MSW soil is improved.

  1. 30 CFR 816.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices. 816.114 Section 816.114 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.114 Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices...

  2. 30 CFR 817.114 - Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing practices. 817.114 Section 817.114 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.114 Revegetation: Mulching and other soil stabilizing...

  3. Plasticity, Swell-Shrink, and Microstructure of Phosphogypsum Admixed Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James


    Full Text Available The study involved utilization of an industrial waste, Phosphogypsum (PG, as an additive to lime stabilization of an expansive soil. Three lime dosages, namely, initial consumption of lime (ICL, optimum lime content (OLC, and less than ICL (LICL, were identified for the soil under study for stabilizing the soil. Along with lime, varying doses of PG were added to the soil for stabilization. The effect of stabilization was studied by performing index tests, namely, liquid limit, plastic limit, shrinkage limit, and free swell test, on pulverized remains of failed unconfined compression test specimens. The samples were also subjected to a microstructural study by means of scanning electron microscope. Addition of PG to lime resulted in improvement in the plasticity and swell-shrink characteristics. The microstructural study revealed the formation of a dense compact mass of stabilized soil.

  4. Evaluation of Some Engineering Properties of Lateritic Soils around Dall Quarry, Sango Area, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Omotosho


    Full Text Available Lateritic soils at the DALL Quarry in Ilorin metropolis (Sango area, southwestern Nigeria were investigated with respect to their geotechnical properties and their suitability as construction materials. The two samples collected fall within the basement complex and they overly the migmatite-gneiss complex rocks. The grain size analyses show that sample ADET 1 is silt-clayey, very gravelly sand while sample ADET 2 is gravelly, silt-clayey sand. Atterberg consistency limit test shows that the soil samples are above the activity (A line in the zone of intermediate plasticity (CL which means that they are inorganic soils. The samples contain inactive clay (activity 0.95 and 0.63 respectively with little or no swelling tendency and therefore good for construction material and this would prohibit foundation failure during foundation settlement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR values indicate that they are good as sub-grade construction materials. The cohesion ranges from 60-1 OOKpa (average=75 Kpa and the angle of internal friction ranges from 31°-35° with an average of 33°. The geotechnical analyses results show that the soils can be used as construction materials. Thus, the soil could support shallow foundation, homogeneous embankments, slope stability and sub-grade materials in road constructions.

  5. Assessment of strength development in stabilized soil with CBR PLUS and silica sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmaeil Mousavi


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential use of a nano polymer stabilizer, namely CBR PLUS for stabilization of soft clay and formulation of an optimal mix design of stabilized soil with CBR PLUS and silica sand. The highway settlements induced by the soft clay are problematic due to serious damages in the form of cracks and deformation. With respect to this, soil compaction and stabilization is regarded as a viable method to treat shallow soft clayey ground for supporting highway embankment. The objectives of this paper are: i to stabilize the compacted soil with CBR PLUS and silica sand in the laboratory; and ii to evaluate the permeability, strength and California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated and stabilized soil specimens. The suitability of stabilized soil was examined on the basis of standard Proctor compaction, CBR, unconfined compression, direct shear, and falling head permeability tests. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the materials was determined using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF test. It was found that the optimal mix design of the stabilized soil is 90% clay, 1% CBR PLUS, 9% silica sand. It is further revealed that, stabilization increases the CBR and unconfined compressive strength of the combinations by almost 6-fold and 1.8-fold respectively. In summary, a notable discovery is that the optimum mix design can be sustainably applied to stabilize the shallow clay without failure.

  6. Proof Rolling of Foundation Soil and Prepared Subgrade During Construction (United States)


    The primary objective of this project is to develop multiple simulation testbeds and transportation models to evaluate the impacts of Connected Vehicle Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) and Active Transportation and Demand Management (ATDM) strateg...

  7. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation - Demonstration Bulletin: In-Situ Soil Stabilization (United States)

    In-situ stabilization technology immobilizes organics and inorganic compounds in wet or dry soils by using reagents (additives) to polymerize with the soils and sludges producing a cement-like mass. Two basic components of this technology are the Geo-Con/DSM Deep Soil Mixing Sy...

  8. Soil aggregate stability and erodibility in different gully sites in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses soil aggregate stability and erodibility in different gully sites in parts of Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria with the aim to provide quantitative information on the variation of some soil properties and their interaction with eroding agents and how this affects soil erosion on the sites. The gullies selected are found ...

  9. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  10. Time-dependent physicochemical characteristics of Malaysian residual soil stabilized with magnesium chloride solution


    Latifi, Nima; Rashid, Ahmad Safuan A.; Ecemiş, Nurhan; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Marto, Aminaton


    The effects of non-traditional additives on the geotechnical properties of tropical soils have been the subject of investigation in recent years. This study investigates the strength development and micro-structural characteristics of tropical residual soil stabilized with magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Unconfined compression strength (UCS) and standard direct shear tests were used to assess the strength and shear properties of the stabilized soil. In addition, the micro-structural char...

  11. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy


    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  12. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates (United States)

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong


    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000–250 μm; 250–53 μm; and soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000–250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture. PMID:26423355

  13. Spatial Analysis of Soil Salinity and Soil Structural Stability in a Semiarid Region of New South Wales, Australia (United States)

    Odeh, Inakwu O. A.; Onus, Alex


    Salt-affected soils are a major threat to agriculture especially in the semiarid regions of the world. The effective management of these soils requires adequate understanding of not only how water and, hence, solutes are transported within the soil, but also how soil salinity and sodicity spatially interact to determine soil structural breakdown. For sustainable agricultural production, information on quantitative soil quality, such as salinity, is required for effective land management and environmental planning. In this study, quantitative methods for mapping indicators of soil structural stability, namely salinity and sodicity, were developed to assess the effect of these primary indicators on soil structural breakdown. The current levels of soil salinity, as measured by electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil/water suspension, soil sodicity, represented by exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and aggregate stability, were assessed. Remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS), and geostatistical techniques—primarily regression-kriging and indicator-kriging—were used to spatially predict the soil sodicity and salinity. The patterns of salinity (EC) and sodicity (ESP > 5%) were identified. The effect of land use on these soil quality indicators was found to be minimal. Co-spatial patterns were elucidated between sodic soils (defined by ESP > 5%) and highly probable mechanically dispersive soils predicted from indicator-kriging of ASWAT scores. It was established that the incorporation of EC with ESP into an objective index, called electrolyte stability index (ESI = ESP/EC), gave a good indication of soil dispersion, although the threshold ESI value below which effective structural breakdown might occur is 0.025, which is twice as small as the expected 0.05. The discrepancies between ESI and ASWAT scores suggest that other soil factors than salinity and sodicity are affecting soil structural breakdown. This calls for further investigation. The study

  14. Biological soil crusts in deserts: A short review of their role in soil fertility, stabilization, and water relations (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne


    Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens dominate most desert soil surfaces as the major component of biological soil crusts (BSC). BSCs contribute to soil fertility in many ways. BSC can increase weathering of parent materials by up to 100 times. Soil surface biota are often sticky, and help retain dust falling on the soil surface; this dust provides many plant-essential nutrients including N, P, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Cu, and Fe. BSCs also provide roughened soil surfaces that slow water runoff and aid in retaining seeds and organic matter. They provide inputs of newly-fixed carbon and nitrogen to soils. They are essential in stabilizing soil surfaces by linking soil particles together with filamentous sheaths, enabling soils to resist both water and wind erosion. These same sheaths are important in keeping soil nutrients from becoming bound into plant-unavailable forms. Experimental disturbances applied in US deserts show soil surface impacts decrease N and C inputs from soil biota by up to 100%. The ability to hold aeolian deposits in place is compromised, and underlying soils are exposed to erosion. While most undisturbed sites show little sediment production, disturbance by vehicles or livestock produces up to 36 times more sediment production, with soil movement initiated at wind velocities well below commonly-occurring wind speeds. Winds across disturbed areas can quickly remove this material from the soil surface, thereby potentially removing much of current and future soil fertility. Thus, reduction in the cover of cyanophytes in desert soils can both reduce fertility inputs and accelerate fertility losses.

  15. Aggregate Stability in Soil with Humic and Histic Horizons in a Toposequence under Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanke

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aggregate stability is one of the most important factors in soil conservation and maintenance of soil environmental functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the aggregate stability mechanisms related to chemical composition of organic matter in soil profiles with humic and histic horizons in a toposequence under Araucaria moist forest in southern Brazil. The soils sampled were classified as Humic Hapludox (highest position, Fluvaquentic Humaquepts (lowest slope position, and Typic Haplosaprists (floodplain. The C and N contents were determined in bulk soil samples. The chemical composition of soil organic matter was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. Aggregate stability was determined by applying increasing levels of ultrasound energy. Carbon content increased from the top of the slope to the alluvial plain. Higher ultrasonic energy values for clay dispersion were observed in the C-rich soils in the lower landscape positions, indicating that organic compounds play an important role in the structural stabilization of these profiles. Both aliphatic and carbohydrate-like structures were pertinent to aggregate stability. In the Oxisol, organo-mineral interaction between carbohydrates and the clay mineral surface was the most important mechanism affecting aggregation. In soils with a higher C content (Humaquepts and Haplosaprists, stabilization is predominantly conferred by the aliphatic groups, which is probably due to the structural protection offered by these hydrophobic organic groups.

  16. In-situ stabilization of mixed waste contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Conner, J.R.


    A full-scale field demonstration was conducted to evaluate in for stabilizing an inactive RCRA land treatment site at a DOE facility in Ohio. Subsurface silt and clay deposits were contaminated principally with up to 500 mg/kg of trichloroethylene and other halocarbons, but also trace to low levels of Pb, Cr, 235 U, and 99 Tc. In situ solidification was studied in three, 3.1 m diameter by 4.6 m deep columns. During mixing, a cement-based grout was injected and any missions from the mixed region were captured in a shroud and treated by filtration and carbon adsorption. During in situ processing, operation and performance parameters were measured, and soil cores were obtained from a solidified column 15 months later. Despite previous site-specific treatability experience, there were difficulties in selecting a grout with the requisite treatment agents amenable to subsurface injection and at a volume adequate for distribution throughout the mixed region while minimizing volume expansion. observations during the demonstration revealed that in situ solidification was rapidly accomplished (e.g., >90 m 3 /d) with limited emissions of volatile organics (i.e., -6 cm/s vs. 10 -8 cm/s). Leaching tests performed on the treated samples revealed non-detectable to acceptably low concentrations of all target contaminants

  17. Changes of Soil Aggregate Stability as a Result of the Effect of Freeze-thaw Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Žabenská


    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to assess the changes in soil erodibility during the non-vegetation period as one of the factors affecting the snowmelt erosion. The temperature fluctuation was simulated with the use of a climatic chamber ex situ. The soil surface was for simplicity reasons considered without any plant or snow cover. The paper deals with the rate of soil erodibility determination – the soil erodibility should increase due to the decrease of soil aggregate stability depending on the number of freeze-thaw cycles and initial soil moisture. Soil samples (taken from three sites were subjected to freeze-thaw cycles under laboratory conditions. Changes in soil agreggate stability were monitored as one of the main soil characteristics which determine the soil erodibility. Two methods were used to determine the soil macroaggregate stability (soil aggregate fraction 1–2 mm: standard single-sieve method of wet sieving (Kemper and Rosenau, 1986, and dry aggregate analysis using a set of flat sieves with a diameter of 1 mm and 0.5 mm. The results of each method are controversial. Intended hypothesis has not been clearly confirmed.

  18. Changes in land use alter soil quality and aggregate stability in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. (United States)

    Delelegn, Yoseph T; Purahong, Witoon; Blazevic, Amila; Yitaferu, Birru; Wubet, Tesfaye; Göransson, Hans; Godbold, Douglas L


    Land use change alters biodiversity and soil quality and thus affects ecosystem functions. This study investigated the effects of changes in land use on major soil quality indicators. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10 cm (top soil) under four major land uses (cropland, grassland, area exclosure, eucalyptus plantation) with similar land use change histories for analysis, and soil from a nearby natural forest was used as a reference. Land use change from natural forest to cropland and grassland significantly decreased major soil quality indicators such as soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), molybdate-reactive bicarbonate-extractable P, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore density, but compared to the cropland, change to area exclosure and eucalyptus plantation significantly improved SOC, TSN and soil aggregate stability (SAS). In addition, we assessed the correlation among indicators and found that SOC, TSN and SAS significantly correlate with many other soil quality indicators. The study highlights that the conversion of natural forest to cropland results in decline of soil quality and aggregate stability. However, compared to cropland, application of area exclosure and afforestation on degraded lands restores soil quality and aggregate stability.

  19. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.


    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper assesses the stabilizing effect of powdered glass on clay soil. Broken waste glass was collected and ground into powder form suitable for addition to the clay soil in varying proportions namely 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% along with 15% cement (base by weight of the soil sample throughout. Consequently, the moisture content, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests were carried out to classify the soil using the ASSHTO classification system. Based on the results, the soil sample obtained corresponded to Group A-6 soils identified as ‘fair to poor’ soil type in terms of use as drainage and subgrade material. This justified stabilisation of the soil. Thereafter, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR and direct shear tests were carried out on the soil with and without the addition of the powdered glass. The results showed improvement in the maximum dry density values on addition of the powdered glass and with corresponding gradual increase up to 5% glass powder content after which it started to decrease at 10% and 15% powdered glass content. The highest CBR values of 14.90% and 112.91% were obtained at 5% glass powder content and 5mm penetration for both the unsoaked and soaked treated samples respectively. The maximum cohesion and angle of internal friction values of 17.0 and 15.0 respectively were obtained at 10% glass powder content.

  1. Improvement of Base and Soil Construction Quality by Using Intelligent Compaction Technology : Final Report. (United States)


    Intelligent Compaction (IC) technique is a fast-developing technology for base and soil compaction quality control. Proof-rolling subgrades and bases using IC rollers upon completion of compaction can identify the less stiff spots and significantly i...

  2. Drying shrinkage problems in high-plastic clay soils in Oklahoma. (United States)


    Longitudinal cracking in pavements due to drying shrinkage of high-plastic subgrade soils has been a major : problem in Oklahoma. Annual maintenance to seal and repair these distress problems costs significant amount of : money to the state. The long...

  3. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples ... MHA as partial replacement of cement will provide an economic use of by-product and consequently produce a cheaper soil block ...

  4. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism]. (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua


    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  5. Factors controlling soil organic carbon stability along a temperate forest altitudinal gradient (United States)

    Tian, Qiuxiang; He, Hongbo; Cheng, Weixin; Bai, Zhen; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xudong


    Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stability may alter carbon release from the soil and, consequently, atmospheric CO2 concentration. The mean annual temperature (MAT) can change the soil physico-chemical characteristics and alter the quality and quantity of litter input into the soil that regulate SOC stability. However, the relationship between climate and SOC stability remains unclear. A 500-day incubation experiment was carried out on soils from an 11 °C-gradient mountainous system on Changbai Mountain in northeast China. Soil respiration during the incubation fitted well to a three-pool (labile, intermediate and stable) SOC decomposition model. A correlation analysis revealed that the MAT only influenced the labile carbon pool size and not the SOC stability. The intermediate carbon pool contributed dominantly to cumulative carbon release. The size of the intermediate pool was strongly related to the percentage of sand particle. The decomposition rate of the intermediate pool was negatively related to soil nitrogen availability. Because both soil texture and nitrogen availability are temperature independent, the stability of SOC was not associated with the MAT, but was heavily influenced by the intrinsic processes of SOC formation and the nutrient status. PMID:26733344

  6. Studies on Soil Cements: 1 - Role of Hydrated Lime and Dolomitic Monohydrate in Montmorillonite Stabilization


    Abo El Enein, A. [صلاح عبد الغني ابو العينين


    Montmorillonite clay was stabilized by either hydrated lime or the dolomitic monohydrate (Ca(OH)2. MgO) during suspension hydration at 25 and 60°C for 45 days. The distinct phases produced from the hydration of each stabilized clay suspension were identified by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. The role of either Ca(OH)2 and/or MgO in soil stabilization could be clearly understood in order to extend the use of portland cement for the stabilization of montmorillonite to produce soil cements...

  7. Structure stability and water retention near saturation characteristics as affected by soil texture, and polyacrylamide concentration (United States)

    Mamedov, Amrakh I.; Ekberli, Imanverdi A.; Ozturk, Hasan S.; Wagner, Larry E.; Norton, Darrell L.; Levy, Guy J.


    Studying the effects of soil properties and amendment application on soil structure stability is important for the development of effective soil management and conservation practices for sustaining semi-arid soil and water quality under climate change scenarios. Two sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil texture and soil amendment polyacrylamide (PAM) rate on soil structural stability expressed in terms of near saturation soil water retention and aggregate stability using the high energy (0-5 J kg-1) moisture characteristic (HEMC) method. Contribution of (i) soil type were assessed using 30 soil samples varying in texture from sandy to clay taken from long term cultivated lands, covering a range of crop and land management practices, and (ii) anionic PAM concentration (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 & 200 mg l-1) were tested on selected loam and clay soils. The water retention curves of slow and fast wetted soil samples were characterized by a modified van Genuchten (1980) model that provides (i) model parameters α and n, which represent the location of the inflection point and the steepness of the S-shaped water retention curves, and (ii) a composite soil structure index (SI =VDP/MS; VDP-volume of drainable pores, MS-modal suction). The studied treatments had, generally, considerable effects on the shape of the water retention curves (α and n). Soil type, PAM concentration and their interaction had significantly effects on the stability indices (SI, VDP and MS) and the model parameters (α and n). The SI and α increased, and ndecreased exponentially with the increase in soil clay content and PAM concentration, but the shape of curves were soil texture and management dependent, since predominant changes were observed in the various range of studied macropores (pore size > 60 μm). An exponential type of relationship existed between SI and α and n. Effect of PAM contribution and wetting condition was more pronounced in the loam soil at low PAM

  8. Soil Communities Promote Temporal Stability and Species Asynchrony in Experimental Grassland Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pellkofer

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades many studies have demonstrated that plant species diversity promotes primary productivity and stability in grassland ecosystems. Additionally, soil community characteristics have also been shown to influence the productivity and composition of plant communities, yet little is known about whether soil communities also play a role in stabilizing the productivity of an ecosystem.Here we use microcosms to assess the effects of the presence of soil communities on plant community dynamics and stability over a one-year time span. Microcosms were filled with sterilized soil and inoculated with either unaltered field soil or field soil sterilized to eliminate the naturally occurring soil biota. Eliminating the naturally occurring soil biota not only resulted in lower plant productivity, and reduced plant species diversity, and evenness, but also destabilized the net aboveground productivity of the plant communities over time, which was largely driven by changes in abundance of the dominant grass Lolium perenne. In contrast, the grass and legumes contributed more to net aboveground productivity of the plant communities in microcosms where soil biota had been inoculated. Additionally, the forbs exhibited compensatory dynamics with grasses and legumes, thus lowering temporal variation in productivity in microcosms that received the unaltered soil inocula. Overall, asynchrony among plant species was higher in microcosms where an unaltered soil community had been inoculated, which lead to higher temporal stability in community productivity.Our results suggest that soil communities increase plant species asynchrony and stabilize plant community productivity by equalizing the performance among competing plant species through potential antagonistic and facilitative effects on individual plant species.

  9. Evaluating Use of Sub-Grade Drains with PFC for Stormwater Drainage : final report. (United States)


    The overarching objective of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporated subgrade drain (usually called underdrain) in the permeable friction course (PFC) pavement to facilitate drainage of stormwater within and on the pavemen...

  10. Experimental Study of Estimating the Subgrade Reaction Modulus on Jointed Rock Foundations (United States)

    Lee, Jaehwan; Jeong, Sangseom


    The subgrade reaction modulus for rock foundations under axial loading is investigated by model footing tests. This study focuses on quantifying a new subgrade reaction modulus by considering rock discontinuities. A series of model-scale footing tests are performed to investigate the effects of the unconfined compressive strength, discontinuity spacing and inclination of the rock joint. Based on the experimental results, it is observed that the subgrade reaction modulus of the rock with discontinuities decreases by up to approximately 60 % of intact rock. In addition, it is found that the modulus of subgrade reaction is proportional to the discontinuity spacing, and it decreases gradually within the range of 0°-30° and tends to increase within the range of 30°-90°.


    The USEPA's NRMRL conducted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. Formulations developed during these studies wer...

  12. Rapid stabilization of thawing soils For enhanced vehicle mobility: a field demonstration project (United States)


    Thawing soil presents a formidable challenge for vehicle operations cross-country and on unsurfaced roads. To mitigate the problem, a variety of stabilization techniques were evaluated for their suitability for rapid employment to enhance military ve...

  13. Computer aided modeling of soil mix designs to predict characteristics and properties of stabilized road bases. (United States)


    "Considerable data exists for soils that were tested and documented, both for native properties and : properties with pozzolan stabilization. While the data exists there was no database for the Nebraska : Department of Roads to retrieve this data for...

  14. Fiber Reinforcement for Rapid Stabilization of Soft Clay Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafalko, Susan D; Brandon, Thomas L; Filz, George M; Mitchell, James K


    .... Over the past 60 years, cement and lime have been the most effective stabilizers for road and airfield applications, although recent developments show promise from nontraditional stabilizers, such as reinforcing fibers...

  15. Clay stabilization by using gypsum and paddy husk ash with reference to UCT and CBR value (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Hastuty, I. P.; Dianty, W. O.


    Clays that have low shear strength need to be stabilized in order to meet the technical requirements to serve as a subgrade material. One of the usual soil stabilization methods is by adding chemicals such as Portland cement, lime, and bitumen. The clay stabilization research was done by adding gypsum and paddy husk ash. The research goals were to find out the value of engineering properties of clay due to the addition of 2% gypsum and 2% - 15% paddy husk ash. The soil was classified as Clay - Low Plasticity (CL) based on USCS and was classified as A-7-6 (10) based on AASHTO classification system. The UCT value of original soil was 1.41 kg/cm2. While the CBR soaked and unsoaked values of original soil were 4.41% and 6.23% respectively. The research results showed the addition of paddy husk ash decreased the value of unconfined compressive strength as well as CBR. The stabilized soil by 2% gypsum and 0% paddy husk ash gave maximum UCT value of 1.67 kg/cm2, while the maximum value of CBR were found 6.71% for CBR soaked and 8.00% for CBR unsoaked. The addition of paddy husk ash did not alter the soil classification according to AASHTO or USCS, even degrade the engineering properties of original soil.

  16. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  17. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence. (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist.

  18. Stability of aggregates of some weathered soils in south-eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    *According to Soil Survey Staff (1999), S = sand, SCL = sandy clay loam, SL = sandy loam, CL = clay loam, C = clay,. SC = sandy clay. Two textures in the same location means ..... Principal component analysis of aggregate stability indices after varimax rotation using. MWDw component. Components. Soil properties. 1. 2. 3.

  19. Stabilization techniques for reactive aggregate in soil-cement base course : technical summary. (United States)


    The objectives of this research are 1) to identify the mineralogical properties of soil-cement bases which have heaved or can potentially heave, 2) to simulate expansion of cement-stabilized soil in the laboratory, 3) to correlate expansion with the ...

  20. Is it real or apparent increased aggregate stability sometimes found in burned soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arcenegui


    Full Text Available The increase in soil aggregate stability observed in many cases after burning is discussed in this paper. Soil samples under pine forest from two Mediterranean areas were collected for this experiment: acid soils from El Algibe Range (Los Alcornocales Natural Park, Cádiz, Southern Spain and calcareous soils of Sierra de la Grana (Alicante, Eastern Spain. In each case, soil aggregates (2 to 0.25 mm were selected and exposed to temperatures of 200, 250, 300, 500 and 700 oC during a 20-minutes period. In both cases weight loss after volatilization of substances and a significant destruction of aggregates with increasing temperature were observed. For acid soils, where organic matter is the main cementing agent, destruction of aggregates with temperature was more intense. Water repellency induced by combustion increased between 200 and 250 oC, also the remaining aggregates remaining increased within the initial size fraction after heating, increasing its stability. For temperatures above 300 oC, water repellency disappeared, although an increase in aggregate stability was observed, possibly due to changes in the mineral soil fraction. Therefore, it is concluded that burning may destroy part of the aggregates by combustion of organic matter, so selecting stable aggregates. Water repellency and transformations of soil minerals contribute to increased stability in selected aggregates.

  1. Influence of Soil Humic and Fulvic Acid on the Activity and Stability of Lysozyme and Urease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yan; Tan, WenFeng; Koopal, Luuk K.; Wang, MingXia; Liu, Fan; Norde, Willem


    Humic substances (HS), including humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), are important components of soil systems. HS form strong complexes with oppositely charged proteins, which will lead to changes in the enzyme activity. The effect of soil HS on the activity and stability of two enzymes was

  2. Influence of soil humic and fulvic acid on the activity and stability of lysozyme and urease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.; Wang, M.; Liu, Fan; Norde, W.


    Humic substances (HS), including humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), are important components of soil systems. HS form strong complexes with oppositely charged proteins, which will lead to changes in the enzyme activity. The effect of soil HS on the activity and stability of two enzymes was

  3. Statistical Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient For Horizontally Loaded Piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Yusuke; Zaika, Yulvi; Pokharel, Gyaneswor


    Appropriate horizontal subgrade reaction (k h ) is required to evaluate stress and displacement in horizontal loading pile. In order to obtain more accurate prediction of pile behavior, statistical analysis is employed. Based on 21 data set gathered on horizontal loading piles, inverse analysis and regression analysis are carried out. The main value and uncertainty are obtained by inverse analysis, could be employed in the regression analysis. The relationship between the lateral resistant constant (k c ) and SPT N value takes into account in correlated and uncorrelated condition. The results are compared with Port and Harbor Technical Research Institute (JPHA, 1999) and Japan Highway Bridge Specification IV (JRA, 1996). The computed values are found to be very close to the JPHA line and within the range of JRA lines in diameter 0.5 m and 2 m

  4. Cohesive Soil Stabilized Using Sewage Sludge Ash/Cement and Nano Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Lin Luo


    Full Text Available In order to improve soft soil strength, a mixture of incinerated sewage sludge ash (SSA and cement was applied as a soil stabilizer. The intended mix ratio for SSA and cement was 3:1. A-6 clay was selected as the untreated soil. In this study, 15% of clay soil was replaced by SSA/cement to produce the treated soil specimens. Then, four different volumes, namely 0, 1, 2, and 3%, of nano-Al2O3 were mixed with the treated soil as an additive. Tests such as compaction, pH values, Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, swell potential, California bearing ratio (CBR, and permeability were performed. The results indicate that both UCSs and CBR values of untreated soil were greatly improved by the use of 15% SSA/cement. Moreover, a 1% addition of nano-Al2O3 enhanced the treated soil in terms of both UCS and CBR values. Furthermore, the swell potential was effectively reduced by the use of 15% SSA/cement as compared with untreated soil and the 1% nano-Al2O3 additive fraction offered the best performance. From this study, we conclude that 15% of SSA/cement replacement could effectively stabilize A-6 clay soil, and 1% of nano-Al2O3 additive may be the optimum amount to add to the soil.

  5. Biological soil crusts exhibit a dynamic response to seasonal rain and release from grazing with implications for soil stability (United States)

    Jimenez, Aguilar A.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Belnap, J.; Smart, D.R.; Arredondo, Moreno J.T.


    In Northern Mexico, long-term grazing has substantially degraded semiarid landscapes. In semiarid systems, ecological and hydrological processes are strongly coupled by patchy plant distribution and biological soil crust (BSC) cover in plant-free interspaces. In this study, we asked: 1) how responsive are BSC cover/composition to a drying/wetting cycle and two-year grazing removal, and 2) what are the implications for soil erosion? We characterized BSC morphotypes and their influence on soil stability under grazed/non-grazed conditions during a dry and wet season. Light- and dark-colored cyanobacteria were dominant at the plant tussock and community level. Cover changes in these two groups differed after a rainy season and in response to grazing removal. Lichens with continuous thalli were more vulnerable to grazing than those with semi-continuous/discontinuous thalli after the dry season. Microsites around tussocks facilitated BSC colonization compared to interspaces. Lichen and cyanobacteria morphotypes differentially enhanced resistance to soil erosion; consequently, surface soil stability depends on the spatial distribution of BSC morphotypes, suggesting soil stability may be as dynamic as changes in the type of BSC cover. Longer-term spatially detailed studies are necessary to elicit spatiotemporal dynamics of BSC communities and their functional role in biotically and abiotically variable environments. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effect of adding natural pozzolana on geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref al-Swaidani


    Full Text Available Clayey soils in Syria cover a total area of more than 20,000 km2 of the country, most of which are located in the southwestern region. In many places of the country, the clayey soils caused severe damage to infrastructures. Extensive studies have been carried out on the stabilization of clayey soils using lime. Syria is rich in both lime and natural pozzolana. However, few works have been conducted to investigate the influence of adding natural pozzolana on the geotechnical properties of lime-treated clayey soils. The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of adding natural pozzolana on some geotechnical properties of lime-stabilized clayey soils. Natural pozzolana and lime are added to soil within the range of 0%–20% and 0%–8%, respectively. Consistency, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR and linear shrinkage properties are particularly investigated. The test results show that the investigated properties of lime-treated clayey soils can be considerably enhanced when the natural pozzolana is added as a stabilizing agent. Analysis results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX show significant changes in the microstructure of the treated clayey soil. A better flocculation of clayey particles and further formation of cementing materials in the natural pozzolana-lime-treated clayey soil are clearly observed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design criteria of a soil-cement mixture requires attainment of a mmimum unconfined compressive strength va11 e of 1.4 MPa. In this 1tudy a silty soil of known physical properties is mixed with different per- centages of portland cement and the engineering proper- ties of the mixture are closely inveltigated in the labora-.

  8. Cement stabilization of the Central Rift Valley soils in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design criteria of a soil-cement mixture requires attainment of a mmimum unconfined compressive strength va11 e of 1.4 MPa. In this 1tudy a silty soil of known physical properties is mixed with different percentages of portland cement and the engineering properties of the mixture are closely inveltigated in the laboratory ...

  9. Geotechnical properties of clayey soil stabilized with cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the different effects of cement-sawdust ash and cement on a clayey soil sampled from Mandate Lodge, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Nigeria. The binder mix of cementsawdust ash (CSDA) was mixed in a ratio of 1:1. The CSDA and cement were added to the soil samples at ...

  10. the potential of alginic acid and polygal for soil stabilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 1985 ... ped-size and structure also reflect in the liquid and plastic limits of the soil. Such a change can be caused by mixing the soil with an additive. [8,9) such as the alginic acid and polygal and the results of such an investigation are reported in this paper. Atterberg limits, compaction and strength properties are ...

  11. Mechanical properties of millet husk ash bitumen stabilized soil block

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, ...

  12. Experimental characterization of clay soils behavior stabilized by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we propose to use both PVC and HDPE polymers such additions in cohesive soils to determine their influence on the physical and mechanical properties of soil-polymer material in function of time, which should insure some optimal period of life. For this purpose, different tests including Atterberg Limits, ...

  13. Anaerobic microsites have an unaccounted role in soil carbon stabilization. (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Wanzek, Tom; Kleber, Markus; Nico, Peter; Fendorf, Scott


    Soils represent the largest carbon reservoir within terrestrial ecosystems. The mechanisms controlling the amount of carbon stored and its feedback to the climate system, however, remain poorly resolved. Global carbon models assume that carbon cycling in upland soils is entirely driven by aerobic respiration; the impact of anaerobic microsites prevalent even within well-drained soils is missed within this conception. Here, we show that anaerobic microsites are important regulators of soil carbon persistence, shifting microbial metabolism to less efficient anaerobic respiration, and selectively protecting otherwise bioavailable, reduced organic compounds such as lipids and waxes from decomposition. Further, shifting from anaerobic to aerobic conditions leads to a 10-fold increase in volume-specific mineralization rate, illustrating the sensitivity of anaerobically protected carbon to disturbance. The vulnerability of anaerobically protected carbon to future climate or land use change thus constitutes a yet unrecognized soil carbon-climate feedback that should be incorporated into terrestrial ecosystem models.

  14. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies (United States)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.


    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  15. [Impact of land use type on stability and organic carbon of soil aggregates in Jinyun Mountain]. (United States)

    Li, Jian-Lin; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju


    Soil aggregates have the important effect on soil fertility, soil quality and the sustainable utilization of soil, and they are the mass bases of water and fertilizer retention ability of soil and the supply or release of soil nutrients. In this paper, in order to study the impact of land use type on stability and organic carbon of soil aggregates in Jinyun Mountain, we separated four land use types of soil, which are woodland, abandoned land, orchard and sloping farmland by wet sieving method, then we got the proportion of large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0.25-2 mm), microaggregates (53 μm-0.25 mm) and silt + clay (soil depth of 0-60 cm and calculated the total content of organic carbon of all aggregates fraction in each soil. The results showed that reclamation of woodland will lead to fragmentation of macroaggregates and deterioration of soil structure, and the proportion of macroaggrgates (> 0.25 mm) were 44.62% and 32.28% respectively in the soils of orchard and sloping farmland, which reduced 38.58% (P soil fraction from silt + clay to large macroaggregates and small macroaggregates, so it will improve the soil structure. MWD (mean weight diameter) and GMD (geometric mean diameter) are important indicators of evaluating the stability of soil aggregates. We found the MWD and GWD in soil depth of 0-60 cm in orchards and sloping farmland were significantly lower than those in woodland (P will lead to the decrease of stability of soil aggregates, and they will be separated more easily by water. However, after changing the sloping farmland to abandoned land will enhance the stability of soil aggregates, and improve the ability of soil to resist external damage. The organic carbon content in each soil aggregate of four land use types decreased with the increase of soil depth. In soil depth of 0-60 cm, the storage of organic carbon of large macroaggregates in each soil are in orders of woodland (14.98 Mg x hm(-2)) > abandoned land (8.71 Mg x

  16. Monitoring fire impacts in soil water repellency and structure stability during 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Gordillo-Rivero


    Full Text Available Wildfires induce a series of soil changes affecting their physical and chemical properties and the hydrological and erosive response. Two of the properties that are commonly affected by burning are soil water repellency and structural stability. This paper carries out the study and monitoring of water repellency and soil structural stability during a period of 6 years after fire in calcareous soils of southern Spain in different aggregate size fractions (<2, 1-2, 0.5-1 and 0.25-0.5 mm. During this time, it was observed that both properties showed different tendencies in different aggregate size fractions. It was observed that water repellency increased after fire especially in the finer fractions (0.25-0.5 mm. Structural stability increased significantly after the fire and was progressively reduced during the experimental period.

  17. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas


    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil.

  18. Water stability of soil aggregates in different systems of Chernozem tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Bartlová


    Full Text Available Effects of various agrotechnical measures on macrostructural changes in the ploughing layer and subsoil were studied within the period of 2008–2010. Soil macrostructure was evaluated on the base of water stability of soil aggregates. Altogether three variants of soil tillage were established, viz. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1, deep soil loosening to the depth of 0.35–0.40 m (Variant 2, and shallow tillage to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 3. Experiments were established on a field with Modal Chernozem in the locality Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou (maize-growing region, altitude of 210 m, average annual sum of precipitation 461 mm. In the first experimental year, winter rape was the cultivated crop and it was followed by winter wheat, maize and spring wheat in subsequent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different methods of tillage on water stability of soil aggregates and on yields of individual crops. An overall analysis of results revealed a positive effect of cultivation without ploughing on water stability of soil aggregates. In the variant with ploughing was found out a statistically significant decrease of this stability. At the same time it was also found out that both minimum tillage and deep soil loosening showed a positive effect on yields of crops under study (above all of maize and winter wheat.

  19. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil. (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  20. Testing Single and Combinations of Amendments for Stabilization of Metals in Contrasting Extremely Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebielec G.


    Full Text Available Metals can be stabilized by soil amendments that increase metals adsorption or alter their chemical forms. Such treatments may limit the risk related to the contamination through reduction of metal transfer to the food chain (reduction of metal uptake by plants and its availability to soil organisms and metals migration within the environment. There is a need for experiments comparing various soil amendments available at reasonable amounts under similar environmental conditions. The other question is whether all components of soil environment or soil functions are similarly protected after remediation treatment. We conducted a series of pot studies to test some traditional and novel amendments and their combinations. The treatments were tested for several highly Zn/Cd/Pb contaminated soils. Among traditional amendments composts were the most effective – they ensured plant growth, increased soil microbial activity, reduced Cd in earthworms, reduced Pb bioaccessibility and increased share of unavailable forms of Cd and Pb.

  1. Stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil using calcined oyster shells and steel slag. (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Young; Baek, Kitae; Ok, Yong Sik; Park, Jeong-Hun


    In this study, As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil was stabilized using calcined oyster shells (COS) and steel slag (SS). The As-contaminated soil was obtained from a timber mill site where chromate copper arsenate (CCA) was used as a preservative. On the other hand, Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil was obtained from a firing range. These two soils were thoroughly mixed to represent As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil. Calcined oyster shells were obtained by treating waste oyster shells at a high temperature using the calcination process. The effectiveness of stabilization was evaluated by 1-N HCl extraction for As and 0.1-N HCl extraction for Pb and Cu. The treatment results showed that As, Pb, and Cu leachability were significantly reduced upon the combination treatment of COS and SS. The sole treatment of SS (10 wt%) did not show effective stabilization. However, the combination treatment of COS and SS showed a significant reduction in As, Pb, and Cu leachability. The best stabilization results were obtained from the combination treatment of 15 wt% COS and 10 wt% SS. The SEM-EDX results suggested that the effective stabilization of As was most probably achieved by the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates. In the case of Pb and Cu, stabilization was most probably associated with the formation of pozzolanic reaction products such as CSHs and CAHs.

  2. [Effects of loess soil stabilization on Lolium perenne L. growth and root activity]. (United States)

    Liu, Yue-mei; Zhang, Xing-chang; Wang, Dan-dan


    Taking the loess soils with bulk density 1.2 g cm(-3), 1.3 g cm(-3), and 1.4 g cm(-3) from Ansai, Shaanxi Province as test objects, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different amendment amount of soil stabilizer (EN-1 stabilizer) on the growth and root activity of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Within the range of the bulk densities, the leaf chlorophyll content, root activity, root/shoot ratio, root biomass, and plant biomass of L. perenne all decreased with increasing soil bulk density, and were higher under the amendment of EN-1 stabilizer, as compared with the control. With increasing amendment amount of EN-1 stabilizer, the leaf chlorophyll content, root activity, root/shoot ratio, root biomass, and plant biomass had a trend of increased first and decreased then. Soil bulk density and stabilizer amendment amount had significant interactive effect on the root biomass and plant biomass. Overall, the values of the test indices were the highest under 1.3 g cm(-3) soil bulk density and 0.15% EN-1 stabilizer amendment amount.

  3. Soil aggregate stability as an indicator for eco-engineering effectiveness? (United States)

    Graf, Frank


    Eco-engineering aims at stabilising soil and slopes by applying technical and biological measures. Engineering structures are commonly well defined, immediately usable and operative, and their stability effects quantifiable and verifiable. Differently, the use of plants requires more restrictive boundary conditions and the protection potential is rarely easily calculable and develop-ing as a function of growth rate. Although the use of vegetation is widely appreciated and their stabilising effect recognised, there is an increasing demand on sound facts on its efficiency, in particular, in relation to time. Conclusively, a certain necessity has been recognised to monitor, assess and quantify the effectiveness of ecological restora-tion measures in order to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge. Recent theoretical models emphasize the im-portance of taking an integrated monitoring approach that considers multiple variables. However, limited financial and time resources often prevent such comprehensive assessments. A solution to this problem may be to use integrated indicators that reflect multiple aspects and, therefore, allow extensive information on ecosystem status to be gathered in a relatively short time. Among various other indicators, such as fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution or microbiological parameters, soil aggregate stability seems the most appropriate indicator with regard to protecting slopes from superficial soil failure as it is critical to both plant growth and soil structure. Soil aggregation processes play a crucial role in re-establishing soil structure and function and, conclusively, for successful and sustainable re-colonisation. Whereas the key role of soil aggregate stability in ecosystem functioning is well known concerning water, gas, and nutrient fluxes, only limited information is available with regard to soil mechanical and geotechnical aspects. Correspondingly, in the last couple of years several studies

  4. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolan, N.S.; Kunhikrishnan, A.; Choppala, G.K.; Thangarajan, R.; Chung, J.W.


    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t 1/2 ) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. - Graphical abstract: Stabilization of compost using clay materials (e.g. allophane) enhances carbon sequestration in soils. Highlights: ► Comparison of decomposition rate

  5. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil. (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Luo, Huan-Lin


    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4-2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20-30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil.

  6. Stability of aged bound residues of methyl parathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helling, C.S.; Gerstl, Z.; Kloskowski, R.


    Mineralization of bound 14 C-methyl parathion (MP) was demonstrated, indirectly by 14 CO 2 loss exceeding that which could derive from extractable MP residues, and directly by incubation of extracted soil. Amendment of the soil with sludge and with low to moderate rates of five soil fumigants and sterilants greatly enhanced 14 CO 2 loss; a high rate of HgCl 2 reduced mineralization. Asparagine and glucose amendments (incubated 78 days) caused a 10% increase in 14 CO 2 loss; 14 C-asparagine and 14 C-glucose were degraded, yielding 25% and 38% bound residue, respectively. When glucose, sludge or HgCl 2 was added to aged MP residues (after 145 days incubation), the amendments did not accelerate mineralization during a subsequent 33-day incubation period. Radioactivity after 178 days was 9% extractable, 58% in fulvic acid, 17% in humic acid and 16% in humin, in control soil and in amended soil. Methyl parathion degraded during high-temperature distillation, which technique also failed to yield identifiable volatile 14 C products (except 14 CO 2 ) from bound MP. However, extraction with supercritical methanol solubilized 38% of residual 14 C; parent MP was identified at a level of 0.6 μg per gram soil. (author)

  7. Soil aggregate stabilization and carbon sequestration: Feedbacks through organomineral associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, J.D.; Miller, R.M.


    Primary production (specifically, the rate and quality of C transfer below ground) and soil microbial activity (specifically, the rates of C transformation and decay) are recognized as the overall biological processes governing soil organic C (SOC) dynamics. These two processes and, hence, SOC cycling and storage are controlled by complex underlying biotic and abiotic interactions and feedbacks, most of which can be tied in one way or another to the influences of the five state factors related to soil formation, and many of which are sensitive to management practices. Overall, C input rates and quality are largely dependent on climate (especially temperature and precipitation), vegetation type and landscape, soil type, and management practices. Decomposition processes and turnover rates, however, are greatly influenced by climate, the type and quality of organic matter (e.g., N content and the ratios of C:N and lignin:N), chemical or physicochemical associations of organic matter (OM) with soil mineral components, and the location of OM within the soil.

  8. Stabilizing effect of biochar on soil extracellular enzymes after a denaturing stress. (United States)

    Elzobair, Khalid A; Stromberger, Mary E; Ippolito, James A


    Stabilizing extracellular enzymes may maintain enzymatic activity while protecting enzymes from proteolysis and denaturation. A study determined whether a fast pyrolysis hardwood biochar (CQuest™) would reduce evaporative losses, subsequently stabilizing soil extracellular enzymes and prohibiting potential enzymatic activity loss following a denaturing stress (microwaving). Soil was incubated in the presence of biochar (0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, or 10% by wt.) for 36 days and then exposed to microwave energies (0, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 J g(-1) soil). Soil enzymes (β-glucosidase, β-d-cellobiosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, β-xylosidase) were analyzed by fluorescence-based assays. Biochar amendment reduced leucine aminopeptidase and β-xylosidase potential activity after the incubation period and prior to stress exposure. The 10% biochar rate reduced soil water loss at the lowest stress level (400 J microwave energy g(-1) soil). Enzyme stabilization was demonstrated for β-xylosidase; intermediate biochar application rates prevented a complete loss of this enzyme's potential activity after soil was exposed to 400 (1% biochar treatment) or 1600 (5% biochar treatment) J microwave energy g(-1) soil. Remaining enzyme potential activities were not affected by biochar, and activities decreased with increasing stress levels. We concluded that biochar has the potential to reduce evaporative soil water losses and stabilize certain extracellular enzymes where activity is maintained after a denaturing stress; this effect was biochar rate and enzyme dependent. While biochar may reduce the potential activity of certain soil extracellular enzymes, this phenomenon was not universal as the majority of enzymes assayed in this study were unaffected by exposure to biochar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack


    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Abdulwahab


    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of MHA by weight of laterite. The lateritic soil-MHA mixture was later admixed with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 14% cut-back bitumen solution by weight of laterite. Both the natural lateritic soil, lateritic and MHA, and the blend of Soil, MHA and Bitumen were first subjected to physical and chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and Scanning Electromagnetic Machine (SEM to determine their engineering properties followed by the performance test on bricks cast with varying quantities of the additives. A total of one hundred and ninety two (192 cubes were tested for moisture absorption, erodability and compressive strength tests. The result of the test showed that MHA and Bitumen acted as pozzolana in performance test on the soil blocks. Up to 30% MHA – laterite and 20% MHA admixed with 8% laterite were found to give optimum compressive strength of 10.8N/mm2 and 10.9N/mm2 for the bricks produced. The result also showed that about 50% MHA blended with 14% Bitumen solution ensured water tight bricks. Thus the use of MHA as partial replacement of cement will provide an economic use of by-product and consequently produce a cheaper soil block construction without comprising its strength.

  11. Heavy metal stabilization in contaminated soil by treatment with calcined cockle shell. (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Taki, Golam; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Jo, Young-Tae; Kim, Jun; Park, Jeong-Hun


    In several previous studies, the efficacy of various liming waste materials on the immobilization of heavy metals has been tested and it was found that soils contaminated with heavy metals can be stabilized using this technique. Since lime (CaO) has been identified as the main phase of calcined cockle shell (CCS), it was hypothesized that CCS could be used as a soil amendment to immobilize heavy metals in soil. However, to date, no studies have been conducted using CCS. In this study, the effectiveness of CCS powder on the immobilization of Cd, Pb, and Zn in mine tailing soil was evaluated. After 28 days of incubation, the treated soil samples were exposed to weathering (four cycles of freezing-thawing and four cycles of wetting-drying) for 8 days before being subjected to a leaching test. The results of this study revealed that the soil pH increased from 7.5 to 12.2 with the addition of 5% CCS. A similar soil pH was obtained when the soil was amended with 5% pure CaO. By leaching with 0.1 M HCl, extracted Cd, Pb, and Zn were reduced by up to 85, 85, and 91%, respectively. Therefore, CCS is suggested as a low-cost lime-based soil amendment for stabilizing heavy metals in abandoned mining sites.

  12. Performance evaluation of cement-stabilized pond ash-rice husk ash-clay mixture as a highway construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gupta


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation carried out on clay soil stabilized with pond ash (PA, rice husk ash (RHA and cement. Modified Proctor compaction tests were performed in order to investigate the compaction behavior of clay, and California bearing ratio (CBR tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of clay. For evaluation purpose, the specimens containing different amounts of admixtures were prepared. Clay was replaced with PA and RHA at a dosage of 30%–45% and 5%–20%, respectively. The influence of stabilizer types and dosages on mechanical properties of clay was evaluated. In order to study the surface morphology and crystallization characteristics of the soil samples, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses were carried out, respectively. The results obtained indicated a decrease in the maximum dry density (MDD and a simultaneous increase in the optimum moisture content (OMC with the addition of PA and RHA. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA showed that the predicted values of CBR tests are in good agreement with the experimental values. Developed stabilized soil mixtures showed satisfactory strength and can be used for construction of embankments and stabilization of sub-grade soil. The use of locally available soils, PA, RHA, and cement in the production of stabilized soils for such applications can provide sustainability for the local construction industry.

  13. The Strength Behaviour of Lime Stabilized Organic Clay Soil Modified by Catalyst Additeives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khitam Abdulhussein Saeed


    Full Text Available The organic clay soil can be found in many large size reclaimed lands. These soils present enormously high settlement potential and low strength that needs to be improved by means of effective ground improvement techniques. One of the low cost techniques is to modify the soil with lime in-situ to make it suitable for construction and allow it to increase in strength by pozzolanic reactions between lime and clay minerals. Lime is known to be an effective stabilization material for clayey soil. Nevertheless, its effectiveness may be less with organic clay due to low effective strength properties. Thus, this study concerns the addition of catalyst i.e. zeolite which may improve the performance of lime stabilization to accelerate lime-organic clay reactions. The unconfined compressive test (UCT is conducted on remoulded samples (38mm x 80mm for 0, 7, 14 , 28, and 90 days of curing period. The addition of synthetic zeolite in lime-organic stabilized soil has increased the soil strength by 185% at 90 days curing period at the design mix of organic clay + 10% lime +10% zeolite. The higher value of UCS indicates that zeolite is an effective catalyst to enhance lime stabilization.

  14. [Stabilization Treatment of Pb and Zn in Contaminated Soils and Mechanism Studies]. (United States)

    Xie, Wei-qiang; Li, Xiao-mingi; Chen, Can; Chen, Xun-feng; Zhong, Yu; Zhong, Zhen-yu; Wan, Yong; Wang, Yan


    In the present work, the combined application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quick lime and potassium chloride was used to immobilize the Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. The efficiency of the process was evaluated through leaching tests and Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The mechanism of stabilization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reveal the mechanism of stabilization. The results showed that the stabilizing efficiency of Pb contaminated soils was above 80% and the leaching concentrations of Pb, Zn were far below the threshold when the ratio of exogenous P and soil (mol · mol⁻¹) was 2:1-4: 1, the dosing ratio of CaO was 0.1%-0.5% ( mass fraction) and the dosage of potassium chloride was 0.02-0. 04 mol. Meanwhile, Pb and Zn in soil were transformed from the exchangeable fraction into residual fraction, which implied that the migration of Pb, Zn in soil could be confined by the stabilization treatment. XRD and SEM analysis revealed that Ca-P-Pb precipitation, lead orthophosphate [PbHP0₄, Pb₃ (PO₄)₂], pyromorphite (Pb-PO₄-Cl/OH) and mixed heavy metal deposits (Fe-PO₄- Ca-Pb-Zn-OH) could be formed after solidification/stabilization in which Pb and Zn could be wrapped up to form a solidified composition and to prevent leaching.

  15. Stabilization of the As-contaminated soil from the metal mining areas in Korea. (United States)

    Ko, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Yong; Bang, Sunbeak; Lee, Jin-Soo; Ko, Ju-In; Kim, Kyoung-Woong


    The stabilization efficiencies of arsenic (As) in contaminated soil were evaluated using various additives such as limestone, steel mill slag, granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), and mine sludge collected from an acid mine drainage treatment system. The soil samples were collected from the Chungyang area, where abandoned Au-Ag mines are located. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, sequential extraction analysis, aqua regia digestion, cation exchange capacity, loss on ignition, and particle size distribution were conducted to assess the physical and chemical characteristics of highly arsenic-contaminated soils. The total concentrations of arsenic in the Chungyang area soil ranged up to 145 mg/kg. After the stabilization tests, the removal percentages of dissolved As(III) and As(V) were found to differ from the additives employed. Approximately 80 and 40% of the As(V) and As(III), respectively, were removed with the use of steel mill slag. The addition of limestone had a lesser effect on the removal of arsenic from solution. However, more than 99% of arsenic was removed from solution within 24 h when using GFH and mine sludge, with similar results observed when the contaminated soils were stabilized using GFH and mine sludge. These results suggested that GFH and mine sludge may play a significant role on the arsenic stabilization. Moreover, this result showed that mine sludge can be used as a suitable additive for the stabilization of arsenic.

  16. Incorporation of bitumen and calcium silicate in cement and lime stabilized soil blocks (United States)

    Kwan, W. H.; Cheah, C. B.; Ramli, M.; Al-Sakkaf, Y. K.


    Providing affordable housing is the most critical problem in many of the developing countries. Using earth materials in building construction is one of the feasible methods to address this issue and it can be a way towards sustainable construction as well. However, the published information on the stabilized soil blocks is limited. Therefore, the present study is conducted to examine the characterization of the soils and engineering properties of the stabilized soil blocks. Four types of stabilizer were used in the study, namely; cement, slaked lime, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate. Cement and slaked lime were added at different percentages in the range of 5% to 15%, with interval of 2.5%. The percentage was determined based on weight of soil. Meanwhile, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate were incorporated at various percentages together with 10% of cement. Dosage of bitumen emulsion is in the range of 2% to 10% at interval of 2% while calcium silicate was incorporated at 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%, 1.25%, 1.50% and 2.00%. Results show that cement is the most viable stabilizer for the soil block among all stabilizers in this study. The bulk density, optimum moisture content and compressive strengths were increased with the increasing cement content. The most suitable cement content was 10% added at moisture content of 12%. Lime, bitumen and calcium contents were recommended at 5.0%, 6.0% and 1.25%, respectively.

  17. A coexisting fungal-bacterial community stabilizes soil decomposition activity in a microcosm experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Ushio

    Full Text Available How diversity influences the stability of a community function is a major question in ecology. However, only limited empirical investigations of the diversity-stability relationship in soil microbial communities have been undertaken, despite the fundamental role of microbial communities in driving carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a microcosm experiment to investigate the relationship between microbial diversity and stability of soil decomposition activities against changes in decomposition substrate quality by manipulating microbial community using selective biocides. We found that soil respiration rates and degradation enzyme activities by a coexisting fungal and bacterial community (a taxonomically diverse community are more stable against changes in substrate quality (plant leaf materials than those of a fungi-dominated or a bacteria-dominated community (less diverse community. Flexible changes in the microbial community composition and/or physiological state in the coexisting community against changes in substrate quality, as inferred by the soil lipid profile, may be the mechanism underlying this positive diversity-stability relationship. Our experiment demonstrated that the previously found positive diversity-stability relationship could also be valid in the soil microbial community. Our results also imply that the functional/taxonomic diversity and community ecology of soil microbes should be incorporated into the context of climate-ecosystem feedbacks. Changes in substrate quality, which could be induced by climate change, have impacts on decomposition process and carbon dioxide emission from soils, but such impacts may be attenuated by the functional diversity of soil microbial communities.

  18. An innovative method for the solidification/stabilization of PAHs-contaminated soil using sulfonated oil. (United States)

    Ma, Fujun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Deshan; Liu, Qingbing; Peng, Changsheng; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao


    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been successfully employed in many superfund sites contaminated with organic materials. However, this method's long-term effectiveness has not been fully evaluated and the increase in soil volume following treatment is unfavorable to follow-up disposal. The present study developed a novel method for the S/S of PAHs-contaminated soil with the facilitation of sulfonated oil (SO). Adding SO significantly improved the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values of Portland cement and activated carbon (PC-AC) treated soil samples, and the UCS values of the soil sample treated with 0.02% of SO were up to 2.3 times higher than without SO addition. When the soil was treated with PC-AC-SO, the PAHs leaching concentrations were 14%-25% of that in leachates of the control soil, and high molecular weight PAHs including benzo(a)pyrene were rarely leached. Freeze/thaw durability tests reveal that the leachability of PAHs was not influenced by freeze-thaw cycles. The UCS values of PC-AC-SO treated soil samples were 2.2-3.4 times greater than those of PC-AC treated soil samples after 12 freeze-thaw cycles. The PC-AC-SO treated soils resist disintegration better when compared to the PC-AC treated soils. The SEM micrographs reveal that the soils' compactness was significantly improved when treated with SO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of water repellency in aggregate stability of cultivated soils under simulated raindrop impact (United States)

    Kořenková, Lucia; Matúš, Peter


    Soil aggregate stability (AS) is an important indicator of soil physical quality. For the purpose of this research it was hypothesized that particular properties such as water repellency (WR) influence soil aggregation and AS. Directly after sampling, WR was detected for three soils, after a week of air-drying two of these soils still showed some resistance to penetration by a water drop placed on the surface (WDPT test). The study examines AS of air-dried texturally different aggregates of size 0.25-0.5 mm taken from surface layers (5-15 cm depth) of six agriculturally used soils. The procedure involves exposure of soil aggregates to direct impact of water drops. Results showed that soil AS increases in order: cutanic Luvisol (siltic) Chernozem < calcic mollic Fluvisol < mollic grumic Vertisol (pellic) < mollic Fluvisol (calcaric) < gleyic Fluvisol (eutric). Gradual increase in AS can be explained by the increase in soil organic matter content and its hydrophobic properties. Although WR has been most commonly observed in soils under forests and grass cover, the results confirmed that cultivated soils may also create water-stable aggregates, especially in the case when their organic matter induces WR under particular moisture conditions.

  20. Rice (Oryza sativa L) plantation affects the stability of biochar in paddy soil (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Feng, Qibo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Gielen, Gerty; Wu, Weixiang


    Conversion of rice straw into biochar for soil amendment appears to be a promising method to increase long-term carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The stability of biochar in paddy soil, which is the major determining factor of carbon sequestration effect, depends mainly on soil properties and plant functions. However, the influence of plants on biochar stability in paddy soil remains unclear. In this study, bulk and surface characteristics of the biochars incubated without rice plants were compared with those incubated with rice plants using a suite of analytical techniques. Results showed that although rice plants had no significant influence on the bulk characteristics and decomposition rates of the biochar, the surface oxidation of biochar particles was enhanced by rice plants. Using 13C labeling we observed that rice plants could significantly increase carbon incorporation from biochar into soil microbial biomass. About 0.047% of the carbon in biochar was incorporated into the rice plants during the whole rice growing cycle. These results inferred that root exudates and transportation of biochar particles into rice plants might decrease the stability of biochar in paddy soil. Impact of plants should be considered when predicting carbon sequestration potential of biochar in soil systems.

  1. Integrating plant litter quality, soil organic matter stabilization, and the carbon saturation concept. (United States)

    Castellano, Michael J; Mueller, Kevin E; Olk, Daniel C; Sawyer, John E; Six, Johan


    Labile, 'high-quality', plant litters are hypothesized to promote soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization in mineral soil fractions that are physicochemically protected from rapid mineralization. However, the effect of litter quality on SOM stabilization is inconsistent. High-quality litters, characterized by high N concentrations, low C/N ratios, and low phenol/lignin concentrations, are not consistently stabilized in SOM with greater efficiency than 'low-quality' litters characterized by low N concentrations, high C/N ratios, and high phenol/lignin concentrations. Here, we attempt to resolve these inconsistent results by developing a new conceptual model that links litter quality to the soil C saturation concept. Our model builds on the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization framework (Cotrufo et al., 2013) by suggesting the effect of litter quality on SOM stabilization is modulated by the extent of soil C saturation such that high-quality litters are not always stabilized in SOM with greater efficiency than low-quality litters. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers for the stabilization of cadmium in highly contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thawornchaisit, Usarat; Polprasert, Chongrak


    The efficiency of three phosphate fertilizers including triple superphosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and phosphate rock (PR) as stabilizing agents of cadmium-contaminated soils has been assessed in this study. Two types of assessment criteria, (a) the reduction of leachable cadmium concentration; and (b) the changes in Cd association with specific operational soil fraction based on the sequential extraction data, are used in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each fertilizer. Results of the study showed that after the 60-day stabilization, the leachable concentrations of Cd in PR-, DAP- and TSP- treated soils reduced from 306 mg/kg (the control) to 140, 34, and 12 mg/kg with the stabilization efficiency as TSP>DAP>PR. Results from the assessment of Cd speciation via sequential extraction procedure revealed that the soluble-exchangeable fraction and the surface adsorption fraction of Cd in the soils treated with PO 4 fertilizers, especially with TSP, have been reduced considerably. In addition, it is found that the reduction was correspondingly related with the increase of more stable forms of cadmium: the metal bound to manganese oxides and the metal bound to crystalline iron oxides. Treatment efficiency increased as the phosphate dose (based on the molar ratio of PO 4 /Cd) increased. In addition, it was observed that stabilization was most effective when using the molar ratio of PO 4 /Cd at 2:1 and at least 21-day and 28-day stabilization time for TSP and DAP, respectively.

  3. Identification and stabilization methods for problematic silt soils : a laboratory evaluation of modification and stabilization additives. (United States)


    The instability and pumping response of non-plastic, high silt (and fine sand) soils was investigated. Common reagents, i.e., lime, lime-fly ash, Portland cement, and slag cement were included as admixtures with three high silt (and fine sand) soils....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Expansive soil, bagasse ash, lime, plasticity, compaction and strength characteristics. INTRODUCTION. Expansive clays are known to exhibits dual .... Variations of plasticity index with the addition of 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 3% lime in combination with/plus 15% bagasse ash are presented in Fig. 1.

  5. Laboratory investigation of TerraZyme as a soil stabilizer (United States)

    Yusoff, Siti Aimi Nadia Mohd; Azmi, Mastura; Ramli, Harris; Bakar, Ismail; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Zainorabidin, Adnan


    In this study, a laboratory investigation was conducted to examine the performance of TerraZyme on different soil types. Laterite and kaolin were treated with 2% and 5% TerraZyme to determine changes in the soils' geotechnical properties. The obtained results were analysed and investigated in terms of compaction, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). The changes in geotechnical properties of the stabilised and unstabilised soils were monitored after curing periods of 0, 7, 15, 21 and 30 days. Changes in compaction properties, UCS and CBR were observed. It was found that laterite with 5% TerraZyme gave a higher maximum dry density (MDD) and decreased the optimum moisture content (OMC). For kaolin, a different TerraZyme percentage did not show any effect on both MDD and OMC. For strength properties, it was found that 2% TerraZyme showed the greatest change in UCS over a 30-day curing period. The CBR value of stabilised kaolin with 2% TerraZyme gave a higher CBR value than the kaolin treated with 5% TerraZyme. It was also found that laterite treated with TerraZyme gave a higher CBR value. Lastly, it can be concluded that TerraZyme is not suitable for stabilising kaolin; TerraZyme requires a cohesive soil to achieve a better performance.

  6. experimental characterization of clay soils behavior stabilized by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Rehab Bekkouche, G. Boukhatem


    Sep 1, 2016 ... Civil Engineering Departm. 2. Civil Engineering Departm. Received: 03 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 Au. ABSTRACT. In this work, we propose to use both PVC soils to determine their influence on the p material in function of time, which shou purpose, different tests including Atterber and swelling pressure ...

  7. Quantifying the contribution of the root system of alpine vegetation in the soil aggregate stability of moraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Hudek


    Full Text Available One fifth of the world's population is living in mountains or in their surrounding areas. This anthropogenic pressure continues to grow with the increasing number of settlements, especially in areas connected to touristic activities, such as the Italian Alps. The process of soil formation on high mountains is particularly slow and these soils are particularly vulnerable to soil degradation. In alpine regions, extreme meteorological events are increasingly frequent due to climate change, speeding up the process of soil degradation and increasing the number of severe erosion processes, shallow landslides and debris flows. Vegetation cover plays a crucial role in the stabilization of mountain soils thereby reducing the risk of natural hazards effecting downslope areas. Soil aggregate stability is one of the main soil properties that can be linked to soil loss processes. Soils developed on moraines in recently deglaciated areas typically have low levels of soil aggregation, and a limited or discontinuous vegetation cover making them more susceptible to degradation. However, soil structure can be influenced by the root system of the vegetation. Roots are actively involved in the formation of water-stable soil aggregation, increasing the stability of the soil and its nutrient content. In the present study, we aim to quantify the effect of the root system of alpine vegetation on the soil aggregate stability of the forefield of the Lys glacier, in the Aosta Valley (NW-Italy. This proglacial area provides the opportunity to study how the root system of ten pioneer alpine species from different successional stages can contribute to soil development and soil stabilization. To quantify the aggregate stability of root permeated soils, a modified wet sieving method was employed. The root length per soil volume of the different species was also determined and later correlated with the aggregate stability results. The results showed that soil aggregate

  8. Chemical stabilization of metals and arsenic in contaminated soils using oxides – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komárek, Michael; Vaněk, Aleš; Ettler, Vojtěch


    Oxides and their precursors have been extensively studied, either singly or in combination with other amendments promoting sorption, for in situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils. This remediation option aims at reducing the available fraction of metal(loid)s, notably in the root zone, and thus lowering the risks associated with their leaching, ecotoxicity, plant uptake and human exposure. This review summarizes literature data on mechanisms involved in the immobilization process and presents results from laboratory and field experiments, including the subsequent influence on higher plants and aided phytostabilization. Despite the partial successes in the field, recent knowledge highlights the importance of long-term and large-scale field studies evaluating the stability of the oxide-based amendments in the treated soils and their efficiency in the long-term. - In situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils using oxides combined with phytostabilization is a potential alternative to conventional remediation techniques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Segun Nnochiri


    Full Text Available This study assesses the geotechnical characteristics of lateritic soil and sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixtures. Preliminary tests were carried out on the natural soil sample for identification and classification purposes. The sawdust was mixed with lime for stabilization in the ratio 2:1. This mixture was thereafter added to the lateritic soil in varying proportions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of soil. Addition of SDAL increased values of Optimum Moisture Content (OMC from 17.0% at 0% SDAL to 26.5% at 10% SDAL by weight of soil, also, values of Maximum Dry Density (MDD decreased from 2040 kg/m3 at 0% SDAL to 1415 kg/m3 at 10% SDAL. Values of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS increased from 38.58 kN/m2 at 0% SDAL to highest value of 129.63 kN/m2 at 6% SDAL. The values of liquid limits and plasticity index of the soil were effectively reduced with the addition of the SDAL, from 54.0% at 0% SDAL to 49.0% at 10% SDAL and from 13.7% at 0% SDAL to 12.5% at 10% SDAL respectively. It was therefore concluded that the sawdust ash lime (SDAL mixture can serve as a cheap soil stabilizing agent for poor lateritic soil.


    This Technolgy Evaluation Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of contaminated soil The STC immobilization technology uses a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stabilize and ...

  11. The study of stress-strain state of stabilized layered soil foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Mikhail V.


    Full Text Available Herein presented are the results of modeling and analysis of stress-strain state of layered inhomogeneous foundation soil when it is stabilised by injection to different depths. Produced qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components of the field of isolines of stresses, strains, stress concentration and the difference between the strain at the boundary of different elastic horizontal layers. Recommendations are given for the location of stabilised zones in relation to the border of different elastic layers. In particular, it found that stabilization of soil within the weak layer is inappropriate, since it practically provides no increase in the stability of the soil foundation, and when performing stabilisation of soil foundations, it is recommended to place the lower border of the stabilisation zone below the border of a stronger layer, at this the distribution of stresses and strains occurs more evenly, and load-bearing capacity of this layer is used to the maximum.

  12. Using operational and defined fractions to assess soil organic matter stabilization and structure (United States)

    Horwath, W. R.


    Studies on soil organic matter (SOM) began with alkaline solvents revealing a dark colored substance that could be isolated under low pH. Further studies revealed fulvic and humic acids and humin fractions leading to theories on functional groups and metal-clay bridging mechanisms. The fate of isotopes in these fractions revealed soil carbon pools with varying turnover rates with half the soil carbon (C) in humin and acid hydrolyzed fractions over 1000 years old. These results are the basis of the three pool conceptual framework used in many biogeochemical models. Theories on the role of functional groups and compound classes further elaborated concepts on physical (aggregates) and chemical mechanisms of C stabilization. With the advance of analytical instrumentation, the operational fractions were further defined to the compound and molecular levels. These studies confirmed the majority of soil C is microbially derived. Our observation that all microbial groups contributed nonselectively to soil C maintenance independent of mineralogy suggests that compound characteristics within integrated structures are more important than the source of individual compounds for stabilizing soil C. In dissolved organic C floccing studies using Near Edge X-ray Fine Structure analysis, we found that aromatic compounds interacted first with Fe, however, the majority of direct bonds to Fe were polysaccharides, reinforcing that an integrative chemical structure rather than direct bonds imparted stability in organo-metal interactions. Using a novel differential scanning calorimeter coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer setup, we confirmed that the presence of clays (independent of clay type) increased the microbial utilization of calcium stabilized high versus low temperature compounds, asserting that higher temperature compounds (i.e., phenolics) are likely less tightly bound by clay minerals. The integration of operational and defined fractions of SOM remains a legitimate

  13. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility. (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W


    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Recent advance in solidification/stabilization technology for the remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil]. (United States)

    Hao, Han-zhou; Chen, Tong-bin; Jin, Meng-gui; Lei, Mei; Liu, Cheng-wu; Zu, Wen-pu; Huang, Li-mi


    Remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil is still a difficulty and a hotspot of international research projects. At present, the technologies commonly adopted for the remediation of contaminated sites mainly include excavation, solidification/stabilization (S/S), soil washing, soil vapor extraction (SVE), thermal treatment, and bioremediation. Based on the S/S technical guidelines of Unite State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and United Kingdom Environment Agency (EA) and the domestic and foreign patents, this paper introduced the concepts of S/S and its development status at home and abroad, and discussed its future development directions. Solidification refers to a process that binds contaminated media with a reagent, changing the media's physical properties via increasing its compressive strength, decreasing its permeability, and encapsulating the contaminants to form a solid material. Stabilization refers to the process that involves a chemical reaction which reduces the leachability of a waste, chemically immobilizes the waste and reduces its solubility, making the waste become less harmful or less mobile. S/S technology includes cement solidification, lime pozzolanic solidification, plastic materials stabilization, vitrification, and regent-based stabilization. Stabilization (or immobilization) treatment processes convert contaminants to less mobile forms through chemical or thermal interactions. In stabilization technology, the aim of adding agents is to change the soil physical and chemical properties through pH control technology, redox potential technology, precipitation techniques, adsorption technology, and ion-exchange technology that change the existing forms of heavy metals in soil, and thus, reduce the heavy metals bioavailability and mobility. This review also discussed the S/S evaluation methods, highlighted the need to enhance S/S technology in the molecular bonding, soil polymers, and formulation of China's S/S technical guidelines.

  15. Organomineral Complexation at the Nanoscale: Iron Speciation and Soil Carbon Stabilization (United States)

    Coward, E.; Thompson, A.; Plante, A. F.


    Much of the uncertainty in the biogeochemical behavior of soil carbon (C) in tropical ecosystems derives from an incomplete understanding of soil C stabilization processes. The 2:1 phyllosilicate clays often associated with temperate organomineral complexation are largely absent in tropical soils due to extensive weathering. In contrast, these soils contain an abundance of Fe- and Al-containing short-range-order (SRO) mineral phases capable of C stabilization through sorption or co-precipitation, largely enabled by high specific surface area (SSA). SRO-mediated organomineral associations may thus prove a critical, yet matrix-selective, driver of the long-term C stabilization capacity observed in tropical soils. Characterizing the interactions between inherently heterogeneous organic matter and amorphous mineralogy presses the limits of current analytical techniques. This work pairs inorganic selective dissolution with high-resolution assessment of Fe speciation to determine the contribution of extracted mineral phases to the mineral matrix, and to C stabilization capacity. Surface (0-20 cm) samples were taken from 20 quantitative soil pits within the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory in northeast Puerto Rico stratified across granodioritic and volcaniclastic parent materials. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy (MBS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) before and after Fe-SOM extraction were used to assess changes in the mineralogical matrix associated with SOM dissolution, while N2-BET sorption was used to determine the contributions of the extractable phases to SSA. Results indicate (1) selective extraction of soil C produces significant shifts in Fe phase distribution, (2) SRO minerals contribute substantially to SSA, and (3) SRO minerals appear protected by more crystalline phases via physical mechanisms, rather than dissolution-dependent chemical bonds. This nanoscale characterization of Fe-C complexes thus provides evidence for both anticipated mineral-organic and

  16. [Phytotoxic activity of chernozem saprophytic micromycetes: specificity, sorption and stability of phytotoxins in soil]. (United States)

    Svistova, I D; Shcherbakov, A P; Frolova, L O


    Micromycetes of the complex of typical chernozem saprotrophic fungi released phytotoxic metabolites into medium. The metabolites displayed their phytotoxic activities directly in soil. Evaluation of the toxicities, range of biological effects activities, and stabilities of phytotoxins in soil and the rates of their biodegradation allowed the species that can serve as indicators of chernozem microbial toxicosis to be selected, namely, Aspergillus clavatus, Fusarium solani, Talaromyces flavus, Penicillium rubrum, and P. funiculosum.

  17. Retrospective assessment of dryland soil stability in relation to grazing and climate change. (United States)

    Washington-Allen, Robert A; West, Neil E; Ramsey, R Douglas; Phillips, Debra H; Shugart, Herman H


    Accelerated soil erosion is an aspect of dryland degradation that is affected by repeated intense drought events and land management activities such as commercial livestock grazing. A soil stability index (SSI) that detects the erosion status and susceptibility of a landscape at the pixel level, i.e., stable, erosional, or depositional pixels, was derived from the spectral properties of an archived time series (from 1972 to 1997) of Landsat satellite data of a commercial ranch in northeastern Utah. The SSI was retrospectively validated with contemporary field measures of soil organic matter and erosion status that was surveyed by US federal land management agencies. Catastrophe theory provided the conceptual framework for retrospective assessment of the impact of commercial grazing and soil water availability on the SSI. The overall SSI trend was from an eroding landscape in the early drier 1970s towards stable conditions in the wetter mid-1980s and late 1990s. The landscape catastrophically shifted towards an extreme eroding state that was coincident with the "The Great North American Drought of 1988". Periods of landscape stability and trajectories toward stability were coincident with extremely wet El Niño events. Commercial grazing had less correlation with soil stability than drought conditions. However, the landscape became more susceptible to erosion events under multiple droughts and grazing. Land managers now have nearly a year warning of El Niño and La Niña events and can adjust their management decisions according to predicted landscape erosion conditions.

  18. Effect of Alkaline Activator to Fly Ash Ratio for Geopolymer Stabilized Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Muhammad Sofian


    Full Text Available Geopolymer technology have been developed and explored especially in the construction material field. However, lack of research related to geopolymer stabilized soil. In this research, the utilization of geopolymer has been investigated to stabilize the soil including the factors that affecting the geopolymerization process. Unconfined compressive test (UCT used as indicator to the strength development and hence evaluating the performance of geopolymer stabilized soil. This paper focusing on the effect of fly ash/alkaline activator ratio, Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio and curing time on geopolymer stabilized soil. A various mix design at different fly ash/alkaline activator ratio, Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio were prepared and cured for 7 and 28 days. Molarity and the percentage of geopolymer to soil were fixed at 10 molar and 8 percent respectively. Then, the UCT tests were carried out on 38mm diameter x 76mm height specimens. The highest strength obtained at the fly ash/alkaline activator ratio 2.5 and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio 2.0 at 28 days curing time.



    Prashant Kumar*, Prof. M.C.Paliwal, Prof. A.K.Jain


    Due to various construction development projects undertaken all over the world there is a substantial increase in the production of waste materials like concrete, fly ash, plastic, rice husk, foundry sand etc. which create disposal problems. Foundry waste sand is produced in large quantity in foundry industries and is disposed in open land. Therefore use of foundry waste sand in foundation of buildings and in road constructions to improve bearing capacity of soil and to reduce the area of ope...

  20. Stabilization of C and N from Decomposing Fine Roots and Needles in Soil Organic Matter Fractions (United States)

    Bird, J. A.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M.


    We investigated the contributions of Pinus ponderosa needles and fine roots to forest soil organic matter C and N storage. The fates of dual-labeled (13C/15N) ponderosa pine fine roots (soil organic matter (SOM) fractions (light, fulvic, humic, and humin). The C turnover times (defined by natural abundance 14C) of these SOM fractions were distinct and ranged from 5 years (light fraction) to 260 years (insoluble humin). Overall, input of C as roots resulted in much more C retained in soil (70.5 ± 2.2 % of applied was retained) compared with needle C (42.9 ± 1.3 % of applied was retained) after 1.5 years. Greater complex C compounds in fine roots likely contributed to the longer initial C residence time and lower degree of transformation in the soil. In contrast, litter N recovery in soil was similar between above- and belowground substrates. During the first 1.5 years in situ, more of the needle 13C retained in soil was in humic and humin fractions and less as light fraction than for 13C from fine roots. The 13C:15N ratios of the SOM fractions suggest that the types of organic molecules stabilized differed fundamentally between needle and fine root sources. Predominately nitrogen-rich biomolecules from fine roots were stabilized in humic, fulvic and humin fractions. In contrast, carbon-rich biomolecules from needles were preferentially stabilized, especially initially, in the humin fraction.

  1. Iron Redox Dynamics in Humid Tropical Forest Soils: Carbon Stabilization vs. Degradation? (United States)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Hammel, K.


    Most terrestrial soils exhibit a patchwork of oxygen (O2) availability that varies over spatial scales of microsites to catenas to landscapes, and over temporal scales of minutes to seasons. Oxygen fluctuations often drive microbial iron (Fe) reduction and abiotic/biotic Fe oxidation at the microsite scale, contributing to anaerobic carbon (C) mineralization and changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, especially the dissolution and precipitation of short-range ordered Fe phases thought to stabilize C. Thus, O2 fluctuations and Fe redox cycling may have multiple nuanced and opposing impacts on different soil C pools, illustrated by recent findings from Fe-rich Oxisols and Ultisols in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Spatial patterns in surface soil C stocks at the landscape scale correlated strongly (R2 = 0.98) with concentrations of reduced Fe (Fe(II)), reflecting constitutive differences in reducing conditions within and among sites that promote C accumulation in mineral soil horizons. Similarly, turnover times of a decadal-cycling pool of mineral-associated organic matter increased with Fe(II) across a catena, possibly reflecting the role of anaerobic microsites in long-term C stabilization. However, two different indices of short-range order Fe showed highly significant opposing relationships (positive and negative) with spatial variation in soil C concentrations, possibly reflecting a dual role of Fe in driving C stabilization via co-precipitation, and C solubilization and loss following dissimilatory Fe reduction. Consistent with the field data, laboratory incubations demonstrated that redox fluctuations can increase the contribution of biochemically recalcitrant C (lignin) to soil respiration, whereas addition of short-range order Fe dramatically suppressed lignin mineralization but had no impact on bulk soil respiration. Thus, understanding spatial and temporal patterns of Fe redox cycling may provide insight into explaining the

  2. Study on Mud Pumping Mechanism of Subgrade Surface Layer in Slab Ballastless Track Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopei CAI


    Full Text Available Mud pumping has a significant impact on dynamic behavior of high-speed railway. An elaborate study focused on the structure characteristics of CRTS I (China Railway Track System slab ballastless track was made to explain the mechanism of mud pumping from the aspects of displacement between the base plate and subgrade, gap growing, disfunction of drainage system and dynamic load of the train. Finite element software ABAQUS was applied to simulate the dynamic responses between the base plate and the subgrade surface layer in different conditions of gap length and gap size. It has been found that the dynamic force between the base plate and the surface layer of subgrade is up to 4,576.29 kN. Suggestions have been given to the related department such as slip-casting, white-out, sealing plug to solve the problem.

  3. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.


    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  4. Effects of biodegradable plastics on the predominant culturable bacteria associated with soil aggregate formation and stability after 9 months of incubation in natural soil (United States)

    An in vitro study of the effects of biodegradable plastics on the predominant soil aggregating bacteria associated to soil aggregate formation and stability after 9 months of incubation in soil. Caesar-TonThat TC, Fukui R*, Caesar AJ., Lartey, RT, and Gaskin, JF. USDA-Agricultural Research Service, ...

  5. The Role of Compost in Stabilizing the Microbiological and Biochemical Properties of Zinc-Stressed Soil. (United States)

    Strachel, Rafał; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Baćmaga, Małgorzata


    The progressive development of civilization and intensive industrialization has contributed to the global pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals, especially the soil. Degraded soils generally contain less organic matter, and thus, their homeostasis is more often disturbed, which in turn manifests in changes in biological and physicochemical properties of the soil. Therefore, new possibilities and solutions for possible neutralization of these contaminations are sought, inter alia, through reclamation of degraded land. At present, the use of additives supporting the reclamation process that exhibit heavy metal-sorbing properties is becoming increasingly important in soil recovery. Research was conducted to determine the role of compost in stabilizing the microbial and biochemical balance of the soil due to the significant problem of heavy metal-contaminated areas. The study was conducted on loamy sand, to which zinc was applied at the following doses: 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mg Zn 2+  kg -1 DM of soil. Compost was introduced to the appropriate objects calculated on the basis of organic carbon content in the amount of 0, 10, and 20 g C org  kg -1 DM of soil. The study was conducted over a period of 20 weeks, maintaining soil moisture at 50% capillary water capacity. Zinc significantly modified soil microbiome status. The abundance of microorganisms and their biological diversity and the enzymatic activity of the soil were affected. The negative effects of contaminating zinc doses were alleviated by the introduction of compost into the soil. Organic fertilization led to microbial growth intensification and increased biochemical activity of the soil already 2 weeks after compost application. These effects persisted throughout the experiment. Therefore, it can be stated that the use of compost is an appropriate method for restoring normal functions of soil ecosystems contaminated with zinc.

  6. Soil stabilization linked to plant diversity and environmental context in coastal wetlands. (United States)

    Ford, Hilary; Garbutt, Angus; Ladd, Cai; Malarkey, Jonathan; Skov, Martin W


    Plants play a pivotal role in soil stabilization, with above-ground vegetation and roots combining to physically protect soil against erosion. It is possible that diverse plant communities boost root biomass, with knock-on positive effects for soil stability, but these relationships are yet to be disentangled. We hypothesize that soil erosion rates fall with increased plant species richness, and test explicitly how closely root biomass is associated with plant diversity. We tested this hypothesis in salt marsh grasslands, dynamic ecosystems with a key role in flood protection. Using step-wise regression, the influences of biotic (e.g. plant diversity) and abiotic variables on root biomass and soil stability were determined for salt marshes with two contrasting soil types: erosion-resistant clay (Essex, southeast UK) and erosion-prone sand (Morecambe Bay, northwest UK). A total of 132 (30-cm depth) cores of natural marsh were extracted and exposed to lateral erosion by water in a re-circulating flume. Soil erosion rates fell with increased plant species richness ( R 2  = 0.55), when richness was modelled as a single explanatory variable, but was more important in erosion-prone ( R 2  = 0.44) than erosion-resistant ( R 2  = 0.18) regions. As plant species richness increased from two to nine species·m -2 , the coefficient of variation in soil erosion rate decreased significantly ( R 2  = 0.92). Plant species richness was a significant predictor of root biomass ( R 2  = 0.22). Step-wise regression showed that five key variables accounted for 80% of variation in soil erosion rate across regions. Clay-silt fraction and soil carbon stock were linked to lower rates, contributing 24% and 31%, respectively, to variation in erosion rate. In regional analysis, abiotic factors declined in importance, with root biomass explaining 25% of variation. Plant diversity explained 12% of variation in the erosion-prone sandy region. Our study indicates that soil stabilization

  7. A Biogeotechnical approach to Stabilize Soft Marine Soil with a Microbial Organic Material called Biopolymer (United States)

    Chang, I.; Cho, G. C.; Kwon, Y. M.; Im, J.


    The importance and demands of offshore and coastal area development are increasing due to shortage of usable land and to have access to valuable marine resources. However, most coastal soils are soft sediments, mainly composed with fines (silt and clay) and having high water and organic contents, which induce complicated mechanical- and geochemical- behaviors and even be insufficient in Geotechnical engineering aspects. At least, soil stabilization procedures are required for those soft sediments, regardless of the purpose of usage on the site. One of the most common soft soil stabilization method is using ordinary cement as a soil strengthening binder. However, the use of cement in marine environments is reported to occur environmental concerns such as pH increase and accompanying marine ecosystem disturbance. Therefore, a new environmentally-friendly treatment material for coastal and offshore soils. In this study, a biopolymer material produced by microbes is introduced to enhance the physical behavior of a soft tidal flat sediment by considering the biopolymer rheology, soil mineralogy, and chemical properties of marine water. Biopolymer material used in this study forms inter-particle bonds between particles which is promoted through cation-bridges where the cations are provided from marine water. Moreover, biopolymer treatment renders unique stress-strain relationship of soft soils. The mechanical stiffness (M) instantly increase with the presence of biopolymer, while time-dependent settlement behavior (consolidation) shows a big delay due to the viscous biopolymer hydrogels in pore spaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi


    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  9. Stability results for a soil model with singular hysteretic hydrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; O'Kane, J.P.; Pokrovskii, A.; Rachinskii, D.


    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2011), 012016 ISSN 1742-6588. [5th International workshop on multi-rate processes and hysteresis. Pecs, 31.05.2010-03.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : hysteresis * evolution equation * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. In situ stabilization of cadmium-, lead-, and zinc-contaminated soil using various amendments. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jin-Soo; Choi, Youn Jeong; Kim, Jeong-Gyu


    Chemical stabilization is an in situ remediation method that uses inexpensive amendments to reduce contaminant availability in polluted soil. We tested the effects of several amendments (limestone, red-mud, and furnace slag) on the extractability of heavy metals, microbial activities, phytoavailability of soil metals (assessed using lettuce, Lactuca sativa L.), and availability of heavy metals in ingested soil to the human gastrointestinal system (assessed using the physiologically based extraction test). The application of soil amendments significantly decreased the amount of soluble and extractable heavy metals in the soil (psoil was accompanied by increased microbial activity and decreased plant uptake of heavy metals. Soil microbial activities (soil respiration, urease, and dehydrogenase activity) significantly increased in limestone and red-mud-amended soils. Red-mud was the most effective treatment in decreasing heavy-metal concentrations in lettuce. Compared to non-amended control soil, lettuce uptake of Cd, Pb, and Zn was reduced 86%, 58%, and 73%, respectively, by the addition of red-mud.

  11. Stabilization of enzymatically polymerized phenolic chemicals in a model soil organic matter-free geomaterial. (United States)

    Palomo, Mónica; Bhandari, Alok


    A variety of remediation methods, including contaminant transformation by peroxidase-mediated oxidative polymerization, have been proposed to manage soils and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated phenols. Phenol stabilization has been successfully observed during cross polymerization between phenolic polymers and soil organic matter (SOM) for soils with SOM >3%. This study evaluates peroxidase-mediated transformation and removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) from an aqueous phase in contact with a natural geomaterial modified to contain negligible (soils with higher SOM. The SOM-free sorbent was generated by removing SOM using a NaOCl oxidation. When horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to induce polymerization of DCP, the soil-water phase distribution relationship (PDR) of DCP polymerization products (DPP) was complete within 1 d and PDRs did not significantly change over the 28 d of study. The conversion of DCP to DPP was close to 95% efficient. Extractable solute consisted entirely of DPP with 5% or less of unreacted DCP. The aqueous extractability of DPP from SOM-free geomaterial decreased at longer contact times and at smaller residual aqueous concentrations of DPP. DCP stabilization appeared to have resulted from a combination of sorption, precipitation, and ligand exchange between oligomeric products and the exposed mineral surfaces. Modification of the mineral surface through coverage with DPP enhanced the time-dependent retention of the oligomers. DPP stabilization in SOM-free geomaterial was comparable with that reported in the literature with soil containing SOM contents >1%. Results from this study suggest that the effectiveness of HRP-mediated stabilization of phenolic compounds not only depends on the cross-coupling with SOM, but also on the modification of the surface of the sorbent that can augment affinity with oligomers and enhance stabilization. Coverage of the mineral surface by phenolic oligomers may be analogous to SOM that can potentially

  12. Interactions of two novel stabilizing amendments with sunflower plants grown in a contaminated soil. (United States)

    Michálková, Zuzana; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Komárek, Michael


    Several efficient stabilizing amendments have been recently proposed for the remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated soils. However, information on their interactions with plants, which is a crucial factor in soil environments, are still scarce. An amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) synthesized from organic compounds and nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) have been previously tested as promising stabilizing agents usable both for the stabilization of metals and As. Experiments with rhizoboxes were performed in order to evaluate their influence on the mobility of metal(loid)s in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) together with their impact on metal uptake and biomass yield. Generally, AMO proved more efficient than nZVI in all stages of experiment. Furthermore, the AMO effectively reduced water- and 0.01 M CaCl 2 -extractable fractions of Cd, Pb and Zn. The decreased bioavailability of contaminating metal(loid)s resulted in significant increase of microbial activity in AMO-amended soil. Together with metal(loid) extractability, the AMO was also able to significantly reduce the uptake of metals and ameliorate plant growth, especially in the case of Zn, since this metal was taken up in excessive amounts from the control soil causing strong phytotoxicity and even death of young seedlings. On the other hand, AMO application lead to significant release of Mn that was readily taken up by plants. Resulting Mn concentrations in biomass exceeded toxicity thresholds while plants were showing emergent Mn phytotoxicity symptoms. We highlight the need of such complex studies involving plants and soil biota when evaluating the efficiency of stabilizing amendments in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Representative locations from time series of soil water content using time stability and wavelet analysis. (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Lillo, Mario; Granda, Stalin


    The concept of time stability has been widely used in the design and assessment of monitoring networks of soil moisture, as well as in hydrological studies, because it is as a technique that allows identifying of particular locations having the property of representing mean values of soil moisture in the field. In this work, we assess the effect of time stability calculations as new information is added and how time stability calculations are affected at shorter periods, subsampled from the original time series, containing different amounts of precipitation. In doing so, we defined two experiments to explore the time stability behavior. The first experiment sequentially adds new data to the previous time series to investigate the long-term influence of new data in the results. The second experiment applies a windowing approach, taking sequential subsamples from the entire time series to investigate the influence of short-term changes associated with the precipitation in each window. Our results from an operating network (seven monitoring points equipped with four sensors each in a 2-ha blueberry field) show that as information is added to the time series, there are changes in the location of the most stable point (MSP), and that taking the moving 21-day windows, it is clear that most of the variability of soil water content changes is associated with both the amount and intensity of rainfall. The changes of the MSP over each window depend on the amount of water entering the soil and the previous state of the soil water content. For our case study, the upper strata are proxies for hourly to daily changes in soil water content, while the deeper strata are proxies for medium-range stored water. Thus, different locations and depths are representative of processes at different time scales. This situation must be taken into account when water management depends on soil water content values from fixed locations.

  14. Stabilization of microbial biomass in soils: Implications for SOM formation and xenobiotics degradation (United States)

    Miltner, A.; Kindler, R.; Achtenhagen, J.; Nowak, K.; Girardi, C.; Kästner, M.


    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in soils. It is the carbon source and the habitat of many soil microorganisms, its quality and quantity thus affect soil microbial activity. Therefore, the amount and composition of SOM determines soil quality, but SOM formation and stabilization are not yet sufficiently understood. Recently, microbial biomass residues could be identified as a significant source of SOM. We incubated 13C-labelled bacterial cells for 224 days in an agricultural soil and traced the fate of the 13C label of bacterial biomass in soil by isotopic analysis. The data were combined to a mass balance, and the biomass residues were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high percentage of the biomass-derived carbon (in particular from proteins) remained in soil, mainly in the non-living part of SOM, after extended incubation. The SEM micrographs only rarely showed intact cells. Instead, organic patchy fragments of 200-500 nm size were abundant. These fragments were associated with all stages of cell envelope decay and fragmentation, indicating specific disintegration processes of cell walls. Similar fragments developed on initially clean and sterile in situ microcosms during exposure in groundwater, thus providing clear evidence for their microbial origin. Microbial cell envelope fragments thus contribute significantly to SOM formation. A significant contribution of cell envelope fragments to SOM formation provides a simple explanation for the development of the small, nano-scale patchy organic materials observed in soil electron micrographs. It also suggests that microstructures of microbial cells and of small plant debris provide the molecular architecture of SOM attached to particle surfaces. This origin and macromolecular architecture of SOM is consistent with most observations on SOM, e.g. the abundance of microbial-derived biomarkers, the low C/N ratio, the water repellency and the stabilization of microbial biomass. The

  15. Effects of Soil Compaction on Carbon and Nitrogen Sequestration in Soil and Wheat, Soil Physical Properties and Aggregates Stability (Case study: Northern of Aq Qala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Saieedifar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil compaction has become a widespread problem in the world and it is considered as one of the main factors affecting land degradation in arid and semi-arid agricultural land. Compaction in arable soils is a gradual phenomenon that appearing over time and most important factors that influence it include: soil properties, high clay content, low organic matter, and frequency of wet-dry in the soil, impervious layer of soil, load heavy agricultural implements and soil and water mismanagement. Compaction induced soil degradation affects about 68 million hectares of land globally. The vast majority of compaction in modern agriculture is caused by vehicular traffic. Carbon sequestration by long-term management operation of the plant and soil, not only increase the soil carbon storage but also lead to reduce the carbon exchange and greenhouse gases emissions like CO2 from the soil profile. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of soil compaction on carbon and nitrogen sequestration of wheat and soil and some soil physical properties such as: aggregate stability, saturated soil moisture content, bulk density and soil porosity. Materials and Methods: This experiment was accomplished in which is located near Aq Qala in a randomized completely block design (with 4 treatments and 3 replications. Soil compaction was artificially created by using a 5/7 ton heavy tractor. The treatments arrangements were: 1 T1: control, 2 T2: twice passing of tractor, 3 T3: four time of passing tractor, and 4 T4: six time of passing heavy tractor. Utilize of all agricultural inputs (fertilizers, herbicides, etc. has been identical for all treatments. Since rain-fed farming is the common method to cultivation of cereals in the study area, so no complementary irrigation was carried out in this period. In this study, after the measurement of the parameters, the data were analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 Software. LSD test was used for comparison of means

  16. Microstructure and stability of two sandy loam soils with different soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.


    A practical problem initiated this study. In the Haarlemmermeer, a former lake reclaimed about 1850, several farmers had difficulties with soil structure. Land, plowed in autumn, was very wet in spring. Free water was sometimes present on the soil surface. Planting and seeding were long delayed in

  17. [Adsorptive Stabilization of Soil Cr (VI) Using HDTMA Modified Montmorillonite]. (United States)


    A series of organo-montomorillonites were prepared using Na-montomorillonite and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA). The organo-montomorillonites were then investigated for the remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soils. FT-IR, XRD, SEM and N2 -BET, CEC, Zeta potential measurement were conducted to understand the structural changes of montmorillonites as different amounts of HDTMAs were added as modifier. The characterization results indicated that the clay interlayer spacing distance increased from 1. 25 nm to 2. 13 nm, the clay surface roughness decreased, the clay surface area reduced from 38.91 m² · g⁻¹ to 0.42 m² · g⁻¹, the clay exchangeable cation amount reduced from 62 cmol · kg⁻¹ to 9.9 cmol · kg⁻¹ and the clay surface charge changed from -29.1 mV to 5.59 mV as the dosage of HDTMA in montmorillonite was increased. The TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) was used to evaluate the leachate toxicity of Cr(VI). The effects of the initial soil Cr(VI) concentration, montmorillonites dosage, reaction time and HDTMA modification amount were investigated, respectively. The results revealed that modification of montmorillonites would manifest an attenuated physical adsorptive effect and an enhanced electrostatic adsorptive effect on Cr(VI), suggesting electrostatic effect was the major force that resulted in improved Cr(VI) adsorption onto HDTMA modified montmorillonites.

  18. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.


    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  19. Potential Carbon Transport: Linking Soil Aggregate Stability and Sediment Enrichment for Updating the Soil Active Layer within Intensely Managed Landscapes (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.


    Currently, many biogeochemical models lack the mechanistic capacity to accurately simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, especially within intensely managed landscapes (IMLs) such as those found in the U.S. Midwest. These modeling limitations originate by not accounting for downslope connectivity of flowpathways initiated and governed by landscape processes and hydrologic forcing, which induce dynamic updates to the soil active layer (generally top 20-30cm of soil) with various sediment size fractions and aggregates being transported and deposited along the downslope. These hydro-geomorphic processes, often amplified in IMLs by tillage events and seasonal canopy, can greatly impact biogeochemical cycles (e.g., enhanced mineralization during aggregate breakdown) and in turn, have huge implications/uncertainty when determining SOC budgets. In this study, some of these limitations were addressed through a new concept, Potential Carbon Transport (PCT), a term which quantifies a maximum amount of material available for transport at various positions of the landscape, which was used to further refine a coupled modeling framework focused on SOC redistribution through downslope/lateral connectivity. Specifically, the size fractions slaked from large and small aggregates during raindrop-induced aggregate stability tests were used in conjunction with rainfall-simulated sediment enrichment ratio (ER) experiments to quantify the PCT under various management practices, soil types and landscape positions. Field samples used in determining aggregate stability and the ER experiments were collected/performed within the historic Clear Creek Watershed, home of the IML Critical Zone Observatory, located in Southeastern Iowa.

  20. Cadmium Immobilization in Soil using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Stabilized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi


    Full Text Available Introduction Some methods of contaminated soils remediation reduces the mobile fraction of trace elements, which could contaminate groundwater or be taken up by soil organisms. Cadmium (Cd as a heavy metal has received much attention in the past few decades due to its potential toxic impact on soil organism activity and compositions. Cadmium is a soil pollutant of no known essential biological functions, and may pose threats to soil-dwelling organisms and human health. Soil contamination with Cd usually originates from mining and smelting activities, atmospheric deposition from metallurgical industries, incineration of plastics and batteries, land application of sewage sludge, and burning of fossil fuels. Heavy metal immobilization using amendments is a simple and rapid method for the reduction of heavy metal pollution. One way of the assessment of contaminated soils is sequential extraction procedure. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils is an appropriate way to determine soil metal forms including soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of iron and manganese, and the residual. Its results are valuable in prediction of bioavailability, leaching rate and elements transformation in contaminated agricultural soils. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and to investigate the effect of its different percentages (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% on the different fractions of cadmium in soil by sequential extraction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized following the protocol described by Si et al. (19. The investigations were carried out with a loamy sand topsoil. Before use, the soil was air-dried, homogenized and sieved (

  1. Stability of soil's microaggregates derived from different parental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon de Rodriguez, Clara; Elizalde Albes, Graciano


    In two polipedons derived from different parental materials, it was found that microaggregates (50 - 250 μm ) aren't affected in their stability by the time, by the physical ultrasonic forces, neither by the blockage of electrostatic bonds of water, suggesting that in these aggregates, there are stronger bonds than the ones which can be broken by these agents. On the contrary water, the chemical treatments with HCl and H 2 O 2 concentrated, disjoin the microaggregates, being possible to differentiate a polipedon from other

  2. Evaluation of seismic testing for quality assurance of lime-stabilized soil. (United States)


    This study sought to determine the technical feasibility of using seismic techniques to measure the : laboratory and field seismic modulus of lime-stabilized soils (LSS), and to compare/correlate test results : from bench-top (free-free resonance) se...

  3. The Suitability Of Tarsand As A Stabilizing Agent For Lateritic Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil samples were subjected to the general classification and strength tests. The strength tests are: the compaction, unconfined compression and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). Tarsand was introduced as stabilizer in 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 percentages. The CBR, Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and unconfined compression ...

  4. Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagrilo, E.


    Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns Edvaldo Sagrilo Summary Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), also known as biochar, is the product of biomass combustion under low oxygen concentration. There

  5. Data-Driven Microbial Modeling for Soil Carbon Decomposition and Stabilization (United States)

    Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Ji; Chen, Yizhao; Feng, Wenting


    Microorganisms have long been known to catalyze almost all the soil organic carbon (SOC) transformation processes (e.g., decomposition, stabilization, and mineralization). Representing microbial processes in Earth system models (ESMs) has the potential to improve projections of SOC dynamics. We have recently examined (1) relationships of microbial functions with environmental factors and (2) microbial regulations of decomposition and other key soil processes. According to three lines of evidence, we have developed a data-driven enzyme (DENZY) model to simulate soil microbial decomposition and stabilization. First, our meta-analysis of 64 published field studies showed that field experimental warming significantly increased soil microbial communities abundance, which is negatively correlated with the mean annual temperature. The negative correlation indicates that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Second, we found that the SOC decomposition, especially the transfer between labile SOC and protected SOC, is nonlinearly regulated by soil texture parameters, such as sand and silt contents. Third, we conducted a global analysis of the C-degrading enzyme activities, soil respiration, and SOC content under N addition. Our results show that N addition has contrasting effects on cellulase (hydrolytic C-degrading enzymes) and ligninase (oxidative C-degrading enzymes) activities. N-enhanced cellulase activity contributes to the minor stimulation of soil respiration whereas N-induced repression on ligninase activity drives soil C sequestration. Our analysis links the microbial extracellular C-degrading enzymes to the SOC dynamics at ecosystem scales across scores of experimental sites around the world. It offers direct evidence that N-induced changes in microbial community and physiology play fundamental roles in controlling the soil C cycle. Built upon those three lines of empirical evidence, the DENZY model includes two enzyme pools and explicitly

  6. The Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter? (United States)

    Cotrufo, M Francesca; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Boot, Claudia M; Denef, Karolien; Paul, Eldor


    The decomposition and transformation of above- and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been largely uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. We present the current understanding of the importance of microbial substrate use efficiency and C and N allocation in controlling the proportion of plant-derived C and N that is incorporated into SOM, and of soil matrix interactions in controlling SOM stabilization. We synthesize this understanding into the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework. This framework leads to the hypothesis that labile plant constituents are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates, because they are utilized more efficiently by microbes. These microbial products of decomposition would thus become the main precursors of stable SOM by promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to the mineral soil matrix. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Soil carbon sequestration is a climate stabilization wedge: comments on Sommer and Bossio (2014). (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Aguilera, Eduardo


    Sommer and Bossio (2014) model the potential soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils (croplands and grasslands) during the next 87 years, concluding that this process cannot be considered as a climate stabilization wedge. We argue, however, that the amounts of SOC potentially sequestered in both scenarios (pessimistic and optimistic) fulfil the requirements for being considered as wedge because in both cases at least 25 GtC would be sequestered during the next 50 years. We consider that it is precisely in the near future, and meanwhile other solutions are developed, when this stabilization effort is most urgent even if after some decades the sequestration rate is significantly reduced. Indirect effects of SOC sequestration on mitigation could reinforce the potential of this solution. We conclude that the sequestration of organic carbon in agricultural soils as a climate change mitigation tool still deserves important attention for scientists, managers and policy makers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Straw Incorporation on Soil Nutrients, Enzymes, and Aggregate Stability in Tobacco Fields of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Zhang


    Full Text Available To determine the effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and aggregates in tobacco fields, we conducted experiments with different amounts of wheat and maize straw in Zhucheng area of southeast Shandong province for three years (2010–2012. In the final year of experiment (2012, straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC and related parameters, and improved soil enzyme activity proportionally with the amount of straw added, except for catalase when maize straw was used. And maize straw incorporation was more effective than wheat straw in the tobacco field. The percentage of aggregates >2 mm increased with straw incorporation when measured by either dry or wet sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD in straw incorporation treatments were higher than those in the no-straw control (CK. Maize straw increased soil aggregate stability more than wheat straw with the same incorporation amount. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. Sucrase and urease were both significantly and positively correlated with soil alkali-hydrolysable N. Catalase was significantly but negatively correlated with soil extractable K (EK. The MWD and GMD by dry sieving had significantly positive correlations with SOC, total N, total K, and EK, but only significantly correlated with EK by wet sieving. Therefore, soil nutrients, metabolic enzyme activity, and aggregate stability might be increased by increasing the SOC content through the maize or wheat straw incorporation. Moreover, incorporation of maize straw at 7500 kg·hm−2 was the best choice to enhance soil fertility in the tobacco area of Eastern China.

  9. Do aggregate stability and soil organic matter content increase following organic inputs? (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; van Leeuwen, Jeroen P.; Bloem, Jaap; Steffens, Markus; Vala Ragnarsdóttir, Kristin


    Agriculture is facing several challenges such as loss of soil organic matter (SOM); thus, sustainable farming management practices are needed. Organic farming is growing as an alternative to conventional farming; in Iceland approximately 1% and in Austria 16% of utilized agricultural area is under organic farming practice. We analyzed the effect of different farming practices (organic, and conventional) on soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in grassland soils in Iceland and cropland soils in Austria. Organic farms differed from conventional farms by absence of chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. At these farms, we investigated soil physicochemical (e.g. soil texture, pH, CAL-extractable P and K) and microbiological properties (fungal and bacterial biomass and activity). The effects of farming practices on soil macroaggregate stability and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between different fractions were studied following a density fractionation. In Iceland, we sampled six grassland sites on Brown (BA) and Histic (HA) Andosols; two sites on extensively managed grasslands, two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. In Austria, we sampled four cropland sites on Haplic Chernozems; two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. We found significantly higher macroaggregate stability in the organic compared to the conventional grasslands in Iceland. In contrast, slightly higher macroaggregation in conventional compared to the organic farming practice was found in croplands in Austria, although the difference was not significant. Macroaggregates were positively correlated with fungal biomass in Iceland, and with Feo and fungal activity in Austria. In Austria, SOM content and nutrient status (except for lower CAL-extractable P at one site) were similar between organic and conventional farms. Our results show that the organic inputs may have enhanced macroaggregation in organic farming

  10. Effect of class F fly ash on fine sand compaction through soil stabilization. (United States)

    Mahvash, Siavash; López-Querol, Susana; Bahadori-Jahromi, Ali


    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the effect of fly ash (FA) on fine sand compaction and its suitability as a material for embankments. The literature review demonstrates the lack of research on stabilization of sandy material using FA. The study is concerned with the role of FA content in stabilized soil physical characteristics. The main aim of this paper is to determine the optimum quantity of FA content for stabilization of this type of soil. This is achieved through particle size distribution and compaction (standard proctor) tests. The sand was stabilized with three proportions of FA (5%, 10% and 15%) and constant cement content of 3% was used as an activator. For better comparison, the sand was also stabilized by 3% cement only so that the effect of FA could be observed more clearly. The results were in line with the literature for other types of soil, i.e. as the % of FA increases, reduction in maximum dry density and higher optimum moisture content were observed.

  11. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products. (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang


    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was soil.

  12. Innovative solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash. (United States)

    Li, Jiangshan; Poon, Chi Sun


    The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb. In addition, the leaching of Pb from the monolithic samples was diffusion controlled, and increasing the ISSA addition in the samples led to a lower diffusion coefficient and thus an increase in the feasibility for "controlled utilization" of S/S soils. Furthermore, the proposed S/S method significantly decreased the amount of Pb associated with carbonates and increased the amount of organic and residual Pb in S/S soils, reflecting that the risk of Pb contaminated soils can be effectively mitigated by the incorporating of ISSA. Overall, the leachability of Pb was controlled by the combined effect of adsorption, encapsulation or precipitation in the S/S soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochar affects carbon composition and stability in soil: a combined spectroscopy-microscopy study (United States)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Kerré, Bart; Kopittke, Peter M.; Horemans, Benjamin; Smolders, Erik


    The use of biochar can contribute to carbon (C) storage in soil. Upon addition of biochar, there is a spatial reorganization of C within soil particles, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used Fourier transformed infrared-microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine this reorganization. A silty-loam soil was amended with three different organic residues and with the biochar produced from these residues and incubated for 237 d. Soil respiration was lower in biochar-amended soils than in residue-amended soils. Fluorescence analysis of the dissolved organic matter revealed that biochar application increased a humic-like fluorescent component, likely associated with biochar-C in solution. The combined spectroscopy-microscopy approach revealed the accumulation of aromatic-C in discrete spots in the solid-phase of microaggregates and its co-localization with clay minerals for soil amended with raw residue or biochar.The co-localization of aromatic-C:polysaccharides-C was consistently reduced upon biochar application. We conclude that reduced C metabolism is an important mechanism for C stabilization in biochar-amended soils. PMID:27113269

  14. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong


    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  15. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema


    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  16. A novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication (United States)

    Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, R. M.; Wragg, J.


    Regulatory authorities need to establish rapid, cost-effective methods to measure soil physical indicators - such as aggregate stability - which can be applied to large numbers of soil samples to detect changes of soil quality through monitoring. Limitations of sieve-based methods to measure the stability of soil macro-aggregates include: i) the mass of stable aggregates is measured, only for a few, discrete sieve/size fractions, ii) no account is taken of the fundamental particle size distribution of the sub-sampled material, and iii) they are labour intensive. These limitations could be overcome by measurements with a Laser Granulometer (LG) instrument, but this technology has not been widely applied to the quantification of aggregate stability of soils. We present a novel method to quantify macro-aggregate (1-2 mm) stability. We measure the difference between the mean weight diameter (MWD; μm) of aggregates that are stable in circulating water of low ionic strength, and the MWD of the fundamental particles of the soil to which these aggregates are reduced by sonication. The suspension is circulated rapidly through a LG analytical cell from a connected vessel for ten seconds; during this period hydrodynamic forces associated with the circulating water lead to the destruction of unstable aggregates. The MWD of stable aggregates is then measured by LG. In the next step, the aggregates - which are kept in the vessel at a minimal water circulation speed - are subject to sonication (18W for ten minutes) so the vast majority of the sample is broken down into its fundamental particles. The suspension is then recirculated rapidly through the LG and the MWD measured again. We refer to the difference between these two measurements as disaggregation reduction (DR) - the reduction in MWD on disaggregation by sonication. Soil types with more stable aggregates have larger values of DR. The stable aggregates - which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the

  17. Towards understanding of carbon stocks and stabilization in volcanic ash soils in natural Andean ecosystems of northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, F.H.; Jansen, B.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Sevink, J.; de Lange, L.


    Volcanic ash soils contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute potential sources or sinks for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Whether soils become a net carbon source or sink with climate and/or land-use change depends on the stability of

  18. Sustainable stabilization of sulfate-bearing soils with expansive soil-rubber technology. (United States)


    The beneficial use of scrap tire rubber mixed with expansive soils is of interest to civil engineering : applications since the swell percent and the swell pressure can be potentially reduced with no deleterious : effect to the shear strength of the ...

  19. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo


    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  20. Transformations in soil organic matter and aggregate stability after conversion of Mediterranean forest to agriculture (United States)

    Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Almendros, Gonzalo; Carral, Pilar; Knicker, Heike; González Pérez, José Antonio; González Vila, Francisco Javier


    Conversion of forest ecosystems into croplands often leads to severe decrease of the soil organic matter (SOM) levels with the concomitant deterioration of soil structure. The present research focuses on the effects of cultivation on the stability of soil macroaggregates, as well as on the total quantity and quality of SOM. Three representative soils from central Spain (i.e., Petric Calcisol, Cutanic Luvisol and Calcic Vertisol) were sampled. Each site had natural vegetation (NV) dominated either by characteristic Mediterranean forest (dehesa) or cereal crops (CC) under conventional tillage. For each site, three spatial replicates of the NV and CC were sampled. Soil aggregate stability was measured by the wet sieving method. The structural stability index was then calculated as the mass of aggregated soil (>250 μm) remaining after wet sieving, as a percent of total aggregate weight. The analytical characterization of the SOM was carried out after chemical fractionation for quantifying the different organic pools: free organic matter (FOM), humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (H). Furthermore, whole soil samples pretreated with 10 % HF solution were analyzed by CP-MAS 13C NMR and the purified HA fraction was characterized by elementary analysis, visible and infrared spectroscopies and Py-GC/MS. A marked reduction in the proportion of stable aggregates when the natural ecosystem was converted to agriculture was observed. Values of the structural stability index (%) changed over from 96.2 to 38.1, 95.1 to 83.7 and 98.5 to 60.6 for the Calcisol, Luvisol and Vertisol respectively. Comparatively higher contents of SOM were found in the soils under NV (11.69 to 0.93, 3.29 to 2.72 and 9.51 to 0.79 g C100 g-1soil) even though a quantitative rearrangement of the SOM pools was noticed. In all sites, the relative contribution of the labile C (FOM) to the total SOM content decreased when the forest soils were converted into croplands, whereas the proportion of both

  1. Effect of metal oxides on the stabilization of soil organic matter (United States)

    Stelmach, Wioleta


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is protected from decomposition by three mechanisms: 1) biochemical stabilization through the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM compounds, 2) physical stabilization, i.e. spatial inaccessibility of SOM for microbes, and 3) chemical protection of SOM through intimate interaction with minerals and metal oxides. The latter mechanisms suggest that added organic substances (i.e. post-fermentation sludge) can be stabilized by metal oxides to increase C sequestration in soil. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Fe2O3 - one of the dominant metal oxides in soil - on the sequestration of post-fermentation sludge C in soil by separately tracing the decomposition of sludge and of SOM to carbon dioxide (CO2). To determine changes in SOM turnover after the addition of post-fermentation sludge without/with Fe2O3, the isotopic signatures of both C sources (SOM and post-fermentation sludge) were used. Using differences in the 13C natural abundance of the soil (C3 originated, δ13C = -26) and the post-fermentation sludge (C4 originated, δ13C = -18), the CO2 fluxes arising from both C sources were tracked. Addition of post-fermentation sludge to the soil increased the CO2 production by 30% compared to soil without sludge. δ13C analysis of the total CO2 efflux revealed that post-fermentation sludge decreased SOM decomposition. Fe2O3 slightly suppressed sludge decomposition, and therefore increased C sequestration in soil. Only 30% of the post-fermentation sludge had been mineralized after one month of incubation in the soil. The collective results of my study reveal that application of post-fermentation sludge suppresses SOM decomposition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer could positively influence long-term soil quality. Finally, the success of the 13C natural abundance microcosm labeling approach in my study supports its use as an effective method of analyzing the effects of various fertilization techniques on soil nutrient retention

  2. Stability performance and interface shear strength of geocomposite drain/soil systems (United States)

    Othman, Maidiana; Frost, Matthew; Dixon, Neil


    Landfill covers are designed as impermeable caps on top of waste containment facilities after the completion of landfill operations. Geocomposite drain (GD) materials consist of a geonet or geospacer (as a drainage core) sandwiched between non-woven geotextiles that act as separators and filters. GD provides a drainage function as part of the cover system. The stability performance of landfill cover system is largely controlled by the interface shear strength mobilized between the elements of the cover. If a GD is used, the interface shear strength properties between the upper surface of the GD and the overlying soil may govern stability of the system. It is not uncommon for fine grained materials to be used as cover soils. In these cases, understanding soil softening issues at the soil interface with the non-woven geotextile is important. Such softening can be caused by capillary break behaviour and build-up of water pressures from the toe of the drain upwards into the cover soil. The interaction processes to allow water flow into a GD core through the soil-geotextile interface is very complex. This paper reports the main behaviour of in-situ interface shear strength of soil-GD using field measurements on the trial landfill cover at Bletchley, UK. The soil softening at the interface due to soaked behaviour show a reduction in interface shear strength and this aspect should be emphasized in design specifications and construction control. The results also help to increase confidence in the understanding of the implications for design of cover systems.

  3. Stabilization of soil hydraulic properties under a long term no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Lozano


    Full Text Available The area under the no-tillage system (NT has been increasing over the last few years. Some authors indicate that stabilization of soil physical properties is reached after some years under NT while other authors debate this. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the last crop in the rotation sequence (1st year: maize, 2nd year: soybean, 3rd year: wheat/soybean on soil pore configuration and hydraulic properties in two different soils (site 1: loam, site 2: sandy loam from the Argentinean Pampas region under long-term NT treatments in order to determine if stabilization of soil physical properties is reached apart from a specific time in the crop sequence. In addition, we compared two procedures for evaluating water-conducting macroporosities, and evaluated the efficiency of the pedotransfer function ROSETTA in estimating the parameters of the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM model in these soils. Soil pore configuration and hydraulic properties were not stable and changed according to the crop sequence and the last crop grown in both sites. For both sites, saturated hydraulic conductivity, K0, water-conducting macroporosity, εma, and flow-weighted mean pore radius, R0ma, increased from the 1st to the 2nd year of the crop sequence, and this was attributed to the creation of water-conducting macropores by the maize roots. The VGM model adequately described the water retention curve (WRC for these soils, but not the hydraulic conductivity (K vs tension (h curve. The ROSETTA function failed in the estimation of these parameters. In summary, mean values of K0 ranged from 0.74 to 3.88 cm h-1. In studies on NT effects on soil physical properties, the crop effect must be considered.

  4. Experimental Evidence that Hemlock Mortality Enhances Carbon Stabilization in Southern Appalachian Forest Soils (United States)

    Fraterrigo, J.; Ream, K.; Knoepp, J.


    Forest insects and pathogens (FIPs) can cause uncertain changes in forest carbon balance, potentially influencing global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. We quantified the effects of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carr.) mortality on soil carbon fluxes and pools for a decade following either girdling or natural infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) to improve mechanistic understanding of soil carbon cycling response to FIPs. Although soil respiration (Rsoil) was similar among reference plots and plots with hemlock mortality, both girdled and HWA-infested plots had greater activities of β-glucosidase, a cellulose-hydrolyzing extracellular enzyme, and decreased O-horizon mass and fine root biomass from 2005 to 2013. During this period, total mineral soil carbon accumulated at a higher rate in disturbed plots than in reference plots in both the surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-30 cm); increases were predominantly in the mineral-associated fraction of the soil organic matter. In contrast, particulate organic matter carbon accrued slowly in surface soils and declined in the subsurface of girdled plots. δ13C values of this fraction demonstrate that particulate organic matter carbon in the surface soil has become more microbially processed over time, suggesting enhanced decomposition of organic matter in this pool. Together, these findings indicate that hemlock mortality and subsequent forest regrowth has led to enhanced soil carbon stabilization in southern Appalachian forests through the translocation of carbon from detritus and particulate soil organic matter pools to the mineral-associated organic matter pool. These findings have implications for ecosystem management and modeling, demonstrating that forests may tolerate moderate disturbance without diminishing soil carbon storage when there is a compensatory growth response by non-host trees.

  5. An in vivo invertebrate bioassay of Pb, Zn and Cd stabilization in contaminated soil. (United States)

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen


    The terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber) was used to assess the remediation efficiency of limestone and a mixture of gravel sludge and red mud as stabilizing agents of Pb, Zn and Cd in industrially polluted soil, which contains 800, 540 and 7mgkg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The aim of our study was to compare and evaluate the results of the biological and non-biological assessment of metal bioavailability after soil remediation. Results of a 14d bioaccumulation test with P. scaber showed that that Pb and Zn stabilization were more successful with gravel sludge and red mud, while Cd was better stabilized and thus less bioavailable following limestone treatment. In vivo bioaccumulation tests confirmed the results of chemical bioaccessibility, however it was more sensitive. Biotesting with isopods is a relevant approach for fast screening of bioavailability of metals in soils which includes temporal and spatial components. Bioavailability assessed by P. scaber is a more relevant and sensitive measure of metal bioavailability than chemical bioaccessibility testing in remediated industrially polluted soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S.


    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  7. Towards sustainability: artificial intelligent based approach for soil stabilization using various pozzolans

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, M. S.


    Due to the gradual depletion in the conventional resources, searching for a more rational road construction approach aimed at reducing the dependence on imported materials while improving the quality and durability of the roads is necessary. A previous study carried out on a sample of Egyptian soil aimed at reducing the road construction cost, protect the environment and achieving sustainability. RoadCem, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), lime and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) were employed to stabilise the Egyptian clayey soil. The results revealed that the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the test soil increased while the free swelling percent (FSP) decreased with an increase in the total stabiliser and the curing period. This paper discusses attempts to reach optimum stabilization through: (1) Recognizing the relationship between the UCS/FSP of stabilized soil and the stabilization parameters using artificial neural network (ANN); and (2) Performing a backward optimization on the developed (ANN) model using general algorithm (GA) to meet practical design preferences. © 2012 WIT Press.

  8. Stabilization of Pb and As in soils by applying combined treatment with phosphates and ferrous iron. (United States)

    Xenidis, Anthimos; Stouraiti, Christina; Papassiopi, Nymphodora


    The chemical immobilization of Pb and As in contaminated soil from Lavrion, Greece, using monocalcium phosphate and ferrous sulfate as stabilizing agents was investigated. Monocalcium phosphate was added to contaminated soil at PO(4) to Pb molar ratios equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5, whereas ferrous sulfate was added at Fe to As molar ratios equal to 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20. Phosphates addition to contaminated soil decreased Pb leachability, but resulted in significant mobilization of As. Simultaneous immobilization of Pb and As was obtained only when soil was treated with mixtures of phosphates and ferrous sulfate. Arsenic uptake by plants was also seen to increase when soil was treated only with phosphates, but co-addition of ferrous sulfate was efficient in maintaining As phytoaccumulation at low levels. The addition of at least 1.5M/M phosphates and 10M/M iron sulfate to soil reduced the dissolved levels of Pb and As in the water extracts to values in compliance with the EU drinking water standards. However, both additives contributed in the acidification of soil, decreasing pH from 7.8 to values as low as 5.6 and induced the mobilization of pH sensitive elements, such as Zn and Cd. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil water retention and structure stability as affected by water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrakh I. Mamedov


    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid zones with a short water resources studying the effects of water quality on soil water retention and structure is important for the development of effective soil and water conservation and management practices. Three water qualities (electrical conductivity, EC ~ 2, 100 and 500 μS cm-1 with a low SAR representing rain, canal-runoff and irrigation water respectively and semi-arid loam and clay soils were tested to evaluate an effect of soil texture and water quality on water retention, and aggregate and structure stability using the high energy moisture characteristic (HEMC method. The water retention curves obtained by the HEMC method were characterized by the modified van Genuchten (1980 model that provides (i model parameters α and n, which represent the location (of the inflection point and the steepness of the S-shaped water retention curve respectively, and (ii a volume of drainable pores (VDP, which is an indicator for the quantity of water released by the tested sample over the range of suction studied, and modal suction (MS, which corresponds to the most frequent pore sizes, and soil structure index, SI =VDP/MS. Generally (i treatments significantly affected the shape of the water retention curves (α and n and (ii contribution of soil type, water EC, and wetting rate and their interaction had considerable effect on the stability induces and model parameters. Most of changes due to the water quality and wetting condition were in the range of matric potential (ψ, 1.2-2.4; and 2.4-5.0 J kg-1 (pore size 125-250 μm and 60-125 μm. The VDP, SI and α increased, and MS and n decreased with the increase in clay content, water EC and the decrease in rate of aggregate wetting. The SI increased exponentially with the increase in VDP, and with the decrease in MS. Contribution of water EC on stability indices and model parameters was not linear and was soil dependent, and could be more valuable at medium water EC. Effect of

  10. Modeling of Soil Aggregate Stability using Support Vector Machines and Multiple Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Besalatpour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil aggregate stability is a key factor in soil resistivity to mechanical stresses, including the impacts of rainfall and surface runoff, and thus to water erosion (Canasveras et al., 2010. Various indicators have been proposed to characterize and quantify soil aggregate stability, for example percentage of water-stable aggregates (WSA, mean weight diameter (MWD, geometric mean diameter (GMD of aggregates, and water-dispersible clay (WDC content (Calero et al., 2008. Unfortunately, the experimental methods available to determine these indicators are laborious, time-consuming and difficult to standardize (Canasveras et al., 2010. Therefore, it would be advantageous if aggregate stability could be predicted indirectly from more easily available data (Besalatpour et al., 2014. The main objective of this study is to investigate the potential use of support vector machines (SVMs method for estimating soil aggregate stability (as quantified by GMD as compared to multiple linear regression approach. Materials and Methods: The study area was part of the Bazoft watershed (31° 37′ to 32° 39′ N and 49° 34′ to 50° 32′ E, which is located in the Northern part of the Karun river basin in central Iran. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from the top 5 cm of soil surface. Some easily available characteristics including topographic, vegetation, and soil properties were used as inputs. Soil organic matter (SOM content was determined by the Walkley-Black method (Nelson & Sommers, 1986. Particle size distribution in the soil samples (clay, silt, sand, fine sand, and very fine sand were measured using the procedure described by Gee & Bauder (1986 and calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE content was determined by the back-titration method (Nelson, 1982. The modified Kemper & Rosenau (1986 method was used to determine wet-aggregate stability (GMD. The topographic attributes of elevation, slope, and aspect were characterized using a 20-m

  11. Stability Behavior and Thermodynamic States of Iron and Manganese in Sandy Soil Aquifer, Manukan Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chin Yik, E-mail: [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, School of Science and Technology (Malaysia); Abdullah, Mohd. Harun [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Water Research Unit, School of Science and Technology (Malaysia); Musta, Baba; Praveena, Sarva Mangala [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, School of Science and Technology (Malaysia); Aris, Ahmad Zaharin [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Environmental Studies (Malaysia)


    A total of 20 soil samples were collected from 10 boreholes constructed in the low lying area, which included ancillary samples taken from the high elevation area. Redox processes were investigated in the soil as well as groundwater in the shallow groundwater aquifer of Manukan Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Groundwater samples (n = 10) from each boreholes were also collected in the low lying area to understand the concentrations and behaviors of Fe and Mn in the dissolved state. This study strives to obtain a general understanding of the stability behaviors on Fe and Mn at the upper unsaturated and the lower-saturated soil horizons in the low lying area of Manukan Island as these elements usually play a major role in the redox chemistry of the shallow groundwater. Thermodynamic calculations using PHREEQC showed that the groundwater samples in the study area are oversaturated with respect to goethite, hematite, Fe(OH){sub 3} and undersaturated with respect to manganite and pyrochroite. Low concentrations of Fe and Mn in the groundwater might be probably due to the lack of minerals of iron and manganese oxides, which exist in the sandy aquifer. In fact, high organic matters that present in the unsaturated horizon are believed to be responsible for the high Mn content in the soil. It was observed that the soil samples collected from high elevation area (BK) comprises considerable amount of Fe in both unsaturated (6675.87 mg/kg) and saturated horizons (31440.49 mg/kg) compared to the low Fe content in the low lying area. Based on the stability diagram, the groundwater composition lies within the stability field for Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+} under suboxic condition and very close to the FeS/Fe{sup 2+} stability boundary. This study also shows that both pH and Eh values comprise a strong negative value thus suggesting that the redox potential is inversely dependent on the changes of pH.

  12. Stability Behavior and Thermodynamic States of Iron and Manganese in Sandy Soil Aquifer, Manukan Island, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chin Yik; Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Musta, Baba; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin


    A total of 20 soil samples were collected from 10 boreholes constructed in the low lying area, which included ancillary samples taken from the high elevation area. Redox processes were investigated in the soil as well as groundwater in the shallow groundwater aquifer of Manukan Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Groundwater samples (n = 10) from each boreholes were also collected in the low lying area to understand the concentrations and behaviors of Fe and Mn in the dissolved state. This study strives to obtain a general understanding of the stability behaviors on Fe and Mn at the upper unsaturated and the lower-saturated soil horizons in the low lying area of Manukan Island as these elements usually play a major role in the redox chemistry of the shallow groundwater. Thermodynamic calculations using PHREEQC showed that the groundwater samples in the study area are oversaturated with respect to goethite, hematite, Fe(OH) 3 and undersaturated with respect to manganite and pyrochroite. Low concentrations of Fe and Mn in the groundwater might be probably due to the lack of minerals of iron and manganese oxides, which exist in the sandy aquifer. In fact, high organic matters that present in the unsaturated horizon are believed to be responsible for the high Mn content in the soil. It was observed that the soil samples collected from high elevation area (BK) comprises considerable amount of Fe in both unsaturated (6675.87 mg/kg) and saturated horizons (31440.49 mg/kg) compared to the low Fe content in the low lying area. Based on the stability diagram, the groundwater composition lies within the stability field for Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ under suboxic condition and very close to the FeS/Fe 2+ stability boundary. This study also shows that both pH and Eh values comprise a strong negative value thus suggesting that the redox potential is inversely dependent on the changes of pH.

  13. Peroxidase-catalyzed stabilization of 2,4-dichlorophenol in alkali-extracted soils. (United States)

    Palomo, Mónica; Bhandari, Alok


    Horseradish peroxidase- (HRP) mediated stabilization of phenolic contaminants is a topic of interest due to its potential for remediation of contaminated soils. This study evaluated the sorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and its HRP-mediated stabilization in two alkali-extracted soils. Alkali extraction reduced the soil organic matter (SOM) contents of the geomaterials and enriched the residual SOM with humin C. Sorption of DCP on these sorbents was complete within 1 d. However, most of the sorbed DCP was removed from the geomaterials by water and methanol, suggesting weak solute-sorbent interactions. The addition of HRP resulted in the generation of DCP polymerization products (DPP), which partitioned between the aqueous and solid phases. The DPP phase distribution was rapid and complete within 24 h. Between 70 and 90% of the added DCP was converted to DPP and up to 43% of the initial aqueous phase contaminant was transformed into a residue that was resistant to extraction with methanol. Bound residues of DPP increased with initial aqueous phase solute concentration and remained fairly constant after 7 d of contact. Contaminant stabilization was noted to be high in the humin-mineral geomaterial. Results illustrate that HRP may be effective in stabilizing phenolic contaminants in subsoils that are likely to contain SOM enriched in humin C.

  14. Stability of Soil Organic Matter in Alpine Ecosystems: No Relationship with Vegetation (United States)

    Matteodo, M.; Sebag, D.; Vittoz, P.; Verrecchia, E. P.


    There is an emerging understanding of mechanisms governing soil organic matter (SOM) stability, which is challenging the historical view of carbon persistence1. According to this alternative vision, SOM stability is not directly regulated by the molecular structure of plant inputs (i.e. the historical view), but the biotic and abiotic conditions of the surrounding environment which play a major role and mediate the influence of compound chemistry. The persistence of SOM is thus influenced by ecological conditions, controlling the access and activity of decomposers' enzymes and being ecosystem-dependent. In this study, we investigated differences of (1) carbon content, and (2) stability of organic matter in litter and organomineral layers from the most widespread plant communities at the subalpine-alpine level of the Swiss Alps. For this purpose, 230 samples from 47 soil profiles have been analysed across seven plant communities, along a subalpine-alpine elevation gradient. Both calcareous and siliceous grasslands were studied, as well as snowbed and ridge communities. Aboveground litter and A horizons were sampled and analysed using Rock-Eval Pyrolysis, a proxy-technique commonly used for the investigation of organic matter composition and stability2,3. Results show that the litter layers of the seven plant communities are significantly different in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) content, but slightly variable in terms of stability. The situation is radically different in the organomineral horizons where the amount of organic carbon is interestingly homogeneous, as well as the SOM stability. In mineral horizons, the amount and stability of SOM are mainly driven by the geological settings, and therefore vary in the different plant communities. These results show a clear disconnection between organic, organomineral, and mineral horizons in terms of factors governing soil organic matter stability. Consistent with the recent view of the carbon balance, plant input

  15. Evaluation of methane oxidation activity in waste biocover soil during landfill stabilization. (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wang, Jing; Xia, Fang-Fang; Mao, Li-Juan; Shen, Dong-Sheng


    Biocover soil has been demonstrated to have high CH(4) oxidation capacity and is considered as a good alternative cover material to mitigate CH(4) emission from landfills, yet the response of CH(4) oxidation activity of biocover soils to the variation of CH(4) loading during landfill stabilization is poorly understood. Compared with a landfill cover soil (LCS) collected from Hangzhou Tianziling landfill cell, the development of CH(4) oxidation activity of waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated using simulated landfill systems in this study. Although a fluctuation of influent CH(4) flux occurred during landfill stabilization, the WBS covers showed a high CH(4) removal efficiency of 94-96% during the entire experiment. In the LCS covers, the CH(4) removal efficiencies varied with the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux, even negative ones occurred due to the storage of CH(4) in the soil porosities after the high CH(4) influent flux of ~137 gm(-2) d(-1). The lower concentrations of O(2) and CH(4) as well as the higher concentration of CO(2) were observed in the WBS covers than those in the LCS covers. The highest CH(4) oxidation rates of the two types of soil covers both occurred in the bottom layer (20-30 cm). Compared to the LCS, the WBS showed higher CH(4) oxidation activity and methane monooxygenase activity over the course of the experiment. Overall, this study indicated the WBS worked well for the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux during landfill stabilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity of soil carbon fractions and their specific stabilization mechanisms to extreme soil warming in a subarctic grassland. (United States)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Kätterer, Thomas; Leblans, Niki I W; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D


    Terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks to global warming are major uncertainties in climate models. For in-depth understanding of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) after soil warming, long-term responses of SOC stabilization mechanisms such as aggregation, organo-mineral interactions and chemical recalcitrance need to be addressed. This study investigated the effect of 6 years of geothermal soil warming on different SOC fractions in an unmanaged grassland in Iceland. Along an extreme warming gradient of +0 to ~+40 °C, we isolated five fractions of SOC that varied conceptually in turnover rate from active to passive in the following order: particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SOC in sand and stable aggregates (SA), SOC in silt and clay (SC-rSOC) and resistant SOC (rSOC). Soil warming of 0.6 °C increased bulk SOC by 22 ± 43% (0-10 cm soil layer) and 27 ± 54% (20-30 cm), while further warming led to exponential SOC depletion of up to 79 ± 14% (0-10 cm) and 74 ± 8% (20-30) in the most warmed plots (~+40 °C). Only the SA fraction was more sensitive than the bulk soil, with 93 ± 6% (0-10 cm) and 86 ± 13% (20-30 cm) SOC losses and the highest relative enrichment in 13 C as an indicator for the degree of decomposition (+1.6 ± 1.5‰ in 0-10 cm and +1.3 ± 0.8‰ in 20-30 cm). The SA fraction mass also declined along the warming gradient, while the SC fraction mass increased. This was explained by deactivation of aggregate-binding mechanisms. There was no difference between the responses of SC-rSOC (slow-cycling) and rSOC (passive) to warming, and 13 C enrichment in rSOC was equal to that in bulk soil. We concluded that the sensitivity of SOC to warming was not a function of age or chemical recalcitrance, but triggered by changes in biophysical stabilization mechanisms, such as aggregation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Innovative electrical technique for in-place stabilization of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Timmerman, C.L.


    This paper discusses an emerging thermoelectric process known as in situ vitrification as a potential method for stabilizing buried waste inplace. The paper describes the Scott-Tee power system for the large-scale testing unit and how its design was developed. A brief synopsis of the performance assessments that have been conducted with regard to waste form quality, effect of soil conditions on processing, physical constraints of the process, and vitrification of soils containing organic and hazardous components is presented. A summary of an economic analysis is also provided

  18. Nitrogen stabilization in organo-mineral fractions from soils with different land uses (United States)

    Giannetta, Beatrice; Zaccone, Claudio; Rovira, Pere; Vischetti, Costantino; Plaza, César


    Understanding the processes that control quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) interacting with mineral surfaces is of paramount importance. Although several physical fractionation methods have been proposed to date to obtain fractions that mirror SOM degree of stability and protection, a detailed quantification of stabilisation modes through which SOM bounds to the mineral matrix is still lacking. In this research we determined C and N distribution in several soils including coniferous and broadleaved forest soils, grassland soils, technosols and an agricultural soil amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20 t/ha in a factorial combination with two types of organic amendment (municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge). We performed a physical size fractionation by ultrasonic dispersion and wet sieving, splitting particles into four different size fractions: coarse sand (2000-200 µm diameter), fine sand (200-50 µm), coarse silt (50-20 µm) and fine silt plus clay (use of sequential extractions with chemical reagents (potassium sulphate, sodium tetraborate, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide after weak acid attack, sodium hydroxide after sodium dithionite pretreatment, and sodium hydroxide after hydrofluoric acid pretreatments). Elemental analysis (CHN) was then carried out on SOM pools isolated from different fractions. Preliminary data show that, for all land uses in general, and for grassland soils in particular, most of the total N is found in organo-mineral complexes (fraction soil N content. Although a small N loss was observed during the fractionation procedure, especially in N-rich samples, and data analysis is still ongoing, these preliminary results could already represent a valuable insight into organic N stabilization by mineral matrix.

  19. Assessing Soil Organic C Stability at the Continental Scale: An Analysis of Soil C and Radiocarbon Profiles Across the NEON Sites (United States)

    Heckman, K. A.; Gallo, A.; Hatten, J. A.; Swanston, C.; McKnight, D. M.; Strahm, B. D.; Sanclements, M.


    Soil carbon stocks have become recognized as increasingly important in the context of climate change and global C cycle modeling. As modelers seek to identify key parameters affecting the size and stability of belowground C stocks, attention has been drawn to the mineral matrix and the soil physiochemical factors influenced by it. Though clay content has often been utilized as a convenient and key explanatory variable for soil C dynamics, its utility has recently come under scrutiny as new paradigms of soil organic matter stabilization have been developed. We utilized soil cores from a range of National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) experimental plots to examine the influence of physicochemical parameters on soil C stocks and turnover, and their relative importance in comparison to climatic variables. Soils were cored at NEON sites, sampled by genetic horizon, and density separated into light fractions (particulate organics neither occluded within aggregates nor associated with mineral surfaces), occluded fractions (particulate organics occluded within aggregates), and heavy fractions (organics associated with mineral surfaces). Bulk soils and density fractions were measured for % C and radiocarbon abundance (as a measure of C stability). Carbon and radiocarbon abundances were examined among fractions and in the context of climatic variables (temperature, precipitation, elevation) and soil physiochemical variables (% clay and pH). No direct relationships between temperature and soil C or radiocarbon abundances were found. As a whole, soil radiocarbon abundance in density fractions decreased in the order of light>heavy>occluded, highlighting the importance of both surface sorption and aggregation to the preservation of organics. Radiocarbon abundance was correlated with pH, with variance also grouping by dominate vegetation type. Soil order was also identified as an important proxy variable for C and radiocarbon abundance. Preliminary results suggest that

  20. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase I: Soil washing final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the highest initial level of soil provided for testing was 41 pCi/g). Although the throughput of the soil washing system was inconsistent throughout the testing period, the system was online for sufficient periods to conclude that a rate equivalent to 0.25 cubic yards per hour was achieved

  1. Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash. (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Hyun, Seunghun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Ok, Yong Sik


    A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM-EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS-FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS-FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil.

  2. Soil application of sewage sludge stabilized with steelmaking slag and its effect on soil properties and wheat growth. (United States)

    Samara, Eftihia; Matsi, Theodora; Balidakis, Athanasios


    The effect of sewage sludge, stabilized with steelmaking slag, on soil chemical properties and fertility and on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth was evaluated. Dewatered sewage sludge [75% (wet weight basis)] stabilized with steelmaking slag (25%) and three soils with different pH values were used in a pot experiment with winter wheat. The following treatments were applied: (i) sludge addition of 30gkg -1 (≈ 120Mgha -1 , rate equivalent to the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat, based on sludge's water soluble NO 3 -N), (ii) sludge addition of 10gkg -1 (≈ 40Mgha -1 , rate equivalent to the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat, based on sludge's Kjeldahl-N), (iii) addition of the common inorganic N fertilization for wheat (120kgNha -1 ) as NH 4 NO 3 , (iv) control (no fertilizer, no sludge). Sludge application at both rates to all soils resulted in a significant increase of pH, electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (EC se ) and soil available NO 3 -N and P, in comparison to the other two treatments and this increase remained constant till the end of the pot experiment. In sludge treatments pH did not exceed the critical value of 8.5, whereas EC se , although it did not reach the limit of 4dSm -1 , exceeded the value of 2dSm -1 at the rate of 30gkg -1 . Concentrations of heavy metals, which regulate the agronomic use of sewage sludge according to the established legislation, ranged from not detectable to lower than the respective permissible levels. Both rates of sludge's addition in all soils improved wheat's growth, as judged by the significant increase of the aboveground biomass yield and the total plant uptake of almost all nutrients, compared to the other two treatments. It was concluded that sewage sludge stabilized with steelmaking slag could be used in agriculture, applied at rates based on sludge's Kjeldahl-N content and crop's demand for N. However, potential environmental impacts must also be considered. Copyright © 2017

  3. Topsoil and Deep Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Vary with Aggregate Size and Vegetation Type in Subtropical China (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Wan, Song-Ze; Yang, Qing-Pei; Shi, Jian-Min


    The impact of reforestation on soil organic carbon (OC), especially in deep layer, is poorly understood and deep soil OC stabilization in relation with aggregation and vegetation type in afforested area is unknown. Here, we collected topsoil (0–15 cm) and deep soil (30–45 cm) from six paired coniferous forests (CF) and broad-leaved forests (BF) reforested in the early 1990s in subtropical China. Soil aggregates were separated by size by dry sieving and OC stability was measured by closed-jar alkali-absorption in 71 incubation days. Soil OC concentration and mean weight diameter were higher in BF than CF. The cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin, mg CO2-C kg-1 soil) varied with aggregate size in BF and CF topsoils, and in deep soil, it was higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates in BF, but not CF. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Meanwhile, SOCmin was greater in CF than in BF at topsoil and deep soil aggregates. In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. Total nitrogen (N) and the ratio of carbon to phosphorus (C/P) were generally higher in BF than in CF in topsoil and deep soil aggregates, while the same trend of N/P was only found in deep soil aggregates. Moreover, the SOCmin negatively correlated with OC, total N, C/P and N/P. This work suggests that reforested vegetation type might play an important role in soil OC storage through internal nutrient cycling. Soil depth and aggregate size influenced OC stability, and deep soil OC stability could be altered by vegetation reforested about 20 years. PMID:26418563

  4. Soil organic matter stability as indicated by compound-specific radiocarbon analyses (United States)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Zell, Claudia; Hagedorn, Frank; McIntyre, Cameron; Eglinton, Timothy Ian


    Carbon storage in soils is increasingly recognized as a key ecosystem function, and molecular-level analyses could be a valuable potential indicator of this storage potential. In this framework, radiocarbon constitutes a powerful tool for unraveling soil carbon dynamics on both decadal as well as centennial and millennial timescales. In this study, we look at the radiocarbon signature of specific compounds (fatty acids and n-alkanes) in two forested ecosystems (temperate and pre-alpine) with the aim of attaining a better understanding of soil organic carbon stability on a molecular level. Radiocarbon dating of the fatty acids and n-alkanes has been coupled to abundance data of these compounds and additionally lignin phenols. We hypothesize that potentially, these long-chain apolar compounds could be a representative indicator of the mineral-bound soil organic carbon pool. These well-studied sites are part of the Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) program of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape research (WSL). Therefore, a wide suite of ancillary climatic and textural data is available for these sites. Initial results show a wide range of ages in the specific compounds which constitute a much larger range than the ages indicated by the density fractions done on the same samples. Overall, this study explores the use of molecular-level indicators to study soil organic matter dynamics, which could help assess the overall potential vulnerability of soil carbon in various ecosystems.

  5. Study on Strength Behavior of Organic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayshakhi Deb Nath


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of fly ash on the consistency, compactness, acidic properties, and strength of organic soil. The presence of organic content in the soil has detrimental impacts on the physical and strength behavior of soil. To investigate the effectiveness of fly ash in the stabilization of organic soil, two types of fly ashes (Type I and Type II at different percentages were used. It is found that fly ash significantly reduces the plasticity index of the organic soil, whereas the liquid and plastic limits increase. The dry density of the fly ash-soil mixture increases significantly, while the water requirement reduces due to the addition of fly ash. The increase of dry density compromises higher strength. The increase of qu with the increase of fly ash content is mainly due to the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, although the reduction in water content results from the addition of dry fly ash solid. Moreover, Type I fly ash contributes a higher value of qu compared to Type II fly ash. This is attributed to the characteristics of fly ash including CaO and CaO/SiO2 ratio.

  6. Effect of Polyvinyl Acetate Stabilization on the Swelling-Shrinkage Properties of Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu


    Full Text Available Polyvinyl acetate constitutes a class of polymers that can entirely dissolve in water to form a solution. In this study, polyvinyl acetate as a nontraditional chemical stabilizer was used in soil improvement. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of polyvinyl acetate on swelling-shrinkage properties of expansive soil. A series of shrink/swell tests were performed with adding polyvinyl acetate as amendment at a concentration 3 g/cm3 to four aggregate sizes in the range of 0–0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 1-2 mm, and 2–5 mm and five concentrations 1.5 g/cm3, 3 g/cm3, 4.5 g/cm3, 6 g/cm3, and 9 g/cm3 to soils with aggregate size in the range of 0.5–1 mm for comparison of results with those of untreated soils. The results show that all the linear swelling ratio (LSWR and linear shrinkage ratio (LSHR values of the treated specimens decrease. SEM images and the test results indicate the achieved reduction in volume change of the soil tested using soil pore filling and particle encapsulation.

  7. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.


    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  8. Soil stabilization by a prokaryotic desert crust - Implications for Precambrian land biota (United States)

    Campbell, S. E.


    The ecology of the cyanophyte-dominated stromatolitic mat forming the ground cover over desert areas of Utah and Colorado is investigated and implications for the formation of mature Precambrian soils are discussed. The activation of the growth of the two species of filamentous cyanophyte identified and the mobility of their multiple trichromes upon wetting are observed, accompanied by the production and deposition of a sheath capable of accreting and stabilizing sand and clay particles. The formation of calcium carbonate precipitates upon the repeated wetting and drying of desert crust is noted, and it is suggested that the desert crust community may appear in fossil calcrete deposits as lithified microscopic tubes and cellular remains of algal trichromes. The invasion of dry land by both marine and freshwater algae on the model of the desert crust is proposed to be responsible for the accumulation, stabilization and biogenic modification of mature Precambrian soils.

  9. Iron-mediated stabilization of soil carbon amplifies the benefits of ecological restoration in degraded lands. (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Doane, Timothy A; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Valverde, Vinicius; Pereira, Engil I P; Horwath, William R


    Recent observations across a 14-year restoration chronosequence have shown an unexpected accumulation of soil organic carbon in strip-mined areas of central Brazil. This was attributed to the rapid plant colonization that followed the incorporation of biosolids into exposed regoliths, but the specific mechanisms involved in the stabilization of carbon inputs from the vegetation remained unclear. Using isotopic and elemental analyses, we tested the hypothesis that plant-derived carbon accumulation was triggered by the formation of iron-coordinated complexes, stabilized into physically protected (occluded) soil fractions. Confirming this hypothesis, we identified a fast formation of microaggregates shortly after the application of iron-rich biosolids, which was characterized by a strong association between pyrophosphate-extractable iron and plant-derived organic matter. The formation of microaggregates preceded the development of macroaggregates, which drastically increased soil carbon content (-140 Mg C/ha) a few years after restoration. Consistent with previous theoretical work, iron-coordinated organic complexes served as nuclei for aggregate formation, reflecting the synergistic effect of biological, chemical, and physical mechanisms of carbon stabilization in developing soils. Nevertheless, iron was not the only factor affecting soil carbon content. The highest carbon accumulation was observed during the period of highest plant diversity (> 30 species; years 3-6), declining significantly with the exclusion of native species by invasive grasses (years 9-14). Furthermore, the increasing dominance of invasive grasses was associated with a steady decline in the concentration of soil nitrogen and phosphorus per unit of accumulated carbon. These results demonstrate the importance of interdependent ecological and biogeochemical processes, and the role of soil-plant interactions in determining the success of restoration efforts. In contrast with previous but

  10. Quality of Irrigation Water Affects Soil Functionality and Bacterial Community Stability in Response to Heat Disturbance. (United States)

    Frenk, Sammy; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror


    Anthropogenic activities alter the structure and function of a bacterial community. Furthermore, bacterial communities structured by the conditions the anthropogenic activities present may consequently reduce their stability in response to an unpredicted acute disturbance. The present mesocosm-scale study exposed soil bacterial communities to different irrigation water types, including freshwater, fertilized freshwater, treated wastewater, and artificial wastewater, and evaluated their response to a disturbance caused by heat. These effectors may be considered deterministic and stochastic forces common in agricultural operations of arid and semiarid regions. Bacterial communities under conditions of high mineral and organic carbon availability (artificial wastewater) differed from the native bacterial community and showed a proteobacterial dominance. These bacterial communities had a lower resistance to the heat treatment disturbance than soils under conditions of low resource availability (high-quality treated wastewater or freshwater). The latter soil bacterial communities showed a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Bacilli These results were elucidated by soil under conditions of high resource availability, which lost higher degrees of functional potential and had a greater bacterial community composition change. However, the functional resilience, after the disturbance ended, was higher under a condition of high resource availability despite the bacterial community composition shift and the decrease in species richness. The functional resilience was directly connected to the high growth rates of certain Bacteroidetes and proteobacterial groups. A high stability was found in samples that supported the coexistence of both resistant OTUs and fast-growing OTUs. IMPORTANCE This report presents the results of a study employing a hypothesis-based experimental approach to reveal the forces involved in determining the stability of a

  11. Spatial arrangement of organic compounds on a model mineral surface: implications for soil organic matter stabilization. (United States)

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie A


    The complexity of the mineral-organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise.

  12. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.


    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  13. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.


    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  14. Metal immobilization and phosphorus leaching after stabilization of pyrite ash contaminated soil by phosphate amendments. (United States)

    Zupančič, Marija; Lavrič, Simona; Bukovec, Peter


    In this study we would like to show the importance of a holistic approach to evaluation of chemical stabilization using phosphate amendments. An extensive evaluation of metal stabilization in contaminated soil and an evaluation of the leaching of phosphorus induced after treatment were performed. The soil was highly contaminated with Cu (2894 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3884 mg kg(-1)), As (247 mg kg(-1)), Cd (12.6 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (3154 mg kg(-1)). To immobilize the metals, mixtures of soil with phosphate (from H(3)PO(4) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with varying ratios) were prepared with a constant Pb : P molar ratio of 1: 10. The acetic acid extractable concentration of Pb in the mixture with the highest amount of added phosphoric acid (n(H(3)PO(4)) : n(HA) = 3 : 1) was reduced to 1.9% (0.62 mg L(-1)) of the extractable Pb concentration in the untreated soil, but the content of water extractable phosphorus in the samples increased from 0.04 mg L(-1) in the untreated soil sample up to 14.3 mg L(-1) in the same n(H(3)PO(4)) : n(HA) = 3 : 1 mixture. The high increase in arsenic mobility was also observed after phosphate addition. The PBET test showed phosphate induced reduction in Pb bioavailability. In attempting to stabilize Pb in the soil with the minimum treatment-induced leaching of phosphorus, it was found that a mixture of soil with phosphate addition in the molar ratio of H(3)PO(4) : HA of 0.75 : 1 showed the most promising results, with an acetic acid extractable Pb concentration of 1.35 mg L(-1) and a water extractable phosphorus concentration of 1.76 mg L(-1). The time-dependent leaching characteristics of metals and phosphorus for this mixture were evaluated by a column experiment, where irrigation of the soil mixture with the average annual amount of precipitation in Slovenia (1000 mm) was simulated. The phosphorus concentration in the leachates decreased from 2.60 mg L(-1) at the beginning of irrigation to 1.00 mg L(-1) at the end.

  15. Use of Biomass Ash as a stabilization agent for expansive marly soils (SE Spain) (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Caro, J. M.; Irigaray, C.; Corpas, F.; Ramirez, A.; Rivas, F.; Salazar, L. M.; Mochón, I.


    In recent years, several biomass power plants have been installed in Southeastern Spain to reuse olive oil industry residues. This energy production tries to reduce the high costs associated with fossil fuels, but without entering into direct competition to traditional food crops. The waste management in these biomass energy plants is still an issue since there are non-flammable materials which remains after incineration in the form of ashes. In Southeastern Spain there is also a great amount of clayey and marly soils whose volume is very sensitive to changes in climate conditions, making them unsuitable for civil engineering. We propose the use of biomass ash (both fly ash and bottom ash) as a stabilization agent for expansive soils in order to improve the efficiency of construction processes by using locally available materials. In this work biomass ashes from a biomass power plant in Southeastern Spain have been used to stabilize 6 samples of local marly soil. Those 6 samples of expansive soil were mixed with different dosages of biomass ash (2%, 4% and 7%) to create 18 specimens of treated soil, which were submitted to Proctor, Atterberg Limits, pH and Free Swell Index tests, following Spanish Standards UNE by AENOR. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) tests by powder method were also carried out, using a diffractometer Philips X'Pert-MPD. The results obtained for the original untreated marly soil were: PI = 34.6; Free Swell = 12.5; pH = 8. By adding biomass ash the value of the plasticity index (PI) became slightly lower although it was not low enough as to obtain a non-plastic soil (PI under 25). However, there were dramatical decreases of free swell index (FSI) after the stabilization treatment: FSI concrete composites), the optimum dosages, etc. The further research is also necessary to better understand the mineralogy changes occurred within the crystalline structure. Nevertheless, these first results let us infer that biomass ash from power plants has a high capacity

  16. Tradeoffs of 20 Years of Management on the Sequestration, Stratification, and Stabilization of Soil Organic Matter (United States)

    Chiartas, Jessica


    .05 Mg/ha. Low-input/mixed systems seemed to increase in SOC when considering only the top 0-30cm, but surficial gains were offset by losses from 30-100cm leading to an overall profile loss of 5.26Mg/ha. All wheat/fallow systems gained in SOC, specifically from 30-100cm. Results such as these can help better inform global models regarding changes in the quantity and stability of soil carbon across different management strategies (10) under a Mediterranean climate.

  17. Assessment of environmental stability of agroserous soil according to indicator of energy potential of organic substances (United States)

    Murtazina, S. G.; Gaffarova, L. G.; Murtazin, MG


    Studies of the group and fractional composition of humus have determineded that the long-term use of soil (for 20 years) without the use of fertilizers (control) leads to a decrease in the content of humic acids and fulvic acids relative to the initial soil, which indicates an increase in mineralization of the soil humus. Under the influence of a long application of high doses of mineral fertilizers, the content of mobile fractions of humic and fulvic acids in the field rotation increases in the humus content. In systems of agriculture that are not balanced by organic matter, which are predominant in most farms of the Republic of Tatarstan, the use of very high doses of potassium fertilizers is not justified energetically. To compensate for losses of humus and its energy potential in calculating organic fertilizers on backgrounds with high doses of mineral fertilizers, the humification coefficients of organic residues should be increased by 30-40% during the rotational period of 5-6 years, which will reduce the loss of energy reserves and thereby improve the ecological stability of soils and the stability of agricultural landscapes

  18. Method and Mechanisms of Soil Stabilization Using Electric Arc Furnace Dust (United States)

    Al-Amoudi, Omar S. Baghabra; Al-Homidy, Abdullah A.; Maslehuddin, Mohammed; Saleh, Tawfik A.


    This paper reports the method and mechanism for improving the strength of marl and desert sand utilizing electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), an industrial by-product, in lieu of cement or lime. EAFD was used in conjunction with a small quantity (2%) of cement. The mechanical properties and durability characteristics of marl and sand mixed with 2% cement plus 5-, 10-, 20- or 30%-EAFD, by weight of the soil, were evaluated. The soil-cement-EAFD mixtures were used to determine their unconfined compressive strength (UCS), soaked California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and durability. The risk of leaching of toxic heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium, from the stabilized soils to the groundwater was also investigated. The mechanisms of stabilization of the selected soils due to the use of EAFD along with a small quantity of cement are also elucidated. The usage of 20 to 30% EAFD with 2% cement was noted to considerably improve the mechanical properties and durability of both marl and sand.

  19. Probabilistic evaluation method of stability of ground and slope considering spatial randomness of soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtori, Yasuki


    In the JEAG4601-1987 (Japan Electric Association Guide for earthquake resistance design), either the conventional deterministic method or probabilistic method is used for evaluating the stability of ground foundations and surrounding slopes in nuclear power plants. The deterministic method, in which the soil properties of 'mean ± coefficient x standard deviation' is adopted for the calculations, is generally used in the design stage to data. On the other hand, the probabilistic method, in which the soil properties assume to have probabilistic distributions, is stated as a future method. The deterministic method facilitates the evaluation, however, it is necessary to clarify the relation with the probabilistic method. In this paper, the relationship between the deterministic and the probabilistic methods are investigated. To do that, a simple model that can take into account the dynamic effect of structures and a simplified method for accounting the spatial randomness are proposed and used for the studies. As the results of studies, it is found that the strength of soil properties is most importation factor for the stability of ground structures and the probability below the safety factor evaluated with the soil properties of mean -1.0 x standard deviation' by the deterministic method is of much lower. (author)

  20. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Pedrera-Parrilla, Aura; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl


    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil-water content (SWC) variability in agricultural fields is useful for improving crop management. Spatial patterns of SWC can be characterized using temporal stability analysis of difficult-to-obtain data from high spatial density and temporal frequency. Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurements with high spatial density have been widely used to infer the spatial variability of SWC. The objective of this work is to test the hypothesis that temporal stability of ECa can be demonstrated and that relationships between temporal stability characteristics of SWC and ECa can be established. Apparent electrical conductivity and topsoil gravimetric SWC (θ) were periodically measured in an olive orchard in southwest Spain on 6 and 18 occasions, respectively. A temporal stability analysis of ECa elucidated three zones where ECa was close to, consistently substantially smaller than, and substantially larger than the spatial average ECa throughout the study period. Representative locations for θ were found with a chance of 75% within the representative zone for ECa. Yet, the driest locations, with consistently smaller θ than the field average (〈 θ 〉), could be successfully identified (89%) within the zone with consistently smaller ECa than average. The θ - 〈 θ 〉 relations showed generally a linear behaviour, although a better fit was obtained at the highest θ using either exponential or power law equations at half of the locations. The former provided the best fit within the zone with ECa consistently smaller than average, while the latter performed best in the zone with ECa consistently larger than average. The linear equation provided the best fit within the representative ECa zone. This study demonstrates that temporal stability characteristics of ECa and SWC are linked and that ECa surveys can be used to delimit zones with representative locations for SWC measurement or estimation. Such information is of

  1. Arsenic-containing soil from geogenic source in Hong Kong: Leaching characteristics and stabilization/solidification. (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Wang, Lei; Poon, Chi Sun; Li, Xiang-Dong; Fendorf, Scott


    Geogenic sources of arsenic (As) have aroused extensive environmental concerns in many countries. This study evaluated the vertical profiles, leaching characteristics, and surface characteristics of As-containing soils in Hong Kong. The results indicated that elevated levels of As (486-1985 mg kg -1 ) were mostly encountered in deeper layer (15-20 m below ground). Despite high concentrations, geogenic As displayed a high degree of chemical stability in the natural geochemical conditions, and there was minimal leaching of As in various leaching tests representing leachability, mobility, phytoavailability, and bioaccessibility. Microscopic/spectroscopic investigations suggested that As in the soils was predominantly present as As(V) in a coordination environment with Fe oxides. Sequential extraction indicated that the majority of As were strongly bound with crystalline Fe/Al oxides and residual phase. Yet, uncertainties may remain with potential As exposure through accidental ingestion and abiotic/biotic transformation due to changes in geochemical conditions. Hence, the effectiveness of stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatment was evaluated. Although the leached concentrations of As from the S/S treated soils increased to varying extent in different batch leaching tests due to the increase in alkalinity, the mobility of As was considered very low based on semi-dynamic leaching test. This suggested that As immobilization in the S/S treated soils was predominantly dependent on physical encapsulation by interlocking framework of hydration products, which could also prevent potential exposure and allow controlled utilization of S/S treated soils as monolithic materials. These results illustrate the importance of holistic assessment and treatment/management of As-containing soils for enabling flexible future land use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning. (United States)

    Tica, D; Udovic, M; Lestan, D


    Remediation soil is exposed to various environmental factors over time that can affect the final success of the operation. In the present study, we assessed Pb bioaccessibility and microbial activity in industrially polluted soil (Arnoldstein, Austria) stabilized with 5% (w/w) of Slovakite and 5% (w/w) of apatite soil after exposure to two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta, used as model environmental biotic soil factors. Stabilization resulted in reduced Pb bioaccessibility, as assessed with one-step extraction tests and six-step sequential extraction, and improved soil functioning, mirrored in reduced β-glucosidase activity in soil. Both earthworm species increased Pb bioaccessibility, thus decreasing the initial stabilization efficacy and indicating the importance of considering the long-term fate of remediated soil. The earthworm species had different effects on soil enzyme activity, which can be attributed to species-specific microbial populations in earthworm gut acting on the ingested soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical stabilization of baiji sand dunes in iraq 1. Effect of some soil stabilizers on the infiltration rate of sand


    Ahmed, Naif B. [نايف بكر احمد


    In this study, the effect of soil chemical stabilizers including polyvinyl alcohol 125,000 (PVA) (0.2% and 0.4%); ferquatac resin emulsion RB-50 (F.E.) (0.14, 0.18, 0.2 and 0.4 lm'2); bitumen emulsion Al-55 (B.E.) (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1.0 lm"2); aquapol resin 35-0019 (Aql) (0.33% and 0.66%) and aquapol resin 35-0031 (Aq2) (150, 175, 200 and 250 gm m ) on the infiltration rate of Baiji dunes sand was investigated. The results indicated that, both PVA concentrations increased the infiltration rat...

  4. Alkaline hydrothermal stabilization of Cr(VI) in soil using glass and aluminum from recycled municipal solid wastes. (United States)

    Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; D'Alessandro, Caterina; Allegretta, Ignazio; Porfido, Carlo; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Terzano, Roberto


    Hexavalent chromium was stabilized in soil by using a mixture of glass and aluminum recovered from municipal solid wastes under alkaline hydrothermal conditions. Cr(VI) concentration was reduced by 94-98% already after 7days of treatment. After the same period, more than 90% of total Cr was stabilized in highly recalcitrant and scarcely mobile chemical forms, with 50% in the residual fraction (when the samples were treated at 1/10w/w mixture/soil ratio). Longer treatments increased Cr stabilization. X-ray microanalyses revealed that Cr was stabilized in geopolymeric structures within large aluminosilicate mineral aggregates (containing both amorphous and crystalline phases). 3D microstructural analyses showed a limited compaction of the soil with still a 20% internal porosity in the neoformed aggregates. Increased pH and salinity after the treatment can be restored by simple soil amendments and washing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Influence of Plastic Waste Fibers on the Strength of Lime-Rice Husk Ash Stabilized Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Muntohar


    Full Text Available A study has been undertaken to investigate the strength of stabilized clay-soil reinforced with randomly distributed discrete plastic waste fibers by carrying out unconfined compressive strength and tensile-split strength test. In this study, the clay soil was stabilized with lime and rice husk ash mixtures. The effect of the fiber length and content on the compressive and split tensile strength was investigated. The laboratory investigation results show that inclusion of the plastic waste fiber increased significantly both the unconfined compressive strength and tensile-split strength of the stabilized clay soil. The fiber length plays a significant contribution in increasing the soil strength. To contribute for any significant improvement on compression as well as tensile strength, the fiber length should be in range of 20 mm to 40 mm. Fiber reinforcements also reduced soil brittleness by providing smaller loss of post-peak strength.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ivanova


    Full Text Available Purpose. This article is devoted to research of soil in complex engineering and geological conditions, as well as ways to improve the stability of the stacked bases structurally unstable soils. The relevance of this work lies in the solution of grounds stability problem interacting with foundations established on structurally unstable soils. In accordance with the researches results compiled recommendations aimed to the improvement of the base stability folded by structurally unstable soils is supposed. Methodology. The aim of the work is to improve the reliability of the strength characteristics obtained by the method of mathematical modeling of the expected processes. The objective was the enhancements the existing testing methods and technologies in order to determine the relative value of safety factor and reliability assessment of the bearing capacity of the base folded structurally unstable soils. Findings. This system was designed to ensure the automated measurement of deformation parameters on the on-line with followed mathematical processing and presentation of data in an accessible form. Thus, the obtained results allow drawing the conclusions about the patterns of structure strain state, as well as predicting its future behavior. It all depended on well-formed mathematical algorithm, which is adjusted by tests conducted in natural conditions in selected regions of the Donbass region. Originality. One of the most effective ways to start and register a timely activation of deformation processes in plant cells from the damaging effects is the use of automated systems with high reliability which receive signals from the deformable objects. The main tool used to solve the problem, was the method of mathematical modeling in ACS reproducing receptive model processes in the soil with a program «HRUNT» and «MONOMAKH». And modeling the three-dimensional base of the building on the joint work of the soil mass and building by the finite

  7. Stabilization of contaminated soil and wastewater with chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.


    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed chemically Bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology to stabilize the U.S. Department of Energy's problem mixed waste streams, for which no other stabilization technology is suitable. In this technology, solid waste is mixed with MgO and reacted with aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid or acid phosphates at room temperature to form a slurry that sets in ∼2 h into a hard and dense ceramic waste form. Initial studies involved stabilizing the surrogate waste streams and then testing the waste forms for leaching of contaminants. After achieving satisfactory performance of the waste forms, we next incorporated actual waste streams at bench scale and produced waste forms that were then tested with the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This presentation deals with stabilization of soil contaminated with Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag, Ba, and Hg, and of low-level radioactive wastewater. To enhance the contaminant levels in the soil, we further spiked the soil with additional amounts of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg. Both the soil and the wastewater were incorporated in the same waste form by stabilizing them with the CBPC process. The waste forms had a total waste loading of ∼77 wt.% and were dense with an open porosity of 2.7 vol.% and a density of 2.17 g/cm 3 . Compression strength was 4910 psi. The TCLP results showed excellent immobilization of all the RCRA metals, and radioactive contaminant levels were below the detection limit of 0.2 pCi/mL. Long-term leaching studies using the ANS 16.1 procedure showed that the retention of contaminants is excellent and comparable to or better than most of other stabilization processes. These results demonstrate that the CBPC process is a very superior process for treatment of low level mixed wastes; we therefore conclude that the CBPC process is well suited to the treatment of low-level mixed waste streams with high waste loading

  8. Arsenic stability and mobilization in soil at an amenity grassland overlying chemical waste (St. Helens, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Apartado 4195, 30080 Murcia (Spain); French, Christopher [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Piearce, Trevor G. [Biological Sciences Division, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)


    A 6.6 ha grassland, established on a former chemical waste site adjacent to a residential area, contains arsenic (As) in surface soil at concentrations 200 times higher than UK Soil Guideline Values. The site is not recognized as statutory contaminated land, partly on the assumption that mobility of the metalloid presents a negligible threat to human health, groundwater and ecological receptors. Evidence for this is evaluated, based on studies of the effect of organic (green waste compost) and inorganic (iron oxides, lime and phosphate) amendments on As fractionation, mobility, plant uptake and earthworm communities. Arsenic mobility in soil was low but significantly related to dissolved organic matter and phosphate, with immobilization associated with iron oxides. Plant uptake was low and there was little apparent impact on earthworms. The existing vegetation cover reduces re-entrainment of dust-blown particulates and pathways of As exposure via this route. Minimizing risks to receptors requires avoidance of soil exposure, and no compost or phosphate application. - Stabilization of alkali industry waste requires careful management to minimise soil arsenic mobilization and dispersal to the wider environment.

  9. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng


    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rain water drop impact as a laboratory methodology to determinate the soils structural stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Dora M; Amezquita E


    To avoid degradation, it is necessary to have (sufficiently) sensitive parameter to the use actions, so that it is possible to determine what negative changes are happening and to take the soil management measures that avoid the degradation. One of the main causes of degradation in the areas of hillside of Colombia is the erosion, which begins with the impact of the drop of rainwater on the bare soil. For this research samples of an oxic dystropepts were taken at two depths (0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm) to studying the susceptibility of its structure, to the impact of the drop falling from 2000 mm high. The samples were subjected to drop impact, in a special assembly apparatus that generated drops falling on samples that were 2-m below rotating in a rotations apparatus of generation of drops. As the time of impact advanced, the changes in the hydraulic conductivity were determined. This as parameter was used as an indicator appraiser of the structural resistance of the soils. The results show that the used methodology was sensitive to the situations of use of the soils. The initial hydraulic conductivity was higher in the production systems less intervened (natural forest, leucaena, with mulch, without mulch) and smaller in la those ones most intervened (monocrops of corn, bean, yuca), showing that human intervention has promotes a decay in the stability of soil structure

  11. Effect of Compaction Energy on Engineering Properties of Fly Ash –Granite Dust Stabilized Expansive Soil


    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Ranjan Kumar Moharana


    The effects of compaction energy on engineering properties of an expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of fly ash-granite dust have been discussed in this paper. Expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of fly ash-granite dust was compacted with five compaction energy levels. Maximum dry density and optimum moisture content corresponding to each energy level were determined. Based on these maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, samples were prepared for unco...

  12. Symbiosis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improves Root Tensile Strength and Soil Aggregate Stability. (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Zhenkun; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming


    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust) is a widely planted tree species on Loess Plateau for revegetation. Due to its symbiosis forming capability with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we explored the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass, root morphology, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability in a pot experiment. We inoculated R. pseudoacacia with/without AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis or Glomus versiforme), and measured root colonization, plant growth, root morphological characters, root tensile force and tensile strength, and parameters for soil aggregate stability at twelve weeks after inoculation. AM fungi colonized more than 70% plant root, significantly improved plant growth. Meanwhile, AM fungi elevated root morphological parameters, root tensile force, root tensile strength, Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) content in soil, and parameters for soil aggregate stability such as water stable aggregate (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD). Root length was highly correlated with WSA, MWD and GMD, while hyphae length was highly correlated with GRSP content. The improved R. pseudoacacia growth, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability indicated that AM fungi could accelerate soil fixation and stabilization with R. pseudoacacia, and its function in revegetation on Loess Plateau deserves more attention.

  13. Stabilization and incorporation into biomass of specific plant carbons during biodegradation in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, D.E.; Kassim, G.; Jarrell, W.M.; Martin, J.P.; Haider, K.; Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig


    The effect of soil type and incubation period on the biodegradation, incorporation into biomass, and stabilization in humus of 14 C-labeled cornstalk and/or wheat straw lignin, polysaccharide, and protein fractions were followed for one year. After 6 months, 56-68%, 6-21%, 71-81%, 63-75%, and 56-68% from wheat straw and from the lignin, polysaccharide, and protein fraction of wheat straw had been lost as CO 2 , respectively. Loss of CO 2 increased only slightly with further incubation. Greater amounts of CO 2 , especially during the early incubation stages, were evolved from neutral and alkaline soils (pH 7.0, 7.4, 7.8) than from acid soils (pH 5.0, 5.5). After one year, a major portion of the residual C from lignin was recovered in the humic acid fraction, relatively small amounts, 5 to 17% were lost upon acid hydrolysis, and generally <1% was found present in the biomass. Lesser amounts of the polysaccharide and protein carbons were incorporated into the humic acid, 17-20% and 16-27% respectively. Relatively greater amounts of the residual carbons of the polysaccharide and protein were incorporated into the biomass, 4.9-7.8% and 4.6-13.4%, respectively and higher percentages were lost upon acid hydrolysis, 56 to 81%. The results for the whole wheat straw were very similar to those of the protein fraction. Overall, more residual C was stabilized into humic acid in the acid soils than in the neutral soils. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Ridwan


    Full Text Available This paper compares the stabilizing effects of three different materials, namely: rice husk ash, powdered glass, and cement on the properties of lateritic soil. The basic properties of the lateritic soil were first obtained through colour, moisture content determination, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests. Each of the stabilizing materials was then mixed with the lateritic soil in varying percentages of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight of the soil. Thereafter, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR tests were carried out on the sample mixes to determine the effects of the materials on the lateritic soil. Chemical tests were also carried out on the samples to determine their percentage oxides composition. The compaction test showed that the highest maximum dry densities (MDD obtained for the mixed samples were 2.32 g/cm3 (at 2.5% cement addition, 2.28g/cm3 (at 5% powdered glass (PG addition and 2.18 g/cm3 (at 5% rice husk ash (RHA addition with corresponding optimum moisture contents (OMC of 10.06%, 14.3% and 12.31% respectively. The CBR tests showed that the CBR values increased in all cases as the materials were added with those of the cement and powdered glass giving the highest values and showing close semblance under unsoaked conditions. The chemical test showed that the significant oxides present in the cement, powdered glass and rice husk ash were CaO (53.60%, SiO2 (68.45% and SiO2 (89.84% respectively.

  15. Distinct Litter Stabilization Dynamics Pathways for Decomposition of Pine Needle and Fine Root Within Soil (United States)

    Mambelli, S.; Filley, T. R.; Bird, J.; Dawson, T.; Torn, M. S.


    The chemical composition of litter imparts a strong control on the initial rates of microbial decay but it is unclear how plant chemistry influences the ultimate stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the nature of the products stabilized. We determined the concentration and 13C enrichment of lignin phenols and substituted fatty acids (SFA) in SOM fractions from an experiment in which 13C- and 15N-labeled needles or fine roots were added to the mineral soil in a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. 1.5 y after litter addition, we analyzed bulk soil (humin (MRT ~270 y) fractions. Needles contained nearly 2 and 3x the lignin and SFA content per organic carbon unit as did roots. Lignin and SFA decreased from the free LF to the bulk soil to the humin fraction; and molecular properties were more similar within a SOM fraction regardless of the litter source. However, LF and humin from the root addition contained more lignin than from the needle addition. Based upon the relative movement of litter-derived 13C and 15N into SOM fractions during 1.5 y, it was proposed that the 13C accumulation in the humin fraction for needles was derived from high C/N, needle-derived biopolymer molecular fragments that are surficially associated with particles. In contrast, the root-derived material entering SOM fractions was much lower in C/N and was likely from microbial by-products. Consistent with this hypothesis, both lignin and SFA in the LF and humin fractions amended with enriched needles were highly enriched (+ 30-60 permil) with respect to the SOM fractions from soils amended with roots. These differences were large even considering the lower concentration of SFA and lignin in root material. Although the chemistry and MRT of LF and humin were dramatically different, the extent of 13C-enrichment among lignin and SFA were comparable for the needle experiment while most lignin phenols for the humin from the root addition had greater 13C

  16. Decomposition of heterogeneous organic matterand its long-term stabilization in soils (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.


    Soil organic matter is a complex mixture of material with heterogeneous biological, physical, and chemical properties. Decomposition models represent this heterogeneity either as a set of discrete pools with different residence times or as a continuum of qualities. It is unclear though, whether these two different approaches yield comparable predictions of organic matter dynamics. Here, we compare predictions from these two different approaches and propose an intermediate approach to study organic matter decomposition based on concepts from continuous models implemented numerically. We found that the disagreement between discrete and continuous approaches can be considerable depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the model and simulation time. The two approaches can diverge substantially for predicting long-term processes in soils. Based on our alternative approach, which is a modification of the continuous quality theory, we explored the temporal patterns that emerge by treating substrate heterogeneity explicitly. The analysis suggests that the pattern of carbon mineralization over time is highly dependent on the degree and form of nonlinearity in the model, mostly expressed as differences in microbial growth and efficiency for different substrates. Moreover, short-term stabilization and destabilization mechanisms operating simultaneously result in long-term accumulation of carbon characterized by low decomposition rates, independent of the characteristics of the incoming litter. We show that representation of heterogeneity in the decomposition process can lead to substantial improvements in our understanding of carbon mineralization and its long-term stability in soils.

  17. Cement improved highly weathered phyllite for highway subgrades: A case study in Shaanxi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Mao


    Full Text Available In a cost-saving move, the soft rocks composed of highly-weathered phyllites available on-site were used to fill the subgrade in the eastern Ankang section of the expressway of Shiyan to Tianshui, China. Cement admixture was used to improve the performance of the weathered phyllites. In order to determine the best mix ratio, values corresponding to compaction performance, unconfined compressive strength, and the California bearing ratio (CBR were analyzed for variable cement content weight percentages (3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% using test subgrade plots in the field. Field measurements of resilience modulus and deflection confirmed that the strength of the subgrade increased as the cement ratio increased. In order to further evaluate the cement/phyllite mixture, the performance of the 3% cement ratio sample was evaluated under saturated conditions (with various levels of moisture addition and soaking time using both the wetting deformation and resilient modulus values. Results suggest that moisture added and soaking time are key factors that affect the seepage depth, water content, and resilient modulus. The recommend values for the cement addition and for the water content are given out. This study can aid in prevention of highway damage by improving the foundation capacity and lengthening the lifecycle of the highway in phyllite distributed region at home and abroad.

  18. Stability and succession of the rhizosphere microbiota depends upon plant type and soil composition. (United States)

    Tkacz, Andrzej; Cheema, Jitender; Chandra, Govind; Grant, Alastair; Poole, Philip S


    We examined succession of the rhizosphere microbiota of three model plants (Arabidopsis, Medicago and Brachypodium) in compost and sand and three crops (Brassica, Pisum and Triticum) in compost alone. We used serial inoculation of 24 independent replicate microcosms over three plant generations for each plant/soil combination. Stochastic variation between replicates was surprisingly weak and by the third generation, replicate microcosms for each plant had communities that were very similar to each other but different to those of other plants or unplanted soil. Microbiota diversity remained high in compost, but declined drastically in sand, with bacterial opportunists and putative autotrophs becoming dominant. These dramatic differences indicate that many microbes cannot thrive on plant exudates alone and presumably also require carbon sources and/or nutrients from soil. Arabidopsis had the weakest influence on its microbiota and in compost replicate microcosms converged on three alternative community compositions rather than a single distinctive community. Organisms selected in rhizospheres can have positive or negative effects. Two abundant bacteria are shown to promote plant growth, but in Brassica the pathogen Olpidium brassicae came to dominate the fungal community. So plants exert strong selection on the rhizosphere microbiota but soil composition is critical to its stability. microbial succession/ plant-microbe interactions/rhizosphere microbiota/selection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bulgariu


    Full Text Available The distribution of minor elements in heterogeneous mineral / aqueous solutions systems represent one of important problem, with many applications in environmental geochemistry field. Ours studies was focus on the metal ions distribution in carbonate (CaCO3 / solution systems, from applicability point of view to the estimation of formation conditions and of carbonates stability from soils. On the base of our results obtained by sequential solid / liquid extraction for 17 soil samples and theoretical modeling of CaCO3 / solution systems, and the results from literature we try to develop the McIntire prognosis models and the free Gibbs enthalpy linear correlation model, by the inclusion in calculus relations of distribution coefficients a higher number of factors which effective influenced the thermodynamics and kinetics of interphase distribution processes of metal ions. The established correlations has been used to the estimation of time evolution of carbonate / solution equilibrium under the influence of some metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Bi, which appear usual as pollutants in soils. The prognosis realized on the base of the established correlations are in agreement with the theoretical modelling results and studies of case for different types of polluted soils with heavy metals.

  20. Clay components in soil dictate environmental stability and bioavailability of cervid prions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christy Wyckoff


    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease affects cervids and is the only known prion disease to affect free-ranging wildlife populations. CWD spread continues unabated, and exact mechanisms of its seemingly facile spread among deer and elk across landscapes in North America remain elusive. Here we confirm that naturally contaminated soil contains infectious CWD prions that can be transmitted to susceptible model organisms. We show that smectite clay content of soil potentiates prion binding capacity of different soil types from CWD endemic and non-endemic areas, likely contributing to environmental stability of bound prions. The smectite clay montmorillonite (Mte increased prion retention and bioavailability in vivo. Trafficking experiments in live animals fed bound and unbound prions showed that mice retained significantly more Mte-bound than unbound prions. Mte promoted rapid uptake of prions from the stomach to the intestines via enterocytes and M cells, and then to macrophages and eventually CD21+ B cells in Peyer’s patches and spleens. These results confirm clay components in soil as an important vector in CWD transmission at both environmental and organismal levels.□

  1. Study on stability of rake teeth inserting soil of chain rake type mulching film recovery machine based on Adams (United States)

    Guo, Wensong; Jian, Jianming; San, Yunlong; Lui, Rui; Li, Gang; Hou, Shulin


    Traditional rake type mulching film recycling machine has the problem of difficulty in unloading and packing film, poor continuity of the work. In order to solve such problems, this paper designs a kind of chain rake type mulching film recycling machine which can realize continuous raking film, collecting film, transporting film, shaking off soil, unloading film. Rake teeth is the basic part of chain rake mulching recycling machine. The stability of rake teeth's inserting soil is an important factor to ensure recovery efficiency of the plastic film recovery. By virtual prototype simulation, this paper study the influence of different factors on the stability of rake teeth inserting soil. The results are as follows: The speed of chain rake has no significant effect on the stability of rake teeth inserting soil; Reducing resistance of rake teeth in the process of working, is conducive to improve the stability of rake teeth inserting soil; Appropriate increasing elastic modulus of chain rake, is helpful to enhance the stability of rake teeth inserting soil.

  2. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index. (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu


    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  3. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  4. Stabilization of cationic and anionic metal species in contaminated soils using sludge-derived biochar. (United States)

    Fang, Shen'en; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhou, Fengsha; Zhang, Weihua; Qiu, Rongliang


    Currently, sludge pyrolysis has been considered as a promising technology to solve disposal problem of municipal sewage sludge, recover sludge heating value, sequester carbon and replenish nutrients in farmland soils. The resultant sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) is potentially an excellent stabilizing agent for metal species. This study applied the SDBC into four soils that had been contaminated in field with cationic Pb(II) and Cd(II)/Ni(II), and anionic Cr(VI) and As(III), respectively. The performance of metal stabilization under various operational and environmental conditions was evaluated with acid batch extraction and column leaching tests. Results indicated the SDBC could effectively stabilize these metals, which was favored by elevated temperature and longer aging. Periodic temperature decrease from 45 to 4 °C resulted in the release of immobilized Cr(VI) and As(III) but not Pb(II). However, a longer aging time offset such metal remobilization. This was possibly because more Pb was strongly bound and even formed stable precipitates, as shown by XRD and sequential extraction results. With increasing time, Cr(VI) was sorbed and partly reduced to Cr(III), while immobilized As(III) was co-oxidized to As(V) as indicated by XPS spectra. Column tests revealed that adding SDBC as a separate layer was unfavorable because the concentrated Cd(II) and Ni(II) in localized positions increased the peak levels of metal release under continuous acid leaching. In contrast, uniformly mixed SDBC could effectively delay the metal breakthrough and reduce their released amounts. Yet, a long-term monitoring may be required for evaluating the potential leaching risks and bioavailability/toxicity of these immobilized and transformed species in the SDBC-amended soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of fly ash for stabilization/solidification of heavy metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermatas, D.; Meng, X. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)


    Pozzolanic-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is an effective, yet economic technological alternative to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils and sludges. Fly ash waste materials were used along with quicklime (CaO) to immobilize lead, trivalent and hexavalent chromium present in contaminated clayey sand soils. The degree of heavy metal immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as controlled extraction experiments. These leaching test results along with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were also implemented to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for immobilization of the heavy metals under study. Finally, the reusability of the stabilized waste forms in construction applications was also investigated by performing unconfined compressive strength and swell tests. Results suggest that the controlling mechanism for both lead and hexavalent chromium immobilization is surface adsorption, whereas for trivalent chromium it is hydroxide precipitation. Addition of fly ash to the contaminated soils effectively reduced heavy metal leachability well below the non-hazardous regulatory limits. However, quicklime addition was necessary in order to attain satisfactory immobilization levels. Overall, fly ash addition increases the immobilization pH region for all heavy metals tested, and significantly improves the stress-strain properties of the treated solids, thus allowing their reuse as readily available construction materials. The only potential problem associated with this quicklime/fly ash treatment is the excessive formation of the pozzolanic product ettringite in the presence of sulfates. Ettringite, when brought in contact with water, may cause significant swelling and subsequent deterioration of the stabilized matrix. Addition of minimum amounts of barium hydroxide was shown to effectively eliminate ettringite formation.

  6. Long-term no-tillage and organic input management enhanced the diversity and stability of soil microbial community. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Chunyue; Tu, Cong; Hoyt, Greg D; DeForest, Jared L; Hu, Shuijin


    Intensive tillage and high inputs of chemicals are frequently used in conventional agriculture management, which critically depresses soil properties and causes soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution. Conservation practices, such as no-tillage and organic farming, have potential to enhance soil health. However, the long-term impact of no-tillage and organic practices on soil microbial diversity and community structure has not been fully understood, particularly in humid, warm climate regions such as the southeast USA. We hypothesized that organic inputs will lead to greater microbial diversity and a more stable microbial community, and that the combination of no-tillage and organic inputs will maximize soil microbial diversity. We conducted a long-term experiment in the southern Appalachian mountains of North Carolina, USA to test these hypotheses. The results showed that soil microbial diversity and community structure diverged under different management regimes after long term continuous treatments. Organic input dominated the effect of management practices on soil microbial properties, although no-tillage practice also exerted significant impacts. Both no-tillage and organic inputs significantly promoted soil microbial diversity and community stability. The combination of no-tillage and organic management increased soil microbial diversity over the conventional tillage and led to a microbial community structure more similar to the one in an adjacent grassland. These results indicate that effective management through reducing tillage and increasing organic C inputs can enhance soil microbial diversity and community stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.


    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size

  8. Immobilization of non-point phosphorus using stabilized magnetite nanoparticles with enhanced transportability and reactivity in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Gang; Li Lei; Zhao Dongye; Chen Hao


    Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the immobilization of phosphorus (P) in soils using synthetic magnetite nanoparticles stabilized with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-NP). Although CMC-stabilized magnetite particles were at the nanoscale, phosphorus removal by the nanoparticles was less than that of microparticles (MP) without the stabilizer due to the reduced P reactivity caused by the coating. The P reactivity of CMC-NP was effectively recovered when cellulase was added to degrade the coating. For subsurface non-point P pollution control for a water pond, it is possible to inject CMC-NP to form an enclosed protection wall in the surrounding soils. Non-stabilized 'nanomagnetite' could not pass through the soil column under gravity because it quickly agglomerated into microparticles. The immobilized P was 30% in the control soil column, 33% when treated by non-stabilized MP, 45% when treated by CMC-NP, and 73% when treated by both CMC-NP and cellulase. - CMC-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles can effectively penetrate soil columns and immobilize phosphate in situ.

  9. Pavement subgrade MR design values for Michigan's seasonal changes : appendices. (United States)


    The resilient modulus (MR) of roadbed soil plays an integral role in the design of pavement systems. Currently, the various regions of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) use different procedures to determine the MR values. Most of these...

  10. Late Quaternary Soil Development Enhances Aeolian Landform Stability, Moenkopi Plateau, Southern Colorado Plateau, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Ellwein


    Full Text Available The Moenkopi dune field in northeastern Arizona covers roughly 1250 km2, but most of the field is inactive. Dune deposits on the Moenkopi Plateau (MP have remained inactive throughout the Holocene despite periods of elevated aridity or historical reductions of vegetation cover by livestock grazing. We argue that this inactivity is not because of any diminishment of driving forces in the aeolian system (e.g., insufficient winds, but rather because of increased cohesion due to soil development that enhances resistance to wind erosion. Abundant aeolian sediments were supplied to the Black Mesa region by the Little Colorado River and its tributaries during the late Pleistocene (MIS 2 and 3, which enabled the development of climbing dunes and transport of sand over the Adeii Eechii Cliffs and onto the MP. These deposits (Qe1 stabilized during the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition (~12–7.5 ka because of reduced sediment supply and high dust flux which resulted in rapid soil formation. Erosion of climbing dunes/sand ramps from the Adeii Eechii Cliffs eliminated delivery of large quantities of new sand to the MP during the mid to late Holocene. Soil development within the Qe1 mantle increased sediment cohesion and prevented widespread aeolian reactivation during the Holocene, despite the occurrence of conditions (wind speed, climate, etc. under which dune reactivation would be expected. Drylands comprise roughly 40% of the land cover of earth and climate models predict their expansion. Pedogenic stability is not commonly considered in climate-based models used to predict aeolian activity. To improve predictions of future dune activity in drylands, the degree of soil development in aeolian deposits should be considered when evaluating sediment availability in aeolian systems.

  11. Bagging system, soil stabilization mat, and tent frame for a lunar base (United States)


    Georgia Tech's School of Textile and Fiber Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering participated in four cooperative design efforts this year. Each of two interdisciplinary teams designed a system consisting of a lunar regolith bag and an apparatus for filling this bag. The third group designed a mat for stabilization of lunar soil during takeoff and landing, and a method for packaging and deploying this mat. Finally, the fourth group designed a sunlight diffusing tent to be used as a lunar worksite. Summaries of these projects are given.

  12. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei


    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Out-of-plane (SH) soil-structure interaction: a shear wall with rigid and flexible ring foundation (United States)

    Le, Thang; Lee, Vincent W.; Luo, Hao


    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) of a building and shear wall above a foundation in an elastic half-space has long been an important research subject for earthquake engineers and strong-motion seismologists. Numerous papers have been published since the early 1970s; however, very few of these papers have analytic closed-form solutions available. The soil-structure interaction problem is one of the most classic problems connecting the two disciplines of earthquake engineering and civil engineering. The interaction effect represents the mechanism of energy transfer and dissipation among the elements of the dynamic system, namely the soil subgrade, foundation, and superstructure. This interaction effect is important across many structure, foundation, and subgrade types but is most pronounced when a rigid superstructure is founded on a relatively soft lower foundation and subgrade. This effect may only be ignored when the subgrade is much harder than a flexible superstructure: for instance a flexible moment frame superstructure founded on a thin compacted soil layer on top of very stiff bedrock below. This paper will study the interaction effect of the subgrade and the superstructure. The analytical solution of the interaction of a shear wall, flexible-rigid foundation, and an elastic half-space is derived for incident SH waves with various angles of incidence. It found that the flexible ring (soft layer) cannot be used as an isolation mechanism to decouple a superstructure from its substructure resting on a shaking half-space.

  14. Pembuatan Makanan Ringan Produk Ekstrusi Dari Subgrade Ubi Jalar Goreng Beku Sebagai Bahan Substitusi Serta Analisis Kelayakan Finansial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betha Ika Wilistien


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the influential proportion of sweet potato Subgrade frozen usage as the substitution material toward the production of an extract product snack by using corn grits and rice. The parameters examined were organoleptic characteristic and proper analysis of financial. The organoleptic analysis comprises taste, crispiness, appearance, color, and aroma. The chemical analysis includes sucrose, water, and essence, as well as protein content. The result of this research shows that organoleptic testing toward the taste of an extract product snack by using Beni azzuma sweet potato subgrade indicates that the combination treatments give a positive influence toward organoleptic characteristics of the product. An extract product of snack product from Beni azzuma sweet potato Subgrade as the substitution material with 95% rice formula and 5% Beni azzuma sweet potato Subgrade is chosen as the best product for having the highest weight or quality, 0.970. Proper analysis from the snack processing is shown by NPV score, Rp. 2.,016,418,748 (bigger than zero, the IRR score is 50.00% (bigger than deposit interest, 12.56%. The investment expense needed for constructing the unit of an extract product snack processing with Beni azzuma sweet potato Subgrade as the substitution material is Rp. 330,978,230. The investment will be back after 3 years 5 months, and every year the project can give the profit of 50% from the investment expense.

  15. Effect of Humic Acids and pesticides on Agricultural Soil Structure and Stability and Its Implication on Soil Quality (United States)

    Gaonkar, O. D.; Nambi, I. M.; G, S. K.


    The functional and morphological aspects of soil structure determine the soil quality. The dispersion of colloidal soil particles, especially the clay fraction and rupture of soil aggregates, both of which play an important role in soil structure development, lead to degradation of soil quality. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of behaviour of soil colloids on the agricultural soil structure and quality. The effect of commercial humic acid, organophosphate pesticides and soil natural organic matter on the electrical and structural properties of the soil colloids was also studied. Agricultural soil, belonging to the sandy loam texture class from northern part of India was considered in this study. In order to understand the changes in the soil quality in the presence and absence of humic acids, the soil fabric and structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrical properties of natural soil colloids in aqueous suspensions were assessed by zeta potential measurements at varying pH values with and without the presence of humic acids and pesticides. The influence of natural organic matter was analyzed by oxidizing the natural soil organic matter with hydrogen peroxide. The zeta potential of the soil colloids was found to be negative in the pH range studied. The results indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatment lead to deflocculation of colloidal soil particles. In addition, the humic acids undergoes effective adsorption onto the soil surface imparting more negative zeta potential to the colloidal soil particles. The soil hydrophilicity decreased in the presence of humic acids which was confirmed by surface free energy determination. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of humic acids altered the soil fabric and structure, thereby affecting the soil quality. This study assumes significance in understanding the soil aggregation and the

  16. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool


    Full Text Available Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents results from a comprehensive laboratory study carried out to investigate the feasibility of using stone powder for improvement of engineering properties of clays. The stone powder contains bassanite (CaSO4. ½ H2O, and Calcite (CaCO3. Three percentages are used for stone powder (1%, 3% and 5% by dry weight of clay. Several tests are made to investigate the soil behavior after adding the stone powder (Atterberg limits, Standard Proctor density, Grain size distribution, Specific gravity, Unconfined Compressive test, and California bearing ratio test. Unconfined Compressive tests conducted at different curing. The samples are tested under both soaked and unsoaked condition. Chemical tests and X-ray diffraction analyses are also carried out. Stone powder reacts with clay producing decreasing in plasticity and The curves of grain size distribution are shifted to the coarse side as the stone powder percentage increase; the soil becomes more granular, and also with higher strength.

  17. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Grubb, Dennis G.; Reilly, Trevor L.


    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO 3 2- ) and selenate (SeO 4 2- ). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10 mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration 3 .H 2 O) and selenate substituted ettringite (Ca 6 Al 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 (OH) 12 .26H 2 O), respectively.

  18. Logisnet: A tool for multimethod, multiple soil layers slope stability analysis (United States)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M.


    Shallow landslides and slope failures have been studied from several points of view (inventory, heuristic, statistic, and deterministic). In particular, numerous methods embedded in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications have been developed to assess slope stability. However, little work has been done on the systematic comparison of different techniques and the incorporation of vertical contrasts of geotechnical properties in multiple soil layers. In this research, stability is modeled by using LOGISNET, an acronym for Multiple Logistic Regression, Geographic Information System, and Neural Network. The main purpose of LOGISNET is to provide government planners and decision makers a tool to assess landslide susceptibility. The system is fully operational for models handling an enhanced cartographic-hydrologic model (SINMAP) and multiple logistic regression. The enhanced implementation of SINMAP was tested at regional scale in the Highway 101 corridor in Del Norte County, California, and its susceptibility map was found to have improved factor of safety estimates based on comparison with landslide inventory maps. The enhanced SINMAP and multiple logistic regression subsystems have functions that allow the user to include vertical variation in geotechnical properties through summation of forces in specific soil layers acting on failure planes for a local or regional-scale mapping. The working group of LOGISNET foresees the development of an integrated tool system to handle and support the prognostic studies of slope instability, and communicate the results to the public through maps.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setyo Muntohar


    Full Text Available The strength gain of stabilized soils is not only influenced by the type and proportion of the stabilizers and its curing time, but also by the water content needed to maintain the reaction. The reaction of lime – RHA with soil is pozzolanic. Hence, the process will be subjected greatly by the amount of water to react with admixtures and the proportion of the stabilizer. This paper presents the result of a laboratory study on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS of soils stabilized with lime and RHA, compacted at the OMC, and at the dry and wet side of OMC. The amount of lime required for stabilization (LRS is determined by Eades and Grim's Method. The results showed that the water content determines the UCS characteristics of unstabilized and stabilized soils. The UCS of stabilized soils decreased with increasing molding water content, but it is still higher than of the un-stabilized soils. In general, higher lime content results to a higher UCS. The maximum strength of the stabilized soil is attained at lime/RHA ratio of 1/2. The UCS of the stabilized soil increased significantly about 7 – 9 times to the un-stabilized UCS.

  20. Long-term Stabilization of Deep Soil Carbon revisited: The Meaning of Deep Roots (United States)

    Gocke, M. I.; Wiesenberg, G. L.


    Soils, paleosols and terrestrial sediments represent important carbon (C) pools and serve as archives for studying climate change. Archive functioning relies on chronological integrity of respective units, but incorporation of younger organic matter (OM) by plant roots and associated microorganisms into deep subsoil and soil parent material may reduce reliability of paleoenvironmental records and stability of buried OM. We aimed to elucidate how deep roots alter properties of soils developed in terrestrial sediments. Along a Central-Southeast European transect, soil and underlying loess, sand, and paleosol profiles were excavated in pits of 2-13 m depth. During field campaigns living and ancient, partly calcified roots (rhizoliths) were counted on horizontal levels. X-ray microtomographic scanning of undisturbed samples enabled quantitative assessment of root systems. Roots were collected at several depths together with rhizosphere material in different distances from roots as well as bulk soil/sediment free of visible root remains, and analyzed for bulk elemental composition, molecular composition of OM and 14C ages. Roots or root remains occurred more abundant in paleosols than in sediments. At a Dutch sandy site this could be attributed to high contents of nutritional elements in the buried agricultural soil, providing beneficial conditions for the recent vegetation. At a German site, biopores remaining after root decay contributed considerable portions to macroporosity in sedimentary deep subsoil, potentially promoting water and nutrient infiltration and mobilization. C dynamics were maintained due to renewed root growth and microbial activity. The latter was supported e.g. by the presence of microbial biomarkers millenia after the root's decay. Incorporation of root- and microorganism-derived OM was detected in distances >5 cm from visible root remains. In the long-term C loss occured due to OM mineralization rather than sustainable C sequestration of root

  1. Dynamic leaching behavior of geogenic As in soils after cement-based stabilization/solidification. (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Beiyuan, Jingzi; Poon, Chi Sun


    Cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is a practical treatment approach for hazardous waste with anthropogenic As sources; however, its applicability for geogenic As-containing soil and the long-term leaching potential remain uncertain. In this study, semi-dynamic leaching test was performed to investigate the influence of S/S binders (cement blended with fuel ash (FA), furnace bottom ash (FBA), or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)) on the long-term leaching characteristics of geogenic As. The results showed that mineral admixtures with higher Ca content and pozzolanic activity were more effective in reducing the leached As concentrations. Thus, cement blended with FBA was inferior to other binders in suppressing the As leaching, while 20% replacement of ordinary Portland cement by GGBS was considered most feasible for the S/S treatment of As-containing soils. The leachability of geogenic As was suppressed by the encapsulation effect of solidified matrix and interlocking network of hydration products that were supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The long-term leaching of geogenic As from the monolithic samples was diffusion-controlled. Increasing the Ca content in the samples led to a decrease in diffusion coefficient and an increase in feasibility for "controlled utilization" of the S/S-treated soils.

  2. Stabilization of heavy metals in soil using two organo-bentonites. (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Xiaohong; Liu, Cun; McCall, Wesley; Lu, Jinlong


    Stabilization of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Cr and As in soil using tetramethylammonium (TMA) and dodecyltrimethylammonium (DTMA) modified bentonites (T-Bents and D-Bents) as amendments was investigated. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to quantify the metal mobility after soil treatment. The structural parameters of modified bentonites, including the BET surface area, basal spacing and zeta potential were obtained as a function of the TMA and DTMA loading at 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200% of the bentonite's cation exchange capacity, respectively. The results indicated that the characteristics of the organo-bentonites fundamentally varied depending on the species and concentration of modifiers loaded on bentonite. T-Bents and D-Bents manifested distinct immobilization effectiveness towards various metals. In association with the organo-bentonite characteristics, the main interactive mechanisms for Cu, Zn and Cd proceeded via cation exchange, Hg proceeded via physical adsorption and partitioning, Cr and As proceeded via specific adsorption and electrostatic attraction, respectively. This study provided operational and mechanistic basis for optimizing the organic clay synthesis and selecting as the appropriate amendment for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ stabilization of trace metals in a copper-contaminated soil using P-spiked Linz-Donawitz slag. (United States)

    Negim, Osama; Mench, Michel; Bes, Clémence; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Amin, Fouad; Huneau, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe


    A former wood exploitation revealing high Cu and As concentration of the soils served as a case study for assisted phytoextraction. P-spiked Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag was used as a soil additive to improve physico-chemical soil properties and in situ stabilize Cu and other trace metals in a sandy Cu-contaminated soil (630 mg kg⁻¹ soil). The LD slag was incorporated into the contaminated soil to consist four treatments: 0% (T1), 1% (T2), 2% (T3), and 4% (T4). A similar uncontaminated soil was used as a control (CTRL). After a 1-month reaction period, potted soils were used for a 2-week growth experiment with dwarf beans. Soil pH increased with the incorporation rate of LD slag. Similarly the soil electrical conductivity (EC, in millisiemens per centimetre) is ameliorated. Bean plants grown on the untreated soil (T1) showed a high phytotoxicity. All incorporation rates of LD slag increased the root and shoot dry weight yields compared to the T1. The foliar Ca concentration of beans was enhanced for all LD slag-amended soil, while the foliar Mg, K, and P concentrations were not increased. Foliar Cu, Zn, and Cr concentrations of beans decreased with the LD slag incorporation rate. P-spiked LD slag incorporation into polluted soil allow the bean growth and foliar Ca concentration, but also to reduce foliar Cu concentration below its upper critical value avoiding an excessive soil EC and Zn deficiency. This dual effect can be of interest for soil remediation at larger scale.

  4. An Optimized Elasto-Plastic Subgrade Reaction For Modeling The Response Of A Nonlinear Foundation For A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Richard Paul


    Full Text Available Geotechnical and structural engineers are faced with a difficult task when their designs interact with each other. For complex projects, this is more the norm than the exception. In order to help bridge that gap, a method for modeling the behavior of a foundation using a simple elasto-plastic subgrade reaction was developed. The method uses an optimization technique to position 4-6 springs along a pile foundation to produce similar load deflection characteristics that were modeled by more sophisticated geotechnical finite element software. The methodology uses an Excel spreadsheet for accepting user input and delivering an optimized subgrade spring stiffness, yield, and position along the pile. In this way, the behavior developed from the geotechnical software can be transferred to the structural analysis software. The optimization is achieved through the solver add-in within Excel. Additionally, a beam on a nonlinear elastic foundation model is used to compute deflections of the optimized subgrade reaction configuration.

  5. Proceedings: Interagency Symposium (2nd) on Stabilization of Soils and Other Materials Held in Metairie, Louisiana on November 2-5, 1992

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Technical sessions consisted of pavement and horizontal construction, in situ stabilization, geosynthetics/soil reinforcement systems, dams and water conveyance systems, erosion control waste management...

  6. Effects of Rainfall Characteristics on the Stability of Tropical Residual Soil Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahardjo Harianto


    Full Text Available Global climate change has a significant impact on rainfall characteristics, sea water level and groundwater table. Changes in rainfall characteristics may affect stability of slopes and have severe impacts on sustainable urban living. Information on the intensity, frequency and duration of rainfall is often required by geotechnical engineers for performing slope stability analyses. Many seepage analyses are commonly performed using the most extreme rainfall possible which is uneconomical in designing a slope repair or slope failure preventive measure. In this study, the historical rainfall data were analyzed and investigated to understand the characteristics of rainfall in Singapore. The frequency distribution method was used to estimate future rainfall characteristics in Singapore. New intensity-duration-frequency (IDF curves for rainfall in Singapore were developed for six different durations (10, 20, 30 min and 1, 2 and 24 h and six frequencies (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The new IDF curves were used in the seepage and slope stability analyses to determine the variation of factor of safety of residual soil slopes under different rainfall intensities in Singapore.

  7. Retention and remobilization of stabilized silver nanoparticles in an undisturbed loamy sand soil. (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Bradford, Scott A; Simunek, Jiri; Heggen, Marc; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin


    Column experiments were conducted with undisturbed loamy sand soil under unsaturated conditions (around 90% saturation degree) to investigate the retention of surfactant stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with various input concentration (Co), flow velocity, and ionic strength (IS), and the remobilization of AgNPs by changing the cation type and IS. The mobility of AgNPs in soil was enhanced with decreasing solution IS, increasing flow rate and input concentration. Significant retardation of AgNP breakthrough and hyperexponential retention profiles (RPs) were observed in almost all the transport experiments. The retention of AgNPs was successfully analyzed using a numerical model that accounted for time- and depth-dependent retention. The simulated retention rate coefficient (k1) and maximum retained concentration on the solid phase (Smax) increased with increasing IS and decreasing Co. The high k1 resulted in retarded breakthrough curves (BTCs) until Smax was filled and then high effluent concentrations were obtained. Hyperexponential RPs were likely caused by the hydrodynamics at the column inlet which produced a concentrated AgNP flux to the solid surface. Higher IS and lower Co produced more hyperexponential RPs because of larger values of Smax. Retention of AgNPs was much more pronounced in the presence of Ca(2+) than K(+) at the same IS, and the amount of AgNP released with a reduction in IS was larger for K(+) than Ca(2+) systems. These stronger AgNP interactions in the presence of Ca(2+) were attributed to cation bridging. Further release of AgNPs and clay from the soil was induced by cation exchange (K(+) for Ca(2+)) that reduced the bridging interaction and IS reduction that expanded the electrical double layer. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and correlations between released soil colloids and AgNPs indicated that some of the released AgNPs were associated with the released clay fraction.

  8. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.


    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  9. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.


    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  10. Stabilization of diverse microbial residues in California and Puerto Rico Forest Soils (United States)

    Throckmorton, H.; Bird, J.; Dane, L.; Firestone, M.; Horwath, W.


    The contribution of C from the turnover of diverse microorganisms to stable C pools remains poorly understood. This study follows the turnover of 13C labeled nonliving residues from diverse microbial groups in situ in a temperate forest in California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR), during 5 sampling points per site- over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. Microbial groups include fungi, actinomycetes, Gm(+) bacteria, and Gm(-) bacteria, isolated from CA and PR soils to obtain temperate and tropical isolates. Results indicated that, despite unique biochemical makeup among groups as determined by Py-GC-MS, microbial residues exhibited similar mean residence times (MRTs) within each site. A density fractionation approach isolated: a "light fraction" (LF), non-mineral aggregate "occluded fraction" (OF), and a "mineral bound fraction" (MF). Microbial C inputs were more stable in the OF and MF than the LF throughout the course of the study at both sites. There were no significant differences in 13C recovery among microbes in any PR fractions, despite minor differences in overall MRTs. In CA, there were some significant differences in 13C recovery among microbial inputs in the LF and OF, which related to 13C recoveries in whole soils. In the CA MF, microbial recoveries did not differ, and low variability among treatments was observed. Results support increased protection of microbial C via association with the mineral matrix; however, differential sorption of some microbial isolates over others was not observed. Overall results suggest that inherent recalcitrance of microbial residues may be more important to determining its stability in CA soils when it is 1) unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); or 2) occluded within aggregates; compared with that strongly associated with mineral surfaces (MF). The overall composition of SOM in fractions also differed, with a greater concentration of benzene and N compounds in the MF; lignin and phenol compounds

  11. Effect of cement injection on sandy soil slope stability, case study: slope in Petang district, Badung regency (United States)

    Arya, I. W.; Wiraga, I. W.; GAG Suryanegara, I.


    Slope is a part of soil topography formed due to elevation difference from two soil surface. Landslides is frequently occur in natural slope, it is because shear force is greater than shear strength in the soil. There are some factor that influence slope stability such as: rain dissipation, vibration from earthquake, construction and crack in the soil. Slope instability can cause risk in human activity or even threaten human lives. Every years in rainy season, landslides always occur in Indonesia. In 2016, there was some landslide occurred in Bali. One of the most damaging is landslide in Petang district, Badung regency. This landslide caused main road closed entirely. In order to overcome and prevent landslide, a lot of method have been practiced and still looking for more sophisticated method for forecasting slope stability. One of the method to strengthen soil stability is filling the soil pores with some certain material. Cement is one of the material that can be used to fill the soil pores because when it is in liquid form, it can infiltrate into soil pores and fill the gap between soil particles. And after it dry, it can formed a bond with soil particle so that soil become stronger and the slope as well. In this study, it will use experimental method, slope model in laboratory to simulate a real slope behavior in the field. The first model is the slope without any addition of cement. This model will be become a benchmark for the other models. The second model is a slope with improved soil that injects the slope with cement. Injection of cement is done with varying interval distance of injection point is 5 cm and 10 cm. Each slope model will be given a load until the slope collapses. The slope model will also be analyzed with slope stability program. The test results on the improved slope models will be compared with unimproved slope. In the initial test will consist of 3 model. First model is soil without improvement or cement injection, second model is soil

  12. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees


    calculation of the anchor section in case of intensely weathered bedrock. The next component is a study on the subgrade retaining coefficient of anti-slide piles, which includes the definition and experimental methods used. The factors that have influence on the coefficient are discussed and the results of stress calculations in the anti-slide piles for different distributions of subgrade retaining coefficients are presented. Finally the differences between rigid piles and elastic pile are discussed and the elastic piles are considered to be more suitable for the landslide stabilization in the Wan Zhou area. The most important aspects for optimal design is the detailed knowledge of the features of soil and rock around the anchor part, which includes ground coefficients, uniaxial compressive strength, rock mass structure, fractures of bedrock, and weathering degree.

  13. Impact of natural and calcined starfish (Asterina pectinifera) on the stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated agricultural soil. (United States)

    Lim, Jung Eun; Sung, Jwa Kyung; Sarkar, Binoy; Wang, Hailong; Hashimoto, Yohey; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik


    Metal stabilization using soil amendments is an extensively applied, economically viable and environmentally friendly remediation technique. The stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated soils was evaluated using natural starfish (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF) wastes at different application rates (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt%). An incubation study was conducted over 14 months, and the efficiency of stabilization for Pb, Zn and As in soil was evaluated by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced by 76.3-100 and 91.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. The TCLP-extractable Zn was also reduced by 89.8-100 and 93.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. These reductions could be associated with the increased metal adsorption and the formation of insoluble metal precipitates due to increased soil pH following application of the amendments. However, the TCLP-extractable As was increased in the soil treated with NSF, possibly due to the competitive adsorption of phosphorous. In contrast, the TCLP-extractable As in the 10 % CSF treatment was not detectable because insoluble Ca-As compounds might be formed at high pH values. Thermodynamic modeling by visual MINTEQ predicted the formation of ettringite (Ca 6 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (OH) 12 ·26H 2 O) and portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ) in the 10 % CSF-treated soil, while SEM-EDS analysis confirmed the needle-like structure of ettringite in which Pb was incorporated and stabilized in the 10 % CSF treatment.

  14. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stability in Agricultural Systems by Using Natural Abundance Signals of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, Tim; Heiling, Maria; Aigner, Martina


    Information on the stability and age of soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for assessing the impact of soil management and environmental factors on SOM, an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. The terrestrial soil organic C pool, up to a depth of 1 m, contains about 1500 Pg C (Batjes, 1996). This is about 2.5 times more organic C than the vegetation (650 Pg C) and about twice as much as in the atmosphere (750 Pg C) (Batjes, 1998), but the assessment of the stability and age of SOM using 14 C radio carbon technique are expensive. Conen et al. (2008) developed a model to estimate the SOM stability based on the isotopic discrimination of 15 N natural abundance by soil micro-organisms and the change in C/N ratio during organic matter decomposition, for steady state, Alpine and permanent grasslands. In the framework of the IAEA funded coordinated research project (CRP) on Soil Quality and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Food Production in Mulch based Cropping Systems in sub-Saharan Africa, research was initiated to use this model in agricultural systems for developing a cost effective and affordable technique for Member States to determine the stability of SOM. As part of this research, soil samples were taken and analysed in four long term field experiments, established on soils with low and high SOM, in Austria and Belgium. The participating institutions are the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU), the University of Leuven (KUL), the Soil Service of Belgium (BDB) and the Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (CRA-W)

  15. Storage and stability of organic carbon in soils as related to depth, occlusion within aggregates, and attachment to minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrumpf


    Full Text Available Conceptual models suggest that stability of organic carbon (OC in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Density fractionation is a useful tool to study the relevance of OC stabilization in aggregates and in association with minerals, but it has rarely been applied to full soil profiles. We aim to determine factors shaping the depth profiles of physically unprotected and mineral associated OC and test their relevance for OC stability across a range of European soils that vary in vegetation, soil types, parent material, and land use. At each of the 12 study sites, 10 soil cores were sampled to 60 cm depth and subjected to density separation. Bulk soil samples and density fractions (free light fractions – fLF, occluded light fractions – oLF, heavy fractions – HF were analysed for OC, total nitrogen (TN, δ14C, and Δ14C. Bulk samples were also incubated to determine CO2 evolution per g OC in the samples (specific mineralization rates as an indicator for OC stability. Depth profiles of OC in the light fraction (LF-OC matched those of roots for undisturbed grassland and forest sites, suggesting that roots are shaping the depth distribution of LF-OC. Organic C in the HF declined less with soil depth than LF-OC and roots, especially at grassland sites. The decrease in Δ14C (increase in age of HF-OC with soil depth was related to soil pH as well as to dissolved OC fluxes. This indicates that dissolved OC translocation contributes to the formation of subsoil HF-OC and shapes the Δ14C profiles. The LF at three sites were rather depleted in 14C, indicating the presence of fossil material such as coal and lignite, probably inherited from the parent material. At the other sites, modern Δ14C signatures and positive correlations between specific mineralization rates and fLF-OC indicate the fLF is a potentially available energy and

  16. Feasibility of Using Unbound Mixed Recycled Aggregates from CDW over Expansive Clay Subgrade in Unpaved Rural Roads. (United States)

    Del Rey, Isaac; Ayuso, Jesús; Galvín, Adela P; Jiménez, José R; Barbudo, Auxi


    Social awareness aims to increase practical skills, such as sustainable development, which seeks to increase the use of different types of waste in construction activities. Although insufficient attention is sometimes given to these actions, it is essential to spread information regarding new studies in the field of waste recycling, which encourages and promotes waste use. Reusing and recycling construction waste in the creation of buildings and infrastructure are fundamental strategies to achieving sustainability in the construction and engineering sectors. In this context, the concept of waste would no longer exist, as waste would become a material resource. Therefore, this study analyses the behaviours of two unbound mixed recycled aggregates (MRA) in the structural layers of an unpaved rural road with low traffic (category T43). The sections were built on inappropriate soil (A-7-6) with a high degree of free swelling. The experimental road consisted of three sections: the first was made with natural aggregates (NA) that were used as a control, the second was composed of MRA in the subbase and NA in the base, and the third section was completely composed of MRA. The materials were characterised in the laboratory. The behaviours of the structural layers in the experimental road were determined by controlling compaction ("in situ" density and moisture) and measuring the deflections and load capacity (deflectometer) during the 18 months after construction. The results show that the sections made with recycled aggregates meet the technical specifications required by General Technical Specifications for Road and Bridge Works (PG-3). Therefore, the water-soluble sulphate content and Los Angeles abrasion coefficient limits can be increased for recycled aggregates without compromising the quality of this type of road with low traffic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the use of unbound MRA made from construction and demolition waste (CDW

  17. Feasibility of Using Unbound Mixed Recycled Aggregates from CDW over Expansive Clay Subgrade in Unpaved Rural Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Del Rey


    Full Text Available Social awareness aims to increase practical skills, such as sustainable development, which seeks to increase the use of different types of waste in construction activities. Although insufficient attention is sometimes given to these actions, it is essential to spread information regarding new studies in the field of waste recycling, which encourages and promotes waste use. Reusing and recycling construction waste in the creation of buildings and infrastructure are fundamental strategies to achieving sustainability in the construction and engineering sectors. In this context, the concept of waste would no longer exist, as waste would become a material resource. Therefore, this study analyses the behaviours of two unbound mixed recycled aggregates (MRA in the structural layers of an unpaved rural road with low traffic (category T43. The sections were built on inappropriate soil (A-7-6 with a high degree of free swelling. The experimental road consisted of three sections: the first was made with natural aggregates (NA that were used as a control, the second was composed of MRA in the subbase and NA in the base, and the third section was completely composed of MRA. The materials were characterised in the laboratory. The behaviours of the structural layers in the experimental road were determined by controlling compaction (“in situ” density and moisture and measuring the deflections and load capacity (deflectometer during the 18 months after construction. The results show that the sections made with recycled aggregates meet the technical specifications required by General Technical Specifications for Road and Bridge Works (PG-3. Therefore, the water-soluble sulphate content and Los Angeles abrasion coefficient limits can be increased for recycled aggregates without compromising the quality of this type of road with low traffic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the use of unbound MRA made from construction and



    BÜRÜN, Betül; TUNA, A. Levent; YOKAŞ, İbrahim; ÖZKUL, Hülya


    Reuse of domestic wastewater that does not contain heavy metals or pathogenic microorganisms, as irrigation water is a significant method in terms of water conservation all around the world. In this field trial which was conducted over two years, the domestic wastewater (DW) of Muğla City after being alkaline stabilized was used to irrigate maize plant for silage and the interaction of soil and water was also controlled during the trial. Alkaline stabilized domestic wastewater (ASDW) was appl...

  19. Effect of Static Soaking Under Different Temperatures on the Lime Stabilized Gypseous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Zubaydi


    Full Text Available This study concerns with the effect of long-term soaking on the unconfined compressive strength, loss in weight and gypsum dissolution of gypseous soil stabilized with (4% lime, take into account the following variables: initial water content, water temperature, soaking duration. The results reveals that, the unconfined compressive strength was dropped, and the reduction in values was different according to the initial water content and water temperature, so that the reduction of the unconfined compressive strength of samples soaked in water at low temperatures (50 and 250 C was greater than those soaked in water temperatures  at (490 and 600 C. The results obtained shows that the increase in soaking period decreases the percentage amount of gypsum and loss in weight for all water temperatures and soaking durations.

  20. Enhanced stabilization of Pb, Zn, and Cd in contaminated soils using oxalic acid-activated phosphate rocks. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Fasheng; Chen, Honghan


    Phosphate amendments, especially phosphate rock (PR), are one of the most commonly used materials to stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, most of PR reserve consists of low-grade ore, which limits the efficiency of PR for stabilizing heavy metals. This study was to enhance the stabilization of heavy metals through improving the available phosphorous (P) release of PR by oxalic acid activation. Raw PR and activated PR (APR) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, and laser diffraction to determine the changes of structure and composition of APR. The stabilization effectiveness of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in soils by APR was investigated through toxicity leaching test and speciation analysis. The results indicated that after treatment by oxalic acid, (1) the crystallinity of the fluorapatite phase of PR transformed into the weddellite phase; (2) the surface area of PR increased by 37%; (3) the particle size of PR became homogenized (20-70 μm); and (4) the available P content in PR increased by 22 times. These changes of physicochemical characteristics of PR induced that APR was more effective to transform soil heavy metals from the non-residual fraction to the residual fraction and enhance the stabilization efficiency of Pb, Zn, and Cd than PR. These results are significant for the future use of low-grade PR to stabilize heavy metals.

  1. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Lijie; Yu, Chunxiao; Yin, Guanghua; Doane, Timothy A.; Wu, Zhijie; Zhu, Ping; Ma, Xingzhu


    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK), application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK), combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S) and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B). Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK) plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability. PMID:27191160

  2. Enhanced precipitation promotes decomposition and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems, but seasonal timing of wetting matters (United States)

    Campos, Xochi; Germino, Matthew; de Graaff, Marie-Anne


    AimsChanging precipitation regimes in semiarid ecosystems will affect the balance of soil carbon (C) input and release, but the net effect on soil C storage is unclear. We asked how changes in the amount and timing of precipitation affect litter decomposition, and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems.MethodsThe study took place at a long-term (18 years) ecohydrology experiment located in Idaho. Precipitation treatments consisted of a doubling of annual precipitation (+200 mm) added either in the cold-dormant season or in the growing season. Experimental plots were planted with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), or with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). We quantified decomposition of sagebrush leaf litter, and we assessed organic soil C (SOC) in aggregates, and silt and clay fractions.ResultsWe found that: (1) increased precipitation applied in the growing season consistently enhanced decomposition rates relative to the ambient treatment, and (2) precipitation applied in the dormant season enhanced soil C stabilization.ConclusionsThese data indicate that prolonged increases in precipitation can promote soil C storage in semiarid ecosystems, but only if these increases happen at times of the year when conditions allow for precipitation to promote plant C inputs rates to soil.

  3. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Ma

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK, application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK, combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B. Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability.

  4. Biochar Improves Soil Aggregate Stability and Water Availability in a Mollisol after Three Years of Field Application. (United States)

    Ma, Ningning; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Lijie; Yu, Chunxiao; Yin, Guanghua; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Zhijie; Zhu, Ping; Ma, Xingzhu


    A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, bulk density, aggregate stability, field capacity and plant available water in a representative Chinese Mollisol. Four treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK), application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK), combined application of inorganic fertilizer with maize straw (NPK+S) and addition of biochar with inorganic fertilizer (NPK+B). Our results showed that after three consecutive years of application, the values of soil bulk density were significantly lower in both organic amendment-treated plots than in unamended (CK and NPK) plots. Compared with NPK, NPK+B more effectively increased the contents of soil organic carbon, improved the relative proportion of soil macro-aggregates and mean weight diameter, and enhanced field capacity as well as plant available water. Organic amendments had no obvious effect on soil C/N ratio or wilting coefficient. The results of linear regression indicated that the improvement in soil water retention could be attributed to the increases in soil organic carbon and aggregate stability.

  5. Accuracy and Stability Requirements of ERS and MetOp Scatterometer Soil Moisture for Climate Change Assessment (United States)

    Bartalis, Zoltan; Wagner, Wolfgang; Dorigo, Wouter; Naeimi, Vahid


    Soil moisture is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) urgently required for assessing impacts and feedbacks of global warming on the land surface. Recent advances in algorithm development have made it possible to retrieve soil moisture from operational microwave radiometers (SMMR, SSM/I, AMSR-E, Wind-sat, etc.) and scatterometers (ERS Scatterometer, Metop ASCAT). Thus it is now for the first time possible to construct multi-decadal soil moisture time series, whereas the accuracy and the spatio-temporal resolution of the retrieved soil moisture data improve in general over time. In this article we will discuss the long-term stability of soil moisture data derived using the C-band scatterometer on board the two ERS satellites (1991-present) and the Advanced Scatterometer (AS- CAT) on board the three Metop platforms (2006-2020). The usefulness of scatterometer soil moisture time series for registering geophysically meaningful long-term trends is highly dependent on the calibration stability of the backscattering coefficient measurements from which they originate. We also revisit the presumably perfect volume scattering properties of tropical forests and thus their suitability for radar sensor vicarious calibration. We discuss the effects of the calibration differences between the two scatterometer generations and make some recommendations to improve the long-term consistency of the combined soil moisture data set.

  6. Diffusion and leachability index studies on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil using fly ash. (United States)

    Kanchinadham, Sri Bala Kameswari; Narasimman, L M; Pedaballe, Vihita; Kalyanaraman, Chitra


    Experiments were performed to establish a feasible treatment process for the solidification and stabilization (S/S) of soil contaminated by leaching of Cr(VI) from Chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Reduction of the highly mobile Cr(VI) was performed using calcium polysulfide (CaS5) with a dosage of 3 times the molar stoichiometric ratio for the initial concentration of Cr(VI) present in the chromium contaminated soil (CCS). The CCS was solidified and stabilized (S/S) using fly ash (FA) in various proportions i.e., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (FA: CCS) with and without using reducing agent i.e., CaS5. Leachability tests such as Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic long term leachability tests indicated that the CaS5 was effective in reduction of Cr(VI) followed by the S/S process. Leachability Index was derived from the results of the semi-dynamic long term leachability tests and was between 8 and 9, indicating that FA is an effective treatment for disposal into secured landfills for CCS. The characteristic compressive strength of the CaS5 treated CCS with FA mortar blocks were between 24.47 and 40.49 kg/cm(2). Considering the cost of CaS5 and FA, a total expenditure of Rs. 7826 i.e., US $ 130.4 would be required for remediation of one tonne of CCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies. (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin


    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of biochar manufactured from organic wastes on the stabilization of heavy metals in a metal smelter contaminated soil. (United States)

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed A; Li, Jianhua; Abbas, Mohamed H H


    The main objectives of the current study were to evaluate the potential effects of biochar derived from sugar cane bagasse (SC-BC) and orange peel (OP-BC) on improving the physicochemical properties of a metal smelter contaminated soil, and determining its potentiality for stabilizing Pb and As in soil. To achieve these goals, biochar was produced in a small-scale biochar producing plant, and an incubation experiment was conducted using a silt loam metal-contaminated soil treated with different application rates of biochar (0-10% w/w). The obtained results showed that, the addition of SC-BC and OP-BC increased significantly the soil aggregate stability, water-holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter and N-status in soil. SC-BC considerably decreased the solubility of Pb to values lower than the toxic regulatory level of the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure extraction (5 mg L(-1)). The rise in soil pH caused by biochar application, and the increase of soil organic matter transformed the labile Pb into less available fractions i.e. "Fe-Mn oxides" and "organic" bound fractions. On the other hand, As was desorbed from Fe-Mn oxides, which resulted in greater mobility of As in the treated soil. We concluded that SC-BC and OP-BC could be used successfully for remediating soils highly contaminated with Pb. However, considerable attention should be paid when using it in soil contaminated with As. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive evolution features in soil restoration assessed by means of glomalin and its relationship to aggregate stability (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Gispert Negrell, María; Pardini, Giovanni; Solé Benet, Albert


    Restoration of limestone quarries in arid environments mainly consists of regenerating a highly degraded soil and/or creating a soil-like substrate with minimal physico-chemical and biological properties. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion, 18 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (sludge, compost, control) and different mulches (gravel, chopped forest residue, control). In order to evaluate the soil quality of the different treatments, their chemical, physical and biological properties were analyzed. Among the most efficient biological indicators are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF play an important role in aggregate stability due to the production of a glycoprotein called glomalin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify, 5 years after the start the experiment, the content of total glomalin (TG) and to analyze its relationship with other soil parameters such as organic matter (OM) and aggregate stability soil (AE). Results indicated a remarkable effect of organic amendments on glomalin content, which was higher in the treatments with compost (6.96 mg g -1) than in sludge and control (0.54 and 0.40 mg g-1, respectively). Amendments also significantly influenced aggregate stability: the highest values were recorded in treatments with sludge and compost (23.14 and 25.09%, respectively) compared to control (13.37%). The gravel mulch had a negative influenced on AE: an average of 16% compared to 23.4% for chopped forest residues and 23.1% of control. Data showed a positive and significant correlation between values of TG and OM content (r = 0.95). We also found a positive and significant correlation between abundance of TG and AE when OM contents were lower than 4% (r = 0.93), however, there was no significant correlation to higher OM when it was higher than 4% (r = 0.34). This

  10. Interrelationships among geotechnical and leaching properties of a cement-stabilized contaminated soil. (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B


    Relationships among selected performance properties have been established using experimental data from a cement-stabilized mixed contaminated soil. The sandy soil was spiked with 3,000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel. It was then treated with 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% dosages of Portland cement. Different water contents were considered for lower dosage mixes. Selected geotechnical and leaching properties were determined on 28-day old samples. These include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), bulk density, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, leachate pH and granular leachability of contaminants. Interrelationships among these properties were deduced using the most reasonable best fits determined by specialized curve fitting software. Strong quadratic and log-linear relationships exist between hydraulic conductivity and UCS, with increasing binder and water contents, respectively. However, the strength of interrelationships between hydraulic conductivity and porosity, UCS and porosity, and UCS and bulk density varies with binder and water contents. Leachate pH and granular leachability of contaminants are best related to UCS and hydraulic conductivity by a power law and an exponential function, respectively. These results suggest how the accuracy of not-easily-measurable performance properties may be constrained from simpler ones. Comparisons with some published performance properties data support this.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif


    Full Text Available Acid soil is commonly grown with cassava, which in general, tolerate low soil  fertility and aluminum (Al toxicity. However, without any improvement efforts such soil will become worse. Intercropping cassava with Brachiaria decumbens (BD which adapts to acid soil and tolerates low fertility soils as well as application of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM and organic matters are among the important efforts to rehabilitate this soil. The experiment was conducted to  examine the impact of BD, AM, and potassium (K enriched rice straw compost on exchangeable Al, available K, and stability of soil aggregates. Experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor was BD as cassava intercropping, the second factor was AM, and the third factor was 2 t ha-1 rice straw compost enriched with 0 kg, 50 kg, 100 kg, and 200 kg KCl ha-1. Brick pots (1 m length x 1 m width x 0.45 m depth filled with Kanhapludult soil was used for growing cassava in which row of BD was planted at 60 cm from cassava stem. K-enriched rice straw compost and AM (10 g per stem were applied around cassava stem at 2 and 12 days after planting, respectively. BD was cut every 30 days and the cutting was returned to the soil. Soil exchangeable Al was analyzed at 0, 3, 6 and 9 months after planting (MAP, while Al and K contents as well as aggregate stability were measured at 6 MAP. The results showed that planting BD decreased 33% exchangeable Al, which means that the root exudates of this grass was effective in detoxifying Al3+. Treatment of BD and/or in combination with AM was effective in preserving K added to the soil, increasing total polysaccharides, and improving soil aggregate stability. This indicated that planting BD and applying AM and Kenriched rice straw compost improved acid soil fertility, and therefore can be recommended in cassava cultivation.

  12. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on glomalin-related soil protein distribution, aggregate stability and their relationships with soil properties at different soil depths in lead-zinc contaminated area (United States)

    Huang, Li; Ban, Yihui; Tang, Ming


    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a widespread glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is crucial for ecosystem functioning and ecological restoration. In the present study, an investigation was conducted to comprehensively analyze the effects of heavy metal (HM) contamination on AMF status, soil properties, aggregate distribution and stability, and their correlations at different soil depths (0–10, 10–20, 20–30, 30–40 cm). Our results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization (MC), hyphal length density (HLD), GRSP, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) were significantly inhibited by Pb compared to Zn at 0–20 cm soil depth, indicating that HM had significant inhibitory effects on AMF growth and soil properties, and that Pb exhibited greater toxicity than Zn at shallow layer of soil. Both the proportion of soil large macroaggregates (>2000 μm) and mean weight diameter (MWD) were positively correlated with GRSP, SOM and SOC at 0–20 cm soil depth (P soil particles together into large macroaggregates and improving aggregate stability. Furthermore, MC and HLD had significantly positive correlation with GRSP, SOM and SOC, suggesting that AMF played an essential role in GRSP, SOM and SOC accumulation and subsequently influencing aggregate formation and particle-size distribution in HM polluted soils. Our study highlighted that the introduction of indigenous plant associated with AMF might be a successful biotechnological tool to assist the recovery of HM polluted soils, and that proper management practices should be developed to guarantee maximum benefits from plant-AMF symbiosis during ecological restoration. PMID:28771531

  13. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on glomalin-related soil protein distribution, aggregate stability and their relationships with soil properties at different soil depths in lead-zinc contaminated area. (United States)

    Yang, Yurong; He, Chuangjun; Huang, Li; Ban, Yihui; Tang, Ming


    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), a widespread glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is crucial for ecosystem functioning and ecological restoration. In the present study, an investigation was conducted to comprehensively analyze the effects of heavy metal (HM) contamination on AMF status, soil properties, aggregate distribution and stability, and their correlations at different soil depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 cm). Our results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization (MC), hyphal length density (HLD), GRSP, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) were significantly inhibited by Pb compared to Zn at 0-20 cm soil depth, indicating that HM had significant inhibitory effects on AMF growth and soil properties, and that Pb exhibited greater toxicity than Zn at shallow layer of soil. Both the proportion of soil large macroaggregates (>2000 μm) and mean weight diameter (MWD) were positively correlated with GRSP, SOM and SOC at 0-20 cm soil depth (P soil particles together into large macroaggregates and improving aggregate stability. Furthermore, MC and HLD had significantly positive correlation with GRSP, SOM and SOC, suggesting that AMF played an essential role in GRSP, SOM and SOC accumulation and subsequently influencing aggregate formation and particle-size distribution in HM polluted soils. Our study highlighted that the introduction of indigenous plant associated with AMF might be a successful biotechnological tool to assist the recovery of HM polluted soils, and that proper management practices should be developed to guarantee maximum benefits from plant-AMF symbiosis during ecological restoration.

  14. High Energy Moisture Characteristics: Linking Between Soil Physical Processes and Structure Stability (United States)

    Water storage and flow in soils is usually complicated by the intricate nature of and changes in soil pore size distribution (PSD) due to modifications in soil structure following changes in agricultural management. The paper presents the Soil High Energy Moisture Characteristic (Soil-HEMC) method f...

  15. Synthesis of current knowledge on post-fire seeding for soil stabilization and invasive species control (United States)

    Beyers, Jan L.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy


    The General Accounting Office has identified a need for better information on the effectiveness of post-fire emergency stabilization and rehabilitation methods used by the U.S. Forest Service and Department of Interior (DOI) agencies. Since reviews were published on treatment effectiveness in the early 2000s, treatment choices have changed and increased monitoring has been done. Greater use of native species has added substantially to burned area emergency response (BAER) treatment costs, for example, but quantitative data on this treatment were scarce in earlier reviews. We synthesized current information on the effectiveness of post-fire seeding for both soil stabilization and for prevention of the spread of invasive species in rangelands. We reviewed published literature (peer-reviewed and “gray”) and agency monitoring reports, as well as compiled and analyzed quantitative data in agency files. Products of this review include a web-accessible database of monitoring reports and published information, a scientific journal paper summarizing findings of scientific studies, an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed papers, a summary report published as a General Technical Report that will be available online (in progress), and presentations to scientific meetings and BAER/ESR team training sessions and workshops. By combining results from studies done by Forest Service and DOI agency personnel with research studies published since the initial reviews, we presented a comprehensive synthesis of seeding effectiveness knowledge that complements the review of other hillslope treatments published by other researchers. This information will help federal land managers make more cost-effective decisions on post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments.

  16. Numerical modelling of suffusion by discrete element method: a new internal stability criterion based on mechanical behaviour of eroded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Hama Nadjibou


    Full Text Available Non-cohesive soils subjected to a flow may have a behavior in which fine particles migrate through the interstices of the solid skeleton formed by the large particles. This phenomenon is termed internal instability, internal erosion or suffusion, and can occur both in natural soil deposits and also in geotechnical structures such as dams, dikes or barrages. Internal instability of a granular material is its inability to prevent the loss of its fine particles under flow effect. It is geometrically possible if the fine particles can migrate through the pores of the coarse soil matrix and results in a change in its mechanical properties. In this work, we uses the three-dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC3D/DEM to study the stability/instability of granular materials and their mechanical behavior. Kenney and Lau criterion sets a safe boundary for engineering design. However, it tends to identify stable soils as unstable ones. The effects of instability and erosion, simulated by clipping fine particles from the grading distribution, on the mechanical behaviour of glass ball samples were analysed. The mechanical properties of eroded samples, in which erosion is simulated and gives a new approach for internal stability. A proposal for a new internal stability criterion is established, it is deduced from the analysis of relations between the mechanical behaviour and internal stability, including material contractance.

  17. Temporal stability and variability of soil-water content in a gravel-mulched field in northwestern China (United States)

    Zhao, Wenju; Cui, Zhen; Zhang, Jiyi; Jin, Jian


    Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of soil-water content (SWC) is of paramount importance in many scientific fields and operational applications. We present a case study of the temporal stability and variability of SWC in a gravel-mulched field, a form of mulching that has been widely used by farmers on the loessial area of China for over 300 years, using Spearman correlation coefficients, frequency distributions and an index of temporal stability. SWC was measured weekly from May to August 2013 in the 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-50 cm layers. SWC was more variable in the surface soil, due to several environmental factors, and the variability gradually decreased with depth. A large sample size was needed for estimating the mean SWC of the field under dry conditions. High Spearman correlation coefficients between the SWCs measured on different sampling campaigns indicated a high temporal stability. The stability of the SWC spatial patterns over time and along the soil profile allowed us to identify a location representative of the field-mean SWC, with high coefficients of determination ranging between 0.8564 and 0.9325. The large-scale monitoring of SWC from few observations is thus feasible, which will aid the management of soil moisture in gravel-mulched fields in arid regions.

  18. Numerical modelling of suffusion by discrete element method: a new internal stability criterion based on mechanical behaviour of eroded soil (United States)

    Abdoulaye Hama, Nadjibou; Ouahbi, Tariq; Taibi, Said; Souli, Hanène; Fleureau, Jean-Marie; Pantet, Anne


    Non-cohesive soils subjected to a flow may have a behavior in which fine particles migrate through the interstices of the solid skeleton formed by the large particles. This phenomenon is termed internal instability, internal erosion or suffusion, and can occur both in natural soil deposits and also in geotechnical structures such as dams, dikes or barrages. Internal instability of a granular material is its inability to prevent the loss of its fine particles under flow effect. It is geometrically possible if the fine particles can migrate through the pores of the coarse soil matrix and results in a change in its mechanical properties. In this work, we uses the three-dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC3D/DEM) to study the stability/instability of granular materials and their mechanical behavior. Kenney and Lau criterion sets a safe boundary for engineering design. However, it tends to identify stable soils as unstable ones. The effects of instability and erosion, simulated by clipping fine particles from the grading distribution, on the mechanical behaviour of glass ball samples were analysed. The mechanical properties of eroded samples, in which erosion is simulated and gives a new approach for internal stability. A proposal for a new internal stability criterion is established, it is deduced from the analysis of relations between the mechanical behaviour and internal stability, including material contractance.


    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  20. Effects of earthworms on soil aggregate stability and carbon and nitrogen storage in a legume cover crop agroecosystem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketterings, Q.M.; Blair, J.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.


    We investigated the effects of earthworms on soil aggregate size-distribution, water-stability, and the distribution of total C and N among aggregates of different sizes. Earthworm populations were experimentally manipulated (reduced, unaltered or increased) in field enclosures cropped to soybean


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias M. Gichangi


    Full Text Available Soil aggregation is a key short term indicators of soil quality attributed to changes in land management. A study was conducted to investigate changes in the size distribution and stability of soil aggregates in a structurally unstable sandy loam soil following cultivation of Brachiaria grass in semi-arid region of Kenya. Brachiaria grass cultivars included Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. brizantha cvs Marandu, MG4, Piata and Xaraes, B. humidicola cv. Llanero and B. hybrid cv. Mulato II which were compared with two locally cultivated forage grasses (Chloris gayana cv. KAT R3 and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Kakamega 1 and a bare plot (negative check. The grass treatments were evaluated with fertilisers application (40 kg P applied at sowing and 50 kg N ha−1 in each wet season and with no fertiliser applications. Aggregate size fractions were isolated using the wet sieving method. Aggregation based on the proportion of small macro-aggregates (250–2000 μm increased in soils cultivated with all grass types compared to the control and was greatest in soils under B. hybrid cv. Mulato II. Aggregate stability in terms of mean weight diameter (MWD differed among the grasses and was highest in soils under cv. Mulato II and cv. Marandu with MWD of 4.49 and 4.31 mm, respectively. Changes in small macro-aggregates fraction was positively correlated with particulate organic matter (POM (r=0.9104, P= 0.001, microbial biomass carbon (MBC (r=0.5474, P= 0.01, soil organic carbon (SOC (r=0.3654, P= 0.05 and root biomass (r=0.4977, P= 0.01. This indicated that the binding agents were important in the aggregation of soils cultivated with Brachiaria grasses.

  2. Dielectric Characteristics of Unsaturated Loess and the Safety Detection of the Road Subgrade Based on GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Lv


    Full Text Available We present a moisture content and permittivity model to simultaneously detect and estimate defects in loess subgrade. Based on the ground-penetrating radar (GPR method, the dielectric properties of loess in the northwest of China and the imaging feature of the moisture content of different strata were studied. The relative permittivity of loess with different moisture contents was experimented in the laboratory. It was found that the relative permittivity of unsaturated loess was positively related to moisture content. The relationship between relative permittivity and moisture content in different antenna frequencies of GPR was analyzed. Electromagnetic wave reflection rules in the loess interface were studied using the numerical method with different moisture contents. With the increase in moisture content, the amplitude of GPR was increased. When the above conclusions were applied in the engineering practices, there are good effects to detect the defects of the road subgrade. It is a significant guidance for determining the qualitative research of defects in the roadbed.

  3. Ecotoxicological evaluation of the short term effects of fresh and stabilized textile sludges before application in forest soil restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Edson V.C.; Giuradelli, Thayse M.; Correa, Albertina X.R.; Roerig, Leonardo R.; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Resgalla, Charrid; Radetski, Claudemir M.


    The short term (eco)toxicity potential of fresh and stabilized textile sludges, as well as the short term (eco)toxicity of leachates obtained from both fresh and stabilized textile sludges, was evaluated by a battery of toxicity tests carried out with bacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, earthworms, and higher plants. The (eco)toxicological results showed that, after 120 d of stabilization, the experimental loading ratio of 25% sludge:75% soil (v/v) (equivalent to 64.4 ton/ha) did not significantly increase toxicity effects and increased significantly the biomass yield for earthworms and higher plants. The rank of biological sensitivity endpoints was: Algae ∼ Plant biomass > Plant germination ∼ Daphnids > Bacteria ∼ Fish > Annelids. The lack of short term toxicity effects and the stimulant effect observed with higher plants and earthworms are good indications of the fertilizer/conditioner potential of this industrial waste, which after stabilization can be used in the restoration of a non-productive forest soil. - Short term ecotoxicity evaluation of textile sludge showed that stabilized sludge can be used in the restoration of a non-productive forest soil

  4. The release of As, Cr and Cu from contaminated soil stabilized with APC residues under landfill conditions. (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J


    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil treated with air pollution control residues under landfill conditions. The influence of landfill gas and temperature on the release of trace elements from stabilized soil was simulated using a diffusion test. The air pollution control residues immobilized As through the precipitation of Ca-As minerals (calcium arsenate (Ca5H2(AsO4)3 × 5H2O), weilite (CaAsO4) and johnbaumite (Ca5(AsO4)3(OH)), incorporation of As into ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 × 26H2O) and adsorption by calcite (CaCO3). The air pollution control residues generally showed a high resistance to pH reduction, indicating high buffer capacity and stability of immobilized As in a landfill over time. Generation of heat in a landfill might increase the release of trace elements. The release of As from stabilized soil was diffusion-controlled at 60 °C, while surface wash-off, dissolution, and depletion prevailed at 20 °C. The air pollution control residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste immobilized Cr, indicating its stability in a landfill. The treatment of soil with air pollution control residues was not effective in immobilization of Cu. Contaminated soils treated with air pollution control residues will probably have a low impact on overall leachate quality from a landfill. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Rock-Eval analysis of French forest soils: the influence of depth, soil and vegetation types on SOC thermal stability and bulk chemistry (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Baudin, François; Cecchini, Sébastien; Chenu, Claire; Mériguet, Jacques; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and SOM degradation has multiple consequences on key ecosystem properties like nutrients cycling, soil emissions of greenhouse gases or carbon sequestration potential. With the strong feedbacks between SOM and climate change, it becomes particularly urgent to develop reliable routine methodologies capable of indicating the turnover time of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM and among them, Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of in-situ SOC biogeochemical stability. This technique combines a phase of pyrolysis followed by a phase of oxidation to provide information on both the SOC bulk chemistry and thermal stability. We analyzed with RE6 a set of 495 soils samples from 102 permanent forest sites of the French national network for the long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems (''RENECOFOR'' network). Along with covering pedoclimatic variability at a national level, these samples include a range of 5 depths up to 1 meter (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm). Using RE6 parameters that were previously shown to be correlated to short-term (hydrogen index, HI; T50 CH pyrolysis) or long-term (T50 CO2 oxidation and HI) SOC persistence, and that characterize SOM bulk chemical composition (oxygen index, OI and HI), we tested the influence of depth (n = 5), soil class (n = 6) and vegetation type (n = 3; deciduous, coniferous-fir, coniferous-pine) on SOM thermal stability and bulk chemistry. Results showed that depth was the dominant discriminating factor, affecting significantly all RE6 parameters. With depth, we observed a decrease of the thermally labile SOC pool and an increase of the thermally stable SOC pool, along with an oxidation and a depletion of hydrogen-rich moieties of the SOC. Soil class and vegetation type had contrasted effects on the RE6 parameters but both affected significantly T

  6. Visualizing the Stability of Char: Molecular- to Micron-scale Observations of Char Incubated in a Tropical Soil (United States)

    Heckman, K. A.; Ramon, C.; Weber, P. K.; Torn, M. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Nico, P. S.


    The persistence of pyrogenic materials (hereafter referred to as char) in terrestrial ecosystems is of interest both from a carbon cycle modelling perspective and a climate change mitigation standpoint. However, the fate of newly introduced char in soils remains unclear. Recent reviews attempting to summarize trends in char decomposition have come to differing conclusions, further stressing the complexity of factors dictating char stability in soils. The current dataset specifically addresses the stability of char additions to a tropical clay-rich soil, possible priming effects, and interactions among char, microbial communities and the mineral matrix. 13C- and 15N-labeled Acer rubrum(red maple) wood was combusted at 400°C and added to surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soils from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Soils were incubated for 13 and 345 days at 26°C. Following incubation, intact microaggregates were frozen and cryosectioned into thin sections of approximately 5 μm thickness and mounted on gold-coated quartz slides. Thin sections were examined by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS). The combination of these μm to nm scale techniques allowed us to create corresponding spatial maps of native organic matter, char, and mineral phase distribution, track spatial variability in organic matter molecular structure, and dispersion of 13C and 15N isotopic labels. We present preliminary results indicating a high degree of stability of char in these wet tropical soils throughout the incubation period, suggesting that applied char may persist for long periods of time in similar soils.

  7. Effects of land use and management on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of soils within River Njoro Watershed in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary G. Mainuri


    Full Text Available There has been tremendous changes in land use and management in the River Njoro Watershed during the last three decades. Formerly large scale farms have been converted into smallholder farms and plantation forests have gradually been lost. These changes in land use and management have brought in different approaches that have triggered soil erosion and other forms of land degradation. The objective of this study was to trace the changes in land use and determine their effects on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity. A semi detailed soil survey of the watershed was undertaken following a three-tier approach comprising image interpretation, field surveys and laboratory analysis. The measured variables in the soil were analysed using ANOVA and correlation analysis. The major land uses were found to be forestland, agricultural land, grassland, and wetland. A strong soil type _ landscape relationship was observed within the watershed. Soils of slopes were moderately to severely eroded, shallow and less developed whereas those on summits, pen plains, uplands, plateaus and valleys were deep and well developed. Aggregate stability was the highest in forestland and decreased in the order of grassland, agricultural land and wetland respectively. The mean weight diameter under the various land use conditions was 0.68, 0.64, 0.58, and 0 41 respectively. Hydraulic conductivity was the highest in forest-land and decreased in the order of agricultural land, grassland and wetland respectively. There was significant negative correlation between hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density and clay content of the soils. Reduced aggregate stability and lowered hydraulic conductivity is likely to be responsible for some of the severe soil erosion and other forms of land degradation observed in the River Njoro Watershed.

  8. Using multi-scale stable isotopes analyses to study the microbial processes of soil organic matter stabilization (United States)

    Hatton, P.; Remusat, L.; Zeller, B.; Bode, S.; Brewer, E.; Boeckx, P. F.; Derrien, D.


    Soil microorganisms are increasingly recognized as important drivers for the stabilization of soil organic matter (OM) with soil assemblages, but the way they act remains not fully explored. Here, we used a multi-scale approach to investigate the attachment of microbial products with soil organo-mineral assemblages. A surface acidic Cambisol was amended with 13C15N labeled glycine and leaf fragments prior to sequential density separation of plant debris, aggregates and non-aggregates mineral grains with little OM attached. Labels were tracked using elemental analyzer coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS), liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to IRMS and nano-scale secondary ions MS (NanoSIMS). After 8h of glycine incubation, the comparison between γ-irradiated and non-sterile soils revealed that more than 90% and 85% of the stabilized glycine-derived 13C and 15N were found in microbial products, with a higher occurrence in aggregates than in plant debris and mineral grains. NanoSIMS images showed that these stabilized microbial products are principally not confined to the microbial cells, but evenly spread at the surface of the mineral-attached OM as extracellular products. After calibration, the comparison of their C/N ratios with the C/N ratios of the corresponding soil particles suggested that the microbial products are stabilized through physico-chemical interactions most likely mediated by the reactivity of the underlying minerals. Unlike NanoSIMS, LC-IRMS analyses allow the tracing of 13C tracers within microbial biomasses using amino sugars as biomarkers. After 3 months of incubation, freshly produced amino sugars deriving from the readily accessible glycine and finely ground leaf fragments clearly peaked in microbial aggregates and plant debris, respectively. Differences in distributions indicated that bacteria and fungi both grow where the resource is, but accumulate in microbial aggregates. These results suggested either a higher

  9. Denudational slope processes on weathered basalt in northern California: 130 ka history of soil development, periods of slope stability and colluviation, and climate change (United States)

    McDonald, Eric; Harrison, Bruce; Baldwin, John; Page, William; Rood, Dylan


    The geomorphic history of hillslope evolution is controlled by multiple types of denudational processes. Detailed analysis of hillslope soil-stratigraphy provides a means to identify the timing of periods of slope stability and non-stability, evidence of the types of denudational processes, and possible links to climatic drivers. Moreover, the degree of soil formation and the presence of buried or truncated soils provide evidence of the relative age of alternating periods of colluviation and stability. We use evaluation of soil stratigraphy, for a small forested hillslope (weathered basalt. Stratigraphic interpretation is reinforced with soil profile development index (PDI) derived age estimates, tephrochronology, luminescence ages on colluvium, and He3 nuclide exposure dates. Soils formed along hilltop ridges are well developed and reflect deep (>2-3 m) in-situ weathering of the basalt bedrock. PDI age estimates and He3 exposure dates indicate that these hilltop soils had been in place for 100-130 ka, implying a long period of relative surface stability. At about 40-30 ka, soil stratigraphy indicates the onset of 3 distinct cycles of denudation of the hilltop and slopes. Evidence for changes in stability and onset of soil erosion is the presence of several buried soils formed in colluvium downslope of the hilltop. These buried soils have formed in sediment derived from erosion of the hilltop soils (i.e. soil parent material of previously weathered soil matrix and basalt cobbles). The oldest buried soil indicates that slope stability was re-established between 32-23 ka, with stability and soil formation lasting to about 10 ka. Soil-stratigraphy indicates that two additional intervals of downslope transport of sediment between 6-10 ka, and 2-5 ka. Soil properties indicate that the primary method of downslope transport is largely due to tree throw and faunal burrowing. Onset of slope instability at 40-30 ka appears to be related to changes in vegetation with

  10. Stabilization of Organic Matter by Biochar Application in Compost-amended Soils with Contrasting pH Values and Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Jien


    Full Text Available Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent concerns because of the impacts of global climate change. In subtropical and tropical regions, practical management that stabilizes and prevents organic fertilizers from rapid decomposition in soils is necessary. This study conducted a short-term (70 days incubation experiment to assess the effects of biochar application on the decomposition of added bagasse compost in three rural soils with different pH values and textures. Two rice hull biochars, produced through slow pyrolization at 400 °C (RHB-400 and 700 °C (RHB-700, with application rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% (w/w, were separately incorporated into soils with and without compost (1% (w/w application rate. Experimental results indicated that C mineralization rapidly increased at the beginning in all treatments, particularly in those involving 2% and 4% biochar. The biochar addition increased C mineralization by 7.9%–48% in the compost-amended soils after 70 days incubation while the fractions of mineralized C to applied C significantly decreased. Moreover, the estimated maximum of C mineralization amount in soils treated with both compost and biochar were obviously lower than expectation calculated by a double exponential model (two pool model. Based on the micromorphological observation, added compost was wrapped in the soil aggregates formed after biochar application and then may be protected from decomposing by microbes. Co-application of compost with biochar may be more efficient to stabilize and sequester C than individual application into the studied soils, especially for the biochar produced at high pyrolization temperature.

  11. Achieving synergy between chemical oxidation and stabilization in a contaminated soil. (United States)

    Srivastava, Vipul J; Hudson, Jeffrey Michael; Cassidy, Daniel P


    Eight in situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) amendments were tested to promote in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with activated persulfate (PS) in a contaminated soil. A 3% (by weight) dose of all ISS amendments selected for this study completely activated a 1.5% dose of PS within 3 h by raising temperatures above 30 °C (heat activation) and/or increasing pH above 10.5 (alkaline activation). Heat is released by the reaction of CaO with water, and pH increases because this reaction produces Ca(OH)2. Heat activation is preferred because it generates 2 mol of oxidizing radicals per mole of PS, whereas alkaline activation releases only 1. The relative contribution of heat vs. alkaline activation increased with CaO content of the ISS amendment, which was reflected by enhanced contaminant oxidation with increasing CaO content, and was confirmed by comparing to controls promoting purely heat or alkaline (NaOH) activation. The test soil was contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly naphthalene (NAP). ISS-activated PS oxidized between 47% and 84% of the BTEX & NAP, and between 13% and 33% of the higher molecular weight PAH. ISS-activated PS reduced the leachability of BTEX & NAP by 76%-91% and of the 17 PAH by 83%-96%. Combined ISCO/ISS reduced contaminant leachability far than ISCO or ISS treatments alone, demonstrating the synergy that is possible with combined remedies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Degradation of soil-sorbed trichloroethylene by stabilized zero valent iron nanoparticles: Effects of sorption, surfactants, and natural organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Man [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; He, Feng [ORNL; Zhao, Dongye [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Hao, Xiaodi [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture


    Zero valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles have been studied extensively for degradation of chlorinated solvents in the aqueous phase, and have been tested for in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. However, little is known about its effectiveness for degrading soil-sorbed contaminants. This work studied reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) sorbed in two model soils (a potting soil and Smith Farm soil) using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized Fe-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles. Effects of sorption, surfactants and dissolved organic matter (DOC) were determined through batch kinetic experiments. While the nanoparticles can effectively degrade soil-sorbed TCE, the TCE degradation rate was strongly limited by desorption kinetics, especially for the potting soil which has a higher organic matter content of 8.2%. Under otherwise identical conditions, {approx}44% of TCE sorbed in the potting soil was degraded in 30 h, compared to {approx}82% for Smith Farm soil (organic matter content = 0.7%). DOC from the potting soil was found to inhibit TCE degradation. The presence of the extracted SOM at 40 ppm and 350 ppm as TOC reduced the degradation rate by 34% and 67%, respectively. Four prototype surfactants were tested for their effects on TCE desorption and degradation rates, including two anionic surfactants known as SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and SDBS (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate), a cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide, and a non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. All four surfactants were observed to enhance TCE desorption at concentrations below or above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), with the anionic surfactant SDS being most effective. Based on the pseudo-first-order reaction rate law, the presence of 1 x cmc SDS increased the reaction rate by a factor of 2.5 when the nanoparticles were used for degrading TCE in a water solution. SDS was effective for enhancing degradation of TCE sorbed in Smith Farm

  13. Effect of Stabilized Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles on Nitrate Removal from Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nooralivand


    Full Text Available Introduction: During the recent decades, the use of N fertilizers has undeniable development regardless of their effects on the soil and environment. Increasing nitrate ion concentration in soil solution and then, leaching it into groundwater causes increase nitrate concentration in the water and raise the risk suffering from the people to some diseases. World health organization recommended maximum concentration level for nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water 50 and 3 mg/l, respectively. There are different technologies for the removal of nitrate ions from aqueous solution. The conventional methods are ion exchange, biological denitrification, reverse osmosis and chemical reduction. Using nanoscale Fe0 particles compared to other methods of nitrate omission was preferred because of; its high surface area, more reactive, lower cost and higher efficiency. More studies on the reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron nanoparticles have been in aqueous solutions or in the soil in batch scale. Nanoparticles surface modified with poly-electrolytes, surfactants and polymers cause colloidal stability of the particles against the forces of attraction between particles and increases nanoparticle transport in porous media. The objectives of this study were to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles and consideration of their application for nitrate removal from sandy soil. Materials and Methods: The nanoparticles were synthesized in a lab using borohydride reduction method and their morphological characteristics were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. Experiments were conducted on packed sand column (40 cm length and 2.5 cm inner diameter under conditions of different nanoparticle concentration (1, 2, and 3 g1-1and high initial NO3- concentration (150, 250, and 350 mgl-1. Homogeneous soil column was filled with the wet packed

  14. Integrating microbial physiology and physio-chemical principles in soils with the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS) model (United States)

    Wieder, W. R.; Grandy, A. S.; Kallenbach, C. M.; Bonan, G. B.


    A growing body of literature documents the pressing need to develop soil biogeochemistry models that more accurately reflect contemporary understanding of soil processes and better capture soil carbon (C) responses to environmental perturbations. Models that explicitly represent microbial activity offer inroads to improve representations of soil biogeochemical processes, but have yet to consider relationships between litter quality, functional differences in microbial physiology, and the physical protection of microbial byproducts in forming stable soil organic matter (SOM). To address these limitations, we introduce the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS) model, and evaluate it by comparing site-level soil C projections with observations from a long-term litter decomposition study and soil warming experiment. In MIMICS, the turnover of litter and SOM pools is governed by temperature-sensitive Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the activity of two physiologically distinct microbial functional types. The production of microbial residues through microbial turnover provides inputs to SOM pools that are considered physically or chemically protected. Soil clay content determines the physical protection of SOM in different soil environments. MIMICS adequately simulates the mean rate of leaf litter decomposition observed at temperate and boreal forest sites, and captures observed effects of litter quality on decomposition rates. Moreover, MIMICS better captures the response of SOM pools to experimental warming, with rapid SOM losses but declining temperature sensitivity to long-term warming, compared with a more conventional model structure. MIMICS incorporates current microbial theory to explore the mechanisms by which litter C is converted to stable SOM, and to improve predictions of soil C responses to environmental change.

  15. Synthesis of a one-part geopolymer system for soil stabilizer using fly ash and volcanic ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigue April Anne S.


    Full Text Available A novel approach one-part geopolymer was employed to investigate the feasibility of enhancing the strength of in-situ soil for possible structural fill application in the construction industry. Geopolymer precursors such as fly ash and volcanic ash were utilized in this study for soil stabilization. The traditional geopolymer synthesis uses soluble alkali activators unlike in the case of ordinary Portland cement where only water is added to start the hydration process. This kind of synthesis is an impediment to geopolymer soil stabilizer commercial viability. Hence, solid alkali activators such as sodium silicate (SS, sodium hydroxide (SH, and sodium aluminate (SA were explored. The influence of amount of fly ash (15% and 25%, addition of volcanic ash (0% and 12.5%, and ratio of alkali activator SS:SH:SA (50:50:0, 33:33:33, 50:20:30 were investigated. Samples cured for 28 days were tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS. To evaluate the durability, sample yielding highest UCS was subjected to sulfuric acid resistance test for 28 days. Analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX were performed to examine the elemental composition, mineralogical properties, and microstructure of the precursors and the geopolymer stabilized soil.

  16. Stability of embankments over cement deep soil mixing columns; Estabilidad de terraplenes sobre columnas de suelo-cemento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morilla Moar, P.; Melentijevic, S.


    The deep soil mixing (DSM) is one of the ground improvement methods used for the construction of embankments over soft soils. DSM column-supported embankments are constructed over soft soils to accelerate its construction, improve embankment stability, increase bearing capacity and control of total and differential settlements. There are two traditional design methods, the Japanese (rigid columns) and the scandinavian (soft and semi-rigid columns). Based on Laboratory analysis and numerical analysis these traditional approaches have been questioned by several authors due to its overestimation of the embankment stability considering that the most common failures types are not assumed. This paper presents a brief review of traditional design methods for embankments on DSM columns constructed in soft soils, studies carried out determine the most likely failure types of DSM columns, methods to decrease the overestimation when using limit equilibrium methods and numerical analysis methods that permit detect appropriate failure modes in DSM columns. Finally a case study was assessed using both limited equilibrium and finite element methods which confirmed the overestimation in the factors of safety on embankment stability over DSM columns. (Author)

  17. Modelling soil erosion reduction by mahonia aquifolium on hillslopes in hungary: The impact of soil stabilization by roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudek, C.; Sterk, Geert; van Beek, Rens L P H; de Jong, Steven M.


    Agricultural activities on hillslopes often cause soil erosion and degradation. Permanent vegetation strips on cultivated slopes could be an effective soil conservation technique to reduce erosion. Previous studies showed that cultivated Mahonia aquifolium can be an effective plant for water erosion

  18. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China (United States)

    Li, Xinrong


    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (<5 mm) because its high proportion of finer particles slowed the evaporation rate, thus keeping the water in the soil surface longer, and crust facilitated topsoil evaporation when rainfall reached 10 mm. The amount of dew entrapment increases with the succession of BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is

  19. Sequestration of maize crop straw C in different soils: role of oxyhydrates in chemical binding and stabilization as recalcitrance. (United States)

    Song, Xiangyun; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Hussain, Qaiser; Han, Xiaojun; Yu, Xinyan


    While biophysical controls on the sequestration capacity of soils have been well addressed with physical protection, chemical binding and stabilization processes as well as microbial community changes, the role of chemical binding and stabilization has not yet well characterized for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in rice paddies. In this study, a 6-month laboratory incubation with and without maize straw amendment (MSA) was conducted using topsoil samples from soils with different clay mineralogy and free oxy-hydrate contents collected across Southern China. The increase in SOC under MSA was found coincident with that in Fe- and Al-bound OC (Fe/Al-OC) after incubation for 30 d (R(2)=0.90, P=0.05), and with sodium dithionate-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extractable Fe after incubation for 180 d (R(2)=0.99, Phumin (R(2)=0.87, P=0.06) observed after incubation for 180 d may indicate a chemical stabilization of sequestered SOC as humin in the long run. These results improved our understanding of SOC sequestration in China's rice paddies that involves an initial chemical binding of amended C and a final stabilization as recalcitrant C of humin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous and continuous stabilization of As and Pb in contaminated solution and soil by a ferrihydrite-gypsum sorbent. (United States)

    Kameda, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Yohey; Wang, Shan-Li; Hirai, Yasumasa; Miyahara, Hidetaka


    For the increasing need of stabilization both cationic and anionic metal(loid)s simultaneously, we newly developed a metal sorbent (FIXALL), consisting mainly of ferrihydrite and gypsum. The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular mechanisms of Pb and As stabilization in an aqueous system and to examine a simultaneous and long-term (up to 754days) effect on Pb and As stabilization in an anthropogenically contaminated soil using the FIXALL sorbent. When the solution contained a low concentration of Pb (5mgL -1 ), the mechanisms of Pb removal by FIXALL were based chiefly on the formation of inner-sphere surface complex with ferrihydrite. In the highly concentrated Pb solution (1200mgL -1 ), contrarily, the removal of Pb by FIXALL was the direct consequence of the dissolution of gypsum and subsequent precipitation of PbSO 4 , which strengthens the drawback of low capability of ferrihydrite for Pb removal. Regardless of initial concentrations, the primary mechanism of FIXALL for As stabilization is attributed to the formation of inner-sphere surface complex with ferrihydrite. A contaminated soil study demonstrated that FIXALL could decrease the concentration of water soluble As and Pb simultaneously and continuously for 754days without notable changes in their chemical species and soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stabilization of Cd-, Pb-, Cu- and Zn-contaminated calcareous agricultural soil using red mud: a field experiment. (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Fangfang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Ruiyang; Luo, Lin; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan


    Red mud (RM) was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils. Experiments with two different dosages of RM added to soils were carried out in this study. It was found that soil pH increased 0.3 and 0.5 unit with the dosage of 3 and 5% (wt%), respectively. At the dosage of 5%, the highest stabilization efficiencies for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn reached 67.95, 64.21, 43.73 and 63.73%, respectively. The addition of RM obviously transferred Cd from the exchangeable fraction to the residual fraction. Meanwhile, in comparison with the control (no RM added), it reduced 24.38, 49.20, 19.42 and 8.89% of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in wheat grains at the RM addition dosage of 5%, respectively. At the same time, the yield of wheat grains increased 17.81 and 24.66% at the RM addition dosage of 3 and 5%, respectively. Finally, the addition of RM did not change the soil bacterial community. These results indicate that RM has a great potential in stabilizing heavy metals in calcareous agricultural soils.

  2. A study of the effectiveness of the use of gypsum and volcanic ash against the stability of clay soil in terms of UCT and CBR values (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Hastuty, IP; Lubis, AIU


    Soil stabilization is an effort to improve engineering properties of soil. The conventional soil stabilization is by adding additives to the soil such as Portland cement, lime, and bitumen. The clay stabilization research was done by adding gypsum and volcanic ash. The research purposes were to find out the value of engineering properties of clay due to the addition of 2% gypsum and 2% - 15% volcanic ash. The soil was classified as Clay - Low Plasticity (CL) based on USCS and was classified as A-7-6 (10) based on AASHTO classification system. The UCT values of original soil and original soil plus 2% gypsum were 1.40 kg/cm2 and 1.66 kg/cm2 respectively. The CBR soaked and unsoaked values of original soil were 4.44% and 6.28% correspondingly. Meanwhile, CBR soaked and CBR unsoaked values of original soil plus 2% gypsum were 6.74% and 8.02% respectively. The research results showed that the additives materials of gypsum and volcanic ash improved the engineering properties of clay. The UCT result from the stabilized soil by 2% gypsum and 10% volcanic ash gave value of 2.79 kg/cm2 (increased 99.28% from original soil). For CBR test, the most effective mixture were in variation of 2% gypsum and 9% volcanic ash which gave value of 9.07% (104.27% increase from original soil) for CBR soaked and 10.29% (63.85% increase from original soil) for CBR unsoaked. The stabilized soil with 2% gypsum and 9% volcanic ash was classified as CL based on USCS and was classified as A-6 (4) based on AASHTO classification system.

  3. Reducing the risk of the collapse of the soil by macro system modeling the slopes stability of the quarries (United States)

    Klimova, E. V.; Semeykin, A. Yu


    The urgent task of modern production is to reduce the risks of man-made disasters and, as a consequence, preserve the life and health of workers, material properties and natural environment. In the mining industry, one of the reasons for the high level of injuries and accidents is the collapse of the soil. Macro system modelling of slopes stability of the quarries is based on the compliance with the conditions of physical and mathematical correctness of the application of the model of a continuous medium. This type of modelling allows to choose the safe parameters of the slopes of the quarries and to reduce the risk of collapse of the soil.

  4. Nitrogen-rich microbial products provide new organo-mineral associations for the stabilization of soil organic matter. (United States)

    Kopittke, Peter M; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Dalal, Ram C; Finn, Damien; Menzies, Neal W; Hoeschen, Carmen; Mueller, Carsten W


    Understanding the cycling of C and N in soils is important for maintaining soil fertility while also decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, but much remains unknown about how organic matter (OM) is stabilized in soils. We used nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to investigate the changes in C and N in a Vertisol and an Alfisol incubated for 365 days with 13 C and 15 N pulse labeled lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) to discriminate new inputs of OM from the existing soil OM. We found that almost all OM within the free stable microaggregates of the soil was associated with mineral particles, emphasizing the importance of organo-mineral interactions for the stabilization of C. Of particular importance, it was also found that 15 N-rich microbial products originating from decomposition often sorbed directly to mineral surfaces not previously associated with OM. Thus, we have shown that N-rich microbial products preferentially attach to distinct areas of mineral surfaces compared to C-dominated moieties, demonstrating the ability of soils to store additional OM in newly formed organo-mineral associations on previously OM-free mineral surfaces. Furthermore, differences in 15 N enrichment were observed between the Vertisol and Alfisol presumably due to differences in mineralogy (smectite-dominated compared to kaolinite-dominated), demonstrating the importance of mineralogy in regulating the sorption of microbial products. Overall, our findings have important implications for the fundamental understanding of OM cycling in soils, including the immobilization and storage of N-rich compounds derived from microbial decomposition and subsequent N mineralization to sustain plant growth. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of sepiolite, bentonite, and phosphate amendments on the stabilization remediation of cadmium-contaminated soils. (United States)

    Sun, Yuebing; Sun, Guohong; Xu, Yingming; Liu, Weitao; Liang, Xuefeng; Wang, Lin


    A pot trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of sepiolite, bentonite, and phosphate on the immobilization remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils using a set of variables, namely, physiological traits, sequential extraction procedure, plant growth and Cd concentration, and soil enzymatic activities and microbial population. Results showed that superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in the leaves of Oryza sativa L. and catalase activities in soils were stimulated after applying the amendments. However, soluble protein contents in leaves and urease and invertase activities in soils were reduced from 7.1% to 31.7%, 1.0%-23.3%, and 21.1%-62.5%, respectively, compared with the control. Results of the sequence extraction procedures revealed that the exchangeable fraction of Cd in soils was mostly converted into carbonated-associated forms. The water soluble plus exchangeable fraction (SE) of Cd in soil decreased when treated with single and compound materials of sepiolite, bentonite and phosphate, which resulted in 13.2%-69.2% reduction compared with that of CK (control test). The amendments led to decreased Cd concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, brown rice, and rice hull by 16.2%-54.5%, 16.6%-42.8%, 19.6%-59.6%, 5.0%-68.2%, and 6.2%-20.4%, respectively. Higher bacterial and actinomycete amount indicated that remediation measures improved soil environmental quality. Composite amendments could be more efficiently used for the stabilization remediation of Cd contaminated soils with low Cd uptake and translocation in the plants and available contents of Cd in soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil organic matter (de)stabilization - new experiments needed to inform soil biogeochemistry modules in earth system models (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Torn, Margaret S.; Riley, William J.


    To better predict soil carbon climate feedbacks, the next generation of soil biogeochemistry modules in Earth System Models (ESMs) demand new types of experiments, and a more appropriate use of existing observations. For example, we highlight soil incubations and how they have been misinterpreted when inferring pseudo-first order turnover times and decomposition temperature and moisture sensitivities. Further, for existing pseudo first-order modules, and the new microbial- and mineral-explicit generation of biogeochemistry modules, there is often a mismatch between temporal and spatial observations and how they are used by modelers. Observation periods should be longer, from annual to decadal, and include transitions, e.g., induced by climate or management. Key observations to better structure and parameterize processes that are important for carbon-climate feedbacks include i) mineral surface interactions, ii) microbial dynamics and activity, including effects of soil temperature and moisture, iii) erosion and export, iv) landscape scale process heterogeneity, and v) the effect of land use change, such as clear cut and changes in tillage. Recent insights and knowledge gaps from traditionally disconnected scientific fields (such as geophysical modeling, agricultural soil science, geomorphology, and soil biogeochemistry) will be discussed in the context of informing ESM-scale terrestrial biogeochemistry models.

  7. Evidences of the stability of magnetite in soil from Northeastern Argentina by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causevic, H.; Morras, H.; Mijovilovich, A.; Saragovi, C.


    In red soils from southern Brazil magnetite was reported to be pedogenically unstable, weathering to maghemite. However, in similar soils from northeastern Argentina magnetite was found in all size fractions. This finding motivates the mineralogical study of an Ultisol at different depths in order to understand the influence of anthropic and natural factors in the weathering of the magnetic minerals of these subtropical soils. The sand fraction of the B t22 horizon (105-155 cm depth) of a clayey red Ultisol from the subtropical forest of Misiones, Argentina, was studied by X-ray diffraction, saturation magnetization σ s , optical microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Saturation magnetization for the whole sand fraction (wsf), the non-magnetic sand fraction (nmsf) and the magnetic sand fraction (msf) are 10.79, 1.50 and 16.92 JT -1 kg -1 , respectively. Mainly quartz, ilmenite, Al-substituted hematite, goethite, maghemite and magnetite are found. Magnetite-maghemite contents are high, and magnetite is predominant in the msf. Results are compared with those from the upper B 1 horizon (10-35 cm depth) of the same soil in which a lower σ s(wsf) value, and higher values of σ s(msf) and of (σ s(msf) -σ s(wsf) ) were measured. These results confirm the stability of magnetite in this soil contrasting with other results on soils from neighbouring areas

  8. Long-term stability of organic carbon-stimulated chromatereduction in contaminated soils, and its relation to manganese redoxstatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Sutton,Steve R.; Newville, Matthew; Rao, William


    In-situ reduction of toxic Cr(V1) to less hazardous Cr(II1)is becoming a popular strategy for remediating contaminated soils.However, the long term stability of reduced Cr remains to be understood,especially given the common presence of MnfIIIJV) oxides that reoxidizeCr(II1). This 4.6 year laboratory study tracked Cr and Mn redoxtransformations in soils contaminated with Cr(V1) which were then treatedwith different amounts of organic carbon (OC). Changes in Cr and Mnoxidation states within soils were directly and nondestructively measuredusing micro X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Chromatereduction was roughly lst-order, and the extent of reduction was enhancedwith higher OC additions. However, significant Cr(||1) reoxidationoccurred in soils exposed to the highest Cr(V1) concentrations (2,560 mgkg"'). Transient Cr(II1) reoxidation up to 420 mg kg1 was measured at 1.1years after OC treatment, followed by further reduction. Chromateconcentrations increased by 220 mg kgm1a t the end of the study (4.6years) in one soil. The causal role that Mn oxidation state had inreoxidizing Cr was supported by trends in Mn K-edge energies. Theseresults provide strong evidence for longterm dependence of soil Croxidation states on balances between OC availability and Mn redoxstatus.

  9. Effect of drains on the seepage of contaminants from subgrade tailings disposal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, A.J.; Pin, F.G.; Sharp, R.D.


    A numerical simulation study is performed to investigate the influence of ponded water and a bottom drain on the pathways for contaminant migration from a subgrade uranium mill tailings disposal pit. A numerical model is applied to a generic disposal pit constructed with a bottom clay liner and steep unlined sidewalls. The migration of a two-contaminant system is modeled assuming that neither contaminant decays and only one contaminant is retarded. Two dominant pathways are identified; one associated with lateral sidewall leakage and the other associated with transport through the bottom clay liner. It is found that the drain serves to reduce migration through the sidewall which, in turn, prevents the retarded contaminant from reaching the aquifer. The ponded water provides increased head which causes an accelerated vertical movement of moisture through the clay liner. 2 references, 8 figures

  10. The effect of drains on the seepage of contaminants from subgrade tailings disposal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, A.J.; Pin, F.G.; Sharp, R.D.


    A numerical simulation study is performed to investigate the influence of ponded water and a bottom drain on the pathways for contaminant migration from a subgrade uranium mill tailings disposal pit. A numerical model is applied to a generic disposal pit constructed with a bottom clay liner and steep unlined sidewalls. The migration of a two-contaminant system is modeled assuming that neither contaminant decays and only one contaminant is retarded. Two dominant pathways are indentified; one associated with lateral sidewall leakage and the other associated with transport through the bottom clay liner. It is found that the drain serves to reduce migration through the sidewall which, in turn, prevents the retarded contaminant from reaching the aquifer. The ponded water provides increased head which causes an accelarated vertical movement of moisture through the clay liner

  11. Stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter--a new focus (United States)

    Phillip Sollins; Chris Swanston; Marc Kramer


    Interest in soil organic matter (SOM) is ramping up as concern mounts about steadily increasing levels of atmospheric CO2. There are two reasons for this. First, there is hope that improvements in crop, forest, and soil management may allow significant amounts of CO2 to be removed from the atmosphere and sequestered in soil...

  12. Environment, safety, health, and quality plan for the TRU- Contaminated Arid Soils Project of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, L.R.


    The Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. LSFA supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The TRU-Contaminated Arid Soils project is being conducted under the auspices of the LSFA Program. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting LSFA/Arid Soils activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to LSFA/Arid Soils operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and system and performance audits as they apply to the LSFA Program

  13. Probabilistic considerations on the effects of random soil properties on the stability of ground structures of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootori, Yasuki; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tomoyoshi


    In the JEAG4601-1987 (Japan Electric Association Guide for earthquake resistance design), either the conventional deterministic method or probabilistic method is used for evaluating the stability of ground foundations and surrounding slopes in nuclear power plants. The deterministic method, in which the soil properties of 'mean ± coefficient x standard deviation' is adopted for the calculations, is generally used in the design stage to data. On the other hand, the probabilistic method, in which the soil properties assume to have probabilistic distributions, is stated as a future method. The deterministic method facilitates the evaluation, however, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the deterministic and probabilistic methods. In order to investigate the relationship, a simple model that can take into account the dynamic effect of structures, and a simplified method for taking the spatial randomness into account are proposed in this study. As a result, it is found that the shear strength of soil is the most important factor for the stability of grounds and slopes, and the probability below the safety factor evaluated with the soil properties of mean - 1.0 x standard deviation' by the deterministic methods of much lower. (author)

  14. Efficiency modeling of solidification/stabilization of multi-metal contaminated industrial soil using cement and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglar, Grega E.; Lestan, Domen


    Highlights: → We assess the feasibility of using soil S/S for industrial land reclamation. → Retarders, accelerators, plasticizers were used in S/S cementitious formulation. → We proposed novel S/S efficiency model for multi-metal contaminated soils. - Abstract: In a laboratory study, formulations of 15% (w/w) of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and pozzolanic cement (PC) and additives: plasticizers cementol delta ekstra (PCDE) and cementol antikorodin (PCA), polypropylene fibers (PPF), polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and aqueous acrylic polymer dispersion (Akrimal) were used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils from an industrial brownfield contaminated with up to 157, 32,175, 44,074, 7614, 253 and 7085 mg kg -1 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As, respectively. Soils formed solid monoliths with all cementitious formulations tested, with a maximum mechanical strength of 12 N mm -2 achieved after S/S with CAC + PCA. To assess the S/S efficiency of the used formulations for multi-element contaminated soils, we propose an empirical model in which data on equilibrium leaching of toxic elements into deionized water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) solution and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths were weighed against the relative potential hazard of the particular toxic element. Based on the model calculation, the most efficient S/S formulation was CAC + Akrimal, which reduced soil leachability of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As into deionized water below the limit of quantification and into TCLP solution by up to 55, 185, 8750, 214, 4.7 and 1.2-times, respectively; and the mass transfer of elements from soil monoliths by up to 740, 746, 104,000, 4.7, 343 and 181-times, respectively.

  15. Terrestrial exposure of oilfield flowline additives diminish soil structural stability and remediative microbial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.J.; Sherbone, J.; Hinz, C.; Tibbett, M.


    Onshore oil production pipelines are major installations in the petroleum industry, stretching many thousands of kilometres worldwide which also contain flowline additives. The current study focuses on the effect of the flowline additives on soil physico-chemical and biological properties and quantified the impact using resilience and resistance indices. Our findings are the first to highlight deleterious effect of flowline additives by altering some fundamental soil properties, including a complete loss of structural integrity of the impacted soil and a reduced capacity to degrade hydrocarbons mainly due to: (i) phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) prevented accumulation of scale in pipelines but also disrupted soil physical structure; (ii) glutaraldehyde (in biocides) which repressed microbial activity in the pipeline and reduced hydrocarbon degradation in soil upon environmental exposure; (iii) the combinatory effects of these two chemicals synergistically caused severe soil structural collapse and disruption of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. - Highlights: → Effects of flowline additives on soil structure and microbial function highlighted. → Phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) were found to disrupt soil physical structure. → Glutaraldehyde (in biocides) caused significant reduction of hydrocarbon degradation in soil. → Flowline additive chemicals synergistically affects soil structure and remediative microbial function. - Scale inhibitor and biocide oilfield flowline additives interactively affect soil physical and microbial properties

  16. Soil carbon stabilization and turnover at alley-cropping systems, Eastern Germany (United States)

    Medinski, T.; Freese, D.


    Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil aggregates. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and turnover are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (<53 µm), followed by determination of organic carbon and nitrogen by gas-chromatography. Soil samples were also analysed for the total C&N content, cold-water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, <53 µm) carbon fraction were observed between treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster turnover of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.

  17. Long-term stabilization of crop residues and soil organic carbon affected by residue quality and initial soil pH. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A; Tang, Caixian


    Residues differing in quality and carbon (C) chemistry are presumed to contribute differently to soil pH change and long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) pools. This study examined the liming effect of different crop residues (canola, chickpea and wheat) down the soil profile (0-30cm) in two sandy soils differing in initial pH as well as the long-term stability of SOC at the amended layer (0-10cm) using mid-infrared (MIR) and solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A field column experiment was conducted for 48months. Chickpea- and canola-residue amendments increased soil pH at 0-10cm in the Podzol by up to 0.47 and 0.36units, and in the Cambisol by 0.31 and 0.18units, respectively, at 48months when compared with the non-residue-amended control. The decomposition of crop residues was greatly retarded in the Podzol with lower initial soil pH during the first 9months. The MIR-predicted particulate organic C (POC) acted as the major C sink for residue-derived C in the Podzol. In contrast, depletion of POC and recovery of residue C in MIR-predicted humic organic C (HOC) were detected in the Cambisol within 3months. Residue types showed little impact on total SOC and its chemical composition in the Cambisol at 48months, in contrast to the Podzol. The final HOC and resistant organic C (ROC) pools in the Podzol amended with canola and chickpea residues were about 25% lower than the control. This apparent priming effect might be related to the greater liming effect of these two residues in the Podzol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resilient modulus prediction of soft low-plasticity Piedmont residual soil using dynamic cone penetrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamed Mousavi


    Full Text Available Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP has been used for decades to estimate the shear strength and stiffness properties of the subgrade soils. There are several empirical correlations in the literature to predict the resilient modulus values at only a specific stress state from DCP data, corresponding to the predefined thicknesses of pavement layers (a 50 mm asphalt wearing course, a 100 mm asphalt binder course and a 200 mm aggregate base course. In this study, field-measured DCP data were utilized to estimate the resilient modulus of low-plasticity subgrade Piedmont residual soil. Piedmont residual soils are in-place weathered soils from igneous and metamorphic rocks, as opposed to transported or compacted soils. Hence the existing empirical correlations might not be applicable for these soils. An experimental program was conducted incorporating field DCP and laboratory resilient modulus tests on “undisturbed” soil specimens. The DCP tests were carried out at various locations in four test sections to evaluate subgrade stiffness variation laterally and with depth. Laboratory resilient modulus test results were analyzed in the context of the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG recommended universal constitutive model. A new approach for predicting the resilient modulus from DCP by estimating MEPDG constitutive model coefficients (k1, k2 and k3 was developed through statistical analyses. The new model is capable of not only taking into account the in situ soil condition on the basis of field measurements, but also representing the resilient modulus at any stress state which addresses a limitation with existing empirical DCP models and its applicability for a specific case. Validation of the model is demonstrated by using data that were not used for model development, as well as data reported in the literature. Keywords: Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP, Resilient modulus, Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG, Residual

  19. Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ayuke, F.; Gassner, A.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Koala, S.; Lelei, D.; Ndabamenye, T.; Six, J.; Pulleman, M.M.


    Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase, although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management

  20. Calibration of TDR Test Probe for Measuring Moisture in the Body of the Railway Substructure and its Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Peter


    Full Text Available In the introduction of the paper there is characterized a way of monitoring the moisture in the railway substructure in the experimental stand, which is a part of the experimental workplace of the Department of Railway Engineering and Track Management. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to the calibration of TDR test probe for selected rock materials as a basic prerequisite for the determination of the actual moisture in the body of the railway substructure and subgrade.

  1. Fate and stability of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in contaminated soil following microbial bioremediation processes. (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Geyer, Roland; Günther, Thomas; Kaestner, Matthias


    Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil rarely results in complete mineralization of the parent compound. More often, the largest proportion of the TNT carbon is incorporated into the soil organic matrix. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of nonextractable residues from various bioremediation processes of 14C-TNT in soils. The extractable amounts of the residual radioactivity varied between 7 and 33% and thus the nonextractable amount between 93 and 67% (3-15% in fulvic acids, 26-46% in humic acids, and 27-44% in the humin fraction). The residue-containing soils were analyzed for the release of radioactivity after treatment by physical (freeze and thaw, grinding of soil, and steam extraction), chemical (acid rain and addition of metal complexing agent), and biological methods (addition of compost, white rot fungi, radical-generating enzymes, and germination of plants). Freeze and thaw treatment and grinding of the soil did not alter the partitioning of the label significantly. Steam extraction and acid rain extraction increased the water extractability to 11 to 29% and to 51.6% in the native TNT-contaminated soil. The addition of ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA) increased the extractability from 7 to 12%. After biological treatment, only slightly increased extractability (<10%) was observed. No increase of extractable TNT or known metabolites was observed with any of the treatments. Thus, under the treatment conditions applied in this study, the residues formed during microbial transformation of TNT may be biogenic residues with low mobilization potential and low hazardous impact.

  2. Terrestrial exposure of oilfield flowline additives diminish soil structural stability and remediative microbial function. (United States)

    George, S J; Sherbone, J; Hinz, C; Tibbett, M


    Onshore oil production pipelines are major installations in the petroleum industry, stretching many thousands of kilometres worldwide which also contain flowline additives. The current study focuses on the effect of the flowline additives on soil physico-chemical and biological properties and quantified the impact using resilience and resistance indices. Our findings are the first to highlight deleterious effect of flowline additives by altering some fundamental soil properties, including a complete loss of structural integrity of the impacted soil and a reduced capacity to degrade hydrocarbons mainly due to: (i) phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) prevented accumulation of scale in pipelines but also disrupted soil physical structure; (ii) glutaraldehyde (in biocides) which repressed microbial activity in the pipeline and reduced hydrocarbon degradation in soil upon environmental exposure; (iii) the combinatory effects of these two chemicals synergistically caused severe soil structural collapse and disruption of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissolved Organic Matter as a Mechanism for Carbon Stabilization at Depth in Wet Tropical Forest Volcanic Soils (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Kramer, M. G.; Chadwick, O. A.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in many biological and chemical processes in soils. Our understanding of the types of plant and microbially-derived organic matter that accumulate in soils and the mechanisms responsible for their transformation and stabilization is still limited. In particular, we know very little about how microbial activity and water movement contribute to the production of DOM and the formation of stable C in soils. In well-drained soils under wet climates, DOM is potentially a primary pathway for the transport of C from the surface litter layers and the zones of highest microbial activity to deeper horizons in the soil profile where the potential for long-term storage increases. The mechanisms for long-term stabilization of organic C in deep mineral horizons include an accumulation of chemically recalcitrant C, strong sorption of soluble and otherwise labile C to mineral and/or metals making them inaccessible to decomposers, and microenvironmental conditions (low pH, low O2) which result in incomplete decomposition and persistence of labile C. Although most work to date has focused on the role of dissolved organic C and N (DOC and DON) in the C and N cycles of temperate forests, DOM fluxes may be even more important in forests in the wet tropics, where high rainfall and high primary productivity could lead to greater DOM production. In order to address the role of DOC in the transport and stabilization of C in mineral horizons, we are studying DOC production, transformation, and loss pathways in volcanic soils dominated by highly reactive, non-crystalline minerals (allophane). We are quantifying flux and solute concentrations (C, N, cations, anions) in rainwater, throughfall, and in soil water. We have installed tension and zero tension lysimeters throughout sequentially deeper organic and mineral horizons in an intermediate aged soil (ca. 350k years) under wet (ca. 3000 mm mean annual rainfall) native tropical forest

  4. Stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils of tidal swamplands is influenced by the types and the amounts of organic matter application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Saidy


    Full Text Available Farmers in tidal swamplands annually added organic matter (OM onto the raised beds to maintain organic matter contents and thereby maintain soil productivity of the raised beds. This experiment aimed to study the influence of the types and the amounts of OM on the stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils. Four types of OM: rice straw, eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes, purun tikus  (Eleocharis dulcis and mixed  rice straw-eceng gondok were added to a 27-year raised bed soil with 4 different rates: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0  of maximum sorption capacity (Qmax, and the OM stabilization was quantified after 10 weeks of OM addition.  Results of this study showed with the exception of rice straw, OM addition to soil resulted in increases in the mineralization of soil OM thereby inducing priming effect. Addition of rice straw at rate of 0.5 of Qmax resulted in stabilization of 46% added OM, while only 30% and 37% of added OM was stabilized when OM was added to soils at rates of 1.0 and 2.0 Qmax, respectively.  This study showed that the stabilization of OM in raised bed soils were influenced by the chemical composition of OM and the amount of added OM.

  5. Evaluation of Changes in Index Properties of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapitus AMADI


    Full Text Available For soils to be suitable in civil engineering projects, they must meet existing local requirements for index properties in addition to certain strength criteria. Typically, specifications limit these properties to some threshold values which in most cases are project specific. Some lateritic soils in their natural state need some treatment/modification to meet these specification requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the index properties (i.e., particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of a residually derived lateritic soil following fly ash application. Lateritic soil – fly ash mixtures with up to 20% fly ash by dry weight of soil were tested and specimens for compaction characteristics were prepared at different compaction states (optimum, dry and wet of optimum moisture content and compacted using British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort. While soil – fly ash mixtures containing up to 15% fly ash classify as CL according to USCS classification system and plotted above A-line in the plasticity chart, it was observed that changes in the gradation characteristics of soil sample treated with 20% fly ash resulted in the alteration of its classification to ML as well as the crossing of the A- line to the silty region. The liquid limit (LL varied from 42.2 to 29.53% representing 70% reduction while the plasticity index (PI of specimen treated with 20% fly ash was 16% lower than that of natural soil. The optimum moisture content (OMC ranged from 17.36% for the natural soil to 18.34% for soil mixtures containing 20% fly ash which yielded dry unit weight of 17.2kN/m3 for the natural soil and 16.1kN/m3 for samples treated with 20% fly ash. From the study, useful data were obtained showing substantial and desirable changes in the properties of lateritic soil as a civil engineering material on application of fly ash.

  6. The Role of Compost in Stabilizing the Microbiological and Biochemical Properties of Zinc-Stressed Soil


    Strachel, Rafa?; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Ba?maga, Ma?gorzata


    The progressive development of civilization and intensive industrialization has contributed to the global pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals, especially the soil. Degraded soils generally contain less organic matter, and thus, their homeostasis is more often disturbed, which in turn manifests in changes in biological and physicochemical properties of the soil. Therefore, new possibilities and solutions for possible neutralization of these contaminations are sought, inter ali...

  7. Stability of streambanks formed in partially saturated soils and effects of negative pore water pressures: the Sieve River (Italy) (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimo; Casagli, Nicola


    Streambanks of alluvial channels are usually composed of loose materials, which are unsaturated in ambient conditions. Unsaturated soils are subject to negative pore water pressures, which cause an apparent cohesion. The latter is the main factor in allowing the stability of near-vertical banks. Even during moderate in-bank flow events, the apparent cohesion can be strongly reduced as the material approaches full saturation; therefore, during the drawdown phase, as the confining pressure of the water in the channel disappears, a bank failure is likely to occur. Channel bed-level lowering along the Sieve River, Central Italy, has caused widespread bank instability. A geomorphological reconnaissance of forms and processes was followed by in situ tests to determine the shear strength of the banks. Interpretation of the tests and a streambank stability analysis were based on concepts of soil mechanics for unsaturated soils, in order to obtain relations between bank angle and height in limit equilibrium conditions. A stability chart was obtained with curves for different apparent cohesion values, and a stability analysis was performed taking into account the effects of flow events. In order to investigate the pore pressure effects, a series of piezo-tensiometers were installed in a streambank of the Sieve River. Data from a 1 year monitoring period show variations in pore water pressure and matric suction as a consequence of rainfall, evapotranspiration, and water stage variations. A planar failure with a tension crack occurred in the upper cohesive part of the bank during December 1996. The safety factor has been expressed as a function of the geometry of the bank and of the shear strength of the material. Safety factor variations through time are therefore shown as a function of seasonal variations in matric suction.

  8. Biochemical stability of sewage sludge chars and their impact on soil organic matter of a Mediterranean Cambisol (United States)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Knicker, Heike


    Transformation of sewage sludge (SS) into char achieves sludge hygienisation, which is necessary prior its application into agricultural soils. The pyrolysis of SS increases its stability in a degree which depends on the thermal treatment used. Thus, chars produced by using hydrothermal carbonization are typically more stable than normal soil organic matter (SOM), but less stable than chars from dry pyrolysis (Libra et al., 2011). Addition of highly-recalcitrant SS-chars to soil will likely increase its carbon sequestration potential; however the fertilizing properties of SS may be compromised due to its alteration during the pyrolysis. The main goal of this work was to investigate the biochemical recalcitrance of two 13C-enriched SS-chars once applied in a Mediterranean Cambisol as well as to evaluate their impact on the SOM quality and carbon stability. Thus, we studied the distribution of 13C between plants and soil after the addition of the 13C-enriched chars (2 atm%) to the soil. Therefore, we performed a greenhouse incubation experiment, using a Mediterranean Cambisol as matrix and tested the following treatments: control (soil alone), raw SS, SS-hydrochar, SS-pyrochar. The SS was produced in a pilot-scale waste-water plant and enriched with 13C by the addition of 13C-glucose during the treatment. The amendment was only applied to the upper 2 cm of the soil matrix where it accounted for 5% of its dry weight. Per pot, 25 seeds of Lolium perenne were sowed and incubated under controlled conditions. The biomass production as well as the concentration of 13C in leaves and roots was determined after 1, 2 and 5 months. The partitioning of the 13C between soil and plant and its transformation into bioavailable forms were monitored by stable isotopic mass spectrometry. The 13C-enrichment of the chars allowed the use of solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy as a means for the detection of chemical alterations of the chars during their aging. Libra J., Ro K., Kammann C

  9. In situ formation of magnetite reactive barriers in soil for waste stabilization (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.


    Reactive barriers containing magnetite and methods for making magnetite reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil contaminants including actinides and heavy metals, organic materials, iodine and technetium are disclosed. According to one embodiment, a two-step reagent introduction into soil takes place. In the first step, free oxygen is removed from the soil by separately injecting into the soil aqueous solutions of iron (II) salt, for example FeCl.sub.2, and base, for example NaOH or NH.sub.3 in about a 1:1 volume ratio. Then, in the second step, similar reagents are injected a second time (however, according to about a 1:2 volume ratio, iron to salt) to form magnetite. The magnetite formation is facilitated, in part, due to slow intrusion of oxygen into the soil from the surface. The invention techniques are suited to injection of reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source allowing in situ formation of the reactive barrier at the location of waste or hazardous material. Mixing of reagents to form. precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  10. Effect of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambok, I.O.


    The problem associated with black cotton and lateritic soils because of the swelling-shrinkage property of their constituent clay minerals were investigated. Samples of black cotton lateritic soils were collected from different parts of Kenya. The samples were analysed for their mineral compositions and later treated with hydrated lime in order to eliminate the swelling shrinkage behaviour. The samples were subsequently tested for their engineering properties in a soil mechanics laboratory using shear box and Casagrande apparatus. It was found that the chemical treatment of the soils with hydrated lime removes their plastic property and improves their shear strength. (author)

  11. The Effect of Drying-Wetting Cycle’s Repetition to the Characteristic of Natural and Stabilization Residual Soils Jawa Timur - Indonesia (United States)

    Muntaha, M.


    Indonesia, which located in tropical region, continuously undergoes wetting and drying cycles due to the changeable seasons. An important role in activating the clay minerals on tropical residual soils is the main factor that affects the static and dynamic properties, such as: volume change, soil suction and dynamic modulus. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of drying-wetting cycles repetition on volume change, soil suction and mechanical characteristics of natural and stabilization of residual soils from Jawa Timur - Indonesia. The natural undisturbed and stabilized residual soil sample was naturally and gradually dried up with air to 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100 % of the initial water content. The wetting processes were carried out with the gradual increment water content of 25 %(wsat - wi), 50 %(wsat - wi), 75 %(wsat - wi), up to 100 %(wsat - wi). The Direct Shear test is used to measure the mechanic properties, and Whatman filter paper No. 42 is used to measure the soil suction. The drying-wetting processes were carried out for 1, 2, 4, and 6 cycles. The laboratory test results showed that, the void ratio decreased, the unit weight, cohesion and the internal friction angle were increasing due to stabilization. Drying-wetting cycle repetition reduces void ratio, negative pore-water pressure, cohesion and internal friction angle of natural and stabilized soils. Briefly, the decreased of mechanical soil properties was proven from the physical properties change observation.

  12. Prediction of soil stability and erosion in semiarid regions using numerical hydrological model (MCAT) and airborne hyperspectral imagery (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Wittenberg, Lea


    promising models is the MCAT, which is a MATLAB library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models. The model applied in this paper presents an innovative infrastructural system for predicting soil stability and erosion impacts. This integrated model is applicable to mixed areas with spatially varying soil properties, landscape, and land-cover characteristics. Data from a semiarid site in southern Israel was used to evaluate the model and analyze fundamental erosion mechanisms. The findings estimate the sensitivity of the suggested model to the physical parameters and encourage the use of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery (HSI). The proposed model is integrated according to the following stages: 1. The soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture estimated via airborne HSI data, including soil surface clay and calcium carbonate erosions; 2. The mechanical stability of soil assessed via pedo-transfer function corresponding to load dependent changes in soil physical properties due to pre-compression stress (set of equations study shear strength parameters take into account soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture and ecological soil variables); 3. The precipitation-related runoff model program (RMP) satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of surface runoff for the current climate simulation; 4. The Monte Carlo Analysis Toolbox (MCAT), a library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models, is proposed as a tool for integrate all the approaches to an applicable model. The presented model overcomes the limitations of existing modeling methods by integrating physical data produced via HSI and yet stays generic in terms of space and time independency.

  13. Soils (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert


    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  14. Carbohydrates and thermal analysis reflects changes in soil organic matter stability after forest expansion on abandoned grassland (United States)

    Guidi, Claudia; Vesterdal, Lars; Cannella, David; Leifeld, Jens; Gianelle, Damiano; Rodeghiero, Mirco


    Grassland abandonment, followed by progressive forest expansion, is the dominant land-use change in the Southern Alps, Europe. Land-use change can affect not only the amount of organic matter (OM) in soil but also its composition and stability. Our objective was to investigate changes in organic matter properties after forest expansion on abandoned grasslands, combining analysis of carbohydrates, indicative of labile OM compounds with prevalent plant or microbial origin, with thermal analysis. Thermal analysis was used as a rapid assessment method for the characterization of SOM stability. A land-use gradient was investigated in four land-use types in the subalpine area of Trentino region, Italy: i) managed grassland, mown and fertilized for the past 100 years; ii) grassland abandoned since 10 years, with sparse shrubs and Picea abies saplings; iii) early-stage forest, dominated by P. abies and established on a grassland abandoned around 1970; iv) old forest, dominated by Fagus sylvatica and P. abies. Mineral soil was sampled at three subplots in each land use type with eight soil cores, which were subsequently pooled by depth (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm). Sugars were extracted from bulk soil samples through acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 (0.5 M). The analytical composition of sugar monomers was performed with HPAEC technology (Dionex ICS5000), equipped with PAD-detection. Thermal stability was assessed with a differential scanning calorimeter DSC100, heating soil samples up to 600°C at a heating rate of 10°C min-1 in synthetic air. Peak height (W g OC-1) of 1st DSC exotherm, dominated by burning of labile OM compounds, was used as thermal stability index. In the abandoned grassland, carbohydrates compounds accounted for a greater proportion of soil OC than in other land use types. Microbially derived sugars, as rhamnose and galactose, were more abundant in managed and abandoned grasslands compared with early-stage and old forest. The amount of thermally labile sugars

  15. Biochar and compost as amendments in copper-enriched vineyard soils - stabilization or mobilization of copper? (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Wimmer, Bernhard; Bell, Stephen; Chamier Glisczinski, Julia; Pardeller, Georg; Dersch, Georg; Rosner, Franz; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz


    Copper is an important ingredient for several fungicides that have been used in agriculture. For organic viticulture, several diseases as e.g. downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) can only be antagonized with Cu-containing fungicides. This long-lasting dependence on Cu-fungicides has led to a gradual Cu enrichment of vineyard soils in traditional wine-growing areas, occasionally exceeding 300 mg/kg. Although these concentrations do not affect the vines or wine quality, they may impair soil microbiological functions in the top soil layer or the root growth of green cover plants. Therefore measures are demanded that reduce the bioavailability of copper, thereby reducing the ecotoxicological effects. The use of biochar and compost as soil amendment has been suggested as a strategy to immobilize Cu and reduce the exchangeable fractions. This study consisted of lab and greenhouse experiments that were designed to test the sorption and desorption behavior of copper in vineyard soils with or without biochar and/or compost as soil amendment. Slightly acidic soils (pHeffects were more evident for a reduction of the ionic form Cu2+ than for total soluble copper, even in alkaline soils. Biochar modified with citric or tartaric acid did not significantly decrease the solubility of copper based on total dissolved concentrations although CEC was higher than in unmodified biochar. Treatments consisting of compost only or that had an equal amount of compost and biochar rather had a mobilizing effect on biochar. Sorption experiments with different DOC concentrations and biochar, however, showed a positive effect on copper sorption. Apparently in vineyard soils the predisposition to form organic-Cu-complexes may outbalance the binding possibilities of these complexes to biochar, occasionally resulting in enhanced mobilization. Presumably immobilization of copper with biochar would work best in acidic soils low in organic carbon and with low or no compost addition although this might

  16. Automatic Sieve-Shaker for Determining Soil Aggregate Stability and Dimensional Distribution Using a Vertical Oscillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Dell’Aquila

    Full Text Available The soil aggregate stability is determined generally by sifting the soil samples in water using a sieve-shaker (wet sieving. The Author has developed an original model of automatic sieve-shaker using a vertical oscillation system to the aim of an its possible use to determine the soil aggregate stability and dimensional distribution. The purpose of this note is to describe the construction and performance of the prototype currently used in the Laboratory for the Soil Structure Study of the ISAFOM – CNR. The proposed sieve-shaker, with the introduction of some innovations (protected by Italy Patent 0001332102, realizes the submersion and levelling of the soil samples using a lifter to support the containers with the water. With 6 workplaces it allows to process simultaneously up to 6 soil samples according to different test cycles. By means of the control panel it is possible to set up various determinations with the stroke of 3 cm and the oscillation frequency from 4 up to 80 oscillations per minute. The performance of the proposed sieve-shaker was verified with a technical test to verify the performance of the 6 workplaces to oscillation speed increasing up to 60 oscillations per minute and an agronomic test. The results have been submitted to analysis of variance considering the plots of the field from which have been taken the samples for repetitions and the six workplaces of the proposed sieve-shaker for experimental theses. The differences between the various workplaces have not been significant. This demonstrates that the behavior of the various workplaces is uniform. The dispersion in water at constant shaking time and increasing oscillation speed has evidenced a very significant inverse relation between the index of aggregate stability in water (IASW and number of oscillations per minute. This result demonstrates a constant performance of the proposed sieve-shaker to varying of the oscillation speed. The agnonomic test has demonstrated

  17. Olive mill wastewater stabilization in open-air ponds: impact on clay-sandy soil. (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Kharroubi, Adel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna


    The aim of this work was to study the natural biodegradation of the stored olive mill wastewater (OMW) in ponds and the infiltration as well as the impact on soil of the effluent in the evaporation pond used for the storage over the past eight years. For this, two approaches were considered. First, a laboratory-scale column was used for the infiltration of OMW through soil (clay and sand) to predict the effect of the clayey soil in reducing OMW pollution. Second, the ponds including the effluent annually stored and having this clayey structure were investigated. At the laboratory-scale, a modification of OMW contents was noticed, with the elimination of 95% of total suspended solids (TSS), 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40% of total organic carbon (TOC), 50% of total P, 50% of phenols and 40% of minerals (K+, Mg++ and Na+). The experimented soil was able to restrain the considerable effects of OMW pollution. In the ponds, the granulometric characteristics, the physico-chemical and the biological parameters of the soil profile from the contaminated pond were compared to those of a control soil, located near the contaminated pond. Property modifications of the contaminated soil were noted, especially pH, electrical conductivity, COD and microflora. These changes can be explained by the infiltration of OMW constituents, which were noticed in the soil layers, especially phenolic compounds that have a negative effect on the ground water.

  18. Soil moisture causes dynamic adjustments to root reinforcement that reduce slope stability (United States)

    Tristram C. Hales; Chelcy F. Miniat


    In steep soil-mantled landscapes, the initiation of shallow landslides is strongly controlled by the distribution of vegetation, whose roots reinforce the soil. The magnitude of root reinforcement depends on the number, diameter distribution, orientation and the mechanical properties of roots that cross potential failure planes. Understanding how these...

  19. Soil aggregation and the stabilization of organic carbon as affected by erosion and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cammeraat, E.L.H.; Cerli, C.; Kalbitz, K.


    The importance of soil aggregation in determining the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) during erosion, transportation and deposition is poorly understood. Particularly, we do not know how aggregation contributes to the often-observed accumulation of SOC at depositional sites. Our objective was

  20. Roles of biology, chemistry, and physics in soil macroaggregate formation and stabilization (United States)

    Soil functions or ecosystem services depend on the distribution of macro- (= 0.25 mm) and micro- (< 0.25 mm) aggregates and open space between aggregates. It is the arrangement of the aggregates and pore space which allows air and water movement in and out of soil; reduces compaction; and stimulates...