WorldWideScience

Sample records for stabilized cholesteric texture

  1. Alternative generation of well-aligned uniform lying helix texture in a cholesteric liquid crystal cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a simple approach for obtaining a well-aligned uniform lying helix (ULH texture and a tri-bistable feature at ambient temperature in a typical 90°-twisted cell filled with a short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal. This ULH texture is obtained at room temperature from initially field-induced helix-free homeotropic state by gradually decreasing the applied voltage. Depending on the way and rate of reducing the voltage, three stable states (i.e., Grandjean planar, focal conic, and ULH are generated and switching between any two of them is realized. Moreover, the electrical operation of the cell in the ULH state enables the tunability in phase retardation via the deformation of the ULH. The observations made in this work may be useful for applications such as tunable phase modulators and energy-efficient photonic devices.

  2. Black-on-white polymer-stabilized cholesteric formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John L.; Magyar, Gregory R.; Francl, James J.; Nixon, Christine M.

    1995-08-01

    Recent research by Doane, Yang, and Chien demonstrated the use of cholesteric liquid crystals in multiplexed, high resolution, reflective diplays. These materials utilize the bistability of the cholesteric planar and focal conic states for displays with a colored image on a black background. Many commercial applications of these materials, such as electronic books and newspapers, portable faxes and personal data assistants, require, or at least prefer, black-on- white images. We report on relatively high polymer content (equalsV 20% by weight) dispersions of cholesteric liquid crystals that produce a white, reflecting, planar state. The polymer network appears to form cholesteric domains with varying pitch lengths resulting in planar states that reflect in the red, green, and blue portions of the spectrum. Utilizing a black absorbing layer behind a display using these materials offers white images on a black background, or vice-versa.

  3. Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhijian

    Reflective cholesteric displays have two states at zero field, a Bragg reflecting planar texture and a weakly scattering focal conic texture. The performance of such a display depends on the stability and optical property of these textures. In this dissertation, various surface alignment layers are studied in order to optimize display performance and to understand physical and optical properties. Results show that non-homogeneous alignment layers fracture the planar texture and produce a multidomain structure as well as stabilize the focal conic texture. In the multidomain structure, the orientations of helical axes are distributed about the normal of the display cell, resulting in a wide viewing angle. The reflecting properties of the multidomain planar texture are quantitatively modeled using Berreman's 4 x 4 formalism. A gaussian type function adequately describe the helical axis orientation distribution. When the alignment condition is varied from tangential to homeotropic, the orientation of the helical axes becomes more broadly distributed. Reflective displays with high contrast ratios and wide viewing angles are achieved by using tilted or homeotropic alignment layers. The switching mechanism between the two stable textures of the reflective displays is of great importance not only for designing drive scheme but also for understanding the fundamental dynamics of the texture transitions. Planar texture can be transformed into focal conic texture directly by applying a relatively low field. The transition from focal conic to planar texture can only be realized by first switching the cholesteric liquid crystals into the homeotropic texture and then allowing the homeotropic texture to relax to the planar texture. In the relaxation, a transient planar texture with pitch, {K_{33 }over K_{22}}P_ {o} is observed by using optical reflection measurement. The transition time from the homeotropic texture to the transient planar texture is on the order of 1 ms and is

  4. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  5. Review on polymer-stabilized short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guanjun; Lee, Yun-Han; Gou, Fangwang; Chen, Haiwei; Huang, Yuge; Wu, Shin-Tson; Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Submillisecond response times and low operation voltage are critical to next generation liquid crystal display and photonic devices. In this paper, we review the recent progress of three fast-response short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal modes: blue phase (BP), uniform standing helix (USH), and uniform lying helix (ULH). This review starts with a brief introduction of device structures and working principles, and then highlights two competing electro-optical effects: dielectric effect and flexoelectric effect. Next, we compare their electro-optical behaviors, response time, temperature dependence, and contrast ratio. Based on our established simulation model, we are able to optimize the phase compensation scheme for improving the viewing angle and gamma shift of USH and ULH modes. Finally, we analyze some major challenges, which remain to be overcome before the widespread applications of these liquid crystal devices can be realized. (topical review)

  6. Review on polymer-stabilized short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guanjun; Lee, Yun-Han; Gou, Fangwang; Chen, Haiwei; Huang, Yuge; Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2017-12-01

    Submillisecond response times and low operation voltage are critical to next generation liquid crystal display and photonic devices. In this paper, we review the recent progress of three fast-response short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal modes: blue phase (BP), uniform standing helix (USH), and uniform lying helix (ULH). This review starts with a brief introduction of device structures and working principles, and then highlights two competing electro-optical effects: dielectric effect and flexoelectric effect. Next, we compare their electro-optical behaviors, response time, temperature dependence, and contrast ratio. Based on our established simulation model, we are able to optimize the phase compensation scheme for improving the viewing angle and gamma shift of USH and ULH modes. Finally, we analyze some major challenges, which remain to be overcome before the widespread applications of these liquid crystal devices can be realized.

  7. Cholesteric liquid crystals in living matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, Michel

    2017-06-14

    Liquid crystals play an important role in biology because the combination of order and mobility is a basic requirement for self-organisation and structure formation in living systems. Cholesteric liquid crystals are omnipresent in living matter under both in vivo and in vitro conditions and address the major types of molecules essential to life. In the animal and plant kingdoms, the cholesteric structure is a recurring design, suggesting a convergent evolution to an optimised left-handed helix. Herein, we review the recent advances in the cholesteric organisation of DNA, chromatin, chitin, cellulose, collagen, viruses, silk and cholesterol ester deposition in atherosclerosis. Cholesteric structures can be found in bacteriophages, archaea, eukaryotes, bacterial nucleoids, chromosomes of unicellular algae, sperm nuclei of many vertebrates, cuticles of crustaceans and insects, bone, tendon, cornea, fish scales and scutes, cuttlebone and squid pens, plant cell walls, virus suspensions, silk produced by spiders and silkworms, and arterial wall lesions. This article specifically aims at describing the consequences of the cholesteric geometry in living matter, which are far from being fully defined and understood, and discusses various perspectives. The roles and functions of biological cholesteric liquid crystals include maximisation of packing efficiency, morphogenesis, mechanical stability, optical information, radiation protection and evolution pressure.

  8. Bistable cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with multielectrode driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Chang; Tseng, Heng-Yi; Pai, Tsung-Wei; Wu, Yu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Jau, Hung-Chang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2014-08-01

    An electrically activated bistable light shutter that exploits polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal film was developed. Under double-sided three-terminal electrode driving, the device can be bistable and switched between focal conic and homeotropic textures with a uniform in-plane and vertical electrical field. The transparent state with a transmittance of 80% and the opaque/scattering state with a transmittance of 13% can be realized without any optical compensation film, and each can be simply switched to the other by applying a pulse voltage. Also, gray-scale selection can be performed by varying the applied voltage. The designed energy-saving bistable light shutter can be utilized to preserve privacy and control illumination and the flow of energy.

  9. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Patankar, Neelesh A; Marston, Jeremy O; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-09-13

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling--by heat transfer--the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating.

  10. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  12. Thermography using cholesteric liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1975-05-01

    After a brief recall of the optical characteristics of liquid crystals, the performances the cholesteric films can reach as temperature sensors are reviewed. Several examples are then given in thermography as well as in thermal non-destructive testing [fr

  13. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Mureşan; Lucian Cuibus; Anna Olari; Emil Racolţa; Carmen Socaciu; Sabine Danthine; Sevastița Muste; Christophe Blecker

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability). The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size ...

  14. Experiments with Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, James L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate (1) the properties of cholesteric liquid crystals, (2) thermal mapping, (3) thermal diffusivity, (4) adiabatic expansion of rubber, and (5) measurement of radiated energy by a point source. Contains all of the information on materials and apparatus needed to perform the experiments.…

  15. Effect of the thermal stabilization temperature on the change in the texture of polyacrylonitrile fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlitdinova, A. G.; Tyumentsev, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of temperature of isothermal treatment on the change in sizes L 010 of coherent scattering regions and texture of a polyacrylonitrile fiber during its transition to the structure of a thermally stabilized fiber is analyzed using X-ray structure analysis. An increase in the thermostabilization temperature at a constant stretching load stimulates simultaneously a more active increase in size L 010 and texturing of polyacrylonitrile fibers at the initial stage. Active evolution of the phase transformation at temperatures 275-290°C during further thermostabilization is accompanied by a substantial decrease in the texture of the polymer that has not experienced the phase transformation by this instant.

  16. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  17. Curvature-driven stability of defects in nematic textures over spherical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiuqing; Yao, Zhenwei

    2017-06-01

    Stabilizing defects in liquid-crystal systems is crucial for many physical processes and applications ranging from functionalizing liquid-crystal textures to recently reported command of chaotic behaviors of active matters. In this work, we perform analytical calculations to study the curvature-driven stability mechanism of defects based on the isotropic nematic disk model that is free of any topological constraint. We show that in a growing spherical disk covering a sphere the accumulation of curvature effect can prevent typical +1 and +1/2 defects from forming boojum textures where the defects are repelled to the boundary of the disk. Our calculations reveal that the movement of the equilibrium position of the +1 defect from the boundary to the center of the spherical disk occurs in a very narrow window of the disk area, exhibiting the first-order phase-transition-like behavior. For the pair of +1/2 defects by splitting a +1 defect, we find the curvature-driven alternating repulsive and attractive interactions between the two defects. With the growth of the spherical disk these two defects tend to approach and finally recombine towards a +1 defect texture. The sensitive response of defects to curvature and the curvature-driven stability mechanism demonstrated in this work in nematic disk systems may have implications towards versatile control and engineering of liquid-crystal textures in various applications.

  18. Oblique ion texturing of yttria-stabilized zirconia: the {211} structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdahl, Paul; Reade, Ronald P.; Liu, Jinping; Russo, Richard E.; Fritzemeier, Les; Buczek, David; Schoop, Urs

    2003-01-01

    Amorphous (Zr,Y)O x films were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by oblique ion bombardment. Crystalline texture nucleated by the ion beam was replicated by solid-phase epitaxial growth throughout the formerly amorphous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) film. The resulting YSZ films have (211) orientation normal to the substrate with in-plane directions (111), parallel, and (110), transverse, to the azimuth of the ion beam. We hypothesize that the texture mechanism involves ion-induced film compression and shear. The results, taken together with prior work, show that oblique ion texturing of amorphous films is a general phenomenon that can be used to fabricate substrates with more than one type of crystallographic orientation

  19. Oblique ion texturing of yttria-stabilized zirconia: The {211} structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdahl, Paul; Reade, Ronald P.; Liu, Jinping; Russo, Richard E.; Fritzemeier, Les; Buczek, David; Schoop, Urs

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous (Zr,Y)O x films were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by oblique ion bombardment. Crystalline texture nucleated by the ion beam was replicated by solid-phase epitaxial growth throughout the formerly amorphous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) film. The resulting YSZ films have (211) orientation normal to the substrate with in-plane directions (111), parallel, and (110), transverse, to the azimuth of the ion beam. We hypothesize that the texture mechanism involves ion-induced film compression and shear. The results, taken together with prior work, show that oblique ion texturing of amorphous films is a general phenomenon that can be used to fabricate substrates with more than one type of crystallographic orientation

  20. The performance and stability of three-lobe journal bearing textured with micro protrusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.KH. EL-Said

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with studying the steady state performance and dynamic stability of sliding element hydrodynamic bearings of the three-lobe type and provided with a bushing surface textured with uniform micro protrusions. A mathematical model has been put forward for the problem using the Reynolds equation governing the unstable fluid lubrication inside the bearing as well as the equations governing the dynamic movement of the journal. The equations have been put in their numerical forms suitable for computer solution using the finite difference method. Two types of three lobe bearings have been considered, one with its plain bushing and the other with bushing textured with uniform micro protrusions. This is in addition to other two plain journal bearings one with plain bushing and the other with textured bushing. This is for the purpose of carrying out a general comparison to include the steady performance of these bearings in terms of their load carrying capacity and the friction losses in their parts in addition to their dynamic stability. It was concluded in the present work that the inclusion of these textured micro protrusions in the bushing of bearings, whether they are plain or of the three-lobe geometry improves their performance in terms of reducing their friction losses and raising their load carrying capacity along. It was found that the three-lobe bearing with protruded bushing surface texture is superior to the other types of bearings considered in the present work as far as steady state performance is concerned. Regarding the margin of stability to small sinusoidal disturbances the protruded three-lobe bearing shows a relatively lower margin. Some useful recommendations for future research work in this field of study are given in this work and the most important one is to carry out extensive experimental studies on sliding bearings surfaces fitted with textured bushings of different micro protrusions designs

  1. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size (P1- coarsest → P8 - finest. Halva prototypes (25g / piece, including also an industrial sample (H0, were obtained at laboratory scale by mixing the nougat with tahini. The texture was evaluated on Stable micro systems TA.HD Plus texture analyzer equipped either with a cylinder probe or with a blade set. All samples were stored for 60 days at 4°C, room temperature (~25°C or 40°C. During storage, the colloidal stability of all samples was assessed by a gravimetric technique. Tahini samples P6 → P8 were not suitable for halva production while due to the low viscosities, the product was impossible to be shaped. Among obtained sunflower halva prototypes (H1 → H5 it was shown that decreasing tahini particle size decreased sunflower halva hardness and stability. For each sample, the increase of storage temperature decreased sunflower halva stability. Sunflower halva H3 was the most efficient, while was more stable and showed smaller hardness values than H0.

  2. The texture, sensory properties and stability of cookies prepared with wax oleogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Shortening is the essential component of high quality baked foods. Its effects on dough structure formation and the desired final product attributes depend mostly on its solid fat content and β' crystalline polymorphs. Saturated and trans fatty acids present in shortening pose some important negative health considerations. Hence, alternative plastic fats with lower or zero quantity of saturated and trans fatty acids are in high demand. Oleogels are gel networks of liquid edible oils with no trans and very low saturated fatty acids. In this study, sunflower wax (SW) and beeswax (BW) oleogels of hazelnut oil were used in cookie preparation against commercial bakery shortening (CBS) as the control, to compare the textural, sensory and stability properties of the cookies. The basic chemical composition, textural properties, and some physical attributes of the cookies were compared. Sensory texture/flavor profile analysis (T/FPA) and consumer hedonic tests were also accomplished. Furthermore, the changes in cookie texture and stability were monitored during 30 day storage at room temperature. It was found out that in almost all properties, the oleogel cookies resembled CBS cookies. T/FPA results present detailed data for literature. Consumer hedonic scores indicated that oleogel cookies were better than CBS cookies and were also well accepted by consumers. Wax oleogels can be used as cookie shortening successfully.

  3. Controlling chirality with helix inversion in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène; Lacaze, E.; Ferrarini, A.

    2012-01-01

    The helical organization of cholesteric liquid crystals is omnipresent in living matter. Achieving control over the structure of the cholesteric helix consequently holds great potential for developing stimuli-responsive materials matching the level of sophistication of biological systems. In

  4. Asymmetric Dimers of Chiral Azobenzene Dopants Exhibiting Unusual Helical Twisting Power upon Photoswitching in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized asymmetric dimeric chiral molecules as photon-mode chiral switches for reversible tuning of self-assembled helical superstructures. The chiral switches bearing two mesogen units-cholesterol and azobenzene moieties connected through flexible alkylenedioxy bridges-were doped into nematic liquid crystals, resulting in a chiral nematic (cholesteric) phase. Under irradiation with UV light, photoisomerization of the azobenzene units led to unprecedented switching of the cholesteric pitch and helical twisting power (HTP, β), with a higher HTP found in the cis-rich state (bent-form) than in the trans-state (rod-form). We attribute this behavior to the elongated cybotactic smectic clusters disrupting the helical orientation of the molecules in the cholesteric liquid crystals; their reversible decay and reassembly was evidenced upon sequential irradiation with UV and visible light, respectively. In addition to the photoisomerization of the azobenzene units, the odd/even parity of the alkylenedioxy linkers of the dimeric dopants also had a dramatic effect on the transitions of the cybotactic smectic domains. On the basis of the large rotational reorganization of the cholesteric helix and HTP switching (Δβ/βini of up to 50%), we could control the macroscopic rotational motion of microsized glass rods upon irradiating the surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal film featuring a polygonal fingerprint texture using UV and visible light.

  5. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability

  6. Electrically tuned photoluminescence in large pitch cholesteric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middha, Manju; Kumar, Rishi; Raina, K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals are known as 1-D photonic band gap materials due to their periodic helical supramolecular structure and larger birefringence. Depending upon the helical twisted pitch length, they give the characteristic contrast due to selective Bragg reflections when viewed through the polarizing optical microscope and hence affect the electro-optic properties. So the optimization of chiral dopant concentration in nematic liquid crystal leads to control the transmission of polarized light through the microscope. Hence transmission based polarizing optical microscope is used for the characterization of helical pitch length in the optical texture. The unwinding of helical pitch was observed with the application of electric field which affects the intensity of photoluminescence

  7. Structure stability and water retention near saturation characteristics as affected by soil texture, and polyacrylamide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Amrakh I.; Ekberli, Imanverdi A.; Ozturk, Hasan S.; Wagner, Larry E.; Norton, Darrell L.; Levy, Guy J.

    2017-04-01

    Studying the effects of soil properties and amendment application on soil structure stability is important for the development of effective soil management and conservation practices for sustaining semi-arid soil and water quality under climate change scenarios. Two sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil texture and soil amendment polyacrylamide (PAM) rate on soil structural stability expressed in terms of near saturation soil water retention and aggregate stability using the high energy (0-5 J kg-1) moisture characteristic (HEMC) method. Contribution of (i) soil type were assessed using 30 soil samples varying in texture from sandy to clay taken from long term cultivated lands, covering a range of crop and land management practices, and (ii) anionic PAM concentration (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 & 200 mg l-1) were tested on selected loam and clay soils. The water retention curves of slow and fast wetted soil samples were characterized by a modified van Genuchten (1980) model that provides (i) model parameters α and n, which represent the location of the inflection point and the steepness of the S-shaped water retention curves, and (ii) a composite soil structure index (SI =VDP/MS; VDP-volume of drainable pores, MS-modal suction). The studied treatments had, generally, considerable effects on the shape of the water retention curves (α and n). Soil type, PAM concentration and their interaction had significantly effects on the stability indices (SI, VDP and MS) and the model parameters (α and n). The SI and α increased, and ndecreased exponentially with the increase in soil clay content and PAM concentration, but the shape of curves were soil texture and management dependent, since predominant changes were observed in the various range of studied macropores (pore size > 60 μm). An exponential type of relationship existed between SI and α and n. Effect of PAM contribution and wetting condition was more pronounced in the loam soil at low PAM

  8. Ultrasonic Behaviour of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kor, S.K.; Srivastava, A.K.; Khare, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study of ultrasonic absorption and velocity has been made in the cholesteric liquid crystals, viz. cholesteryl stearate, cholesteryl laurate and cholesteryl propionate, as a function of temperature, especially near the transition temperature. The absorption has been measured by using the pulse technique and the velocity with the help of an acoustic interferometer both at the single frequency of 2 MHz. The temperature has been controlled to within +- 0.2 deg C with the help of an ultrathermostat. Abrupt increase in absorption and decrease in velocity have been observed beyond the isotropic-cholesteric transition temperature and the results are discussed qualitatively

  9. The fabrication and high temperature stability of biaxially textured Ni tape by ion beam structure modification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Wang, S.S.; Meng, J.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    For the conventional rolling assisted biaxially textured metallic substrate (RABiTS) process, a large degree of cold rolling deformation and a subsequent high temperature annealing procedure are required to obtain adequately biaxially textured Ni tape. Recently, we have reported a newly developed process, named as ion beam structure modification (ISM), for fabricating biaxially textured Ni tape by use of low energy argon ion beam bombardment. In this paper, the biaxial texture of ISM processed Ni tape and its thermal stability at high temperatures are investigated. Results show that Ni tape processed under optimum ISM conditions, the (2 0 0) rocking curve FWHM is less than 5.7 deg. , and the (1 1 1) phi-scan FWHM is less than 7.5 deg. . High temperature annealing does not impair the biaxial-texture already developed in ISM processed Ni foils, although ISMs should not be regarded as a complete equilibrium process

  10. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses.

  11. Textural, Rheological and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Nut Spreads—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2013-01-01

    Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction) are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources) is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses. PMID:23429239

  12. Amplified Photon Upconversion by Photonic Shell of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2017-04-26

    As an effective platform to exploit triplet-triplet-annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC), microcapsules composed of a fluidic UC core and photonic shell are microfluidically prepared using a triple emulsion as the template. The photonic shell consists of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with a periodic helical structure, exhibiting a photonic band gap. Combined with planar anchoring at the boundaries, the shell serves as a resonance cavity for TTA-UC emission and enables spectral tuning of the UC under low-power-density excitation. The CLC shell can be stabilized by introducing a polymerizable mesogen in the LC host. Because of the microcapsule spherical symmetry, spontaneous emission of the delayed fluorescence is omnidirectionally amplified at the edge of the stop band. These results demonstrate the range of opportunities provided by TTA-UC systems for the future design of low-threshold photonic devices.

  13. Rotational reorganization of doped cholesteric liquid crystalline films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, R.; M. Pollard, M.; Katsonis, N.; Vicario, J.; J. Broer, D.; Feringa, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an unprecedented rotational reorganization of cholesteric liquid crystalline films is described. This rotational reorganization results from the conversion of a chiral molecular motor dopant to an isomer with a different helical twisting power, leading to a change in the cholesteric

  14. Innovative Ingredients and Emerging Technologies for Controlling Ice Recrystallization, Texture, and Structure Stability in Frozen Dairy Desserts: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2016-11-17

    Over the past decade, ice cream manufacturers have developed a strong understanding of the functionality of key ingredients and processing, developing effective explanations for the link between structure forming agents, stability mechanisms, and perceived quality. Increasing demand for products perceived as healthier/more natural with minimal processing has identified a number of new tools to improve quality and storage stability of frozen dairy desserts. Ingredients such as dietary fiber, polysaccharides, prebiotics, alternate sweeteners, fat sources rich in unsaturated fatty acids and ice strucsturing proteins (ISP) have been successfully applied as cryoprotective, texturizing, and structuring agents. Emerging minimal processing technologies including hydrostatic pressure processing, ultrasonic or high pressure assisted freezing, low temperature extrusion and enzymatically induced biopolymers crosslinking have been evaluated for their ability to improve colloidal stability, texture and sensory quality. It is therefore timely for a comprehensive review.

  15. Polyamine structural effects on the induction and stabilization of liquid crystalline DNA: potential applications to DNA packaging, gene therapy and polyamine therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, M; Thomas, Thresia; Shirahata, Akira; Pillai, C K S; Thomas, T J

    2002-09-01

    DNA undergoes condensation, conformational transitions, aggregation and resolubilization in the presence of polyamines, positively charged organic molecules present in all cells. Under carefully controlled environmental conditions, DNA can also transform to a liquid crystalline state in vitro. We undertook the present work to examine the ability of spermidine, N4-methylspermidine, spermine, N1-acetylspermine and a group of tetramine, pentamine and hexamine analogs of spermine to induce and stabilize liquid crystalline DNA. Liquid crystalline textures were identified under a polarizing microscope. In the absence of polyamines, calf thymus DNA assumed a diffused, planar cholesteric phase with entrapped bubbles when incubated on a glass slide at 37 degrees C. In the presence of spermidine and spermine, the characteristic fingerprint textures of the cholesteric phase, adopting a hexagonal order, were obtained. The helical pitch was 2.5 micro m. The final structures were dendrimeric and crystalline when DNA was treated with spermine homologs and bis(ethyl) derivatives. A cholesteric structure was observed when DNA was treated with a hexamine at 37 degrees C. This structure changed to a hexagonal dendrimer with fluidity on prolonged incubation. These data show a structural specificity effect of polyamines on liquid crystalline phase transitions of DNA and suggest a possible physiological function of natural polyamines.

  16. Field induced heliconical structure of cholesteric liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Shiyanovsii, Sergij V.; Xiang, Jie; Kim, Young-Ki

    2017-06-27

    A diffraction grating comprises a liquid crystal (LC) cell configured to apply an electric field through a cholesteric LC material that induces the cholesteric LC material into a heliconical state with an oblique helicoid director. The applied electric field produces diffracted light from the cholesteric LC material within the visible, infrared or ultraviolet. The axis of the heliconical state is in the plane of the liquid crystal cell or perpendicular to the plane, depending on the application. A color tuning device operates with a similar heliconical state liquid crystal material but with the heliconical director axis oriented perpendicular to the plane of the cell. A power generator varies the strength of the applied electric field to adjust the wavelength of light reflected from the cholesteric liquid crystal material within the visible, infrared or ultraviolet.

  17. Recent advances in flexible low power cholesteric LCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad; Shiyanovskaya, Irina; Montbach, Erica; Schneider, Tod; Nicholson, Forrest; Miller, Nick; Marhefka, Duane; Ernst, Todd; Doane, J. W.

    2006-05-01

    Bistable reflective cholesteric displays are a liquid crystal display technology developed to fill a market need for very low power displays. Their unique look, high reflectivity, bistability, and simple structure make them an ideal flat panel display choice for handheld or other portable devices where small lightweight batteries with long lifetimes are important. Applications ranging from low resolution large signs to ultra high resolution electronic books can utilize cholesteric displays to not only benefit from the numerous features, but also create enabling features that other flat panel display technologies cannot. Flexible displays are the focus of attention of numerous research groups and corporations worldwide. Cholesteric displays have been demonstrated to be highly amenable to flexible substrates. This paper will review recent advances in flexible cholesteric displays including both phase separation and emulsification approaches to encapsulation. Both approaches provide unique benefits to various aspects of manufacturability, processes, flexibility, and conformability.

  18. Fast flexoelectric switching in a cholesteric liquid crystal cell with surface-localized polymer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hwa; Shi, Lei; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2009-01-01

    We developed an electro-optical device based on the flexoelectric effect of a polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal with a uniform lying helix. Using a dual-frequency switchable nematic, a small amount of chiral dopant and a small amount of phase-separated polymer localized at the substrate surfaces, we were able to create a device that operates in both the amplitude (flexoelectric) and phase (dielectric) modes. Using a high-frequency voltage we were able to suppress the phase mode and preserve the amplitude mode.

  19. Photoinduced broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy J.; Freer, Alexander S.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2010-04-01

    The selective reflection of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) is well-known and has been utilized in a number of dynamic optical applications. This work presents a novel approach to passively (e.g., all-optically) cue reflection notch broadening in photoresponsive CLC formulations based on high helical twisting power (HTP) bis(azo) chiral dopants. The original reflection bandwidth of approximately 100 nm is increased to as much as 1700 nm, by exposing 36 μm thick cells to UV light. The maximum attainable bandwidth is shown to be a function of cell thickness, light intensity, and strongly related to the HTP of the photoresponsive chiral dopants. An all-optical technique of simultaneous UV and green light exposure is demonstrated to trap the reflection notch at a predetermined position and bandwidth.

  20. Nonsingular walls in plane cholesteric layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V A; Osipov, M A; Stewart, I W

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a straight interface (wall) between regions with differing values of the pitch in planar cholesteric layers with finite strength of the surface anchoring is investigated theoretically. It is found that the shape and strength of the anchoring potential influences essentially the structure of the wall and a motionless wall between thermodynamically stable regions without a singularity in the director distribution in the layer can exist for sufficiently weak anchoring only. More specifically, for the existence of such a wall the dimensionless parameter S d = K 22 /Wd (where W is the depth of the anchoring potential, K 22 is the elastic twist modulus and d is the layer thickness) should exceed its critical value, which is dependent on the shape of the anchoring potential. General equations describing the director distribution in the wall are presented. Detailed analysis of these equations is carried out for the case of infinitely strong anchoring at one surface and finite anchoring strength at the second layer surface. It is shown that the wall width L is directly dependent upon the shape and strength of the anchoring potential and that its estimate ranges from d to (dL p ) 1/2 (where L p = K 22 /W is the penetration length), corresponding to different anchoring strengths and shape potentials. The dependence of the director distribution in the wall upon all three Frank elastic moduli is analytically found for some specific limiting cases of the model anchoring potentials. Motion of the wall is briefly investigated and the corresponding calculations performed under the assumption that the shape of a moving wall is the same as a motionless one. It is noted that experimental investigation of the walls in planar cholesteric layers can be used for the determination of the actual shape of surface anchoring potentials

  1. Processed beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. as a natural antioxidant in mayonnaise: Effects on physical stability, texture and sensory attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Raikos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative and physical stability of the reformulated mayonnaise with processed beetroot was investigated and compared with a control (mayonnaise without beetroot and a commercially available product. Processing of beetroot had an impact on the structural integrity of the antioxidants present. Microwaving (960 W for 7 min was advantageous for preserving the betalain and polyphenol content of beetroot compared to roasting (180 °C for 90 min and boiling (100 °C for 30 min. The oxidative stability of mayonnaise samples was determined by Rancimat and the thiobarbituric (TBA assay. The addition of microwaved beetroot significantly enhanced the oxidative stability of mayonnaise at the end of a storage period of 4 weeks (4 °C. Although no significant differences (P > 0.05 were detected between the mayonnaise samples containing beetroot and the commercial control, the latter was less susceptible to oxidation during storage. The turbiscan stability index (TSI revealed that the commercial mayonnaise was less prone to destabilization phenomena. All the textural parameters increased with the incorporation of beetroot. The sensory evaluation revealed that, with the exception of graininess and uniformity, most of the sensory attributes are preserved if not improved with the addition of beetroot.

  2. Dynamic cholesteric liquid crystal superstructures photoaligned by one-step polarization holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen-Sen; Shen, Yuan; Chang, Zhen-Ni; Li, Wen-Song; Xu, Yan-Chao; Fan, Xing-Yu; Chen, Lu-Jian

    2017-12-01

    A convenient approach to modulate the fingerprint textures of methyl red (MR) doped cholesteric liquid crystals by asymmetric photoalignment in the green-light waveband is presented, resulting in the generation of voltage-controllable helical superstructures. The interaction between the MR molecules and the incident light polarization determines the initial twisted planar geometry, providing a multivariant control over the stripe directions of fingerprint textures by applying a proper electric field. The key factors for precise manipulation of fingerprint stripes in a predictable and rewritable manner are analyzed theoretically and investigated experimentally, which involves the alignment asymmetry, the ratio of cell gap to natural pitch length, and the chirality of chiral dopant. Dynamic periodic fingerprint textures in shapes of dashed curve and dashed line are further demonstrated by utilizing a facile one-step polarization holography process using two beams with orthogonal circular and orthogonal linear polarizations, respectively. It is believed that the practical approach described in this study would enrich the research contents of self-assembled hierarchical superstructures using soft liquid crystal building blocks.

  3. Frustration and curvature - Glasses and the cholesteric blue phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analogy is drawn between continuum elastic theories of the blue phase of cholesteric liquid crystals and recent theories of frustration in configurational glasses. Both involve the introduction of a lattice of disclination lines to relieve frustration; the frustration is due to an intrinsic curvature in the natural form of parallel transport. A continuum theory of configurational glasses is proposed.

  4. Low-power cholesteric LCDs and electronic books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad A.; Huang, Xiao-Yang; Doane, Joseph W.

    2004-09-01

    We discuss the state of the art of the bistable reflective cholesteric liquid crystal display technology. Numerous applications from low resolutions signs, to medium resolution instrumentation type displays, and high resolution electronic books are discussed. Different modes of the technology are discussed as being viable for the respective display applications. Special emphasis is paid to electronic book applications.

  5. A helical naphthopyran dopant for photoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yuna; Frigoli, Michel; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The first photoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystal comprising a photoisomerizable helical naphthopyran derivative dopant and a nematic liquid crystal is reported. An unprecedented helical twisting power switching ratio of over 90% allowed us to demonstrate multi-cycle rotational motion of micro-objects by UV light irradiation.

  6. Effect of environmental dust particles on laser textured yttria-stabilized zirconia surface in humid air ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Sharafi, A.; Al-Sulaiman, F.; Karatas, C.

    2018-05-01

    Zirconium nitride is used as a selective surface for concentrated solar heating applications and one of the methods to form a zirconium nitride is texturing of zirconia surface by a high intensity laser beam under high pressure nitrogen gas environment. Laser texturing also provides hydrophobic surface characteristics via forming micro/nano pillars at the surface; however, environmental dust settlement on textured surface influences the surface characteristics significantly. In the present study, laser texturing of zirconia surface and effects of the dust particles on the textured surface in a humid air ambient are investigated. Analytical tools are used to assess the morphological changes on the laser textured surface prior and after the dust settlement in the humid air ambient. It is found that laser textured surface has hydrophobic characteristics. The mud formed during condensate of water on the dust particles alters the characteristics of the laser textured surface. The tangential force required to remove the dry mud from the textured surface remains high; in which case, the dried liquid solution at the mud-textured surface interface is responsible for the strong adhesion of the dry mud on the textured surface. The textured surface becomes hydrophilic after the dry mud was removed from the surface by a desalinated water jet.

  7. Artificial in-plane ordering of textured YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films deposited on polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshavardhan, K. S.; Rajeswari, M.; Hwang, D. M.; Chen, C. Y.; Sands, T. D.; Venkatesan, T.; Tkaczyk, J. E.; Lay, K. W.; Safari, A.; Johnson, L.

    1992-12-01

    Anisotropic surface texturing of the polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, prior to YBa2Cu3O(7-x) film deposition, is shown to promote in-plane (basal plane) ordering of the film growth in addition to the c-axis texturing. The Jc's of the films in the weak-link-dominated low-field regime are enhanced considerably, and this result is attributed to the reduction of weak links resulting from a reduction in the number of in-plane large-angle grain boundaries.

  8. Influence of the type of cellulosic derivatives on the texture, and oxidative and thermal stability of soybean oil oleogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totosaus, A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use oleogels (defined as edible oils entrapped in a three-dimensional network employing a self-assembled structuring agent has recently been proposed to replace saturated fat or trans-fats in foods. In this work the effects of different cellulose derivative mixtures (Avicel, ethyl cellulose and α-cellulose on lipid stability, glass transition temperature and the texture of soybean oil oleogels were determined by employing a mixture design approach. Avicel affected lipid stability, increasing the oxidative rancidity and peroxide values of oleogels. Oleogels with higher proportions of Avicel also presented higher transition temperatures. A higher percent of ethyl cellulose and α-cellulose in the oleogel mixture resulted in a more stable system with lower oil rancidity and lower glass transition temperatures. In addition, Avicel resulted in a softer and less tacky texture, an important characteristic to consider for food applications.Recientemente, ha sido propuesto el uso de oleogeles (definido como aceites comestibles atrapados en una red tridimensional que ocupa un agente estructurante de auto-ensamblado como substituto de grasa saturada o grasas trans en alimentos. En este trabajo el efecto de mezclas de diferentes derivados celulósicos (Avicel, etil celulosa y α-celulosa sobre la estabilidad de lípidos, temperaturas de transición térmica y textura de oleogeles de aceite de soja fueron determinados utilizando un diseño de mezclas. Avicel afectó la estabilidad de lípidos, aumentando la rancidez oxidativa y valores de peróxido en los oleogeles. Oleogeles con mayores proporciones de Avicel también presentaron temperaturas de transición térmica más altas. Porcentajes más altos de etil celulosa y α-celulosa resultaron en un sistema más estable con menor rancidez oxidativa y menores temperaturas de transición térmica. Sin embargo, Avicel resultó en una textura más suave y menos pegajosa, una característica importante a

  9. Effect of photoisomerization of azobenzene dopants on the flexoelectric properties of short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komitov, Lachezar; Ruslim, Christian; Ichimura, Kunihiro

    2000-05-01

    The flexoelectric properties of short-pitch cholesteric mixtures doped with three different azobenzenes, 4,4'-dihexyloxyazobenzene (4,4'-azo), 3,3'-dihexyloxy-2,2'-dimethylazobenzene (3,3'-azol), and 3,3'- dihexanoyloxy-2,2'-dimethylazobenzene (3,3'-azo2), respectively, were studied upon illumination with uv light. Their effective flexoelectric coefficients were derived from the flexoelectro-optic response of the mixtures aligned in uniform lying helix texture. Considering the fact that the pitch of the mixtures became shorter upon uv illumination, an increase of their effective flexoelectric coefficients was found to take place due to the photoisomerization of the dyes. The largest change was found for the coefficient of the guest-host mixture containing 4,4'-azo dye, most probably due to the bent shape of the dye cis-isomer. This observation is in good agreement with our previous studies on the influence of the molecular shape on the liquid-crystal flexoelectric properties and it suggests a possible way for enhancement of the amplitude of flexoelectro-optic response in cholesterics by using liquid-crystal materials with pronounced molecular shape dissymmetry.

  10. Effect of Gradual Heating and Fat/Oil Type on Fat Stability, Texture, Color, and Microstructure of Meat Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Youssef, M K

    2016-09-01

    The effects of endpoint cooking temperature (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 °C) on emulsion stability, texture, color, and microstructure of meat batters prepared with different fats/oils were studied. Canola oil treatments showed the highest cooking loss whereas hydrogenated palm oil provided the most stable meat batters. Rendered beef fat was less stable than regular beef fat. Increasing endpoint cooking temperatures resulted in a progressive reduction of water holding capacity in all treatments. As temperature was raised, meat batters showed higher hardness and cohesiveness values, but no appreciable changes in cohesiveness above 60 °C. Canola and hydrogenated palm oil treatments showed the highest hardness and chewiness values. Lightness (L(*) ) values of all meat batters increased significantly with increasing temperature from 40 to 60 or 70 °C; no major changes observed above 70 °C. Light microscopy revealed no substantial changes in the microstructure of all the stable meat batters cooked to between 50 and 70 °C. Heating to 90 °C changed the microstructure in all meat batters except the hydrogenated palm oil treatments, which still showed nonround fat particles and a less aggregated protein matrix. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Stabilization of Organic Matter by Biochar Application in Compost-amended Soils with Contrasting pH Values and Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Jien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent concerns because of the impacts of global climate change. In subtropical and tropical regions, practical management that stabilizes and prevents organic fertilizers from rapid decomposition in soils is necessary. This study conducted a short-term (70 days incubation experiment to assess the effects of biochar application on the decomposition of added bagasse compost in three rural soils with different pH values and textures. Two rice hull biochars, produced through slow pyrolization at 400 °C (RHB-400 and 700 °C (RHB-700, with application rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% (w/w, were separately incorporated into soils with and without compost (1% (w/w application rate. Experimental results indicated that C mineralization rapidly increased at the beginning in all treatments, particularly in those involving 2% and 4% biochar. The biochar addition increased C mineralization by 7.9%–48% in the compost-amended soils after 70 days incubation while the fractions of mineralized C to applied C significantly decreased. Moreover, the estimated maximum of C mineralization amount in soils treated with both compost and biochar were obviously lower than expectation calculated by a double exponential model (two pool model. Based on the micromorphological observation, added compost was wrapped in the soil aggregates formed after biochar application and then may be protected from decomposing by microbes. Co-application of compost with biochar may be more efficient to stabilize and sequester C than individual application into the studied soils, especially for the biochar produced at high pyrolization temperature.

  12. Cholesteric liquid crystals with a broad light reflection band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, Michel

    2012-12-11

    The cholesteric-liquid-crystalline structure, which concerns the organization of chromatin, collagen, chitin, or cellulose, is omnipresent in living matter. In technology, it is found in temperature and pressure sensors, supertwisted nematic liquid crystal displays, optical filters, reflective devices, or cosmetics. A cholesteric liquid crystal reflects light because of its helical structure. The reflection is selective - the bandwidth is limited to a few tens of nanometers and the reflectance is equal to at most 50% for unpolarized incident light, which is a consequence of the polarization-selectivity rule. These limits must be exceeded for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, broadband polarizers, optical data storage media, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. Novel cholesteric-liquid-crystalline architectures with the related fabrication procedures must therefore be developed. This article reviews solutions found in living matter and laboratories to broaden the bandwidth around a central reflection wavelength, do without the polarization-selectivity rule and go beyond the reflectance limit. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The re-entrant cholesteric phase of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevdokimov, Yu. M.; Skuridin, S. G.; Salyanov, V. I.; Semenov, S. V.; Shtykova, E. V.; Dadinova, L. A.; Kompanets, O. N.; Kats, E. I.

    2017-07-01

    The character of packing of double-stranded DNA molecules in particles of liquid-crystal dispersions formed as a result of the phase exclusion of DNA molecules from aqueous salt polyethylene glycol solutions has been estimated by comparing the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of these dispersions recorded at different osmotic pressures and temperatures. It is shown that the first cycle of heating of dispersion particles with hexagonally packed double-stranded DNA molecules leads to the occurrence of abnormal optical activity of these particles, which manifests itself in the form of a strong negative CD band, characteristic of DNA cholesterics. Moreover, subsequent cooling is accompanied by a further increase in the abnormal optical activity, which indicates the existence of the "hexagonal → cholesteric packing" phase transition, controlled by both the osmotic pressure of the solution and its temperature. The result obtained can be described in terms of "quasi-nematic" layers composed of orientationally ordered DNA molecules in the structure of dispersion particles. There are two possible ways of packing for these layers, which determine their hexagonal or cholesteric spatial structure. The second heating → cooling cycle confirms these results and is indicative of possible differences in the packing of double-stranded DNA molecules in the hexagonal phase, which depend on the osmotic pressure of the solution.

  14. The opto-thermal effect on encapsulated cholesteric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sung; Lin, Hui-Chi; Yang, Kin-Min

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we implemented a micro-encapsulated CLC electronic paper that is optically addressed and electrically erasable. The mechanism that forms spot diameters on the CLC films is discussed and verified through various experimental parameters, including the thickness of CLCs and Poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxin)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), pump intensity, and pumping time. The opto-thermal effect, brought on by the PEDOT:PSS absorbing layer, causes the spot diameters on the cholesteric liquid crystal thin films to vary. According to our results, the spot diameter is larger for a sample with a thinner cholesteric liquid crystal layer with the same excitation conditions and same thickness of the PEDOT layer. The spot diameter is also larger for a sample with a thicker PEDOT under the same excitation conditions and same thickness of the cholesteric liquid crystal layer. We proposed a simple heat-conducting model to explain the experimental results, which qualitatively agree with this theoretical model.

  15. Domed Silica Microcylinders Coated with Oleophilic Polypeptides and Their Behavior in Lyotropic Cholesteric Liquid Crystals of the Same Polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Cornelia; Jacobeen, Shane; Park, Katherine; Reichmanis, Elsa; Yunker, Peter; Russo, Paul S

    2016-12-13

    Liquid crystals can organize dispersed particles into useful and exotic structures. In the case of lyotropic cholesteric polypeptide liquid crystals, polypeptide-coated particles are appealing because the surface chemistry matches that of the polymeric mesogen, which permits a tighter focus on factors such as extended particle shape. The colloidal particles developed here consist of a magnetic and fluorescent cylindrically symmetric silica core with one rounded, almost hemispherical end. Functionalized with helical poly(γ-stearyl-l-glutamate) (PSLG), the particles were dispersed at different concentrations in cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLC) of the same polymer in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Defects introduced by the particles to the director field of the bulk PSLG/THF host led to a variety of phases. In fresh mixtures, the cholesteric mesophase of the PSLG matrix was distorted, as reflected in the absence of the characteristic fingerprint pattern. Over time, the fingerprint pattern returned, more quickly when the concentration of the PSLG-coated particles was low. At low particle concentration the particles were "guided" by the PSLG liquid crystal to organize into patterns similar to that of the re-formed bulk chiral nematic phase. When their concentration increased, the well-dispersed PSLG-coated particles seemed to map onto the distortions in the bulk host's local director field. The particles located near the glass vial-ChLC interfaces were stacked lengthwise into architectures with apparent two-dimensional hexagonal symmetry. The size of these "crystalline" structures increased with particle concentration. They displayed remarkable stability toward an external magnetic field; hydrophobic interactions between the PSLG polymers in the shell and those in the bulk LC matrix may be responsible. The results show that bio-inspired LCs can assemble suitable colloidal particles into soft crystalline structures.

  16. Beam coupling in hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric liquid crystal cells: Impact of optical rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Sluckin, T. J.; Cook, G.; Evans, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric cell. A cholesteric layer is placed between two inorganic substrates. One of the substrates is photorefractive (Ce:SBN). Weak and strong light beams are incident on the hybrid cell. The interfering light beams induce a periodic space-charge field in the photorefractive window. This penetrates into the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC), inducing a diffraction grating written on the LC director. In the theory, the flexoelectric mechanism for electric field-director coupling is more important than the LC static dielectric anisotropy coupling. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. Each beam induces two circular polarized waves propagating in the cholesteric cell with different velocities. The model thus includes optical rotation in the cholesteric LC. The incident light beam wavelength can fall above, below, or inside the cholesteric gap. The theory calculates the energy gain of the weak beam, as a result of its interaction with the pump beam within the diffraction grating. Theoretical results for exponential gain coefficients are compared with experimental results for hybrid cells filled with cholesteric mixture BL038/CB15 at different concentrations of chiral agent CB15. Reconciliation between theory and experiment requires the inclusion of a phenomenological multiplier in the magnitude of the director grating. This multiplier is cubic in the space-charge field, and we provide a justification of the q-dependence of the multiplier. Within this paradigm, we are able to fit theory to experimental data for cholesteric mixtures with different spectral position of cholesteric gap relative to the wavelength of incident beams, subject to the use of some fitting parameters

  17. Zirconia as a support for catalysts: influence of additives on the thermal stability of the porous texture of monoclinic zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercera, P.D.L.; Mercera, P.D.L.; van Ommen, J.G.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Burggraaf, A.J.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A single-phase monoclinic zirconia (the thermodynamically stable modification up to a temperature of 1170°C), having a specific surface area of 67 m2g¿1 and a well-developed mesoporous texture, has been prepared by gel-precipitation followed by calcination at 450°C. A commercially available

  18. Symmetric textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures

  19. Tunable hybrid optical modes in a bounded cholesteric liquid crystal with a twist defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatnov, Maxim V.; Vetrov, Stepan Ya.; Timofeev, Ivan V.

    2018-03-01

    Coupling between the defect mode of a cholesteric liquid crystal and the localized mode of a cholesteric liquid crystal-phase plate-metal structure is theoretically demonstrated. It is shown that the transmittance spectrum can be tuned by changing the twist-defect angle and helix pitch, which are governed by external factors. The spectra for different circular polarizations of the incident light are different; specifically, at the nondiffracting polarization, there is no defect-mode transmittance peak.

  20. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Assisted Tunable Optical Patterns from Spherical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Bragg Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yali; Yang, Yujie; Shan, Yuwei; Gong, Lingli; Chen, Jingzhi; Li, Sensen; Chen, Lujian

    2017-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) exhibit selective Bragg reflections of circularly polarized (CP) light owing to their spontaneous self-assembly abilities into periodic helical structures. Photonic cross-communication patterns could be generated toward potential security applications by spherical cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) structures. To endow these optical patterns with tunability, we fabricated spherical CLC Bragg reflectors in the shape of microshells by glass-capillary microfluidi...

  1. Robust microfluidic encapsulation of cholesteric liquid crystals toward photonic ink capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Seok; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Su Kyung; Won, Jong Chan; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2015-01-27

    Robust photonic microcapsules are created by microfluidic encapsulation of cholesteric liquid crystals with a hydrogel membrane. The membrane encloses the cholesteric core without leakage in water and the core exhibits pronounced structural colors. The photonic ink capsules, which have a precisely controlled bandgap position and size, provide new opportunities in colorimetric micro-thermometers and optoelectric applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Leslie thermomechanical power in diluted cholesteric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, P.

    2014-11-01

    I measure the Leslie thermomechnical coefficient ν in diluted cholesteric liquid crystals. The chiral molecules are R811 and cholesteryl chloride (CC) and the host nematic liquid crystals are 7CB and MBBA. I show that ν is proportional to the concentration of chiral molecules C when C\\ll1 . This allows me to define the Leslie thermomechanical power as \\textit{LTP}=ν/(2π C) by analogy with the helical twisting power, \\textit{HTP}=q/(2π C) where q denotes the equilibrium twist. I show that the LTP (dynamic in nature) and the HTP (static in nature) are independent in sign and magnitude. In addition, the same chiral molecule can rotate clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the host nematic liquid crystal used.

  3. Density of photonic states in cholesteric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolganov, P. V.

    2015-04-01

    Density of photonic states ρ (ω ) , group vg, and phase vph velocity of light, and the dispersion relation between wave vector k , and frequency ω (k ) were determined in a cholesteric photonic crystal. A highly sensitive method (measurement of rotation of the plane of polarization of light) was used to determine ρ (ω ) in samples of different quality. In high-quality samples a drastic increase in ρ (ω ) near the boundaries of the stop band and oscillations related to Pendellösung beatings are observed. In low-quality samples photonic properties are strongly modified. The maximal value of ρ (ω ) is substantially smaller, and density of photonic states increases near the selective reflection band without oscillations in ρ (ω ) . Peculiarities of ρ (ω ) , vg, and ω (k ) are discussed. Comparison of the experimental results with theory was performed.

  4. The Effects of Egg and Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides Addition on Storage Stability, Texture, and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Sorghum Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Magali; Smith, Brennan M; Aramouni, Fadi M; Bean, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    The impact of whole egg addition (as is) at 20%, 25%, or 30% (flour basis) on sorghum bread quality was evaluated. The use of the antistaling agent diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) at 0.5% (flour basis) at each of the egg addition levels was also studied. Evaluated quality factors included color, specific volume, and crumb structure. Texture analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of quality loss based on changes in crumb hardness values over time. A trained sensory panel evaluated bread quality attributes by descriptive analysis. Sorghum breads with egg had larger specific volumes than the control, while DATEM had a negative effect on the volume of sorghum gluten-free bread. Inclusion of egg in the bread formula improved cell structure and produced darker crust (P bread hardness and slowed the rate of quality loss over a 12-d storage period. Descriptive analysis confirmed the findings of texture analysis. Control breads were significantly harder (P bread at days 0 and 4. This research demonstrates that addition of eggs to a gluten-free sorghum bread formulation results in improved storage stability and better overall quality and acceptability of the product. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. TEXTURAL FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of the history of a fatigue process is based on the knowledge of any correspondences between the morphology of the crack surface and the velocity of the crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR. The textural fractography is oriented to mezoscopic SEM magnifications (30 to 500x. Images contain complicated textures without distinct borders. The aim is to find any characteristics of this texture, which correlate with CGR. Pre-processing of images is necessary to obtain a homogeneous texture. Three methods of textural analysis have been developed and realized as computational programs: the method based on the spectral structure of the image, the method based on a Gibbs random field (GRF model, and the method based on the idealization of light objects into a fibre process. In order to extract and analyze the fibre process, special methods - tracing fibres and a database-oriented analysis of a fibre process - have been developed.

  6. Crystallographic textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klosek Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In material science, crystallographic texture is an important microstructural parameter which directly determines the anisotropy degree of most physical properties of a polycrystalline material at the macro scale. Its characterization is thus of fundamental and applied importance, and should ideally be performed prior to any physical property measurement or modeling. Neutron diffraction is a tool of choice for characterizing crystallographic textures: its main advantages over other existing techniques, and especially over the X-ray diffraction techniques, are due to the low neutron absorption by most elements. The obtained information is representative of a large number of grains, leading to a better accuracy of the statistical description of texture.

  7. Dual-frequency bistable reflective cholesteric liquid crystal displays based on chiral-flexoelectric polarisation dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, B. I.; Elston, S. J.

    2013-08-01

    A new approach to switching between states in reflective cholesteric liquid crystal displays is demonstrated that relies on the dispersion in the cholesteric material's dielectric properties due to flexoelectricity. Flexoelectric polarisation allows the device to be switched into a weakly scattering focal-conic state at low frequencies, while at higher frequencies the device is driven into the reflective Grandjean state. The non-conventional dual-frequency effect allows driving between states in both directions. The cross-over frequency can be as low as 300 Hz, orders of magnitude smaller than other dual-frequency effects. Devices of various reflective colours are demonstrated and have favourable contrast ratios, viewing angles, and switching behaviours at room temperature. The technique potentially affords a greater flexibility in surface alignment conditions, driving schemes, material parameters, and use of polymer networks in cholesteric devices than other switching methods.

  8. Smart windows based on cholesteric liquid crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albert P. H. J.

    2017-02-01

    With increase in global warming, use of active cooling and heating devices are continuously increasing to maintain interior temperature of built environment, greenhouses and cars. To reduce the consumption of tremendous amount of energy on cooling and heating devices we need an improved control of transparent features (i.e. windows). In this respect, smart window which is capable for reflecting solar infrared energy without interfering with the visible light would be very attractive. Most of the technologies developed so far are to control the visible light. These technologies block visual contact to the outside world which cause negative effects on human health. An appealing method to selectively control infrared transmission is via utilizing the reflection properties of cholesteric liquid crystals. In our research, we have fabricated a smart window which is capable of reflecting different amount of solar infrared energy depending on the specific climate conditions. The reflection bandwidth can be tuned from 120 nm to 1100 nm in the infrared region without interfering with the visible solar radiations. Calculations reveal that between 8% and 45% of incident solar infrared light can be reflected with a single cell. Simulation studies predicted that more than 12% of the energy spent on heating, cooling and lighting in the built environment can be saved by using the fabricated smart window compared to standard double glazing window.

  9. Processed beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) as a natural antioxidant in mayonnaise: Effects on physical stability, texture and sensory attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilios Raikos; Angela McDonagh; Viren Ranawana; Garry Duthie

    2016-01-01

    The oxidative and physical stability of the reformulated mayonnaise with processed beetroot was investigated and compared with a control (mayonnaise without beetroot) and a commercially available product. Processing of beetroot had an impact on the structural integrity of the antioxidants present. Microwaving (960 W for 7 min) was advantageous for preserving the betalain and polyphenol content of beetroot compared to roasting (180 °C for 90 min) and boiling (100 °C for 30 min). The oxidative ...

  10. Simulation of light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals using kinetic equations: Time-independent solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtykov, N. M., E-mail: nshtykov@mail.ru; Palto, S. P.; Umanskii, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the results of calculating the conditions for light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent dyes using kinetic equations. Specific features of spectral properties of the chiral cholesteric medium as a photonic structure and spatially distributed type of the feedback in the active medium are taken into account. The expression is derived for the threshold pump radiation intensity as a function of the dye concentration and sample thickness. The importance of taking into account the distributed loss level in the active medium for calculating the optimal parameters of the medium and for matching the calculated values with the results of experiments is demonstrated.

  11. Tunable single photonic defect-mode in cholesteric liquid crystals with laser-induced local modifications of helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chee Heng; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate a tunable single photonic defect-mode in a single cholesteric liquid crystal material based on a structural defect introduced by local modification of the helix. An unpolymerized region of cholesteric liquid crystal acting as the defect was left between two polymerized regions via a two-photon excitation laser-lithography process. Upon polymerization, the cholesteric liquid crystal helix elongated and became thermally stable, and a single photonic defect mode was exhibited due to the contrast in the helix pitch at the defect. The defect mode showed tunability upon heating, and a 36 nm redshift was seen over a temperature range of 30 deg. C

  12. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Based Reflex Color Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad

    2012-02-01

    Bistable color cholesteric liquid crystal displays are unique LCDs that exhibit high reflectivity, good contrast, extremely low power operation, and are amenable to versatile roll-to-roll manufacturing. The display technology, now branded as Reflex has been in commercialized products since 1996. It has been the subject of extensive research and development globally by a variety of parties in both academic and industrial settings. Today, the display technology is in volume production for applications such as dedicated eWriters (Boogie Board), full color electronic skins (eSkin), and displays for smart cards. The flexibility comes from polymerization induced phase separation using unique materials unparalleled in any other display technology. The blend of monomers, polymers, cross linkers, and other components along with nematic liquid crystals and chiral dopants is created and processed in such ways so as to enable highly efficient manufactrable displays using ultra thin plastic substrates -- often as thin as 50μm. Other significant aspects include full color by stacking or spatial separation, night vision capability, ultra high resolution, as well as active matrix capabilities. Of particular note is the stacking approach of Reflex based displays to show full color. This approach for reflective color displays is unique to this technology. Owing to high transparency in wavelength bands outside the selective reflection band, three primarily color layers can be stacked on top of each other and reflect without interfering with other layers. This highly surprising architecture enables the highest reflectivity of any other reflective electronic color display technology. The optics, architecture, electro-topics, and process techniques will be discussed. This presentation will focus on the physics of the core technology and color, it's evolution from rigid glass based displays to flexible displays, development of products from the paradigm shifting concepts to consumer

  13. Modeling of Cholesteric Liquid Crystal layers for a Luminescent SolaR Concentrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.; De Boer, D.K.G.

    2010-01-01

    This report is about an internship which was part of a project that aims to develop a Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) for commercial use. In the design of the LSC a wavelength selective mirror is used, in this case in the form of a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal (CLC) layer. The usage of this

  14. Visualizing Molecular Chirality in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Using Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Maia; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Hartley, C. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Although stereochemistry is an important topic in second-year undergraduate organic chemistry, there are limited options for laboratory activities that allow direct visualization of macroscopic chiral phenomena. A novel, guided-inquiry experiment was developed that allows students to explore chirality in the context of cholesteric liquid crystals.…

  15. Optical thermal sensor based on cholesteric film refilled with mixture of toluene and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Liu, Yanjun; Luo, Dan

    2017-10-16

    We demonstrate an optical thermal sensor based on cholesteric film refilled with mixture of toluene and ethanol. The thermal response mechanism is mainly based on the thermal expansion effect induce by toluene, where the ethanol is used for refractive index adjustment to determine the initial refection band position of cholesteric film. The ethanol-toluene mixture was used to adjust the color tunability with the temperature in relation with the habits of people (blue as cold, green as safe and red as hot). A broad temperature range of 86 °C and highly sensitivity of 1.79 nm/ °C are achieved in proposed thermal sensor, where the reflective color red-shifts from blue to red when environmental temperature increases from -6 °C to 80 °C. This battery-free thermal sensor possesses features including simple fabrication, low-cost, and broad temperature sensing range, showing potential application in scientific research and industry.

  16. Periodic assembly of nanoparticle arrays in disclinations of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Prince, Elisabeth; Cho, Sangho; Salari, Alinaghi; Mosaddeghian Golestani, Youssef; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2017-02-28

    An important goal of the modern soft matter science is to discover new self-assembly modalities to precisely control the placement of small particles in space. Spatial inhomogeneity of liquid crystals offers the capability to organize colloids in certain regions such as the cores of the topological defects. Here we report two self-assembly modes of nanoparticles in linear defects-disclinations in a lyotropic colloidal cholesteric liquid crystal: a continuous helicoidal thread and a periodic array of discrete beads. The beads form one-dimensional arrays with a periodicity that matches half a pitch of the cholesteric phase. The periodic assembly is governed by the anisotropic surface tension and elasticity at the interface of beads with the liquid crystal. This mode of self-assembly of nanoparticles in disclinations expands our ability to use topological defects in liquid crystals as templates for the organization of nanocolloids.

  17. Large Energy Storage Density and High Thermal Stability in a Highly Textured (111)-Oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 Relaxor Thin Film with the Coexistence of Antiferroelectric and Ferroelectric Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing; Sun, Tieyu; Fan, Huiqing; Ke, Shanming; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu; Lu, Wei; Niu, Hanben; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao

    2015-06-24

    A highly textured (111)-oriented Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 (PBZ) relaxor thin film with the coexistence of antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases was prepared on a Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si(100) substrate by using a sol-gel method. A large recoverable energy storage density of 40.18 J/cm(3) along with an efficiency of 64.1% was achieved at room temperature. Over a wide temperature range of 250 K (from room temperature to 523 K), the variation of the energy density is within 5%, indicating a high thermal stability. The high energy storage performance was endowed by a large dielectric breakdown strength, great relaxor dispersion, highly textured orientation, and the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The PBZ thin film is believed to be an attractive material for applications in energy storage systems over a wide temperature range.

  18. Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Li, Yannian; Li, Quan; Paterson, Daniel A; Storey, John M D; Imrie, Corrie T; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2015-05-20

    Electrical tuning of selective reflection of light is achieved in a very broad spectral range from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by an oblique helicoidal state of a cholesteric liquid crystal in a wide temperature range (including room temperature). The phenomenon offers potential applications in tunable smart windows, lasers, optical filters and limiters, as well as in displays. © 2015 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural Color Palettes of Core-Shell Photonic Ink Capsules Containing Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Seok; Seo, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Photonic microcapsules with onion-like topology are microfluidically designed to have cholesteric liquid crystals with opposite handedness in their core and shell. The microcapsules exhibit structural colors caused by dual photonic bandgaps, resulting in a rich variety of color on the optical palette. Moreover, the microcapsules can switch the colors from either core or shell depending on the selection of light-handedness. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent solar concentrators with cholesteric mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Burgers, A.R. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Debije, M.G. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    The Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) consists of a transparent polymer plate, containing luminescent particles. Solar cells are connected to one or more sides of the polymer plate. Part of the light emitted by the luminescent particles is guided towards the solar cells by total internal reflection. About 25% of the dye emission is typically emitted within the optical escape cone of the matrix material and is lost. We study the application of selectively-reflective cholesteric layers to reduce these losses. We have implemented these mirrors in the ray-tracing model for the LSC. The simulations show that an optimum in performance can be obtained, by selecting an appropriate centre wavelength of the cholesteric mirror. External Quantum Efficiency measurements were performed on LSC devices with a mc-Si, GaAs or InGaP cell and a dichroic mirror. This mirror shows a similar behavior as the cholesteric mirror. The results show that for a 5x5 cm{sup 2} LSC the mirror does improve the EQE in the absorption range of the dye.

  1. Cholesterics of colloidal helices: predicting the macroscopic pitch from the particle shape and thermodynamic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussi, Simone; Belli, Simone; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2015-02-21

    Building a general theoretical framework to describe the microscopic origin of macroscopic chirality in (colloidal) liquid crystals is a long-standing challenge. Here, we combine classical density functional theory with Monte Carlo calculations of virial-type coefficients to obtain the equilibrium cholesteric pitch as a function of thermodynamic state and microscopic details. Applying the theory to hard helices, we observe both right- and left-handed cholesteric phases that depend on a subtle combination of particle geometry and system density. In particular, we find that entropy alone can even lead to a (double) inversion in the cholesteric sense of twist upon changing the packing fraction. We show how the competition between single-particle properties (shape) and thermodynamics (local alignment) dictates the macroscopic chiral behavior. Moreover, by expanding our free-energy functional, we are able to assess, quantitatively, Straley's theory of weak chirality, which is used in several earlier studies. Furthermore, by extending our theory to different lyotropic and thermotropic liquid-crystal models, we analyze the effect of an additional soft interaction on the chiral behavior of the helices. Finally, we provide some guidelines for the description of more complex chiral phases, like twist-bend nematics. Our results provide new insights into the role of entropy in the microscopic origin of this state of matter.

  2. Correlation length and chirality of the fluctuations in the isotropic phase of nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krich, Jacob J; Romanowsky, Mark B; Collings, Peter J

    2005-05-01

    Light-scattering measurements of the correlation length in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal reveal a temperature dependence following Landau-de Gennes theory for the isotropic phase with a bare correlation length smaller than has been measured in other liquid crystals. Similar measurements in a cholesteric liquid crystal demonstrate that the correlation length in the isotropic phase is larger than typically found in nematics and that the chirality of the fluctuations in the isotropic phase is slightly higher than the chirality of the cholesteric phase. Landau-de Gennes theory of the cholesteric phase describes the chirality in the cholesteric phase well but predicts that the chirality in the isotropic phase is temperature independent, which is not consistent with the data. There is a discontinuity in the chirality at the cholesteric-isotropic transition of about 15%, which is less than the predictions of Landau-de Gennes theory but more than the typical specific volume discontinuity at transitions to the isotropic phase. Except for a mismatch in the discontinuities at the transition, the chirality data resemble the temperature behavior of variables just below a critical point, in spite of the fact that this system is far from a critical point.

  3. Collagen films with stabilized liquid crystalline phases and concerns on osteoblast behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Minjian; Ding, Shan; Min, Xiang; Jiao, Yanpeng; Li, Lihua; Li, Hong; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    To duplicate collagen's in vivo liquid crystalline (LC) phase and investigate the relationship between the morphology of LC collagen and osteoblast behavior, a self-assembly method was introduced for preparing collagen films with a stabilized LC phase. The LC texture and topological structure of the films before and after stabilization were observed with polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the collagen films and osteoblast behavior was studied with the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide method, proliferation index detection, alkaline phosphatase measurements, osteocalcin assay, inverted microscopy, SEM observation, AFM observation, and cytoskeleton fluorescence staining. The results showed that the LC collagen film had continuously twisting orientations in the cholesteric phase with a typical series of arced patterns. The collagen fibers assembled in a well-organized orientation in the LC film. Compared to the non-LC film, the LC collagen film can promote cell proliferation, and increase ALP and osteocalcin expression, revealing a contact guide effect on osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Collagen film with liquid crystalline (LC) phase was observed by POM, SEM and AFM. • The effect of LC collagen film on osteoblasts behaviors was studied in detail. • LC collagen film promoted osteoblast proliferation and osteogenesis activity.

  4. Electric-field-induced local rotation of molecules in nematic-cholesteric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timirov, Yu. I.; Skaldin, O. A.; Basyrova, E. R.; Kayumov, I. R.

    2014-07-01

    The structural dynamics of nematic-cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) droplets occurring in an isotropic environment in an alternating electric field have been studied. It is established that, above a certain threshold field strength, the conoscopic pattern of a Maltese cross becomes dynamic and begins to rotate. The threshold voltage, as well as the frequency of rotation, is almost independent of the droplet diameter. This phenomenon is related to the development of a self-consistent rotation of LC molecules in the plane perpendicular to the droplet axis. It is shown that this rotation initiates the propagation of a helicoidal wave from one pole of the droplet to another.

  5. About zone structure of a stack of a cholesteric liquid crystal and isotropic medium layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A H; Harutyunyan, E M; Matinyan, G K; Harutyunyan, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of a stack of metamaterial-based cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layers and isotropic medium layers are investigated. CLCs with two types of chiral nihility are defined. The peculiarities of the reflection spectra of this system are investigated and it is shown that the reflection spectra of the stacks of CLC layers of these two types differ from each other. The influence of: the CLC sublayer thicknesses; incidence angle; local dielectric (magnetic) anisotropy of the CLC layers; refraction indices and thicknesses of the isotropic media layers on the reflection spectra and other optical characteristics of the system is investigated.

  6. Whispering gallery mode laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal microdroplets as temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyuan; Wang, Yan; Yuan, Yonggui; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Shuangqiang; Sun, Weimin; Yang, Jun; Li, Hanyang

    2017-11-01

    We developed a tunable whispering gallery mode (WGM) microlaser based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) microdroplets with controllable size in an aqueous environment. An individual dye-doped CLC microdroplet confined at the tip of a microcapillary was optically pumped via a tapered optical fiber tip positioned within its vicinity. Numerical simulations and various spectral characteristics verify the WGM resonance of the lasing in microdroplets. Thermal tuning of the lasing modes is realized due to the thermo-optic effect of CLC. The proposed CLC microdroplet-based WGM resonator was applied as a temperature sensor and exhibited maximum temperature sensitivity up to 0.96 nm/°C.

  7. Sharply directed emission in microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with a cholesteric liquid crystal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soon Moon; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ishikawa, Ken; Nishimura, Suzushi; Suzaki, Goroh; Takezoe, Hideo

    2007-05-01

    A flexible microcavity organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was fabricated and the emitting characteristics were examined. A pair of right- and left-handed cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) films were attached to the microcavity OLED between aluminum (Al) and silver (Ag). Sharply directed spontaneous emission was observed from microcavity OLEDs, in which a typical luminescent material, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq 3), with a broad emission spectrum was used for emitting layer. The introduction of the CLC film improved both the emission bandwidth and directionality, preserving the turn-on voltage and maximum brightness.

  8. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Assisted Tunable Optical Patterns from Spherical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Bragg Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs exhibit selective Bragg reflections of circularly polarized (CP light owing to their spontaneous self-assembly abilities into periodic helical structures. Photonic cross-communication patterns could be generated toward potential security applications by spherical cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC structures. To endow these optical patterns with tunability, we fabricated spherical CLC Bragg reflectors in the shape of microshells by glass-capillary microfluidics. Water-soluble magnetofluid with Fe3O4 nanoparticles incorporated in the inner aqueous core of CLC shells is responsible for the non-invasive transportable capability. With the aid of an external magnetic field, the reflection interactions between neighboring microshells and microdroplets were identified by varying the mutual distance in a group of magnetically transportable and unmovable spherical CLC structures. The temperature-dependent optical reflection patterns were investigated in close-packed hexagonal arrangements of seven CLC microdroplets and microshells with inverse helicity handedness. Moreover, we demonstrated that the magnetic field-assisted assembly of microshells array into geometric figures of uppercase English letters “L” and “C” was successfully achieved. We hope that these findings can provide good application prospects for security pattern designs.

  9. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Assisted Tunable Optical Patterns from Spherical Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Bragg Reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yali; Yang, Yujie; Shan, Yuwei; Gong, Lingli; Chen, Jingzhi; Li, Sensen; Chen, Lujian

    2017-11-08

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) exhibit selective Bragg reflections of circularly polarized (CP) light owing to their spontaneous self-assembly abilities into periodic helical structures. Photonic cross-communication patterns could be generated toward potential security applications by spherical cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) structures. To endow these optical patterns with tunability, we fabricated spherical CLC Bragg reflectors in the shape of microshells by glass-capillary microfluidics. Water-soluble magnetofluid with Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles incorporated in the inner aqueous core of CLC shells is responsible for the non-invasive transportable capability. With the aid of an external magnetic field, the reflection interactions between neighboring microshells and microdroplets were identified by varying the mutual distance in a group of magnetically transportable and unmovable spherical CLC structures. The temperature-dependent optical reflection patterns were investigated in close-packed hexagonal arrangements of seven CLC microdroplets and microshells with inverse helicity handedness. Moreover, we demonstrated that the magnetic field-assisted assembly of microshells array into geometric figures of uppercase English letters "L" and "C" was successfully achieved. We hope that these findings can provide good application prospects for security pattern designs.

  10. Hierarchical bounding structures for efficient virial computations: Towards a realistic molecular description of cholesterics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Maxime M C; Doye, Jonathan P K

    2017-12-14

    We detail the application of bounding volume hierarchies to accelerate second-virial evaluations for arbitrary complex particles interacting through hard and soft finite-range potentials. This procedure, based on the construction of neighbour lists through the combined use of recursive atom-decomposition techniques and binary overlap search schemes, is shown to scale sub-logarithmically with particle resolution in the case of molecular systems with high aspect ratios. Its implementation within an efficient numerical and theoretical framework based on classical density functional theory enables us to investigate the cholesteric self-assembly of a wide range of experimentally relevant particle models. We illustrate the method through the determination of the cholesteric behavior of hard, structurally resolved twisted cuboids, and report quantitative evidence of the long-predicted phase handedness inversion with increasing particle thread angles near the phenomenological threshold value of 45°. Our results further highlight the complex relationship between microscopic structure and helical twisting power in such model systems, which may be attributed to subtle geometric variations of their chiral excluded-volume manifold.

  11. Hierarchical bounding structures for efficient virial computations: Towards a realistic molecular description of cholesterics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Maxime M. C.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.

    2017-12-01

    We detail the application of bounding volume hierarchies to accelerate second-virial evaluations for arbitrary complex particles interacting through hard and soft finite-range potentials. This procedure, based on the construction of neighbour lists through the combined use of recursive atom-decomposition techniques and binary overlap search schemes, is shown to scale sub-logarithmically with particle resolution in the case of molecular systems with high aspect ratios. Its implementation within an efficient numerical and theoretical framework based on classical density functional theory enables us to investigate the cholesteric self-assembly of a wide range of experimentally relevant particle models. We illustrate the method through the determination of the cholesteric behavior of hard, structurally resolved twisted cuboids, and report quantitative evidence of the long-predicted phase handedness inversion with increasing particle thread angles near the phenomenological threshold value of 45°. Our results further highlight the complex relationship between microscopic structure and helical twisting power in such model systems, which may be attributed to subtle geometric variations of their chiral excluded-volume manifold.

  12. Optothermal Switching of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: A Study of Azobenzene Derivatives and Laser Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chieh Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The laser-initiated thermal (optothermal switching of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs is characterized by using different azobenzene (Azo derivatives and laser wavelengths. Under 405-nm laser irradiation, Azo-doped CLCs undergo phase transition from cholesteric to isotropic. No cis-to-trans photoisomerization occurs when the 405-nm laser irradiation is blocked because only a single laser is used. The fast response of Azo-doped CLCs under the on–off switching of the 405-nm laser occurs because of the optothermal effect of the system. The 660-nm laser, which cannot be used as irradiation to generate the trans–cis photoisomerization of Azo, is used in Anthraquinone (AQ-Azo-doped CLCs to examine the optothermal effect of doped Azo. The results show that the LC-like Azo derivative bearing two methyl groups ortho to the Azo moiety (A4 can greatly lower the clearing temperature and generate large amount of heat in AQ-A4-doped CLCs.

  13. Blue Shifting Tuning of the Selective Reflection of Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    the selective reflection of the PSCLC red-shifts to applied DC field.17 As illustrated in Fig. 2, the intensity and duration of UV light exposure are...prepared with UV exposures of 700 mW cm2 of 365 nm light . At this intensity, the selective reflection of the PSCLC red-shifts to an applied DC field in...the reflection data are taken as a function of voltage with negative bias (e.g. negative electrode nearest white light probe). The maximum reflectivity

  14. Texture and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, J.

    1976-01-01

    The neutron diffraction method has only recently become a tool for studying the structure of polycrystalline materials. There are some fields such as texture studies where this method offers several advantages over other more common methods. Texture is the main subject of the review. The current status of the theory or deformation and recrystallization texture is discussed briefly. Texture is then described with the aid of the ODF function. Finally, applications of the neutron diffraction method are discussed using several examples of textures measured in metals and in non-metallic materials. Other, less known applications of neutron diffraction are also given, e.g. in stress measurements. The neutron diffraction method is extremely useful for studying the texture of coarse-grained materials. This method provides information on the average texture in a large volume. This enables one to measure texture in the same specimen in which anisotropy of the physical roperties has been measured. Selected examples are provided in which correlations between elastic, plastic and magnetic properties of polycrystalline materials and their texture are pointed out. Texture was measured in all these cases using the neutron diffraction method. (author)

  15. Active shape-morphing elastomeric colloids in short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julian S; Sun, Yaoran; Senyuk, Bohdan; Keller, Patrick; Pergamenshchik, Victor M; Lee, Taewoo; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2013-05-03

    Active elastomeric liquid crystal particles with initial cylindrical shapes are obtained by means of soft lithography and polymerization in a strong magnetic field. Gold nanocrystals infiltrated into these particles mediate energy transfer from laser light to heat, so that the inherent coupling between the temperature-dependent order and shape allows for dynamic morphing of these particles and well-controlled stable shapes. Continuous changes of particle shapes are followed by their spontaneous realignment and transformations of director structures in the surrounding cholesteric host, as well as locomotion in the case of a nonreciprocal shape morphing. These findings bridge the fields of liquid crystal solids and active colloids, may enable shape-controlled self-assembly of adaptive composites and light-driven micromachines, and can be understood by employing simple symmetry considerations along with electrostatic analogies.

  16. Printable optical sensors based on H-bonded supramolecular cholesteric liquid crystal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Nicole; Guneysu, Hilal; Davies, Dylan J D; Yildirim, Derya; Vaccaro, Antonio R; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2012-05-09

    A printable H-bonded cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) polymer film has been fabricated that, after conversion to a hygroscopic polymer salt film, responds to temperature and humidity by changing its reflection color. Fast-responding humidity sensors have been made in which the reflection color changes between green and yellow depending on the relative humidity. The change in reflection band is a result of a change in helix pitch in the film due to absorption and desorption of water, resulting in swelling/deswelling of the film material. When the polymer salt was saturated with water, a red-reflecting film was obtained that can potentially act as a time/temperature integrator. Finally, the films were printed on a foil, showing the potential application of supramolecular CLC materials as low-cost, printable, battery-free optical sensors.

  17. Conoscopic patterns in photonic band gap of cholesteric liquid crystal cells with twist defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, R. I.; Kiselev, A. D.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of the angle of incidence on light transmission through cholesteric liquid crystals. The systems are two-layer sandwich structures with a twist defect created by rotation of the one layer about the helical axis. The conoscopic images and polarization-resolved patterns are obtained for thick layers by computing the intensity and the polarization parameters as a function of the incidence angles. In addition to the defect angle-induced rotation of the pictures as a whole, the rings associated with the defect mode resonances are found to shrink to a central point and disappear, as the defect twist angle varies from zero to its limiting value π/2 and beyond.

  18. Competitive excitation and osmotic-pressure-mediated control of lasing modes in cholesteric liquid crystal microshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Li; Gong, Ling-Li; Che, Kai-Jun; Li, Sen-Sen; Chu, Cheng-Xu; Cai, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Chaoyong James; Chen, Lu-Jian

    2017-05-01

    We examined the end-pumped lasing behaviors of dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) microshells which were fabricated by glass capillary microfluidics. Several kinds of mode resonances, including distributed feedback, Fabry-Pérot (FP), and whispering gallery (WG) modes, can be robustly constructed in each individual DDCLC microshell by varying the beam diameter, namely, tuning the DDCLC gain area. The FP and WG modes were further confirmed experimentally, and the corresponding lasing mechanisms are clearly revealed from the unique material characteristics of DDCLC and the geometrical structure of the microshell. Additionally, we demonstrated that the osmotic pressure can be used to shrink/expand the microshell, productively tuning the excitation of lasing modes in a controlled manner. We wish our findings can provide a new insight into the design of DDCLC microlasers with tunable optical properties.

  19. Increasing the lasing efficiency in cholesteric liquid-crystal photonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Shtykov, N. M.; Barnik, M. I.; Umanskii, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-15

    Two types of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals (LCs) in the range of luminescence of laser dye molecules have been investigated. The first type belongs to the Bragg modes at the photonic band edge, which propagate along the normal to the LC layer. The second type of lasing is related to the modes leaking into the substrate and propagating at small angles to the LC layer. It is shown that the Bragg lasing efficiency can be significantly increased under wide-aperture optical pumping. The method proposed for increasing the lasing efficiency is based on suppressing the excitation of leaky laser modes using partially absorbing thin films as the coatings for LC-orienting substrates. Both experimental results and the theoretical model of the effect using the numerical simulation data are discussed.

  20. Bioequivalent UV detectors based on cholesteric liquid crystals: effects of spectral composition and quantitative account for intensity of UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisetski, Longin N.; Panikarskaya, Valentina D.; Kasyan, Natalya A.; Grishchenko, Leonid V.; Terenetskaya, Irina P.

    2005-11-01

    Response of cholesteric sensor materials to biologically active UV radiation has been studied. The sensor mixture comprised a cholesteric liquid crystalline matrix doped with provitamin D, and changes in the maximum selective reflection wavelength λ max caused by the photochemical reaction of provitamin D --> vitamin D transformation were recorded. Using a UV source (DRT-240 lamp) calibrated accounting for the specific irradiation geometry, λ max shifts were obtained as function of UV illuminance dose (in J/cm2). Using a set of optical filters cutting off specified parts of the provitamin D absorption spectrum, effects of the spectral composition of UV radiation upon the response characteristics of sensor were determined. The results obtained support our earlier considerations of the developed sensor material as "bioequivalent".

  1. Thermally switchable photonic band-edge to random laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihua; Wang, Yan; Feng, Yangyang; Liu, Bo; Gu, Bing; Cui, Yiping; Lu, Yanqing

    2018-03-01

    By changing the doping concentration of the chiral agent to adjust the relative position of the reflection band of cholesteric liquid crystals and the fluorescence emission spectrum of the dye, photonic band-edge and random lasing were observed, respectively. The reflection band of the cholesteric phase liquid crystal can also be controlled by adjusting the temperature: the reflection band is blue-shifted with increasing temperature, and a reversible switch from photonic band-edge to random lasing is obtained. Furthermore, the laser line width can be thermally adjusted from 1.1 nm (at 27 °C) to 4.6 nm (at 32.1 °C). A thermally tunable polarization state of a random laser from dual cells was observed, broadening the field of application liquid crystal random lasers.

  2. Preparation of cholesteric (hydroxypropyl)cellulose/polymer networks and ion-mediated control of their optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Ryotaro; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Yuka; Ohtaki, Manabu; Miyashita, Yoshiharu

    2006-11-01

    (Hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC)/vinyl polymer networks were synthesized in film form from liquid-crystalline solutions of HPC in a mixed solvent of methacrylate monomer/methanol/water (2:1:2 in weight) containing cross-linking agents, via photopolymerization of the methacrylate monomer. Di(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate (DEGMEM) or 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) was used as the polymerizing monomer, and tetra(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and glutaraldehyde were the cross-linkers for the monomers and HPC, respectively. The polymer composite films, HPC/PDEGMEM and HPC/PHPMA, prepared at ca. 60-70 wt % concentrations of HPC in the starting solutions, were iridescently colored due to the selective light reflection, originating from the cholesteric helical arrangement carried over successively into the network system. When the cholesteric films were immersed and swollen in water containing an inorganic neutral salt, their coloration and optical turbidity varied according to a strength of 'chaotropicity' of the impregnant ions. This ionic effect may be interpreted as essentially identical with that found formerly in the coexistent salt-sort dependence of the cholesteric pitch and lower critical solution temperature for HPC aqueous solutions. It is also demonstrated that visual appearance of the swollen networks can be changed by application of an electric potential of practical magnitude between both edges of the samples of rectangular shape.

  3. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  4. Textured perovskite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Most research of texturization of solar cells has been devoted to Si based cells. For perovskites, it was assumed that texturization would not have much of an impact because of the relatively low refractive indexes lead to relatively low reflection as compared to the Si based cells. However, our

  5. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  6. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  7. Head Tracking via Robust Registration in Texture Map Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaCascia, Marco

    1998-01-01

    .... The resulting dynamic texture map provides a stabilized view of the face that can be used as input to many existing 2D techniques for face recognition, facial expressions analysis, lip reading, and eye tracking...

  8. Textures and ores structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author made conclusion that structural-texture particularities reflect the physical and chemical conditions, velocity of minerals crystallization, further tectonic situation, presence appearances of meta-somatic substitution, second decomposition and minerals leaching

  9. Upgrading the Performance of Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Lasers: Improvement Margins and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cholesteric-liquid-crystal lasers is a rapidly expanding research area in the field of soft-matter photonics. The increasing interest in this field is due to the high versatility that these lasers may possibly present and the prospects of giving rise to new miniaturized devices. However, further improvements in their operation capabilities are still required for potential applications. In this paper, we critically analyze the main strategies proposed up to now to optimize their performance. We show theoretically and experimentally that possible innovations in the device structure cannot produce lasers with threshold energies below a certain limit. This limit is determined by the light scattering and absorption losses inside the liquid crystal. Even assuming the case of samples free of defects and perfectly non-absorbing, an intrinsic light scattering, typical of mesogens, still remains. Numerical estimates of the thresholds indicate that these lasers could hardly be driven by compact light sources such as current electroluminescent or light-emitting diodes. Since the improvement possibilities regarding cell architecture seem to be exhausted, the advance must come from the use of new dye molecules. These molecules should show enhanced emission cross-sections and be efficiently integrable within the mesogenic solvent. In addition, the fluorescent systems must present very small quantum yields to triplet states if continuous-wave lasing is sought. In this respect, quantum dots are an alternative to explore for further investigations.

  10. Methods of making textured catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  11. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics: Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystals - Innovations in Materials, Display Technology, and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad

    Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystals have been the subject of much research, development, and commercialization - in display technology as well as other embodiments, such as sensors, privacy films, etc. The liquid Crystal Institute (LCI) at Kent State University (KSU) served as a hot bed of much of the research and development in this field in the early 1990's. From here, the reflective technology was licensed to Kent Displays (KDI) to further develop and commercialize. The 90's saw some development in flexible technologies, drive scheme, display design, as well as materials. The early part of the century took a turn with a strong effort in encapsulation based flexible display development. In 2006, KDI engineers and technologists started firming up ambitious plans for the world's first roll-to-roll manufacturing line for bistable cholesteric displays. In 2009, this became a reality! In early 2010, the first eWriter product was launched into the consumer market under the brand Boogie Board®. Within months, this became a success forcing the rapid development of the manufacturing process for the flexible displays. Today, the company has two manufacturing lines, 24 hour roll-to-roll production of flexible displays, millions of Boogie Board products in the global market place, and a growing OEM business in the Boogie Board technology. KDI continues to do basic research, development, and exploration in the bistable display field. It also has had to become an expert in the supply chain management of the unique raw materials needed for flexible display manufacturing, while still managing global operations with sales offices in several continents and a growing and diversified group of individuals. In this presentation, we will present the story, research, development, technology, and latest trends in bistable cholesteric liquid crystal materials with a particular emphasis on the eWriter technology and market.

  12. Radiative stability of neutrino-mass textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. M K Parida1 C R Das2 G Rajasekaran2. Department of Physics, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, India; Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113, India ...

  13. Radiative stability of neutrino-mass textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .Нv; 12.15.Lk. A major challenge to particle physics at present is the theoretical understanding of experimentally observed neutrino anomalies. Whereas the observed mixing between quarks are small, experimental data favor two large mixings ...

  14. Computer Texture Mapping for Laser Texturing of Injection Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser texturing is a relatively new multiprocess technique that has been used for machining 3D curved surfaces; it is more flexible and efficient to create decorative texture on 3D curved surfaces of injection molds so as to improve the surface quality and achieve cosmetic surface of molded plastic parts. In this paper, a novel method of laser texturing 3D curved surface based on 3-axis galvanometer scanning unit has been presented to prevent the texturing of injection mold surface from much distortion which is often caused by traditional texturing processes. The novel method has been based on the computer texture mapping technology which has been developed and presented. The developed texture mapping algorithm includes surface triangulation, notations, distortion measurement, control, and numerical method. An interface of computer texture mapping has been built to implement the algorithm of texture mapping approach to controlled distortion rate of 3D texture math model from 2D original texture applied to curvature surface. Through a case study of laser texturing of a high curvature surface of injection mold of a mice top case, it shows that the novel method of laser texturing meets the quality standard of laser texturing of injection mold.

  15. Ion-beam texturing of uniaxially textured Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    The formation of biaxial texture in uniaxially textured Ni thin films via Ar-ion irradiation is reported. The ion-beam irradiation was not simultaneous with deposition. Instead, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux, which differs from conventional ion-beam-assisted deposition. The uniaxial texture is established via a nonion beam process, with the in-plane texture imposed on the uniaxial film via ion beam bombardment. Within this sequential ion beam texturing method, grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth

  16. Texture analysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsch, A.; Timmermans, K.

    2017-01-01

    Texture analysis is a method to test the physical properties of a material by tension and compression. The growing interest in commercialisation of seaweeds for human food has stimulated research into the physical properties of seaweed tissue. These are important parameters for the survival of

  17. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  18. Texture & Textiles, Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Creating a painting with texture is easy, although using heavy gel medium or modeling paste may be pricey ways to go about it. High school artists generally like making collages and mixed-media. In this article, the author suggests ways to capitalize on that interest with inexpensive fabric in a painting project.

  19. Chameleons: Reptilian Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an art project inspired by a drawing of a chameleon the author saw in an art-supply catalog. Chameleons prove to be a good subject to highlight shape, color and texture with eigth-graders. In this project, middle- and high-school students draw a chameleon, learn how to use shapes to add to their chameleon drawing, learn how…

  20. Strings, texture, and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I

  1. Texture studies using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various aspects of the application of neutron scattering methods to texture studies are reviewed. The neutron method is compared with other methods of texture measurement and techniques of neutron diffraction registration of texture are discussed. Examples are presented of the use of neutron scattering for texture examination in materials having various grain sizes and degrees of structural inhomogeneity. It is also demonstrated that the information about texture can be used in the discussion of the deformation and recrystallization processes in metals. Neutron diffraction results are shown to be helpful in the examination of the influence of texture on the anisotropy of physical properties in materials. The possibility of neutron diffraction measurements of magnetic texture is reported. Finally the accuracy of texture measurements using the neutron method is discussed. (author)

  2. Space-optimized texture atlases

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Bayona, Jonàs

    2009-01-01

    Texture atlas parameterization provides an effective way to map a variety of colour and data attributes from 2D texture domains onto polygonal surface meshes. Most of the existing literature focus on how to build seamless texture atlases for continuous photometric detail, but little e ort has been devoted to devise e cient techniques for encoding self-repeating, uncontinuous signals such as building facades. We present a perception-based scheme for generating space-optimized texture ...

  3. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  4. Nonlinear operator for oriented texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Peter; Petkov, Nikolay

    1999-01-01

    Texture is an important part of the visual world of animals and humans and their visual systems successfully detect, discriminate, and segment texture. Relatively recently progress was made concerning structures in the brain that are presumably responsible for texture processing. Neurophysiologists

  5. Optical manipulation of photonic defect-modes in cholesteric liquid crystals induced by direct laser-lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chee Heng; Miura, Yusuke; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation of photonic defect-modes in cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs), which are one-dimensional pseudo photonic band-gap materials have been demonstrated by an external optical field. A structural defect in which the pitch length of the ChLC in the bulk and the defect are different was introduced by inducing local polymerization in a photo-polymerizable ChLC material by a direct laser-lithography process, and infiltrating a different ChLC material as the defect medium. When an azobenzene dye-doped ChLC was infiltrated in the defect, the trans-cis isomerization of the dye upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure caused the pitch to shorten, changing the contrast in the pitch lengths at the bulk and the defect, leading to a consequent shifting of the defect-mode. The all-optical manipulation was reversible and had high reproducibility

  6. The influence of an external electric field on the propagation of light waves in cholesteric liquid crystal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, E. V.; Karetnikov, A. A.; Kovshik, A. P.; Krainyukov, E. S.; Svanidze, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The specific features of light transmission in a cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) cell with a director rotated by 90° have been investigated. In this structure, where a light wave is incident at a large angle with respect to the LC surface, the light is reflected (refracted) in the LC layer near the opposite boundary. It is shown that the application of an electric field changes the character of extraordinary wave refraction, as a result of which light starts passing through a cell. The transmission threshold voltage is determined, and its dependence on the angle of incidence of light is obtained. The dependence of the transmitted-light intensity on the voltage across the cell is obtained as well. The same dependences are also derived by numerical calculations with allowance for the turning points and extinction.

  7. Research progress of cholesteric liquid crystals with broadband reflection characteristics in application of intelligent optical modulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Ying; Gao Yan-Zi; Song Ping; Yuan Xiao; He Bao-Feng; Yang Huai; Wu Xiao-Juan; Chen Xing-Wu; Hu Wang; Guo Ren-Wei; Ding Hang-Jun; Xiao Jiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have recently sparked an enormous amount of interest in the development of soft matter materials due to their unique ability to self-organize into a helical supra-molecular architecture and their excellent selective reflection of light based on the Bragg relationship. Nowadays, by the virtue of building the self-organized nanostructures with pitch gradient or non-uniform pitch distribution, extensive work has already been performed to obtain CLC films with a broad reflection band. Based on authors’ many years’ research experience, this critical review systematically summarizes the physical and optical background of the CLCs with broadband reflection characteristics, methods to obtain broadband reflection of CLCs, as well as the application in the field of intelligent optical modulation materials. Combined with the research status and the advantages in the field, the important basic and applied scientific problems in the research direction are also introduced. (topical review)

  8. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  9. RotoTexture: automated tools for texturing raw video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Hart, John C

    2006-01-01

    We propose a video editing system that allows a user to apply a time-coherent texture to a surface depicted in the raw video from a single uncalibrated camera, including the surface texture mapping of a texture image and the surface texture synthesis from a texture swatch. Our system avoids the construction of a 3D shape model and instead uses the recovered normal field to deform the texture so that it plausibly adheres to the undulations of the depicted surface. The texture mapping method uses the nonlinear least-squares optimization of a spring model to control the behavior of the texture image as it is deformed to match the evolving normal field through the video. The texture synthesis method uses a coarse optical flow to advect clusters of pixels corresponding to patches of similarly oriented surface points. These clusters are organized into a minimum advection tree to account for the dynamic visibility of clusters. We take a rather crude approach to normal recovering and optical flow estimation, yet the results are robust and plausible for nearly diffuse surfaces such as faces and t-shirts.

  10. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Statistical region-based registration methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images. At low resolution, images correspondences can be recovered reliably in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due...... to excessive storage and computational requirements. We propose to reduce the dimensionality of the textural components by selecting a subset of basis functions from a larger dictionary, estimate regression splines and model only the coeffcients of the retained basis functions. We demonstrate the use of two...

  11. Tape Textured Works of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Texture is how things feel or how they look as though they might feel if one touches them. Some surfaces are rough and some are smooth to the touch. There are many other words, such as bumpy, used to describe texture when one feels or sees it. This article presents an art project in which elementary students explain how texture is used in art,…

  12. Texture determination by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, P.

    1981-02-01

    Application of neutron diffraction to crystallographic texture determination shows many advantages: possibility of an important grain size, the quantity of material contributing to diffraction is more important than with X rays, good accuracy and complete pole figures are obtained by transmission only eliminating corrections needed with X rays. Texture determination allows control and improvement of material quality. Texture studies give good informations on mechanisms occuring in deformation or recrystallization of polycrystals and on anisotropy of physical and mechanical properties [fr

  13. General relativistic collapse of textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrer, R.; Heusler, M.; Jetzer, P.; Straumann, N.

    1991-01-01

    We present an exact self-similar solution of the coupled Einstein-σ model equations which describes the general relativistic collapse of global textures. In one coordinate system the texture geometry has a simple interpretation in terms of a deficit solid angle. We also briefly discuss the behavior of matter and light in this geometry. In particular we show that the weak field approximation for the metric perturbations of flat space texture solutions is quantitatively quite reliable. (orig.)

  14. LOCAL TEXTURE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reena Rose

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture descriptors have an important role in recognizing face images. However, almost all the existing local texture descriptors use nearest neighbors to encode a texture pattern around a pixel. But in face images, most of the pixels have similar characteristics with that of its nearest neighbors because the skin covers large area in a face and the skin tone at neighboring regions are same. Therefore this paper presents a general framework called Local Texture Description Framework that uses only eight pixels which are at certain distance apart either circular or elliptical from the referenced pixel. Local texture description can be done using the foundation of any existing local texture descriptors. In this paper, the performance of the proposed framework is verified with three existing local texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs for the five issues viz. facial expression, partial occlusion, illumination variation, pose variation and general recognition. Five benchmark databases JAFFE, Essex, Indian faces, AT&T and Georgia Tech are used for the experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that even with less number of patterns, the proposed framework could achieve higher recognition accuracy than that of their base models.

  15. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  16. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Henselmans, M.; Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely

  17. Cartoon+Texture Image Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we give a thorough description of the algorithm proposed in [A. Buades, T. Le, J.M. Morel and L. Vese, Fast cartoon + texture image filters, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2010] for cartoon+texture decomposition using of a nonlinear low pass-high pass filter pair.

  18. Human versus artificial texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petiet, Peter J.; van Erp, J.; Drullman, R.; van den Broek, Egon; Beintema, J.; van Wijngaarden, S.

    2006-01-01

    The performances of current texture analysis algorithms are still poor, especially when applied to a large, diffuse texture domain. Most of these purely computationally driven techniques are created to function within a highly restricted domain. When applied as computer vision techniques, frequently

  19. Emotional Effects of Dynamic Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval.

  20. Texture dependent lattice strains and texture gradient in AI7020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Zhong, Z.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Maawad, E.; Schell, N.

    2015-04-01

    Firstly, an Al7020 block was characterized by the texture gradient, which was remarkably strong. Texture sharpness in the center with about 30 mrd (multiple random distribution) shows typical plain strain texture components. On the surface and close to the surface the texture sharpness is much weaker showing also shear components. Strongest shear was not directly at the surface but 4 mm deeper. The texture analysis at HEMS Beamline (Petra III/DESY-Hamburg) was done with continuous scanning mode to include all grains to improve the grain statistics. Secondly, with an in situ synchrotron experiment the texture dependent lattice strain behavior was investigated using flat tensile samples oriented 0°, 45° and 90° to the rolling direction (RD). Texture induced anisotropy influenced on the lattice dependent yield strength and the lattice dependent stress-strain behavior, which will be discussed in detail. Due to the high energy synchrotron beam complete Debye-Scherrer rings were obtained so that the patterns, parallel and perpendicular to loading direction (LD), were obtained simultaneously.

  1. Textures in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Bizarre textures cover the surface of eastern Utopia Planitia where there is a high probability that ground ice has played a role in the formation of this unusual landscape.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Atmospheric degradation of proton irradiated textured oxide superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kalanov, M U; Khajdarov, T K; Pajzullakhanov, M S; Rustamova, V M

    2001-01-01

    The results of studies on the atmospheric degradation of the structure and superconducting properties of the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (delta = 0.07) isatropic and textured ceramics before and after irradiation by protons (18 MeV) up to the fluence of 6 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 p/cm sup 2 by the long-term storage under normal conditions are presented. It is shown that the proton irradiation up to the certain dose increases the structure and properties stability to atmospheric degradation and the texturing additionally quenches the ceramics degradation

  3. Research progress of cholesteric liquid crystals with broadband reflection characteristics in application of intelligent optical modulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan-Ying; Gao, Yan-Zi; Song, Ping; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Yuan, Xiao; He, Bao-Feng; Chen, Xing-Wu; Hu, Wang; Guo, Ren-Wei; Ding, Hang-Jun; Xiao, Jiu-Mei; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have recently sparked an enormous amount of interest in the development of soft matter materials due to their unique ability to self-organize into a helical supra-molecular architecture and their excellent selective reflection of light based on the Bragg relationship. Nowadays, by the virtue of building the self-organized nanostructures with pitch gradient or non-uniform pitch distribution, extensive work has already been performed to obtain CLC films with a broad reflection band. Based on authors’ many years’ research experience, this critical review systematically summarizes the physical and optical background of the CLCs with broadband reflection characteristics, methods to obtain broadband reflection of CLCs, as well as the application in the field of intelligent optical modulation materials. Combined with the research status and the advantages in the field, the important basic and applied scientific problems in the research direction are also introduced. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51573006, 51573003, 51203003, 51303008, 51302006, 51402006, 51272026, and 51273022), the Major Project of Beijing Science and Technology Program, China (Grant Nos. Z151100003315023 and Z141100003814011), and the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation, China (Grant No. 142009).

  4. Symmetry realization of texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)

  5. Real-time texture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for fast in-situ texture determination by neutron diffraction is described. The basic instrument is variable wavelength neutron spectrometer modified to incorporate a linear position-sensitive detector and a fully automatic Eulergoniometer. At present a complete textural analysis with an accuracy of 2-3% determined by counting statistics, requires from 15 to 30 minutes measuring time depending on the sample material. By on-line recording of the change in texture, which commonly accompanies such processes as deformation, recrystallization and grain growth in crystalline materials, information about the process and its kinetics is obtained. This is illustrated by in-situ kinetic investigations of recrystallization and grain growth in various polycrystalline metals; the potential of the technique for problems related to metallurgical practice is demonstrated by an approach of texture tailoring in commercially pure aluminium. (author)

  6. EUROMET SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - SURFACE TEXTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    At the length meeting in Prague in Oct. 1999 a new comparison was suggested on surface texture. The last comparison on this field was finished in 1989. In the meantime the instrumentation, the standards and the written standards have been improved including some software filters. The pilot...... laboratories for this supplementary comparison on surface texture are the Centre for Geometrical Metrology at the Technical University of Denmark and the Micro- and Nanotopography laboratory at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany....

  7. Audio Classification from Time-Frequency Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoshen; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Time-frequency representations of audio signals often resemble texture images. This paper derives a simple audio classification algorithm based on treating sound spectrograms as texture images. The algorithm is inspired by an earlier visual classification scheme particularly efficient at classifying textures. While solely based on time-frequency texture features, the algorithm achieves surprisingly good performance in musical instrument classification experiments.

  8. Food Texture Preferences in Infants Versus Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Brenda; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared food texture preferences during infancy and toddlerhood. Found that infants displayed more negative expressions and head and body movements in response to complex textures than to simple textures. Toddlers displayed more positive head and body movements and more eagerness in response to complex than to simple textures. Experience with…

  9. Improvement in the textural qualities of irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nene, S.P.; Vakil, U.K.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1975-01-01

    The potential for use of gamma radiation processing to improve texture, hydration and cooking quality of pulses, particularly red gram, has been examined. The textural changes in irradiated pulses in terms of softening is measured by a texturometer, Radiation (1 Mrad) processing of pulses resulted in reduction of cooking time varying from 8 to 39%, red gram showing the maximum reduction. Initial higher hydration rate on soaking and cooking, stabilized on prolonged cooking and resulted in better and uniform texture of irradiated red gram. In the uncooked, irradiated (1 Mrad) sample, destruction of riboflavin was negligible, whereas thiamine and niacin showed about 7% loss. However, the vitamins were retained better in the samples irradiated and then cooked, compared to the corresponding control ones. (F.J.)

  10. On soil textural classifications and soil-texture-based estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Martín, Miguel; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; García-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Reyes, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    The soil texture representation with the standard textural fraction triplet sand-silt-clay is commonly used to estimate soil properties. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that other fraction sizes in the triplets may provide a better representation of soil texture for estimating some soil parameters. We estimated the cumulative particle size distribution and bulk density from an entropy-based representation of the textural triplet with experimental data for 6240 soil samples. The results supported the hypothesis. For example, simulated distributions were not significantly different from the original ones in 25 and 85 % of cases when the sand-silt-clay and very coarse+coarse + medium sand - fine + very fine sand - silt+clay were used, respectively. When the same standard and modified triplets were used to estimate the average bulk density, the coefficients of determination were 0.001 and 0.967, respectively. Overall, the textural triplet selection appears to be application and data specific.

  11. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...

  12. Texture classification using logical operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, V; Vasquez, R; Katiyar, P

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm for texture classification based on logical operators is presented. Operators constructed from logical building blocks are convolved with texture images. An optimal set of six operators are selected based on their texture discrimination ability. The responses are then converted to standard deviation matrices computed over a sliding window. Zonal sampling features are computed from these matrices. A feature selection process is applied and the new set of features are used for texture classification. Classification of several natural and synthetic texture images are presented demonstrating the excellent performance of the logical operator method. The computational superiority and classification accuracy of the algorithm is demonstrated by comparison with other popular methods. Experiments with different classifiers and feature normalization are also presented. The Euclidean distance classifier is found to perform best with this algorithm. The algorithm involves only convolutions and simple arithmetic in the various stages which allows faster implementations. The algorithm is applicable to different types of classification problems which is demonstrated by segmentation of remote sensing images, compressed and reconstructed images and industrial images.

  13. Di-uniform texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ozcag

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Textures were introduced by the second author as a point-based setting for the study of fuzzy sets, and have since proved to be an appropriate framework for the development of complement-free mathematical concepts. In this paper the authors lay the foundation for a theory of uniformities in a textural context. Analogues are given for both the diagonal and covering approaches to the classical theory of uniform structures, the notion of uniform topology is generalized and an analogue given for the well known result that a topological space is uniformizable if and only if it is completely regular. Finally a textural analogue of the classical interplay between uniformities and families of pseudo-metrics is presented.

  14. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  15. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  16. Influence of the type of cellulosic derivatives on the texture, and oxidative and thermal stability of soybean oil oleogel; Influencia del tipo de derivado celulósico sobre la textura y la estabilidad oxidativa y térmica de oleogeles de aceite de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totosaus, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, R.; Fragoso, M.

    2016-07-01

    The use oleogels (defined as edible oils entrapped in a three-dimensional network employing a self-assembled structuring agent) has recently been proposed to replace saturated fat or trans-fats in foods. In this work the effects of different cellulose derivative mixtures (Avicel, ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose) on lipid stability, glass transition temperature and the texture of soybean oil oleogels were determined by employing a mixture design approach. Avicel affected lipid stability, increasing the oxidative rancidity and peroxide values of oleogels. Oleogels with higher proportions of Avicel also presented higher transition temperatures. A higher percent of ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose in the oleogel mixture resulted in a more stable system with lower oil rancidity and lower glass transition temperatures. In addition, Avicel resulted in a softer and less tacky texture, an important characteristic to consider for food applications. [Spanish] Recientemente, ha sido propuesto el uso de oleogeles (definido como aceites comestibles atrapados en una red tridimensional que ocupa un agente estructurante de auto-ensamblado) como substituto de grasa saturada o grasas trans en alimentos. En este trabajo el efecto de mezclas de diferentes derivados celulósicos (Avicel, etil celulosa y a-celulosa) sobre la estabilidad de lípidos, temperaturas de transición térmica y textura de oleogeles de aceite de soja fueron determinados utilizando un diseño de mezclas. Avicel afectó la estabilidad de lípidos, aumentando la rancidez oxidativa y valores de peróxido en los oleogeles. Oleogeles con mayores proporciones de Avicel también presentaron temperaturas de transición térmica más altas. porcentajes más altos de etil celulosa y a-celulosa resultaron en un sistema más estable con menor rancidez oxidativa y menores temperaturas de transición térmica. Sin embargo, Avicel resultó en una textura más suave y menos pegajosa, una característica importante a considerar

  17. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  18. Texture analysis using Gabor wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Wang, Jian; Ogunbona, Philip O.

    1996-04-01

    Receptive field profiles of simple cells in the visual cortex have been shown to resemble even- symmetric or odd-symmetric Gabor filters. Computational models employed in the analysis of textures have been motivated by two-dimensional Gabor functions arranged in a multi-channel architecture. More recently wavelets have emerged as a powerful tool for non-stationary signal analysis capable of encoding scale-space information efficiently. A multi-resolution implementation in the form of a dyadic decomposition of the signal of interest has been popularized by many researchers. In this paper, Gabor wavelet configured in a 'rosette' fashion is used as a multi-channel filter-bank feature extractor for texture classification. The 'rosette' spans 360 degrees of orientation and covers frequencies from dc. In the proposed algorithm, the texture images are decomposed by the Gabor wavelet configuration and the feature vectors corresponding to the mean of the outputs of the multi-channel filters extracted. A minimum distance classifier is used in the classification procedure. As a comparison the Gabor filter has been used to classify the same texture images from the Brodatz album and the results indicate the superior discriminatory characteristics of the Gabor wavelet. With the test images used it can be concluded that the Gabor wavelet model is a better approximation of the cortical cell receptive field profiles.

  19. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  20. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  1. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19¿60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  2. Euromet Comparison on Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    In the region of EUROMET, we performed from 2001 to 2003 a comparison covering a number among the most interesting parameters in the field of surface texture, i.e. Pt, D, Ra, Rz, RSm, and the Rk-parameters. 16 institutes carried out measurements on typical roughness standards as described in ISO...

  3. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...

  4. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Aken, G.A. van; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake,

  5. Feature-aware natural texture synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang

    2014-12-04

    This article presents a framework for natural texture synthesis and processing. This framework is motivated by the observation that given examples captured in natural scene, texture synthesis addresses a critical problem, namely, that synthesis quality can be affected adversely if the texture elements in an example display spatially varied patterns, such as perspective distortion, the composition of different sub-textures, and variations in global color pattern as a result of complex illumination. This issue is common in natural textures and is a fundamental challenge for previously developed methods. Thus, we address it from a feature point of view and propose a feature-aware approach to synthesize natural textures. The synthesis process is guided by a feature map that represents the visual characteristics of the input texture. Moreover, we present a novel adaptive initialization algorithm that can effectively avoid the repeat and verbatim copying artifacts. Our approach improves texture synthesis in many images that cannot be handled effectively with traditional technologies.

  6. A multi-resolution texture fusion algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Qin; Zhou, Xiang; Guo, Jia Yu; Yang, Tao; Fei, Zi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    Texture fusion is essential for three-dimensional photo-realistic texture model reconstruction. Multi-resolution texture fusion mainly is applied to reconstruct three-dimensional models that the local texture is very realistic. This paper presents a multi-resolution texture fusion algorithm based on digital image processing. The technique utilizes the depth camera to obtain range data and the texture camera to obtain the local interested high-resolution texture of the object. And each point of the range images a pixel of the picture corresponding to this view should be found, so the map between high-resolution texture and local three-dimensional points could be obtained by calibrating texture camera and depth camera to register the local high-resolution texture with the low resolution texture collected by the depth camera or calibrating texture camera and depth camera. ICP is applied to register models, and mapping different-resolution textures onto three-dimensional models. Then the light source correction of textures is applied to remove the systematic differences such as lighting change which are achieved by computing linear regression correction mode. Finally, the global correction is applied to refine the observable variations in color that may still exist near the fusion boundaries. These corrections will utilize the grid triangle vertex color as a constraint to drive texture fusion to remove discontinuities from different resolutions. The advantage of this technique is that it utilizes the light source correction and global correction to fuse different resolutions textures. Experiments with this technique indicate that it significantly corrects the observable discontinuities within the overlapping areas, which are given from different resolutions, lighting change, non-lambertian object surface, etc.

  7. Texture analysis using Renyi's generalized entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, SE; Petkov, N

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Renyi's generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  8. Real-time Texture Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurentiu Lacrama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates an improved solution for the real-time error detection of texture errors that occurs in the production process in textile industry. The research is focused on the mono-color products with 3D texture model (Jacquard fabrics. This is a more difficult task than, for example, 2D multicolor textures.

  9. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  10. Texture Control: Theoretical and Practical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Gangli, P.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of controlling the rolling texture by simple modifications to the rolling process is investigated. It is demonstrated that the computer programs developed for simulation of the normal rolling textures can also satisfactorily predict textures formed under new rolling conditions...

  11. Watermarking textures in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  12. Texture Classification for 3D Urban Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inatsuka Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to control texture resolution for rendering large-scale 3D urban maps. Since on the 3D maps texture data generally tend to be far larger than geometry information such as vertices and triangles, it is more effective to reduce the texture by exploiting the LOD (Level of Detail in order to decrease whole data size. For this purpose, we propose a new method to control the resolution of the texture. In our method we classify the textures to four classes based on their salient features. The appropriate texture resolutions are decided based on the classification resulsts, their rendered sizes on a display, and their level of importance. We verify the validity of our texture classification algorithm by applying it to the large-scale 3D urban map rendering.

  13. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  14. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schutter, B., E-mail: bob.deschutter@ugent.be; De Keyser, K.; Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Lavoie, C. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi{sub 2}, C54-TiSi{sub 2}, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  15. Extracting Corresponding Point Based on Texture Synthesis for Nearly Flat Textureless Object Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the image feature points are always gathered at the range with significant intensity change, such as textured portions or edges of an image, which can be detected by the state-of-the-art intensity based point-detectors, there is nearly no point in the areas of low textured detected by classical interest-point detectors. In this paper we describe a novel algorithm based on affine transform and graph cut for interest point detecting and matching from wide baseline image pairs with weakly textured object. The detection and matching mechanism can be separated into three steps: firstly, the information on the large textureless areas will be enhanced by adding textures through the proposed texture synthesis algorithm TSIQ. Secondly, the initial interest-point set is detected by classical interest-point detectors. Finally, graph cuts are used to find the globally optimal set of matching points on stereo pairs. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is verified by three kinds of experiments, that is, the influence of point detecting from synthetic texture with different texture sample, the stability under the different geometric transformations, and the performance to improve the quasi-dense matching algorithm, respectively.

  16. Correlation between crystallographic texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of pulse electrodeposited nanocrystalline Nickel–Cobalt alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Amit; Chhangani, Sumit; Madhavan, R.; Suwas, Satyam, E-mail: satyamsuwas@materials.iisc.ernet.in

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nano-crystalline Ni–Co materials with varying composition has been deposited by pulse electrodeposition. • Overall weakening of <1 1 1> texture and strengthening of <2 0 0> fibre texture is observed with increasing cobalt content. • Higher thermal stability of Ni–70Co is interpreted in terms of low mobility twins and texture. • A clear transition from soft to hard magnetic character is observed with an increase cobalt content. - Abstract: This paper reports the evolution of microstructure and texture in Nickel–Cobalt electrodeposits fabricated by pulse electrodeposition (PED) technique and the correlation of these attributes with the magnetic properties. The structural and microstructural investigation using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies indicate the presence of nanocrystalline grains and nano-twins in the electrodeposits. Convoluted Multiple Whole profile fitting reveals an increase in dislocation density and twin density with increasing cobalt content in the as-deposited samples. Strengthening of <1 1 1> fibre texture and weakening of <2 0 0> fibre texture with increasing cobalt concentration has been observed with X-ray texture analysis. A corresponding significant increase in the saturation magnetization and coercivity observed with increasing cobalt content. A significant improvement in the soft magnetic character in the electrodeposits in terms of increase in saturation magnetization and decrease in coercivity has been observed with thermal annealing.

  17. Comments on "Steganography Using Reversible Texture Synthesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Chen, Kejiang; Zhang, Weiming; Yu, Nenghai

    2017-04-01

    Message hiding in texture image synthesis is a novel steganography approach by which we resample a smaller texture image and synthesize a new texture image with a similar local appearance and an arbitrary size. However, the mirror operation over the image boundary is flawed and is easy to attack. We propose an attacking method on this steganography, which can not only detect the stego-images but can also extract the hidden messages.

  18. Dry texturing of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A textured backside of a semiconductor device for increasing light scattering and absorption in a semiconductor substrate is accomplished by applying infrared radiation to the front side of a semiconductor substrate that has a metal layer deposited on its backside in a time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface and then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity, epitaxial alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor substrate and a metal contact layer. The time-energy profile includes ramping up to a first energy level and holding for a period of time to create the desired pit size and density and then rapidly increasing the energy to a second level in which the entire interface area is melted and alloyed quickly. After holding the second energy level for a sufficient time to develop the thin alloy layer over the entire interface area, the energy is ramped down to allow epitaxial crystal growth in the alloy layer. The result is a textured backside an optically reflective, low resistivity alloy interface between the semiconductor substrate and the metal electrical contact layer.

  19. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  20. Contrast-negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Balas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast-negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast-negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an oddball real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system’s tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  1. Crystallographic Texture in Ceramics and Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudin, M D

    2001-01-01

    Preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture, occurs almost universally, both in natural and man-made systems. Many components and devices in electronic and magnetic systems are fabricated from materials that have crystallographic texture. With the rapidly increasing use of thin film technology, where sharp axisymmetric crystallographic texture normal to the film plane is frequently observed, the occurrence and impact of texture are rising. Thin film applications in which the texture of the material plays a key role in determining properties and performance are broad: complex oxides in random access memory devices, ZnO thin film resonators for cell phone applications, metallic alloys in magnetic recording media, and Al and Cu interconnects in integrated circuits are but a few examples. Texture is established during the synthesis or post-synthesis heat treatment of a material and thus has a strong dependence upon processing history. Accurate measurement of texture is not simple and a variety of tools and approaches are being actively employed in texture studies. X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction based techniques are practiced around the world at varying levels of complexity with regard to equipment and analysis methods. Despite the well-documented existence of these varied approaches, many reported texture measurements on electronic materials are based solely on the relative intensities of conventional θ-2θ x-ray diffraction peaks, which typically yield inaccurate results. NIST has developed quantitative texture measurement techniques that employ equipment commonly available in most industrial and academic settings. A number of examples of texture measurement in ceramic and metal systems will be presented, taken from the historical development and application of these techniques at NIST over the past 7 years.

  2. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  3. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  4. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random orientations thus contributing to the final recrystallization texture. In FCC metals and alloys like aluminium, cube orientation [(001) 〈100〉] is the recrystallization texture component.

  5. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been...... established that codeposition of Cr2O3 nanoparticles is a general feature of DC chromium electrodeposition....

  6. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduction tensor ...

  7. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random orientations thus contributing to the final recrystallization texture. In FCC metals and alloys like aluminium, cube orientation [(001) 〈100〉] is the recrystallization texture component. In the ...

  8. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations...

  9. Texture design for light touch perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Zeng, X.; Matthews, D.T.A.; Igartua, A.; Rodriguez Vidal, E.; Fortes, J. Contreras; Van Der Heide, E.

    This study focused on active light touch with predefined textures specially-designed for tactile perception. The counter-body material is stainless steel sheet. Three geometric structures (grid, crater and groove) were fabricated by pulsed laser surface texturing. A total number of twenty volunteers

  10. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 films on rolled-textured metals for high temperature superconducting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.P.; Park, C.; Prouteau, C.

    1998-04-01

    The epitaxial growth of high temperature superconducting (HTS) films on rolled-textured metal represents a viable approach for long-length superconducting tapes. Epitaxial, 0.5 microm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films with critical current densities, J c , greater than 1 MA/cm 2 have been realized on rolled-textured (001) Ni tapes with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/CeO 2 oxide buffer layers. This paper describes the synthesis using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of epitaxial oxide buffer layers on biaxially-textured metal that comprise the so-called rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTs trademark). The properties of the buffer and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films on rolled-textured Ni are discussed, with emphasis given to the crystallographic and microstructural properties that determine the superconducting properties of these multilayer structures

  11. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture......} slip without or with deformation twinning, but we also consider slip on other slip planes and slip by partial dislocations. We consistently make quantitative comparison of the simulation results and the experimental textures by means of a scalar correlation factor. We find that the development...

  12. Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Fishel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to endow robots with humanlike abilities to characterize and identify objects, they must be provided with tactile sensors and intelligent algorithms to select, control and interpret data from useful exploratory movements. Humans make informed decisions on the sequence of exploratory movements that would yield the most information for the task, depending on what the object may be and prior knowledge of what to expect from possible exploratory movements. This study is focused on texture discrimination, a subset of a much larger group of exploratory movements and percepts that humans use to discriminate, characterize, and identify objects. Using a testbed equipped with a biologically inspired tactile sensor (the BioTac® we produced sliding movements similar to those that humans make when exploring textures. Measurement of tactile vibrations and reaction forces when exploring textures were used to extract measures of textural properties inspired from psychophysical literature (traction, roughness, and fineness. Different combinations of normal force and velocity were identified to be useful for each of these three properties. A total of 117 textures were explored with these three movements to create a database of prior experience to use for identifying these same textures in future encounters. When exploring a texture, the discrimination algorithm adaptively selects the optimal movement to make and property to measure based on previous experience to differentiate the texture from a set of plausible candidates, a process we call Bayesian exploration. Performance of 99.6% in correctly discriminating pairs of similar textures was found to exceed human capabilities. Absolute classification from the entire set of 117 textures generally required a small number of well-chosen exploratory movements (median=5 and yielded a 95.4% success rate. The method of Bayesian exploration developed and tested in this paper may generalize well to other

  13. Solid-texture synthesis: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroni, Nico; Cignoni, Paolo; Otaduy, Miguel; Scopigno, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Solid textures are an efficient way to compactly represent 3D objects' external and internal appearance, providing practical advantages over classic 2D texturing. Two main methods exist for synthesizing solid textures. Procedural methods obtain colors through functions that algorithmically encode the texture's appearance and structural properties. Example-based methods capture and replicate the appearance as described by a set of input exemplars. These methods can also be classified as boundary independent or boundary dependent. For boundary-independent methods, the shape of the object to be textured is irrelevant, and texture information can be freely generated for each point in the space. Boundary-dependent methods conform the synthesis process to the object's actual shape so that they can exploit this information to orient and guide texture generation. This article reviews the different methodologies' strengths and weaknesses, the classes of appearances they can successfully synthesize, and failure cases. In particular, it focuses on boundary-independent methods' advantages and drawbacks compared to boundary-dependent methods.

  14. Probing Majorana neutrino textures at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana; Borah, Debasish; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We study the possibility of probing different texture zero neutrino mass matrices at the long baseline neutrino experiment DUNE, particularly focusing on its sensitivity to the octant of atmospheric mixing angle θ23 and leptonic Dirac C P phase δcp. Assuming a diagonal charged lepton basis and Majorana nature of light neutrinos, we first classify the possible light neutrino mass matrices with one and two texture zeros and then numerically evaluate the parameter space which satisfies the texture zero conditions. Apart from using the latest global fit 3 σ values of neutrino oscillation parameters, we also use the latest bound on the sum of absolute neutrino masses (∑i |mi|) from the Planck mission data and the updated bound on effective neutrino mass Me e from neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) experiments to find the allowed Majorana texture zero mass matrices. For the allowed texture zero mass matrices from all these constraints, we then feed the corresponding light neutrino parameter values satisfying the texture zero conditions into the numerical analysis in order to study the capability of DUNE to allow or exclude them once it starts taking data. We find that DUNE will be able to exclude some of these texture zero mass matrices which restrict (θ23-δcp) to a very specific range of values, depending on the values of the parameters that nature has chosen.

  15. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  16. Shaping drops with textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Quentin; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    When a drop impacts a substrate, it can behave differently depending on the nature of the surface and of the liquid (spreading, bouncing, resting, splashing ...). Understanding these behaviors is crucial to predict the drop morphology during and after impact. Whereas surface wettability has extensively been studied, the effect of surface roughness remains hardly explored. In this work, we consider the impact of a drop in a pure non-wetting situation by using superheated substrates i.e. in the Leidenfrost regime. The surface texture consists of a well-controlled microscopic defect shaped with photolithography on a smooth silicon wafer. Different regimes are observed, depending on the distance between the defect and the impact point and the defect size. Comparing the lamella thickness versus the defect height proves relevant as the transition criteria between regimes. Others characteristics of the drop behavior (direction of satellite droplet ejection, lamella rupture) are also well captured by inertial/capillary models. Drop impacts on multiple defects are also investigated and drop shape well predicted considering the interactions between the local flow and the defects.

  17. Texture investigation by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the conventional angle dispersive neutron diffraction a monochromatic neutron beam is used. The pole figures under investigation have to be scanned one after another. The commonly applied angle dispersive method is limited to the consideration of Bragg reflection being isolated in the diffraction pattern. The application of multidetectors or position sensitive detectors is discussed. In the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) diffraction a white pulsed neutron beam allows one to satisfy the Bragg law for all lattice spacing at a fixed scattering angle. The main charateristics of the TOF diffraction experiment are shortly outlined. In this method all non-forbidden Bragg reflections are recorded in one pattern simultaneously. The TOF technique is well-suited to study low symmetric or multiphased specimens, especially geological materials, requiring a large number of pole figures for mathematical texture analysis. Multidetector systems can be used to shorten the necessary time for experiments. The registration of all Bragg reflections of fixed scattering geometry is equivalent to the information of the inverse pole figure for the corresponding sample position. Having short exposition times this approach can be applied for in-situ investigations. The magnetic moments of neutrons can be used to study magnetic anisotropies in materials. Two different techniques are discussed

  18. Low Ice Adhesion on Nano-Textured Superhydrophobic Surfaces under Supersaturated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengaluru Subramanyam, Srinivas; Kondrashov, Vitaliy; Rühe, Jürgen; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2016-05-25

    Ice adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces can significantly increase in humid environments because of frost nucleation within the textures. Here, we studied frost formation and ice adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces with various surface morphologies using direct microscale imaging combined with macroscale adhesion tests. Whereas ice adhesion increases on microtextured surfaces, a 15-fold decrease is observed on nanotextured surfaces. This reduction is because of the inhibition of frost formation within the nanofeatures and the stabilization of vapor pockets. Such "Cassie ice"-promoting textures can be used in the design of anti-icing surfaces.

  19. SMAPVEX12 Soil Texture Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of soil texture classification data derived from field surveys as part of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012...

  20. Neutron diffraction texture analysis for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brokmeier, H.G.

    1994-01-01

    Considering the high transmission of neutron radiation, neutron diffraction is an efficient tool for the analysis of various material parameters of bulk material in a non-destructive way. Industrial application of texture analysis by X-ray diffraction is well established, whereas neutron diffraction applications are seldom. Thus a brief description explains the main differences between X-ray and neutron diffraction regarding texture measurements such as the investigation of coarse-grained materials, of large sample volumes and of multi-phase materials. The investigation of average textures of large sample volumes allows directly a correlation to material properties (e.g. Young's modulus, electric conductivity, plastic deformability, strength), which were determined on a workpiece. Examples will be given to show some applications of neutron diffraction texture analysis for technological interests. (orig.)

  1. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  2. A parametric texture model based on deep convolutional features closely matches texture appearance for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Thomas S A; Funke, Christina M; Ecker, Alexander S; Gatys, Leon A; Wichmann, Felix A; Bethge, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is full of texture-"stuff" like cloth, bark, or gravel as distinct from "things" like dresses, trees, or paths-and humans are adept at perceiving subtle variations in material properties. To investigate image features important for texture perception, we psychophysically compare a recent parametric model of texture appearance (convolutional neural network [CNN] model) that uses the features encoded by a deep CNN (VGG-19) with two other models: the venerable Portilla and Simoncelli model and an extension of the CNN model in which the power spectrum is additionally matched. Observers discriminated model-generated textures from original natural textures in a spatial three-alternative oddity paradigm under two viewing conditions: when test patches were briefly presented to the near-periphery ("parafoveal") and when observers were able to make eye movements to all three patches ("inspection"). Under parafoveal viewing, observers were unable to discriminate 10 of 12 original images from CNN model images, and remarkably, the simpler Portilla and Simoncelli model performed slightly better than the CNN model (11 textures). Under foveal inspection, matching CNN features captured appearance substantially better than the Portilla and Simoncelli model (nine compared to four textures), and including the power spectrum improved appearance matching for two of the three remaining textures. None of the models we test here could produce indiscriminable images for one of the 12 textures under the inspection condition. While deep CNN (VGG-19) features can often be used to synthesize textures that humans cannot discriminate from natural textures, there is currently no uniformly best model for all textures and viewing conditions.

  3. Viable textures for the fermion sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, A E Cárcamo; Varzielas, I de Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Fukuyama–Nishiura texture and compare it to the precision quark flavour data, finding that it fits the data very well but at the cost of accidental cancelations between parameters. We then propose different viable textures for quarks, where only the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down sector, and extend to the charged leptons while constructing a complementary neutrino structure that leads to viable lepton masses and mixing. (paper)

  4. Combining fine texture and coarse color features for color texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Fan, Yangyu; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    Color texture classification plays an important role in computer vision applications because texture and color are two fundamental visual features. To classify the color texture via extracting discriminative color texture features in real time, we present an approach of combining the fine texture and coarse color features for color texture classification. First, the input image is transformed from RGB to HSV color space to separate texture and color information. Second, the scale-selective completed local binary count (CLBC) algorithm is introduced to extract the fine texture feature from the V component in HSV color space. Third, both H and S components are quantized at an optimal coarse level. Furthermore, the joint histogram of H and S components is calculated, which is considered as the coarse color feature. Finally, the fine texture and coarse color features are combined as the final descriptor and the nearest subspace classifier is used for classification. Experimental results on CUReT, KTH-TIPS, and New-BarkTex databases demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art classification performance. Moreover, the proposed method is fast enough for real-time applications.

  5. Texture memory and strain-texture mapping in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, B.; Majumdar, B. S.; Dutta, I.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report on the near-reversible strain hysteresis during thermal cycling of a polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy at a constant stress that is below the yield strength of the martensite. In situ neutron diffraction experiments are used to demonstrate that the strain hysteresis occurs due to a texture memory effect, where the martensite develops a texture when it is cooled under load from the austenite phase and is thereafter ''remembered.'' Further, the authors quantitatively relate the texture to the strain by developing a calculated strain-texture map or pole figure for the martensite phase, and indicate its applicability in other martensitic transformations

  6. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

  7. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  8. Texture transition in experimentally deformed quartzite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-04-01

    Quartz crystallographic preferred orientations (textures), most commonly presented in the form of pole figures, are often used to infer deformation processes or conditions - despite the fact that we still do not understand fully how the different types of texture are generated. Here, we re-analyse experimentally deformed Black Hills Quartzite using EBSD maps. Samples were deformed in general shear in the dislocation creep regimes 1 to 3 at temperatures ranging from 875 to 915°C, constant shear strain rates of 1e-5/s (Heilbronner & Tullis, 2006), and resulting flow stresses of (600 MPa ≥ Tau ≥ 100 MPa). Already at low strain, a strong alignment of in the shear plane and of {10-11} with the maximum principal stress direction is observed. [0001] pole figures of recrystallized grains in regime 1 exhibit a peripheral maximum, roughly perpendicular to the shear plane while in regime 3 two elongated maxima are formed very close to the kinematic y-direction. Regime 2 shows a mixture of these two texture types. In regime 1, dynamic recrystallization is dominated by bulging recrystallization (nucleation of new grains), and in regime 3 by subgrain rotation recrystallization. In regime 2, again a mixture of regime 1 and 3 can be observed. Texture strength increases with the amount of crystal plastic deformation and is generally the lowest for the texture type with peripheral [0001]. During crystal plastic deformation [0001] rotate towards the kinematic y-direction. The coexistence and transition from one to the other texture type is suggested to result from two different texture-forming processes. The first process is thought to be crystal plasticity by glide on various slip systems and associated rotation of the crystal lattice, with the attractor of [0001] close to - but not exactly parallel to - the kinematic y-direction. The second process is suggested to be the growth of oriented grains during bulging recrystallization and associated (fracturing and) grain boundary

  9. Effect of textured insoles on postural control during static upright posture following lower limb muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Francesco; Nardi, Alessandra; Tancredi, Virginia; Caronti, Alfio; Scalia Tomba, Gianpaolo; Lebone, Pietro; Padua, Elvira; Annino, Giuseppe

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of textured insoles on static upright posture before and after lower limb muscle fatigue. Textured insoles used contained small and non-deformable pebbles of various sizes that are able to stimulate a major number of mechanoreceptors. It was inserted inside footwear. Ten healthy young adults participated in the study (mean age 26.1 ± 3.07 years). They were asked to stand on a force platform in four sensory states: vision, no vision, with and without natural plantar stimulation. For each sensory state the subjects underwent a single 30-second trial in pre-fatigue and post-fatigue conditions. Muscle fatigue was induced by 60 seconds of continuous jumping. Centre of Pressure displacement, sway velocity, antero-posterior and medio- lateral sway velocity were measured using force platform. Textured insoles had a stabilizing effect on balance compared to control insoles. Textured insoles significantly reduced CoPDISP and VA/P levels in closed eyes pre-fatigue condition. Post-fatigue all postural parameters improved in both vision and no vision conditions. Textured insoles with rigid stimulation significantly improved CoPDISP, independently of vision, supplying relevant and complete sensory information and improving balance in fatigue conditions.

  10. In situ texture analysis under applied load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brokmeier, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    The in-situ measurement of a crystallographic texture is a special type of a non-destructive measurement, which need special equipments. Due to the high photon flux and the excellent brilliance high energetic synchrotron radiations are a fantastic tool particular in fast experimentation. Moreover, a high penetration power allows the investigation of standard tensile sample of the DIN-norm. A loading device with a power up to 20 kN was installed at the hard wiggler beamline BW5 (HASYLAB-DESY) to perform in-situ strain and in-situ texture analysis. Using 100keV X-rays one gets short wavelength so that a 2D image-plate detector offers a wide range of diffraction pattern within the first 10 degree in 2 theta. Thermal neutron is another radiation with a high penetration power, which is the standard method for global texture analysis of bulk samples. As an example rectangular extruded Mg- Az31 was investigated by an in-situ. tensile experiment. Samples with 0 degree, 45 degree and 90 degree to the extrusion direction were cut. In-situ strain studies show the lattice dependent strains perpendicular and parallel to the loading direction. Moreover, in hexagonal Mg-Az31 a strong influence of the initial texture on the tensile behavior can be explained by the combination of texture simulation with in-situ measurements. (author)

  11. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hunt-Schmidt, Emily; Simsek, Senay; Hall, Clifford; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-09-01

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.

  12. A New Servo Control Drive for Electro Discharge Texturing System Industrial Applications Using Ultrasonic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new ultrasonic servo control drive for electro discharge texturing system industrial applications. The new drive is aiming to overcome the current teething issues of the existing electro discharge texturing system, servo control drive level of precision, processing stability, dynamic response and surface profile of the machined products. The new ultrasonic servo control drive consists of three main apparatuses, an ultrasonic motor, electronic driver and control unit. The ultrasonic motor consists of three main parts, the stator, rotor and sliding element. The motor design process, basic configuration, principles of motion, finite element analysis and experimental examination of the main characteristics is discussed in this paper. The electronic driver of the motor consists of two main stages which are the booster and piezoelectric amplifier. The experimental test and validation of the developed servo control drive in electro discharge texturing platform is also discussed and presented in this paper. The initial results showed that the ultrasonic servo control drive is able to provide: a bidirectional of motion, a resolution of <50μm and a dynamic response of <10msec. The electron microscopic micro examination into the textured samples showed that: a clear improvement in machining stability, products surface profile, a notable reduction in the processing time, arcing and short-circuiting teething phenomena.

  13. Texture and deformation mechanism of yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamesku, R.A.; Grebenkin, S.V.; Stepanenko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray pole figure analysis was applied to study texture and deformation mechanism in pure and commercial polycrystalline yttrium on cold working. It was found that in cast yttrium the texture manifected itself weakly enough both for pure and commercial metal. Analysis of the data obtained made it possible to assert that cold deformation of pure yttrium in the initial stage occurred mainly by slip the role of which decreased at strains higher than 36%. The texture of heavily deformed commercial yttrium contained two components, these were an 'ideal' basic orientation and an axial one with the angle of inclination about 20 deg. Twinning mechanism was revealed to be also possible in commercial yttrium

  14. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  15. A Noise Robust Statistical Texture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the problem of obtaining a low dimensional representation of texture (pixel intensity) variation present in a training set after alignment using a Generalised Procrustes analysis.We extend the conventional analysis of training textures in the Active...... Appearance Models segmentation framework. This is accomplished by augmenting the model with an estimate of the covariance of the noise present in the training data. This results in a more compact model maximising the signal-to-noise ratio, thus favouring subspaces rich on signal, but low on noise....... Differences in the methods are illustrated on a set of left cardiac ventricles obtained using magnetic resonance imaging....

  16. Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2001-03-01

    We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. CNN based texture synthesize with Semantic segment

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xianye; Zhuo, Bocheng; Li, Peijie; He, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning algorithm display powerful ability in Computer Vision area, in recent year, the CNN has been applied to solve problems in the subarea of Image-generating, which has been widely applied in areas such as photo editing, image design, computer animation, real-time rendering for large scale of scenes and for visual effects in movies. However in the texture synthesize procedure. The state-of-art CNN can not capture the spatial location of texture in image, lead to significant distorti...

  20. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    development of significant texture components with {1 1 1} approximately parallel to the rolling plane. (4) The deformation pattern during the later stages of the development of the brass-type texture is normally dominated by shear banding. (5) Copper–manganese alloys with more than 5% manganese develop...... results from a preliminary attempt to introduce the composite pattern in a complex model. We also suggest that more advanced models (like n-site models) are applied to the shear banding stage. As to the fundamental physical process governing the fcc rolling texture transition we quote recent...

  1. Wetting transitions on textured hydrophilic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, C; Okumura, K

    2008-04-01

    We consider the quasi-static energy of a drop on a textured hydrophilic surface, with taking the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) into account. We demonstrate how energy varies as the contact state changes from the Cassie state (in which air is trapped at the drop bottom) to the Wenzel state (in which liquid fills the texture at the drop bottom) assuming that the latter state nucleates from the center of the drop bottom. When the textured substrate is hydrophilic enough to allow spontaneous penetration of liquid film of the texture thickness, the present theory asserts that the drop develops into an experimentally observed state in which a drop looks like an egg fried without flipped over (sunny-side up) with a well-defined radius of "the egg yolk." Otherwise, the final contact state of the drop becomes like a Wenzel state, but with the contact circle smaller than the original Wenzel state due to the CAH. We provide simple analytical estimations for the yolk radius of the "sunny-side-up" state and for the final radius of the contact circle of the pseudo-Wenzel state.

  2. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition remains an interesting but challenging computer vision open problem. Poor illumination is considered as one of the major issue, since illumination changes cause large variation in the facial features. To resolve this, illumination normalization preprocessing techniques are employed in this paper to enhance the face recognition rate. The methods such as Histogram Equalization (HE, Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC, Normalization chain and Modified Homomorphic Filtering (MHF are used for preprocessing. Owing to great success, the texture features are commonly used for face recognition. But these features are severely affected by lighting changes. Hence texture based models Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs are experimented under different lighting conditions. In this paper, illumination invariant face recognition technique is developed based on the fusion of illumination preprocessing with local texture descriptors. The performance has been evaluated using YALE B and CMU-PIE databases containing more than 1500 images. The results demonstrate that MHF based normalization gives significant improvement in recognition rate for the face images with large illumination conditions.

  3. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry of...

  4. Physicochemical and textural properties of kombucha fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of kombucha application cultivated on two different tea types in combination with probiotics for milk fermentation at different temperatures, as well as the physicochemical and textural properties of manufactured fermented milk products were investigated. Combination of probiotic starter culture and kombucha ...

  5. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduc- tion tensor in anisotropic media. This implies that there exists two principal friction coefficients μ1,2 analogous to the principal conductivities k1,2. For symmetrically textured surfaces the principal directions are orthogonal with atleast one ...

  6. Combinatorial design of textured mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-07-28

    The structural complexity of metamaterials is limitless, but, in practice, most designs comprise periodic architectures that lead to materials with spatially homogeneous features. More advanced applications in soft robotics, prosthetics and wearable technology involve spatially textured mechanical functionality, which requires aperiodic architectures. However, a naive implementation of such structural complexity invariably leads to geometrical frustration (whereby local constraints cannot be satisfied everywhere), which prevents coherent operation and impedes functionality. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy for the design of aperiodic, yet frustration-free, mechanical metamaterials that exhibit spatially textured functionalities. We implement this strategy using cubic building blocks-voxels-that deform anisotropically, a local stacking rule that allows cooperative shape changes by guaranteeing that deformed building blocks fit together as in a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle, and three-dimensional printing. These aperiodic metamaterials exhibit long-range holographic order, whereby the two-dimensional pixelated surface texture dictates the three-dimensional interior voxel arrangement. They also act as programmable shape-shifters, morphing into spatially complex, but predictable and designable, shapes when uniaxially compressed. Finally, their mechanical response to compression by a textured surface reveals their ability to perform sensing and pattern analysis. Combinatorial design thus opens up a new avenue towards mechanical metamaterials with unusual order and machine-like functionalities.

  7. Multidimensional Texture Analysis for Unsupervised Pattern Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouche, K.; Postaire, J.-G.

    2008-01-01

    After a series of adaptations of classical image processing tools to cluster analysis such as thresholding, edge detection, relaxation, Markov field models and mathematical morphology, this chapter shows how texture analysis concepts can be introduced in the field of pattern classification. A general-purpose clustering procedure has been presented,

  8. Rheological and textural properties of cosmetic emulsions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Tereza; Štern, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), č. článku 35200. ISSN 1430-6395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : cosmetic emulsions * rheology * texture * sensory analysis * psychorheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  9. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John

    2009-01-01

    -out of the captured scene will also change. At large viewing distances, the sky occupies a large region in the image and buildings, trees and lawns appear as uniformly colored regions. The following questions are addressed: How much of the visual appearance in terms of geometry and texture of an image can...

  10. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  11. Development of a texture averaged Reynolds equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, A. de; Ostayen, R.A.J. van; Rixen, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of textured bearing surfaces results in a more complex lubricant flow pattern compared to smooth bearing surfaces. In order to capture the more complex flow pattern and possible inertia effects in the vicinity of the surface pockets, the NavierStokes equations should be used to model

  12. Mathematical modelling of dropwise condensation on textured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The minimum drop radius is insensitive to surface texturing and does not provide controllability at larger length and timescales. A closer examination of droplet distribution over the substrate reveals that small drops are locations of high heat transfer rates, which diminishes with increasing drop radius. The largest drop ...

  13. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special orientation (grains) than random occur, thus accounting for the texture. In the OG model, it has been argued that the specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random ...

  14. Textural characterization of coals using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahamud, Manuel; Lopez, Oscar [Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus de El Cristo, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Pis, Jose Juan; Pajares, Jesus Alberto [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (C.S.I.C.), Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-05-15

    The aim of this study is to show how fractal analysis can be effectively used to characterize the texture of porous solids. The materials under study were series of coals oxidized in air at various temperatures for different time intervals. Data from mercury porosimetry determinations of samples was analyzed using fractal models. The methods employed were those proposed by Neimark, Friesen and Mikula and that developed by Zhang and Li. Some methods are able to supply a fractal profile or 'fractal fingerprint' of materials, i.e. ranges of pore sizes with different fractal dimensions are detected. These fractal profiles are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment. The average fractal dimension can also be used as a valid parameter to monitor the textural evolution of the coals as the treatment progresses, as this behaves in a similar way to other textural parameters. The use of fractal analysis in conjunction with the results of classical characterization methods leads to a better understanding of textural modifications in the processing of materials.

  15. Textural characterization of chars using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahamud, Manuel; Lopez, Oscar [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Campus de El Cristo, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Pis, Jose Juan; Pajares, Jesus Alberto [Instituto Nacional del Carbon C.S.I.C., Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-11-25

    The aim of this study is to explore the potential of fractal analysis in helping to understand the textural changes of materials during the manufacture of active carbons. Textural characterization of the chars is carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the phenomena underlying char formation. The materials selected for study were a series of chars obtained from coals oxidized in air at various temperatures for different periods of time. The data from mercury porosimetry were analyzed using fractal models. The average fractal dimensions for the chars were calculated by using the methods proposed by Friesen and Mikula and that of Zhang and Li. Fractal profiles of the chars obtained by the method of Neimark were compared with the corresponding fractal profiles of the precursor coals. Pore development during carbonization depends-among other factors that are kept constant in this study-on the textural properties of the precursor coal, the devolatilization process and the plastic properties of coals. The evolution of the fractal characteristics of the chars is also studied. At the same time pore volume development is analyzed. These analyses help to clarify the role that various phenomena occurring during carbonization have on the textural properties of the chars.

  16. Some Numerical Characteristics of Image Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Samarina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Texture classification is one of the basic images processing tasks. In this paper we present some numerical characteristics to the images analysis and processing. It can be used at the solving of images classification problems, their recognition, problems of remote sounding, biomedical images analysis, geological researches.

  17. Prague texture segmentation data generator and benchmark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 64 (2006), s. 67-68 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400750407; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image segmentation * texture * benchmark * web Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  18. Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins A.

    2016-12-07

    In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.

  19. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in

  20. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendyk, Derek G; Ferré, Ty P A; Thorp, Kelly R; Rice, Amy K

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth's surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  1. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G Groenendyk

    Full Text Available Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth's surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization

  2. Effects of pavement surface texture on noise and frictional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    An experimental modification of the transverse groove : surface texture of a section of an urban interstate highway was : performed by the Iowa Department of Transportation. Transverse : groove texturing is a design feature required by the Federal : ...

  3. Stabilization of Self-Assembled Alumina Mesophases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; Perdriau, Sebastien; ten Brink, Gert; Kooi, Bart J.; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An efficient route to stabilize alumina mesophases derived from evaporation-induced self-assembly is reported after investigating various aspects in-depth: influence of the solvent (EtOH, s-BuOH, and t-BuOH) on the textural and structural properties of the mesophases based on aluminum

  4. Texture Analysis Using Rényi’s Generalized Entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  5. A dynamical system approach to texel identification in regular textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.; Loncaric, S; Neri, A; Babic, H

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The experimental

  6. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  7. Brightness perception in low resolution images of 3d textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Siteur, J.

    1996-01-01

    A first step towards the analysis of the appearance of 3 dimensional textures is presented in this paper. It is assumed that the scale of the texture is small relative to the resolution of the camera. Therefore, the texture itself is not distinguishable.However, the perceived brightness of the

  8. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  9. Line Laser and Triple Laser Quantification of the Difference in International Roughness Index between Textured and Non-Textured Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces non representative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. ...

  10. The influence of gamma irradiation on texture, color and viscosity properties of potato starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2015-01-01

    Food choices, while influenced by taste and nutritional value, have also symbolic enjoyment meanings. The texture, appearance, and flavor are important acceptability factors for any meal component. In our every day enjoyment of eating, texture is often as important as flavor. Starch is the most important source of carbohydrate in human nutrition and is widely used in many applications throughout the food industry. As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas. Potato starch is extracted from the root tubers of the potato plant. Radiation processing can be applied on foods for different purposes. It can also produce some modifications that are important to know. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of gamma irradiation on texture, color and viscosity of potato starch. Starch samples were irradiated in a 60 Co source Gammacell 220 with doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The results obtained showed that texture became inversely proportional to the applied radiation dose. Increasing doses promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L was not significantly affected. On the other hand, the viscosity of potato starch aqueous preparations decreased with the radiation dose, attributable to some degradation of starch molecules. (author)

  11. The influence of gamma irradiation on texture, color and viscosity properties of potato starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: brunasaporito@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Food choices, while influenced by taste and nutritional value, have also symbolic enjoyment meanings. The texture, appearance, and flavor are important acceptability factors for any meal component. In our every day enjoyment of eating, texture is often as important as flavor. Starch is the most important source of carbohydrate in human nutrition and is widely used in many applications throughout the food industry. As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas. Potato starch is extracted from the root tubers of the potato plant. Radiation processing can be applied on foods for different purposes. It can also produce some modifications that are important to know. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of gamma irradiation on texture, color and viscosity of potato starch. Starch samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 with doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The results obtained showed that texture became inversely proportional to the applied radiation dose. Increasing doses promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L was not significantly affected. On the other hand, the viscosity of potato starch aqueous preparations decreased with the radiation dose, attributable to some degradation of starch molecules. (author)

  12. Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudquist, P.; Buivydas, M.; Komitov, L.; Lagerwall, S. T.

    1994-12-01

    The linear electro-optic effect in short-pitch chloresterics is based on the linear coupling of the medium with an applied electric field. It has a number of remarkable properties. The electric field causes the optic axis to tilt in a plane parallel to the surfaces of the cell glass plates, giving the same symmetry as the electro-optic effects in the smectic C* phase (surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals and deformed helix mode) and the smectic A* phase (soft mode/electroclinic effect). For shutters and displays this guarantees a very wide viewing angle. The induced tilt is a linear function of the applied field, at least for small fields, which gives a well-controlled continuous grey scale. Furthermore, it is practically independent of temperature. Response times of the order of 100 micrometers are easily achievable. The most interesting development in this effect would be to extend the linear regime to much larger tilt angles, in particular to 22.5 deg, where light could be modulated from 100% to zero transmission. In order to do this the perturbation from the quadratic dielectric coupling has to be ruled out or minimized, which requires materials with essentially zero dielectric anisotorpy. This has been done, and it has been found that the bare flexoelectric-induced tilt has a surprising range of linearity: The linear response in tilt could be followed up to about 30 deg after which the high electric field caused breakdown. The response time is typically about 100 micrometers and below.

  13. Phosphorus leaching in a soil textural gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2009-01-01

    Texture is a major factor influencing mobilization and transport of P in soil owing partly to differences in adsorptive properties, and partly to differences in pore-size distribution and pore organization. Slurry application strategies may be important mitigation measures for reducing agricultural...... in soils with matrix dominated flow behaviour We tested these hypotheses on three textural soil classes (Olsen-P 1.6 mg P 100 g-1) on intact soil columns (20*20 cm) and compared them to in situ P leaching before slurry application. In a loamy sand P leaching with both slurry application techniques slightly...... exceeded the in situ leaching. However, the two application techniques did not vary significantly. In a sandy and a clay loam preferential flow paths within the soil columns caused high P leaching when slurry was applied at the soil surface. The effect increased with increasing clay content. Injection...

  14. Soil texture reclassification by an ensemble model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisty, Milan; Hlavcova, Kamila

    2015-04-01

    Many environmental problems in which soil data serves as an inputs to simulation models are not restricted to national boundaries and therefore require international cooperation if solutions are to be found. The classification of soils according to their texture is one of the basic methods used for soil description. The term "soil texture" indicates the distribution of soil particles in the soil according to their size (diameter). The most preferred representation of texture classification is a grading curve. Because not all countries use the same classification system, databases from these countries cannot provide us with uniform data, which can serve as the inputs for various computations or models. This study deals with a description of a texture system reclassification to USDA classification system by the proposed model on a data set from Slovakia originally labeled by Slovakian national classification system. However, the authors of the paper suppose that the methodology proposed could be used more generally and that the information provided is also applicable when dealing with other existing soil texture classification systems. Some researchers have already proposed to fit the measured PSDs by various continuous parametric grading curves. When gaining such a relationship, it is possible to obtain a granular fraction's percentage ratio in the sample under consideration for any size of the particle diameter, which means that it is possible to get the values necessary for accomplishing a translation from one texture classification system to another. Several authors have conducted comparative studies on various PSD models in order to determine the best model for the soil groups selected for their studies (Nemes et al., 1999; Hwang, 2004; Botula et al., 2013). The reported findings of the abovementioned works somewhat differ from each other, and there is no generally suitable PSD model available. Because the transformation of a soil texture system is usually only

  15. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  16. Probabilistic Discrete Mixtures Colour Texture Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, č. 5197 (2008), s. 675-682 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition /13./. Havana, 09.092008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1594; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Discrete distribution mixtures * EM algorithm * texture modeling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/haindl-havlicek-grim-probabilistic%20discrete%20mixtures%20colour%20texture%20models.pdf

  17. Topological image texture analysis for quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Aras T.; Rashid, Rasber Dh.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2017-05-01

    Image quality is a major factor influencing pattern recognition accuracy and help detect image tampering for forensics. We are concerned with investigating topological image texture analysis techniques to assess different type of degradation. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) as a texture feature descriptor. For any image construct simplicial complexes for selected groups of uniform LBP bins and calculate persistent homology invariants (e.g. number of connected components). We investigated image quality discriminating characteristics of these simplicial complexes by computing these models for a large dataset of face images that are affected by the presence of shadows as a result of variation in illumination conditions. Our tests demonstrate that for specific uniform LBP patterns, the number of connected component not only distinguish between different levels of shadow effects but also help detect the infected regions as well.

  18. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  19. Texture-based analysis of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a fully automatic, data-driven approach for texture-based quantitative analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in pulmonary computed tomography (CT) images. The approach uses supervised learning where the class labels are, in contrast to previous work, based...... on measured lung function instead of on manually annotated regions of interest (ROIs). A quantitative measure of COPD is obtained by fusing COPD probabilities computed in ROIs within the lung fields where the individual ROI probabilities are computed using a k nearest neighbor (kNN ) classifier. The distance...... and subsequently applied to classify 200 independent images from the same screening trial. The texture-based measure was significantly better at discriminating between subjects with and without COPD than were the two most common quantitative measures of COPD in the literature, which are based on density...

  20. Composite biaxially textured substrates using ultrasonic consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Craig A; Goyal, Amit

    2013-04-23

    A method of forming a composite sheet includes disposing an untextured metal or alloy first sheet in contact with a second sheet in an aligned opposing position; bonding the first sheet to the second sheet by applying an oscillating ultrasonic force to at least one of the first sheet and the second sheet to form an untextured intermediate composite sheet; and annealing the untextured intermediate composite sheet at a temperature lower than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the second sheet and higher than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the first sheet to convert the untextured first sheet into a cube textured sheet, wherein the cube texture is characterized by a .phi.-scan having a FWHM of no more than 15.degree. in all directions, the second sheet remaining untextured, to form a composite sheet.

  1. Efficient rolling texture predictions and texture-sensitive thermomechanical properties of α-uranium foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Klein, Robert W.; Calhoun, Christopher A.; Knezevic, Marko; Garlea, Elena; Agnew, Sean R.

    2017-11-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis was used to simulate the strain history of an α-uranium foil during cold straight-rolling, with the sheet modeled as an isotropic elastoplastic continuum. The resulting strain history was then used as input for a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity model to simulate crystallographic texture evolution. Mid-plane textures predicted via the combined FE→VPSC approach show alignment of the (010) poles along the rolling direction (RD), and the (001) poles along the normal direction (ND) with a symmetric splitting along RD. The surface texture is similar to that of the mid-plane, but with a shear-induced asymmetry that favors one of the RD split features of the (001) pole figure. Both the mid-plane and surface textures predicted by the FE→VPSC approach agree with published experimental results for cold straight-rolled α-uranium plates, as well as predictions made by a more computationally intensive full-field crystal plasticity based finite element model. α-uranium foils produced by cold-rolling must typically undergo a recrystallization anneal to restore ductility prior to their final application, resulting in significant texture evolution from the cold-rolled plate deformation texture. Using the texture measured from a foil in the final recrystallized state, coefficients of thermal expansion and the elastic stiffness tensors were calculated using a thermo-elastic self-consistent model, and the anisotropic yield loci and flow curves along the RD, TD, and ND were predicted using the VPSC code.

  2. Texture analyses of Sauropod dinosaur bones from Tendaguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.R.; Sander, P.M.; Hansen, A.; Ferreyro, R.; Yi, S.-B.; Stempniewicz, M.; Brokmeier, H.-G.

    2006-01-01

    The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly -fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large

  3. Exploring Sound-Motion Textures in drum set performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godøy, Rolf Inge; song, minho; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    A musical texture, be that of an ensemble or of a solo in- strumentalist, may be perceived as combinations of both simultaneous and sequential sound events. However, we believe that also sensations of the corresponding sound- producing events (e.g. hitting, stroking, bowing, blowing) contribute...... to our perceptions of musical textures. Musical textures could thus be understood as multimodal, with features of both sound and motion, hence the idea here of sound-motion textures in music. The study of such multi- modal sound-motion textures will necessitate collecting and analyzing data of both...

  4. Influence of texture on the physical properties of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penelle, R.; Baudin, T.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of crystallographic texture characterization by the means of X-ray or neutron diffraction statistical techniques are reviewed, and examples of their application to the study of the effects of texture on the properties of materials are presented: texture of magnetic steels, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, elasticity anisotropy and Young's modulus, plastic anisotropy (textural hardening), residual stresses. Neutron diffraction allows for the continuous monitoring of the recrystallization texture generation kinetics during in-situ annealing or for the follow-up of phase transformations. Backscattered electron diffraction allows for the quantification of the spatial distribution of grain and grain joint orientations and thus microstructure reconstruction

  5. Texture analyses of Sauropod dinosaur bones from Tendaguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyzalla, A.R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria) and MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail: pyzalla@mpie.de; Sander, P.M. [University of Bonn, Institute of Palaeontology, Nusseallee, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hansen, A. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ferreyro, R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Yi, S.-B. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Brokmeier, H.-G. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-11-10

    The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly <0 0 0 1>-fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large.

  6. Texture modelling by discrete distribution mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3-4 (2003), s. 603-615 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0030; GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : discrete distribution mixtures * EM algorithm * texture modelling Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 0.711, year: 2003

  7. Colour texture segmentation using modelling approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3687, č. - (2005), s. 484-491 ISSN 0302-9743. [International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition /3./. Bath, 22.08.2005-25.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : colour texture segmentation * image models * segmentation benchmark Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  8. Dynamic texture as foreground and background

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chetverikov, D.; Fazekas, S.; Haindl, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2011), s. 741-750 ISSN 0932-8092 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Dynamic texture * Optical flow * SVD Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.009, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/RO/haindl-0345450.pdf

  9. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  10. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored.

  11. Crystallographic texture and mechanical anisotropy of zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal-closed-packed metals are inherently anisotropic, and deformation during processing leads to the development of preferred orientation or texture in the finished product. Tube Reduced Extrusions (TREXs) are an intermediate product in the production of zircaloy canning tubes for nuclear reactors. The objective of this research has been to study the mechanical anisotropy which has a direct relation to the formability of Zircaloy TREXs. Anisotropy parameters (R and P) in the modified Hills equation were investigated. The use of the impression test for measuring R and P under different annealing temperatures, test temperatures and strain rates, and the grid-analysis technique for measuring R and P gradients through the TREX thickness are demonstrated. The mechanical-test results are compared with the predictions of the Bishop-Hill model using the quantitative orientation distribution function. There is a good agreement between the model prediction and the mechanical-test data. The value of R was found to be insensitive to the strain rate, test temperature, annealing temperature, and texture gradient. The value of P was found to increase with the annealing temperature within the recrystallization range and to be relatively insensitive elsewhere, to decrease with increasing test temperature and to be considerable sensitive to texture gradient

  12. Calculation of skid resistance from texture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ueckermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of routine skid resistance measurement devices on the market. All of them are measuring the friction force between a rubber wheel and the wetted road surface. Common to all of them is that they are relatively complex and costly because generally a truck carrying a large water tank is needed to wet the surface with a defined water layer. Because of the limited amount of water they can carry they are limited in range. Besides that the measurement is depending on factors like water film thickness, temperature, measurement speed, rubber aging, rubber wear and even road evenness and curviness. All of these factors will affect the skid resistance and are difficult to control. We present a concept of contactless skid resistance measurement which is based on optical texture measurement and consists of two components: measurement of the pavement texture by means of an optical measuring system and calculation of the skid resistance based on the measured texture by means of a rubber friction model. The basic assumptions underlying the theoretical approach and the model itself based on the theory of Persson are presented. The concept is applied to a laboratory device called Wehner/Schulze (W/S machine to prove the theoretical approach. The results are very promising. A strong indication could be provided that skid resistance could be measured without contact in the future.

  13. Modelling Thermal Diffusivity of Differently Textured Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiashchenko, K. I.; Arkhangelskaya, T. A.

    2018-02-01

    A series of models has been proposed for estimating thermal diffusivity of soils at different water contents. Models have been trained on 49 soil samples with the texture range from sands to silty clays. The bulk density of the studied soils varied from 0.86 to 1.82 g/cm3; the organic carbon was between 0.05 and 6.49%; the physical clay ranged from 1 to 76%. The thermal diffusivity of undisturbed soil cores measured by the unsteady-state method varied from 0.78×10-7 m2/s for silty clay at the water content of 0.142 cm3/cm3 to 10.09 × 10-7 m2/s for sand at the water content of 0.138 cm3/cm3. Each experimental curve was described by the four-parameter function proposed earlier. Pedotransfer functions were then developed to estimate the parameters of the thermal diffusivity vs. water content function from data on soil texture, bulk density, and organic carbon. Models were tested on 32 samples not included in the training set. The root mean square errors of the best-performing models were 17-38%. The models using texture data performed better than the model using only data on soil bulk density and organic carbon.

  14. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.

  15. Analysis of partially textured slider and journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. V. V. L. N.; Rani, A. M. A.; Nagarajan, T.; Hashim, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    The partial texturing of bearing surfaces with different shapes of textures and at different locations is an effective approach to improve the performance of bearings. The present study examines the effects of texture configuration on improvement in load capacity and reduction in friction coefficient for slider and journal bearing. This work presents nondimensional pressure expressions for the partially textured slider and journal bearing. The nondimensional pressure expressions are derived taking into consideration of texture geometry and extent of partial texture on the bearing surface. The Reynolds boundary conditions are used in the analysis to predict nondimensional load capacity and coefficient of friction. Even for nominally parallel surfaces, partial texturing of bearing surfaces has a potential to generate load carrying capacity and reduce coefficient of friction.

  16. Scale-Space Mutual Information for Textural-Patterns Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seedahmed, Gamal H.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-08-22

    The essence of image texture is typically understood by two aspects. First, within a texture-pattern there is a significant variation in intensity values between nearby pixels. Second, texture is a homogeneous property at some spatial scale larger than the spatial resolution of the image. Motivated by the essential aspects of image texture, this paper proposes a novel methodology that combines the use of scale-space and mutual information to characterize textural-patterns. Scale-space offers the mechanism for a multi-scale representation of the image, which will be used to address the scale aspect of texture. On the other hand, mutual information provides a measure to quantify the dependency relationship across the scale-space. It has been found that the proposed methodology has the potential to capture different properties of texture such as periodicity, scale, fineness, coarseness, and spatial extent or size. Practical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.

  17. A Novel Texture Classification Procedure by using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jaba Sheela

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Texture can be defined as a local statistical pattern of texture primitives in observer’s domain of interest. Texture classification aims to assign texture labels to unknown textures, according to training samples and classification rules. Association rules have been used in various applications during the past decades. Association rules capture both structural and statistical information, and automatically identify the structures that occur most frequently and relationships that have significant discriminative power. So, association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in textures. This paper describes the usage of association rules for texture classification problem. The performed experimental studies show the effectiveness of the association rules. The overall success rate is about 98%.

  18. Automatic Texture Optimization for 3D Urban Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ming

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of texture optimization in 3D city reconstruction by using multi-lens oblique images, the paper presents a method of seamless texture model reconstruction. At first, it corrects the radiation information of images by camera response functions and image dark channel. Then, according to the corresponding relevance between terrain triangular mesh surface model to image, implements occlusion detection by sparse triangulation method, and establishes the triangles' texture list of visible. Finally, combines with triangles' topology relationship in 3D triangular mesh surface model and means and variances of image, constructs a graph-cuts-based texture optimization algorithm under the framework of MRF(Markov random filed, to solve the discrete label problem of texture optimization selection and clustering, ensures the consistency of the adjacent triangles in texture mapping, achieves the seamless texture reconstruction of city. The experimental results verify the validity and superiority of our proposed method.

  19. Chemical characterization, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Antonela CURTI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quinoa can be used as a functional ingredient in food formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on proximate composition, stability during storage, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour at 1, 3 and 5 g 100 mL-1. A product without supplementation was used as control. Products were assessed for moisture, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, total dietary fibre (TDF, ashes and minerals. The pH, acidity and syneresis of yogurts were measured after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage and a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA was carried out. Applying hedonic scale, 102 consumers analyzed the overall acceptability, color, texture, flavor and aroma of yogurts. Supplemented products showed significant higher protein, carbohydrate and fat contents. Hardness and adhesiveness showed a negative association whereas a positive one was found between springiness and cohesiveness. Yogurt is not necessarily the adequate matrix for hauling quinoa compounds since the addition of greater amounts of 1 g 100 mL-1 quinoa flour had undesirable effects on gel stability (syneresis and increases in total acidity and consumer acceptability.

  20. Effects of alkali on protein polymerization and textural characteristics of textured wheat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-01-15

    The impact of alkali addition on the degree of gluten polymerization and textural characteristics of textured wheat protein was investigated. Results showed that the extrusion process increased the average molecular weight of gluten as evidenced by SDS-PAGE and SDS extractable protein. The addition of alkali not only promoted the degree of gluten polymerization, but also induced dehydroalanine-derived cross-linking. Alkali addition decreased the content of cystine and increased the contents of dehydroalanine and lanthionine. The obvious decrease of free SH showed that dehydroalanine-derived cross-linking was quantitatively less crucial than disulfide cross-linking. Furthermore, the protein cross-linking induced by alkali improved the texture properties of gluten extrudates. SEM analysis showed extrusion under alkaline condition conferred a more fibrous microstructure as a consequence of a compact gluten network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of long-term stimulation of textured insoles on postural control in health elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, Giuseppe; Palazzo, Francesco; Alwardat, Mohammad S; Manzi, Vincenzo; Lebone, Pietro; Tancredi, Virginia; Sinibaldi Salimei, Paola; Caronti, Alfio; Panzarino, Michele; Padua, Elvira

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the effects of long term (chronic) stimulating surface (textured insole) on body balance of elderly people. Twenty-four healthy elderly individuals were randomly distributed in two groups: control and experimental (67.75±6.04 years, 74.55±12.14 kg, 163.7±8.55 cm, 27.75±3.04 kg/m2). Over one month, control group (CG) used smooth insoles and the experimental group (ExG) used textured insoles every day. Velocity net (Vnet), anteroposterior (VA/P), mediolateral (VM/L) and sway path of CoP were assessed in different eye conditions before and after the experimental procedure. A mixed between-within subject ANOVA was conducted to assess the impact of soft and textured insoles and two visual conditions (vision vs. no vision) across two time periods (α≤0.05). The results showed any statistical difference between groups in each parameter assessed in this study. CoP, Vnet and VM/L in the experimental group showed a statistically significant effect of textured insoles only without vision (CoP: P=0.002; η2=0.35), Vnet P=0.02; η2=0.24, VM/L P=0.04; η2=0.177) whereas VA/P showed no statistically significant effect in the same group and condition. There was no significant effect in Vnet, VA/P, VM/L and COP in control group that used smooth insole for both eye conditions. The results confirm that postural stability improved in healthy elderly individuals, increasing somatosensory information's from feet plantar mechanoreceptors. Long term stimulation with textured insoles decreased CoP, Vnet and VM/L with eyes closed.

  2. Texture evolution in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel tubes during pilgering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhitova, E.; Sornin, D.; Barcelo, F.; François, M.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are foreseen as fuel cladding material in the coming generation of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). Cladding tubes are manufactured by hot extrusion and subsequent cold forming steps. In this study, a 9 wt% Cr ODS steel exhibiting α-γ phase transformation at high temperature is cold formed under industrial conditions with a large section reduction in two pilgering steps. The influence of pilgering process parameters and intermediate heat treatment on the microstructure evolution is studied experimentally using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Pilgered samples show elongated grains and a high texture formation with a preferential orientation along the rolling direction. During the heat treatment, grain morphology is recovered from elongated grains to almost equiaxed ones, while the well-known α-fiber texture presents an unexpected increase in intensity. The remarkable temperature stability of this fiber is attributed to a crystallographic structure memory effect during phase transformations.

  3. Experimental Analysis of Grease Friction Properties on Sliding Textured Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease lubricated sliding contact under mixed lubrication conditions. The influences of surface texture parameters on the frictional properties were investigated using a disc-on-ring tribometer. The results showed that the friction coefficient is largely dependent on texture parameters, with higher and lower texture density resulting in a higher friction coefficient at a fixed texture depth. The sample with texture density of 15% and texture depth of 19 μm exhibited the best friction properties in all experimental conditions because it can store more grease and trap wear debris. The reduction of friction is mainly attributable to the formation of a stable grease lubrication film composed of oil film, transfer film and deposited film, and the hydrodynamic pressure effect of the surface texture, which increases the mating gap and reduces the probability of asperity contact. This result will help in understanding the tribological behaviour of grease on a textured surface and in predicting the lubrication conditions of sliding bearings for better operation in any machinery.

  4. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Fu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5 Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19 and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21.

  5. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5; Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19; and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21

  6. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  7. Improvement of IBAD-MgO texturing for high throughput of buffered substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Matsuse, K.; Kuriki, R.; Tokumaru, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    2011-01-01

    The requirements from the market on two important factors of performance and cost need to be satisfied for commercialization of the coated conductors. Highly biaxially grain texturing with high production rate should be realized from the perspective of buffer layers processing. IBAD-MgO process is one of the major techniques which are possible to satisfy those requirements. The structure of our buffered substrate is IBS-GZO/IBAD-MgO/RFsputter-LaMnO 3 /PLD-CeO 2 . The PLD-CeO 2 process is the rate limiting and cost dominant one in this architecture. It is proposed that the self-texturing CeO 2 layer thickness could be reduced by optimization of the MgO processing due to higher MgO texturing and/or effective growth of self-texturing CeO 2 . Influence of the IBAD beam conditions and deposition time has been studied to optimize the IBAD conditions. Optimized IBAD conditions were decided from the viewpoints of in-plane grain texturing and the stability to obtain high texturing on fabrication. The Δφ value of CeO 2 layer was improved from 4-5 o to 3-3.5 o by the optimization. This buffered substrate gave high and uniform I c values of 524-565 A/cm-width for 50 m long GdBCO (1.5 μm) tape, indicating uniform distribution of Δφ(CeO 2 ). This improvement of Δφ(CeO 2 ) enables to reduce the CeO 2 thickness down to 300 nm without making Δφ(CeO 2 ) > 5 o , which improves CeO 2 throughput from 10 m/h to 30 m/h. A 50 m long patch sample showed more uniform Δφ distribution around 4 o even by high speed of 30 m/h as CeO 2 through-put. Highly and uniformly textured CeO 2 buffered substrate was obtained in 100 m long cost-effectively by optimization of IBAD-MgO processing.

  8. Texturing and modeling a procedural approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, David S

    1994-01-01

    Congratulations to Ken Perlin for his 1997 Technical Achievement Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science Board of Governors, given in recognition of the development of ""Turbulence"", Perlin Noise, a technique discussed in this book which is used to produce natural appearing textures on computer-generated surfaces for motion picture visual effects. Dr. Perlin joins Darwyn Peachey (co-developer of RenderMan(R), also discussed in the book) in being honored with this prestigious award.* * Written at a usable level by the developers of the techniques* Serves as a source book for

  9. Maya Studio Projects Texturing and Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create realistic digital assets for film and games with this project-based guide Focused entirely on practical projects, this hands-on guide shows you how to use Maya's texturing and lighting tools in real-world situations. Whether you need to sharpen your skills or you're looking to break into the field for the first time, you'll learn top industry techniques for this important skill as you follow the instructions for several specific projects. You can even create your own version, using final Maya scene files to validate results. The companion DVD includes supplemental videos, proje

  10. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x......-ray diffraction for both the substrate layer and the electrodeposits yielded experimental evidence for epitaxy between Cu and Au. An orientation relation between film and substrate was discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxy. While the conventional mode of epitaxy fails for the Cu...

  11. Performance of two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system under the combined influence of textured surface and couple stress lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Chandra B.; Sharma, Satish C.

    2018-02-01

    Textured surface in journal bearings is becoming an important area of investigation during the last few years. Surface textures have the shapes of micro-dimple with a small diameter and depth having order of magnitude of bearing clearance. This paper presents the influence of couple stress lubricant on the circular and non-circular hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system and reports the comparative study between the textured and non-textured circular/non-circular hybrid journal bearing system. The governing Reynolds equation has been modified for the couple stress lubricant flow in the clearance of bearing and journal. The FEM technique has been applied to solve the modified Reynolds equation together with restrictor flow equation. The numerically simulated results indicate that the influence of couple stress lubricant is significantly more in textured journal bearing than that of non-textured journal bearing. Further, it has been observed that the textured two-lobe (δ = 1.1) hybrid journal bearing lubricated with couple stress lubricant provides larger values of fluid film stiffness coefficients and stability threshold speed against other bearings studied in the present paper.

  12. Numerical study of the collapse of a global texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriola, Manuel

    1993-12-01

    We study the numerical solution to the full field equations describing the evolution of a spherically symmetric global texture. We concentrate on the evolution of the fields after the texture collapses. We compare this result with a previous analytical solution found by Turok and Spergel using the nonlinear σ model approximation. The energy produced in massive modes is of the order of 1016 GeV and is almost independent of the initial size of the texture.

  13. Texture development during recrystallization of aluminium containing large particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels; Humphreys, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The recrystallization process in heavily deformed commercially pure aluminium containing large intermetallic particles was studied by in situ neutron diffraction texture measurements and various microscopical techniques including texture measurements in local areas and simultaneous determination...... of orientations takes place close to larger particles or clusters of particles early in the recrystallization process. The texture of fully recrystallized material, however, contains only a relatively weak random component showing that the randomisation effect of the particles was limited. This was ascribed...

  14. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  15. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  16. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2014-04-01

    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One of the key tools used for texture segmentation is local invariant descriptors. Texture consists of textons, the basic building block of textures, that may vary by small nuisances like illumination variation, deformations, and noise. Local invariant descriptors are robust to these nuisances making them beneficial for texture segmentation. However, grouping dense descriptors directly for segmentation presents a problem: existing descriptors aggregate data from neighborhoods that may contain different textured regions, making descriptors from these neighborhoods difficult to group, leading to significant errors in segmentation. This work addresses this issue by proposing dense local descriptors, called Shape-Tailored Features, which are tailored to an arbitrarily shaped region, aggregating data only within the region of interest. Since the segmentation, i.e., the regions, are not known a-priori, we propose a joint problem for Shape-Tailored Features and the regions. We present a framework based on variational methods. Extensive experiments on a new large texture dataset, which we introduce, show that the joint approach with Shape-Tailored Features leads to better segmentations over the non-joint non Shape-Tailored approach, and the method out-performs existing state-of-the-art.

  18. Progress in bulk texture measurement using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Pingguang; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi; Harjo, Stefanus; Gong, Wu; Tomota, Yo; Ito, Takayoshi; Morii, Yukio; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Lutterotti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The current status of bulk texture measurements both using angle dispersive neutron diffraction and time-of-flight neutron diffraction at JAEA was briefly reviewed, then the effect of sample orientation coverage in the time-of-flight neutron diffraction on the reliability of reconstructed pole figure on the reliability of reconstructed pole figure was simply compared after the simultaneous Rietveld texture analysis. The similar texture results obtained at different orientation coverage levels suggests that it is possible to reduce the sample rotation times reasonably during the bulk texture measurement. (author)

  19. The Example of Texture Influence in Stress Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lychagina, T A

    2002-01-01

    Influence of texture on the stress-strain curves experimentally measured in the elastic region by neutron diffraction of an extruded Cu rod is shown. Texture information is obtained from the pole figures measured by neutron diffraction as well. Stress-strain curves are computed with elastic polycrystalline properties calculated with and without taking texture into account. Calculations of elastic polycrystalline properties with texture are carried out according to geometric mean model. The advantage of geometric mean averaging recently developed for diffraction elastic constant calculation is experimentally confirmed.

  20. Chemical composition and temperature influence on honey texture properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) influence on the honey texture parameters (hardness, viscosity, adhesion, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness). The honeys analyzed respect the European regulation in terms of moisture content and inverted sugar concentration. The texture parameters are influenced negatively by the moisture content, and positively by the °Brix concentration. The texture parameters modelling have been made using the artificial neural network and the polynomial model. The polynomial model predicted better the texture parameters than the artificial neural network.

  1. Extreme Compression and Modeling of Bidirectional Texture Function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2007), s. 1859-1865 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Rough texture * 3D texture * BTF * texture synthesis * texture modeling * data compression Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 3.579, year: 2007 http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2007.1139

  2. Frictional Performance Assessment of Cemented Carbide Surfaces Textured by Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, S.; Llanes, L.; Klein, S.; Gachot, C.; Rosenkranz, A.; Bähre, D.; Mücklich, F.

    2017-10-01

    Cemented carbides are advanced engineering materials often used in industry for manufacturing cutting tools or supporting parts in tribological system. In order to improve service life, special attention has been paid to change surface conditions by means of different methods, since surface modification can be beneficial to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces as well as to avoid unintended damage. Laser surface texturing is one of the newly developed surface modification methods. It has been successfully introduced to fabricate some basic patterns on cemented carbide surfaces. In this work, Direct Laser Interference Patterning Technique (DLIP) is implemented to produce special line-like patterns on a cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) based cemented tungsten carbide grade. It is proven that the laser-produced patterns have high geometrical precision and quality stability. Furthermore, tribology testing using a nano-tribometer unit shows that friction is reduced by the line-like patterns, as compared to the polished one, under both lubricated and dry testing regimes, and the reduction is more pronounced in the latter case.

  3. Video stabilization using space-time video completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, V.; Frantc, V.; Marchuk, V.; Shrayfel, I.; Gapon, N.; Agaian, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a video stabilization method using space-time video completion for effective static and dynamic textures reconstruction instead of frames cropping. The proposed method can produce full-frame videos by naturally filling in missing image parts by locally aligning image data of neighboring frames. We propose to use a set of descriptors that encapsulate the information of periodical motion of objects necessary to reconstruct missing/corrupted frames. The background is filled-in by extending spatial texture synthesis techniques using set of 3D patches. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the task of full-frame video stabilization.

  4. Aural analysis of image texture via cepstral filtering and sonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Martins, Antonio C. G.; Ruschioni, Ruggero A.

    1996-03-01

    Texture plays an important role in image analysis and understanding, with many applications in medical imaging and computer vision. However, analysis of texture by image processing is a rather difficult issue, with most techniques being oriented towards statistical analysis which may not have readily comprehensible perceptual correlates. We propose new methods for auditory display (AD) and sonification of (quasi-) periodic texture (where a basic texture element or `texton' is repeated over the image field) and random texture (which could be modeled as filtered or `spot' noise). Although the AD designed is not intended to be speech- like or musical, we draw analogies between the two types of texture mentioned above and voiced/unvoiced speech, and design a sonification algorithm which incorporates physical and perceptual concepts of texture and speech. More specifically, we present a method for AD of texture where the projections of the image at various angles (Radon transforms or integrals) are mapped to audible signals and played in sequence. In the case of random texture, the spectral envelopes of the projections are related to the filter spot characteristics, and convey the essential information for texture discrimination. In the case of periodic texture, the AD provides timber and pitch related to the texton and periodicity. In another procedure for sonification of periodic texture, we propose to first deconvolve the image using cepstral analysis to extract information about the texton and horizontal and vertical periodicities. The projections of individual textons at various angles are used to create a voiced-speech-like signal with each projection mapped to a basic wavelet, the horizontal period to pitch, and the vertical period to rhythm on a longer time scale. The sound pattern then consists of a serial, melody-like sonification of the patterns for each projection. We believe that our approaches provide the much-desired `natural' connection between the image

  5. Regional Changes in Earths Color and Texture as Observed From Space Over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Di Girolamo, Larry; Diner, David J.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Mueller, Kevin J.; Wu, Dong L.

    2016-01-01

    Earth-observing satellites provide global observations of many geophysical variables. As these variables are derived from measured radiances, the underlying radiance data are the most reliable sources of information for change detection. Here, we identify statistically significant trends in the color and spatial texture of the Earth as viewed from multiple directions from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), which has been sampling the angular distribution of scattered sunlight since 2000. Globally, our results show that the Earth has been appearing relatively bluer (up to 1.6 % per decade from both nadir and oblique views) and smoother (up to 1.5 % per decade only from oblique views) over the past 15 years. The magnitude of the global blueing trends is comparable to that of uncertainties in radiometric calibration stability. Regional shifts in color and texture, which are significantly larger than global means, are observed, particularly over polar regions, along the boundaries of the subtropical highs, the tropical western Pacific, Southwestern Asia, and Australia. We demonstrate that the large regional trends cannot be explained either by uncertainties in radiometric calibration or variability in total or spectral solar irradiance; hence, they reflect changes internal to the Earths climate system. The 15-year-mean true color composites and texture images of the Earth at both nadir and oblique views are also presented for the first time.

  6. M-HinTS: Mimicking Humans in Texture Sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Rogowitz, Bernice E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Kok, Thijs; Daly, Scott J.; Schouten, Theo E.

    2006-01-01

    Various texture analysis algorithms have been developed the last decades. However, no computational model has arisen that mimics human texture perception adequately. In 2000, Payne, Hepplewhite, and Stoneham and in 2005, Van Rikxoort, Van den Broek, and Schouten achieved mappings between humans and

  7. Fast color/texture segmentation for outdoor robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Agrawal, Motilal; Sundaresan, Aravind

    2008-01-01

    We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K-means...

  8. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  9. Stone -Cech compactifications of ditopological texture spaces | Ugur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then (S, S) is called a texture space. In this paper, a suitable evaluation difunction is defined and an approach for the construction of the Stone- Cech compactification of ditopological texture spaces is given. It is also shown that the Stone- Cech compactification of a topological space can be obtained using highly economic ...

  10. Synthesis of nano-textured biocompatible scaffolds from chicken eggshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Waseem; Ilyas, Azhar; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Wan Yuan; Iqbal, Samir M; Kim, Young-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion, morphology and growth are influenced by surface topography at nano and micrometer scales. Nano-textured surfaces are prepared using photolithography, plasma etching and long polymer chemical etching which are cost prohibitive and require specialized equipment. This article demonstrates a simple approach to synthesize nano-textured scaffolds from chicken eggshells. Varieties of pattern are made on the eggshells like micro-needle forests and nanopores, giving very uniform nano-textures to the surfaces. The surfaces are characterized for chemical composition and crystal phase. The novel patterns are transferred to PDMS surfaces and the nano-textured PDMS surfaces are used to study the effect of texturing on human fibroblast cell growth and attachment. The effects of surface topographies, along with laminin coating on cell cultures, are also studied. We find an exciting phenomenon that the initial seeding density of the fibroblast cells affects the influence of the nano-texturing on cell growth. These nano-textured surfaces give 16 times more fibroblast growth when compared to flat PDMS surfaces. The novel nano-textured patterns also double the laminin adsorption on PDMS. (paper)

  11. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although the Cassie–Baxter and Wenzel equations predict contact angles for relative dimensions of micro-pillars on textured surfaces, the absolute pillar dimensions are determined by trial and error. Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ...

  12. Quantitative comparison between simulated and experimental FCC rolling textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Leffers, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The degree of similarity between simulated and experimental fcc rolling textures is characterized by a single scalar parameter. The textures are simulated with a relatively simple and efficient 1-point model which allows us to vary the strength of the interaction between the grains and the surrou...

  13. Surface texturing of crystalline silicon and effective area measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tietun; Chen, Dong; Chui, Rongqiang

    2000-11-01

    In this paper, the surface area of solar cell is determined by the capacitance measurements of MOS structure. The texture etching technology can be controlled according to the change of silicon surface area, furthermore, the textured silicon surface and interface characteristic of solar cell can be studied by measuring the relationship of capacitance and voltage for MOS structure.

  14. Shape and Texture Based Classification of Fish Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    , and a few features including the eye and backbone contour were also annotated. From these annotations an optimal MDL curve correspondence and a subsequent image registration were derived. We have analyzed a series of shape and texture and combined shape and texture modes of variation for their ability...

  15. Instrumental textural perception of food and comparative biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is an important food quality attribute affecting consumer acceptance. Consumers characterize texture as either crispy or crunchy, and the moisture content and internal structure of the products are significant factors in its perception. Exposing an extruded corn snack (ECS), an extruded biod...

  16. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance.. Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging ...

  17. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  18. Texture Segmentation Based on Gabor Filters and Neutrosophic Graph Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Y.; Sengur, Abdulkadir; Yanhui, Guo

    2015-01-01

    Image segmentation is the first step of image processing and image analysis. Texture segmentation is a challenging task in image segmentation applications. Neutrosophy hasanaturalabilitytohandletheindeterminateinformation.In this work, we investigate the texture image segmentation based on Gabor filters (GFs) and neutrosophic graph cut (NGC).

  19. Highly textured Gd2Zr2O7 films grown on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates by solution deposition route: Growth, texture evolution, and microstructure dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Napari, M.

    2012-01-01

    or crystallization in the thicker films. This work not only demonstrates a route for producing textured Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layers with dense structure directly on technical substrates, but also provides some fundamental understandings related to chemical solution derived films grown on metallic substrates.......Growth, texture evolution and microstructure dependency of solution derived Gd2Zr2O7 films deposited on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates have been extensively studied. Influence of processing parameters, in particular annealing temperature and dwell time, as well as thickness effect on film texture...... the difference of interfacial energy along two directions in the anisotropic metallic substrate. Growth of Gd2Zr2O7 films displays an ultrafast kinetics under optimized conditions. Independency of sharp epitaxial (004) and polycrystalline (222) orientation is revealed from further synchrotron diffraction studies...

  20. Influence of texture on fracture toughness of zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, V.; Andersson, Stefan

    1997-06-01

    The correlation between texture and fracture toughness of Zircaloy 2 cladding has been investigated in connection with axial cracks in fuel rods. The texture of the cladding determines the anisotropy of plasticity of the cladding which, in turn, should influence the strain conditions at the crack-tip. Plastic strains in the cladding under uniaxial tension were characterised by means of the anisotropy constants F, G and H calculated according to Hill's theory. Test temperatures between 20 and 300 deg C do not influence the F, G and H values. Any significant effect of hydrogen (about 500 wtppm) on the anisotropy constants F, G and H has not been revealed at a test temperature of 300 deg C. The results, obtained for stress-relieved and recrystallized cladding with different texture, show an obvious influence of texture on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy cladding. A higher fracture toughness has been found for cladding with more radial texture

  1. Texture of YBCO/Ag PIT-tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Kulmala, T.; Raittila, J.

    2004-01-01

    with X-ray diffraction. A clear correlation between 1, and c-axis texture is found and even some evidence of ab-texturing in the very best tapes. Less texture is found when the middle of the filament is exposed by cutting the tape. This suggests that multifilament tapes with smaller filament cross......YBCO/Ag tapes prepared using nanosized YBCO powder are currently the best powder-in-tube YBCO tapes with their I-c = 5.02 A and J(c) = 3300 A/cm(2) in self-field and at 77 K. The texture of these tapes was studied by removing the silver with mercury and then measuring the texture of the surface...

  2. SHAPE FROM TEXTURE USING LOCALLY SCALED POINT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Didden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape from texture refers to the extraction of 3D information from 2D images with irregular texture. This paper introduces a statistical framework to learn shape from texture where convex texture elements in a 2D image are represented through a point process. In a first step, the 2D image is preprocessed to generate a probability map corresponding to an estimate of the unnormalized intensity of the latent point process underlying the texture elements. The latent point process is subsequently inferred from the probability map in a non-parametric, model free manner. Finally, the 3D information is extracted from the point pattern by applying a locally scaled point process model where the local scaling function represents the deformation caused by the projection of a 3D surface onto a 2D image.

  3. Phosphorous gettering in acidic textured multicrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables. Poligono Industrial de Granadilla s/n, 38600 San Isidro-Granadilla de Abona, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Rinio, M.; Borchert, D. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Guerrero-Lemus, R. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Catedra Focus-Abengoa, Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The influence of phosphorus gettering is studied in this work applied to an acidic textured multicrystalline silicon substrate. The texturization was achieved with an HF/HNO{sub 3} solution leading to nanostructures on the silicon surface. It has been demonstrated in previous works that this textured surface decreases the reflectance on the solar cell and increases the surface area improving the photon collection and enhancing the short circuit current. The present study investigates the effect on the minority carrier lifetime of the phosphorous diffusion when it is carried out on this textured surface. The lifetime is measured by means microwave photoconductance decay and quasi steady state phototoconductance devices. The diffused textured wafers are used to fabricate solar cells and their electrical parameters are analyzed. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Fabrication of cube textured NiO seed layer for YBCO coated conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Shi, D.Q.; Park, C.; Song, K.J.; Ko, R.K.; Liu, H.Z.; Gu, H.W

    2004-10-01

    The cube textured NiO was formed on pure Ni tape using a simple approach of oxidizing the surface of the Ni tape for 3-20 min in air at 1130-1200 deg. C. The thickness of the NiO layer was about 1-5 {mu}m. X-ray diffraction (XRD) {theta}-2{theta} scan, {omega}-scan, {phi}-scan, and pole figure were employed to characterize the in-plane alignment and cube texture of NiO film, and they showed that the NiO film was cube textured. The integrated intensity ratio of NiO I(2 0 0)/{l_brace}I(2 0 0) + I(1 1 1){r_brace} was more than 99%, and the in-plane and out of plane full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the NiO buffer layer were 6.8 deg. and 6.6 deg., respectively. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a barrier layer and CeO{sub 2} as a cap one were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) layer was prepared on them by PLD as well. YBCO superconducting layer with critical temperature (T{sub c})>88 K and critical current density (J{sub c})>4x10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} (77 K, 0 T) has been obtained successfully on Ni tape with a textured NiO seed layer.

  5. AUTOMATIC TEXTURE RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D CITY MODEL FROM OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  6. Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  7. Fiber vs Rolling Texture: Stress State Dependence for Cold-Drawn Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, M. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepanov, S. I.; Demakov, S. L.; Loginov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, M. L.

    2018-02-01

    The texture of the cold-drawn copper wire was investigated along the radius using electron backscatter diffraction. The complex fiber texture of the central region of the wire was considered as the rolling texture consisting of a set of preferred orientations. The texture of the periphery region was revealed to be similar to the shear texture. The orientation-dependent properties of the wire were proven to be determined by the texture of the near-surface layers.

  8. Influence of deposition conditions and substrate morphology on the electrical properties of sputtered ZnO:Al grown on texture-etched glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Nicolas, E-mail: n.sommer@fz-juelich.de [IEK5 — Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Götzendörfer, Stefan [Berliner Glas Surface Technology, 89428 Syrgenstein (Germany); Köhler, Florian [IEK5 — Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Ziegner, Mirko [IEK2 — Werkstoffstruktur und -eigenschaften, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Hüpkes, Jürgen [IEK5 — Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    The focus of this work is the growth of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) on texture-etched glass substrates. We investigated the influence of sputter parameters, pressure and temperature on the charge carrier mobility of ZnO:Al films grown on different substrate textures. An optimized sputtering process was developed which led to charge carrier mobilities on textured substrates that are close to those on flat substrates. Based on X-ray diffraction measurements, we qualitatively explain the effect of different sputtering conditions. Furthermore, the ZnO:Al charge carrier mobility was related to the substrate morphology. ZnO:Al films on U-shaped surface morphologies showed significantly higher charge carrier mobilities than those on V-shaped structures. ZnO:Al damp heat stability and etching behavior provided evidence that the number of ZnO:Al growth disturbances on textured substrates can be reduced by adequate substrate morphology and sputtering conditions. - Highlights: • Growth of ZnO:Al on various texture-etched glass substrates • Reduced influence of growth disturbances using optimized sputtering conditions • Higher ZnO:Al charge carrier mobility on U-shaped than on V-shaped textures.

  9. Mechanical properties of ion-beam-textured surgical implant alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An electron-bombardment Hg ion thruster was used as an ion source to texture surfaces of materials used to make orthopedic and/or dental prostheses or implants. The materials textured include 316 stainless steel, titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, and cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten. To determine the effect of ion texturing on the ultimate strength and yield strength, stainless steel and Co-Cr-W alloy samples were tensile tested to failure. Three types of samples of both materials were tested. One type was ion-textured (the process also heats each sample to 300 C), another type was simply heated to 300 C in an oven, and the third type was untreated. Stress-strain diagrams, 0.2% offset yield strength data, total elongation data, and area reduction data are presented. Fatigue specimens of ion textured and untextured 316 stainless steel and Ti-6% Al-4% V were tested. Included as an ion textured sample is a Ti-6% Al-4% V sample which was ion machined by means of Ni screen mask so as to produce an array of 140 mu m x 140 mu m x 60 mu m deep pits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the ion textured surfaces.

  10. Contrast enhancement via texture region based histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.; Singh Walia, Gurjit; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two novel contrast enhancement approaches using texture regions-based histogram equalization (HE). In HE-based contrast enhancement methods, the enhanced image often contains undesirable artefacts because an excessive number of pixels in the non-textured areas heavily bias the histogram. The novel idea presented in this paper is to suppress the impact of pixels in non-textured areas and to exploit texture features for the computation of histogram in the process of HE. The first algorithm named as Dominant Orientation-based Texture Histogram Equalization (DOTHE), constructs the histogram of the image using only those image patches having dominant orientation. DOTHE categories image patches into smooth, dominant or non-dominant orientation patches by using the image variance and singular value decomposition algorithm and utilizes only dominant orientation patches in the process of HE. The second method termed as Edge-based Texture Histogram Equalization, calculates significant edges in the image and constructs the histogram using the grey levels present in the neighbourhood of edges. The cumulative density function of the histogram formed from texture features is mapped on the entire dynamic range of the input image to produce the contrast-enhanced image. Subjective as well as objective performance assessment of proposed methods is conducted and compared with other existing HE methods. The performance assessment in terms of visual quality, contrast improvement index, entropy and measure of enhancement reveals that the proposed methods outperform the existing HE methods.

  11. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  12. Seismic and Rockphysics Diagnostics of Multiscale Reservoir Textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-05-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing shale textures from scanning acoustic microscope images. Our analysis is now extended to over 280 images of shales, giving us better statistics. The shales cover a range of depths and maturity. We estimate different statistical measures for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. Characterizing and understanding the microgeometry, their textures, scales, and textural anisotropy is important for better understanding the role of microgeometry on effective elastic properties. We analyzed SAM images from Bakken shale, Bazhenov shale, and Woodford shale. We observed quantifiable and consistent patterns linking texture, shale maturity, and elastic P-wave impedance. The textural heterogeneity and P-wave impedance increase with increasing maturity (decreasing kerogen content), while there is a general decrease in textural anisotropy with maturity. We also found a reasonably good match between elastic impedance estimated from SAM images and impedance computed from ultrasonic measurements.

  13. Maximal zero textures in Linear and Inverse seesaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopam Sinha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate Linear and Inverse seesaw mechanisms with maximal zero textures of the constituent matrices subjected to the assumption of non-zero eigenvalues for the neutrino mass matrix mν and charged lepton mass matrix me. If we restrict to the minimally parametrized non-singular ‘me’ (i.e., with maximum number of zeros it gives rise to only 6 possible textures of me. Non-zero determinant of mν dictates six possible textures of the constituent matrices. We ask in this minimalistic approach, what phenomenologically allowed maximum zero textures are possible. It turns out that Inverse seesaw leads to 7 allowed two-zero textures while the Linear seesaw leads to only one. In Inverse seesaw, we show that 2 is the maximum number of independent zeros that can be inserted into μS to obtain all 7 viable two-zero textures of mν. On the other hand, in Linear seesaw mechanism, the minimal scheme allows maximum 5 zeros to be accommodated in ‘m’ so as to obtain viable effective neutrino mass matrices (mν. Interestingly, we find that our minimalistic approach in Inverse seesaw leads to a realization of all the phenomenologically allowed two-zero textures whereas in Linear seesaw only one such texture is viable. Next, our numerical analysis shows that none of the two-zero textures give rise to enough CP violation or significant δCP. Therefore, if δCP=π/2 is established, our minimalistic scheme may still be viable provided we allow larger number of parameters in ‘me’.

  14. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J

    2009-12-14

    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments.

  15. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  16. Method of Forming Textured Silicon Substrate by Maskless Cryogenic Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Homyk, Andrew P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a textured substrate comprising a base comprising silicon, the base having a plurality of needle like structures depending away from the base, wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a depth of greater than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined perpendicular to the base, and wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a width of less than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined parallel to the base. An anode and a lithium ion battery comprising the textured substrate, and a method of producing the textured substrate are also disclosed.

  17. Hydrophobic mismatch triggering texture defects in membrane gel domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J.; Brewer, J.R.; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2013-01-01

    a lipid-induced transition between vortex and uniform textures in binary phospholipid bilayers. By tuning the lipid composition, the hydrophobic mismatch at the domain boundary can be varied systematically as monitored by AFM. Low hydrophobic mismatch correlates with domains having uniform texture, while...... higher mismatch values correlate with a vortex-type texture. The defect pattern created during early growth persists in larger domains, and a minimal model incorporating the anisotropic line tension and the vortex energy can rationalize this finding. The results suggest that the lipid composition...

  18. Statistical Texture Model for mass Detection in Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Gallego-Ortiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of image processing algorithms for mass detection in mammography, texture is a key feature to be used to distinguish abnormal tissue from normal tissue. Recently, a texture model based on a multivariate Gaussian mixture was proposed, of which the parameters are learned in an unsupervised way from the pixel intensities of images. The model produces images that are probabilistic maps of texture normality and it was proposed as a visualization aid for diagnostic by clinical experts. In this paper, the usability of the model is studied for automatic mass detection. A segmentation strategy is proposed and evaluated using 79 mammography cases.

  19. FUSION OF WAVELET AND CURVELET COEFFICIENTS FOR GRAY TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santhanalakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a framework for gray texture classification based on the fusion of wavelet and curvelet features. The two main frequency domain transformations Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT are analyzed. The features are extracted from the DWT and DCT decomposed image separately and their performance is evaluated independently. Then feature fusion technique is applied to increase the classification accuracy of the proposed approach. Brodatz texture images are used for this study. The results show that, only two texture images D105 and D106 are misclassified by the fusion approach and 99.74% classification accuracy is obtained.

  20. On the texturization of monocrystalline silicon with sodium carbonate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo, B.; Gonzalez-Manas, M.; Martinez-Lopez, J.; Caballero, M.A. [Departamento de Cristalografia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The texturization of monocrystalline silicon wafers using sodium carbonate solution has been investigated. This etching process has been evaluated in terms of the surface morphology and the reflectance value. The results show that for low concentration of sodium carbonate the increase of texturing time decreases the reflectance value because of the change in morphology from hillocks to pyramidal; on the contrary for intermediate and high concentrations the increase of time has a detrimental effect on texturization because it increases both the pyramid sizes and their non-uniform distribution. However, a good cell performance could be obtained by etching at high concentrations and short times. (author)

  1. Selective Extraction of Entangled Textures via Adaptive PDE Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Texture and feature extraction is an important research area with a wide range of applications in science and technology. Selective extraction of entangled textures is a challenging task due to spatial entanglement, orientation mixing, and high-frequency overlapping. The partial differential equation (PDE transform is an efficient method for functional mode decomposition. The present work introduces adaptive PDE transform algorithm to appropriately threshold the statistical variance of the local variation of functional modes. The proposed adaptive PDE transform is applied to the selective extraction of entangled textures. Successful separations of human face, clothes, background, natural landscape, text, forest, camouflaged sniper and neuron skeletons have validated the proposed method.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured

  3. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  4. A psychophysically validated metric for bidirectional texture data reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Chantler, M.J.; Green, P.R.; Haindl, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2008), s. 138:1-138:11 ISSN 0730-0301 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bidirectional Texture Functions * texture compression Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/haindl-a psychophysically validated metric for bidirectional texture data reduction.pdf

  5. A Fourier-based textural feature extraction procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, W. D.; Farr, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is presented to discriminate and characterize regions of uniform image texture. The procedure utilizes textural features consisting of pixel-by-pixel estimates of the relative emphases of annular regions of the Fourier transform. The utility and derivation of the features are described through presentation of a theoretical justification of the concept followed by a heuristic extension to a real environment. Two examples are provided that validate the technique on synthetic images and demonstrate its applicability to the discrimination of geologic texture in a radar image of a tropical vegetated area.

  6. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  7. Bidirectional Texture Function Modeling: State of the Art Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2009), s. 1921-1940 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Grant - others:EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * surface texture * 3D texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/filip-bidirectional texture function modeling state of the art survey.pdf

  8. Physiochemical, texture properties, and the microstructure of set yogurt using whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate aggregates as thickening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Xie, Siyu; Yin, Yuan; Feng, Xianmin; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Mingruo; Ni, Chunlei

    2017-07-01

    Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in an acidic environment provided during fermentation. The variety of thickening agent has an influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharide stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate could be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set yogurt. The effects of whey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10 956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p Yogurt fermented with modified WPI-STPP had higher levels of protein and better hardness compared with yogurt using pectin. The microstructure was observed to be a uniform and denser, complicated network. Heat-treated WPI-STPP may be useful for improving yogurt texture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The role of textured material in supporting perceptual-motor functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orth

    Full Text Available Simple deformation of the skin surface with textured materials can improve human perceptual-motor performance. The implications of these findings are inexpensive, adaptable and easily integrated clothing, equipment and tools for improving perceptual-motor functionality. However, some clarification is needed because mixed results have been reported in the literature, highlighting positive, absent and/or negative effects of added texture on measures of perceptual-motor performance. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of textured materials for enhancing perceptual-motor functionality. The systematic review uncovered two variables suitable for sub-group analysis within and between studies: participant age (groupings were 18-51 years and 64.7-79.4 years and experimental task (upright balance and walking. Evaluation of studies that observed texture effects during upright balance tasks, uncovered two additional candidate sub-groups for future work: vision (eyes open and eyes closed and stability (stable and unstable. Meta-analysis (random effects revealed that young participants improve performance by a small to moderate amount in upright balance tasks with added texture (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.46-0.09, Z = 2.99, P = 0.001; Tau(2 = 0.02; Chi(2 = 9.87, df = 6, P = 0.13; I(2 = 39.22. Significant heterogeneity was found in, the overall effect of texture: Tau(2 = 0.13; Chi(2 = 130.71, df = 26, P<0.0001; I(2 = 85.98%, pooled samples in upright balance tasks: Tau(2 = 0.09; Chi(2 = 101.57, df = 13, P<0.001; I(2 = 72.67%, and in elderly in upright balance tasks: Tau(2 = 0.16; Chi(2 = 39.42, df = 5, P<0.001; I(2 = 83.05%. No effect was shown for walking tasks: Tau(2 = 0.00; Chi(2 = 3.45, df = 4, P = 0.27, I(2 = 22.99%. Data provides unequivocal support for utilizing textured materials in young healthy populations for improving

  10. Texture evolution in calcite gouge formed at sub-seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Piane, Claudio; Luzin, Vladimir; Timms, Nick E.; Ben Clennell, M.; Giwelli, Ausama

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate rocks are abundant in the upper crust and are notoriously seismogenic with Mw>6 earthquakes nucleating in fault zones in carbonate dominated units around the world. Field observations describe fault zones as characterised by a narrow principal slip zone at their core, containing fine, granular wear material referred to as fault gouge, produced during cumulative slip. The current literature on the link between texture and frictional properties of calcite gouges is very limited and somewhat contradictory: based on the study of a natural calcite gouge a link has been proposed between the presence of a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and past seismic activity on the gouge hosting fault zone. However, similar features in terms of CPO were also identified on gouges experimentally generated at slip velocities well below the seismic ones, therefore questioning their interpretation as diagnostic of past seismic events. We studied the evolution of friction coefficient and texture on calcite gouges experimentally produced by means of high pressure direct shear experiments on large, water saturated, intact blocks of travertine (calcite 99 % wt.). Several blocks were deformed at room temperature up to different amounts of maximum displacements (20 mm, 70 mm and 120 mm) under an imposed sub-seismic slip rate of approximately 0.1 microns/s. Microstructural characterization of the deformed blocks was subsequently carried out on samples representing the highest strained portion s of each blocks (i.e. gouge zones). Local and bulk texture of the original and deformed materials was studied by means of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and neutron diffraction, respectively. Direct shear experiments consistently indicate an evolution of the friction coefficient stabilizing at around values of 0.6 after 15 mm of slip. Macroscopic observations on the deformed blocks indicate that deformation is localised in a narrow band of extreme grain size reduction

  11. Evaluation of physical stability of oleogels containing diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to access their physical stability using different methodologies. The gels were stored at different temperatures (20 - 50 oC) over a period of six months. Appearance and textural properties were assessed each month. An accelerated test was also performed where the temperature changed between ...

  12. A method of measuring magnetic texture with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselrod, L.A.; Gordeev, G.P.; Lazebnick, J.M.; Lebedev, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    A new method of qualitative and quantitative magnetic texture investigation is described. The description of the equipment used and results of measurements on three different samples are presented. (Auth.)

  13. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available and ethnicity. Researchers have reported that iris texture features contain information that is inclined to human genetics and is highly discriminative between different eyes of different ethnicities. This work applies image processing and machine learning...

  14. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coussement & Van den. Poel 2008). It is robust against over fitting, handles large dataset, computationally efficient, and easy to implement. The effectiveness of the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques has been observed on the basis ...

  15. Surface Texturing of Polyimide Composite by Micro-Ultrasonic Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, N. S.; Zhang, T.; Chen, X. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, micro-dimples were prepared on a polyimide composite surface to obtain the dual benefits of polymer materials and surface texture. Micro-ultrasonic machining is employed for the first time for micro-dimple fabrication on polyimide composite surfaces. Surface textures of simple patterns were fabricated successfully with dimple depths of 150 μm, side lengths of 225-425 μm, and area ratios of 10-30%. The friction coefficient of the micro-dimple surfaces with side lengths of 325 or 425 μm could be increased by up to 100% of that of non-textured surfaces, alongside a significant enhancement of wear resistance. The results show that surface texturing of polyimide composite can be applied successfully to increase the friction coefficient and reduce wear, thereby contributing to a large output torque.

  16. Completed local ternary pattern for rotation invariant texture classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassem, Taha H; Khoo, Bee Ee

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP) and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC), have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP) drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter's weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP) scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  17. Oral texture perception in relation to rheology for mayonnaise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Linden, van der E.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sensory attributes of commercial mayonnaises have been correlated to rheological curves to obtain those measuring conditions that reflect the oral perception of specific (texture) attributes. Correlations are found mainly with data from flow curve measurements and from dynamic stress measurements

  18. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  19. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  20. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid ultrasound atherosclerosis measurements, including those of the arterial wall and plaque, provide a way to monitor patients at risk of vascular events. Our objective was to examine carotid ultrasound plaque texture measurements and the change in carotid plaque...... texture during 1 year in patients at risk of events and to compare these with measurements of plaque volume and other risk factors as predictors of vascular events. METHODS: We evaluated 298 patients with carotid atherosclerosis using 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound at baseline and after 1 year and measured...... carotid plaque volume and 376 measures of plaque texture. Patients were followed up to 5 years (median [range], 3.12 [0.77-4.66]) for myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, and stroke. Sparse Cox regression was used to select the most predictive plaque texture measurements in independent...

  1. Hyperspectral image classification based on volumetric texture and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Sheng, Yehua; Du, Peijun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Kui

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach using volumetric texture and reduced-spectral features is presented for hyperspectral image classification. Using this approach, the volumetric textural features were extracted by volumetric gray-level co-occurrence matrices (VGLCM). The spectral features were extracted by minimum estimated abundance covariance (MEAC) and linear prediction (LP)-based band selection, and a semi-supervised k-means (SKM) clustering method with deleting the worst cluster (SKMd) bandclustering algorithms. Moreover, four feature combination schemes were designed for hyperspectral image classification by using spectral and textural features. It has been proven that the proposed method using VGLCM outperforms the gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) method, and the experimental results indicate that the combination of spectral information with volumetric textural features leads to an improved classification performance in hyperspectral imagery.

  2. Neutron diffraction texture analysis of multi-phase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brokmeier, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron diffraction methods for texture analysis are closely parallel to well-known X-ray diffraction techniques. The chief advantage of neutron diffraction over X-ray diffraction, however, arises from the fact that the interaction of neutrons with matter is relatively weak, and consequently the penetration depth of neutrons is 10 2 -10 3 times larger than that of X-rays. Hence neutron diffraction is an efficient tool for measuring textures in multi-phase systems. Based on the high transmission of a neutron beam the effect of anisotropic absorption in multi-phase materials can be neglected in most cases. Moreover, the analysis of bulk textures becomes possible, such that textures in a wide variety of multi-phase systems can be studied which are of special interest in engineering and science (metals, alloys, composites, ceramics and geological specimens). (orig.)

  3. DNS of flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with small texture sizes, comparable to those of practical application. Textures studied with DNS are usually much larger, as the cost of the simulations would otherwise be prohibitive. For this reason, a multi-block code that allows for finer resolution near the walls has been developed. We focus particularly on the pressure distribution at the wall. This distribution can cause the deformation of the gas pockets, which can ultimately lead to their loss and that of the drag reduction effect. The layout of the texture causes stagnation pressures which can contribute substantially to the wall pressure signal (Seo et al. JFM, under review). We study a range of different textures and their influence on these pressures.

  4. ROLLING PROCESS WITH OHSAS AND TEXTURE FORMATION– A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CHANDRAMOHAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rolling is a mechanical treatment, which plays an important part in the processing of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Texturing is an important phenomenon that occurs after rolling process. Preferred orientation increases the strength of the material enormously. Hence the research is focused on the rolling studies and the texture formation, which occurs after rolling process. This review mainly focuses on rolling process carried out in different alloys. It also highlights the analysis made on various rolling parameters for improving the mechanical properties. Texture studies carried on various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; particularly in nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel is discussed. Finally the need for implementation of occupational health and safety during a thermomechanical treatment is also discussed. The state of art in this field is encouraging and showing positive signs of commercializing rolled nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel after proper texture control.

  5. Organization of texture segregation processing in primate visual cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; van Dijk, B.W.; Spekreijse, H.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated which cortical areas and layers are involved in global feature interactions underlying texture segregation in humans and monkeys. Visual stimulation was assessed with an electrostatic monitor, and scalp or intracortical recordings with electrodes were made. Signal processing and

  6. Efros and Freeman Image Quilting Algorithm for Texture Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Raad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exemplar-based texture synthesis is defined as the process of generating, from an input texture sample, new texture images that are perceptually equivalent to the input. Efros and Freeman's method is a non-parametric patch-based method which computes an output texture image by quilting together patches taken from the input sample. The main innovation of their work relies in the stitching technique which significantly reduces the transition effect between patches. In this paper, we propose a detailed analysis and implementation of their work. We provide a complete mathematical description of the linear programing problem used for the quilting step as well as implementation details. Additionally we propose a partially parallel version of the quilting technique.

  7. Showing shape with texture: two directions seem better than one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Hagh-Shenas, Haleh; Interrante, Victoria

    2003-06-01

    Studies have shown that observers' judgment of surface orientation and curvature is affected by the presence of surface texture pattern. However, the question of designing a texture pattern that does not hide the surace information nor does convey a misrepresentation of the surface remains unsolved. The answer to this question has important potential imapct across a wide range of visualization application. Molecular modeling and radiation therapy are among the many fields that are in need of accurately visualizing their data and could benefit from such methods. Over the past several years we have carried out a series of experiments to investigate the impact of various texture pattern characteristics on shape perception. In this paper we report the result of our most recent study. The task in this study was adjusting surface attitude probes under three different texture conditions and a control condition in which no texture was present. We later compare the performances of the subjects. The three texture conditions were: a doubly oriented texture in which approximately evenly spaced lines followed both of the principal directions, a singly oriented texture in which lines followed only the first principal direction, and a singly oriented line integral convolution. Over a series of 200 trials (4 texture conditions, 10 surface probe locations * five repeated measures) a total of five naive participants were asked to adjust a circular probe. The probes were randomly located on an arbitrary curved surface and its perpendicular extension appeared to be oriented in the direction of the surface normal. An analysis of the results showed that the performance was best in the two directional texture condition. Performances were further decreased in one directional and no texture conditions (in that order). The paper is organized as follows. In Section 1 we briefly describe the motivation for our work. In Section 2 we describe our experimental methods, including a brief summary

  8. New tools to investigate textures of pyroclastic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarocchi, Damiano [Instituto de GeologIa / Fac. IngenierIa UASLP, Dr. M. Nava No 5, Zona Universitaria 78240, San Luis PotosI (Mexico); Borselli, Lorenzo [Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); MacIas, Jose Luis [Departamento de VulcanologIa, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan 04510, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-10-01

    A pyroclastic flow deposit keeps a fingerprint of the physical processes that occurred in the flow during transport and settling. Part of this information is recorded in the texture of the deposit offering an instantaneous view of the flow prior to freezing. In this work we introduce some texture's analysis techniques, based on image analysis, that we have developed or tuned during the last years.

  9. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  10. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  11. Potential Performance Criteria for Combat Ration Packs - Texture Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    biscuit, apricot muesli bar, tropical muesli bar, forest fruits muesli bar, chocolate pudding, golden pudding and fruit pudding. • Dairy products ...were canned products with a semi-solid texture and were semi-moist product . Chocolate and golden puddings were self-saucing with a homogeneous matrix...TPA are discussed. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 3. Significant changes in texture were observed for golden and chocolate self-saucing puddings and

  12. Contact less Hand Recognition using shape and texture features

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Julien; Lepetit, Olivier; Revenu, Marinette

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The hand recognition in biometric security was developed successfully for authentication or identification. In this paper, we propose an original method of contact less biometric recognition combining information from color, texture and form. First of all, the segmentation integrates the skin color components and a form model. Then, the authentication process amalgamates by convolution the geometrical characteristics of the fingers and the texture of the analyzed palm....

  13. Texture classification and retrieval using shearlets and linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongsheng; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Ma, Jinwen; Pu, Jiexin

    2015-03-01

    Statistical modeling of wavelet subbands has frequently been used for image recognition and retrieval. However, traditional wavelets are unsuitable for use with images containing distributed discontinuities, such as edges. Shearlets are a newly developed extension of wavelets that are better suited to image characterization. Here, we propose novel texture classification and retrieval methods that model adjacent shearlet subband dependences using linear regression. For texture classification, we use two energy features to represent each shearlet subband in order to overcome the limitation that subband coefficients are complex numbers. Linear regression is used to model the features of adjacent subbands; the regression residuals are then used to define the distance from a test texture to a texture class. Texture retrieval consists of two processes: the first is based on statistics in contourlet domains, while the second is performed using a pseudo-feedback mechanism based on linear regression modeling of shearlet subband dependences. Comprehensive validation experiments performed on five large texture datasets reveal that the proposed classification and retrieval methods outperform the current state-of-the-art.

  14. SEISMIC AND ROCKPHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing microstructural constraints on seismic signatures. Our analysis is now extended to over 280 images of shales, giving us better statistics. The shales cover a range of depths and maturity. We estimate different statistical measures for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. Characterizing and understanding the microgeometry, their textures, scales, and textural anisotropy is important for better understanding the role of microgeometry on effective elastic properties. We analyzed SAM images from Bakken shale, Bazhenov shale, and Woodford shale. We observed quantifiable and consistent patterns linking texture, shale maturity, and elastic P-wave impedance. The textural heterogeneity and P-wave impedance increase with increasing maturity (decreasing kerogen content), while there is a general decrease in textural anisotropy with maturity. We also found a reasonably good match between elastic impedance estimated from SAM images and impedance computed from ultrasonic measurements.

  15. Friction Evaluation of Laser Textured Tool Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šugárová Jana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface textures can be defined as a regularly arranged micro-depressions or grooves with defined shape and dimensions. These textures, if they are manufactured by laser ablation process, contribute to a significant improvement of the tribological, optical or various biological properties. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the surface textures prepared by laser surface texturing (LST at the friction coefficient value measured on the tool (90MnCrV8 steel – workpiece (S235JRG1 steel interface. Planar frontal surfaces of compression platens have been covered by parabolic dimple-like depressions with different dimensions. The morphological analysis of such manufactured depressions has been performed by laser scanning microscopy. Influence of such created textures on the tribological properties of the contact pair has been analyzed by the ring compression test method in the terms of hydrodynamic lubrication regime. The experimental research shown that by applying of surface textures with defined shape and dimensions and using an appropriate liquid lubricant at the same time, the coefficient of contact friction can be reduced nearly to the half of its original value.

  16. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Norton, D.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 106 Rhines Hall, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: dnort@mse.ufl.edu; Selvamanickam, Venkat [IGC-SuperPower, LLC, 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature.

  17. Formation of biaxial texture in metal films by selective ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2006-01-01

    The formation of in-plane texture via ion bombardment of uniaxially textured metal films was investigated. In particular, selective grain Ar ion beam etching of uniaxially textured (0 0 1) Ni was used to achieve in-plane aligned Ni grains. Unlike conventional ion beam assisted deposition, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux. The initial uniaxial texture is established via surface energy minimization with no ion irradiation. Within this sequential texturing method, in-plane grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth. Biaxial texture was achieved for ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature

  18. Surface Texture and Optical Properties of Self-Adhering Composite Materials after Toothbrush Abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Caroline Veiga; Macedo, Elisa Maria; Souza, Karoline da Costa; Rego, Guilherme Ferreira; Schneider, Luis Felipe Jochims; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the surface texture and optical properties of two self-adhering composites and a nanofilled composite before and after toothbrush abrasion. Vertise Flow (Kerr), Fusio Liquid (Pentron Clinical) and Filtek Z350 XT (3M ESPE) composites were divided into 3 groups (n = 6). Disks of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thick were made. All materials were light-cured with a LED light source for 40 seconds. Analyses of surface roughness, gloss retention and color stability were performed 24 hours after light curing and after 20,000 brushing cycles. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Tukey's test ascertained that toothbrush abrasion resulted in rougher and matte surfaces for all composites tested. Filtek Z350 presented better gloss retention after abrasion. On surface roughness evaluation, there was no statistical difference between Fusio Liquid Dentin and Filtek Z350 resins (p > 0.05). Vertise Flow resin showed better color stability (ΔE), than the other two materials. Nanofilled material presented better gloss retention but it did not produce the best results in aspects related to surface roughness and color stability compared to self-adhering composites. A simulation of degradation process by using toothbrush abrasion produced a rougher and matte surface in all composites tested. The surface texture was not only related to filler's amount present in materials, but also with the organic matrix composition of them. The results suggested that the constant development of new materials, seeking for a technical simplification, seems an innovative attraction for dentist's clinical routine, even though larger studies are necessary to promote to everyone a better understanding and improvement of action and effectiveness of this new class of materials.

  19. MR image texture in Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Minna; Holli-Helenius, Kirsi K; Harrison, Lara C V; Ryymin, Pertti; Ruottinen, Hanna; Saunamäki, Tiia; Eskola, Hannu J; Elovaara, Irina; Dastidar, Prasun

    2015-01-01

    Few of the structural changes caused by Parkinson's disease (PD) are visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with visual inspection but there is a need for a method capable of observing the changes beyond the human eye. Texture analysis offers a technique that enables the quantification of the image gray-level patterns. To investigate the value of quantitative image texture analysis method in diagnosis and follow-up of PD patients. Twenty-six PD patients underwent MRI at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Four co-occurrence matrix-based texture parameters, describing the image homogeneity and complexity, were calculated within clinically interesting areas of the brain. In addition, correlations with clinical characteristics (Unified Parkinson's Disease Ranking Scales I-III and Mini-Mental State Examination score) along with a comparison to healthy controls were evaluated. Patients at baseline and healthy volunteers differed in their brain MR image textures mostly in the areas of substantia nigra pars compacta, dentate nucleus, and basilar pons. During the 2-year follow-up of the patients, textural differences appeared mainly in thalamus and corona radiata. Texture parameters in all the above mentioned areas were also found to be significantly related to clinical scores describing the severity of PD. Texture analysis offers a quantitative method for detecting structural changes in brain MR images. However, the protocol and repeatability of the method must be enhanced before possible clinical use. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Sensory and instrumental texture analysis of Bulgarian commercial pates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tonchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this study was to characterize the textural differences between Bulgarian commercial pates with different ingredients and to adapt the used methods for later application in texture analysis of sterilized meat products. Texture parameters were studied by sensory and instrumental methods. The sensory panel was stated from students in similar age and was asked to fulfill a questionnaire about their likening the poultry pates bought from the commercial network. Nine points sensory scales were used, about appearance, colour, spreadability by knife to bread, flavor, consistency, taste, aftertaste and overall likening. The panelists were asked to rank the pates based on their colour, spreadability and consistency. Instrumental texture parameters – texture profile and spreadability work, were analyzed by Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer in Texture Profile Analysis (TPA and compression methods. For further analysis of spreadability, the probes were scanned by flatbed scanner before and after compression and their area ratio was measured by image analysis method. The results of sensory analysis show that, the pate with duck meat received the highest liking based on the overall liking, followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the lowest liked was the pate with goose meat. Based on the sensory spreadability and consistency the hardest was the pate with goose meat followed by pate with turkey meat and pate from chicken meat and liver and the softest was the pate with duck meat. The results from instrumental spreadability and hardness showed positive correlations with the results of the sensory analysis.

  1. Wavelet transform analysis of chromatin texture changes during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbomel, G; Grichine, A; Fertin, A; Delon, A; Vourc'h, C; Souchier, C; Usson, Y

    2016-06-01

    Texture analysis can be a useful tool to investigate the organization of chromatin. Approaches based on multiscale analysis and in particular the 'à trou' wavelet analysis has already been used for microscopy (Olivo Marin). In order to analyse texture changes, the statistical properties of the wavelet coefficient images were summarized by the first four statistical orders: mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis of the coefficient image histogram. The 'à trou' transform provided a representation of the wavelet coefficients and texture parameters with the same statistical robustness throughout the scale spaces. It was applied for quantifying chromatin texture and heat-induced chromatin changes in living cells. We investigated the changes by both laser scanning and spinning disk confocal microscopies and compared the texture parameters before and after increasing duration of heat shock exposure (15 min, 30 min and 1 h). Furthermore, as activation of the heat shock response also correlates with a rapid localization of HSF1 within a few nuclear structures termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs), we compared the dynamics of nSBs formation with that of textural changes during 1 h of continuous heat shock. Next, we studied the recovery phase following a 1-h heat shock. Significant differences were observed, particularly affecting the perinucleolar region, even for the shortest heat shock time affecting mostly the skewness and standard deviation. Furthermore, progressive changes could be observed according to the duration of heat shock, mostly affecting fine details (pixel-wise changes) as revealed by the parameters, obtained from the first- and second-order wavelet coefficients. 'A trou' wavelet texture analysis provided a sensitive and efficient tool to investigate minute changes of chromatin. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Extraction of Homogeneous Fine-Grained Texture Segments in Visual Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golcev, A.; Gritsenko, V.; Húsek, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2017), s. 447-477 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : texture feature * texture window * homogeneous fine-grained texture segment * extraction of texture segment * texture segmentation * ”float” coding method Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  3. Electrohydrodynamic spinning of random-textured silver webs for electrodes embedded in flexible organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dai Geon; Chin, Byung Doo; Bail, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A convenient process for fabricating a transparent conducting electrode on a flexible substrate is essential for numerous low-cost optoelectronic devices, including organic solar cells (OSCs), touch sensors, and free-form lighting applications. Solution-processed metal-nanowire arrays are attractive due to their low sheet resistance and optical clarity. However, the limited conductance at wire junctions and the rough surface topology still need improvement. Here, we present a facile process of electrohydrodynamic spinning using a silver (Ag) - polymer composite paste with high viscosity. Unlike the metal-nanofiber web formed by conventional electrospinning, a relatively thick, but still invisible-to-naked eye, Ag-web random pattern was formed on a glass substrate. The process parameters such as the nozzle diameter, voltage, flow rate, standoff height, and nozzle-scanning speed, were systematically engineered. The formed random texture Ag webs were embedded in a flexible substrate by in-situ photo-polymerization, release from the glass substrate, and post-annealing. OSCs with a donor-acceptor polymeric heterojunction photoactive layer were prepared on the Ag-web-embedded flexible films with various Ag-web densities. The short-circuit current and the power conversion efficiency of an OSC with a Ag-web-embedded electrode were not as high as those of the control sample with an indium-tin-oxide electrode. However, the Ag-web textures embedded in the OSC served well as electrodes when bent (6-mm radius), showing a power conversion efficiency of 2.06% (2.72% for the flat OSC), and the electrical stability of the Ag-web-textured patterns was maintained for up to 1,000 cycles of bending.

  4. Novel texture-based descriptors for tool wear condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Aco; Popović, Branislav; Krstanović, Lidija; Obradović, Ratko; Milošević, Mijodrag

    2018-01-01

    All state-of-the-art tool condition monitoring systems (TCM) in the tool wear recognition task, especially those that use vibration sensors, heavily depend on the choice of descriptors containing information about the tool wear state which are extracted from the particular sensor signals. All other post-processing techniques do not manage to increase the recognition precision if those descriptors are not discriminative enough. In this work, we propose a tool wear monitoring strategy which relies on the novel texture based descriptors. We consider the module of the Short Term Discrete Fourier Transform (STDFT) spectra obtained from the particular vibration sensors signal utterance as the 2D textured image. This is done by identifying the time scale of STDFT as the first dimension, and the frequency scale as the second dimension of the particular textured image. The obtained textured image is then divided into particular 2D texture patches, covering a part of the frequency range of interest. After applying the appropriate filter bank, 2D textons are extracted for each predefined frequency band. By averaging in time, we extract from the textons for each band of interest the information regarding the Probability Density Function (PDF) in the form of lower order moments, thus obtaining robust tool wear state descriptors. We validate the proposed features by the experiments conducted on the real TCM system, obtaining the high recognition accuracy.

  5. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-08-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed.

  6. Texture synthesis models and material perception in the visual periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    The feature vocabularies used to support texture synthesis algorithms are increasingly being used to examine various aspects of human visual perception. These algorithms offer both a rich set of features that are typically sufficient to capture the appearance of complex natural inputs and a means of carrying out psychophysical experiments using synthetic textures as a proxy for the transformations ostensibly carried out by the visual system when processing natural images using summary statistics. Texture synthesis algorithms have recently been successfully applied to a wide range of visual tasks including texture perception, visual crowding, visual search, among others. Presently, we used both nonparametric and parametric texture synthesis models to investigate the nature of material perception in the visual periphery. We asked participants to classify images of four natural materials (metal, stone, water, and wood) when briefly presented in the visual periphery and compared the errors made under these viewing conditions to the errors made when judging the material category of synthetic images made from the original targets. We found that the confusions made under these two scenarios were substantially different, suggesting that these particular models do not appear to account for material perception in the periphery.

  7. Automatic inspection of textured surfaces by support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Sina; Bovik, Alan C.; Pérez, Eduardo; Nair, Dinesh

    2009-08-01

    Automatic inspection of manufactured products with natural looking textures is a challenging task. Products such as tiles, textile, leather, and lumber project image textures that cannot be modeled as periodic or otherwise regular; therefore, a stochastic modeling of local intensity distribution is required. An inspection system to replace human inspectors should be flexible in detecting flaws such as scratches, cracks, and stains occurring in various shapes and sizes that have never been seen before. A computer vision algorithm is proposed in this paper that extracts local statistical features from grey-level texture images decomposed with wavelet frames into subbands of various orientations and scales. The local features extracted are second order statistics derived from grey-level co-occurrence matrices. Subsequently, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained to learn a general description of normal texture from defect-free samples. This algorithm is implemented in LabVIEW and is capable of processing natural texture images in real-time.

  8. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha Carneiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammographic images into categories of breast density using an Artificial Neural Network. Methods We used 307 mammographic images from the INbreast digital database, extracting histogram features and texture descriptors of all mammograms and selecting them with the K-means technique. Then, these groups of selected features were used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Network to classify the images automatically into the four categories reported by radiologists. Results An average accuracy of 92.9% was obtained in a few tests using only some of the Haralick texture descriptors. Also, the accuracy rate increased to 98.95% when texture descriptors were mixed with some features based on a histogram. Conclusion Texture descriptors have proven to be better than gray levels features at differentiating the breast densities in mammographic images. From this paper, it was possible to automate the feature selection and the classification with acceptable error rates since the extraction of the features is suitable to the characteristics of the images involving the problem.

  9. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen M; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed. (paper)

  10. Public and Private Partnership: A Strategy to Repair Old Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Nakhaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Todays, due to high construction costs and lack of economic potential of owners of old textures, public and private partnership is one of the restoration methods of these textures. Public-private partnership in the investment and implementation of worn and old textures’ restoration with guidance, support and supervision of governmental and public pillars is considered as a master key in restoration of old textures. This study aims at examining the effect of public and private partnership on restoration of old textures as well as providing strategies for strengthening and expanding this type of partnership. This article, based on descriptive-analytical approach, initially analyzes the existing problems and empowers the sections related to the rehabilitation and modernization of the textures. Then, through public and private partnership dealing with features such as shortening project times, reducing the project's financial problems, having financial–technical power, adopting equal rights for partners, and using flexible planning. Further, according to the findings of this study, in the case of legal infrastructures for public-private partnership, compliance of urbanism criteria with major goals of urban textures’ modernization, adequacy of facilities and incentive packages, the cooperation of owners, an increase in the supervision of the relevant institutions on partnership and the use of local experts and investors, the success of this partnership and restoration may be stably guaranteed.

  11. Texture of uniaxial compressed two-phase titanium-aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermig, G.; Tobisch, J.; Brokmeier, H.G.; Wurzwallner, K.

    1993-01-01

    Texture is, among others, an essential parameter to document the different states of a polycrystalline material from production to application. Therefore, texture studies were carried out in γ-base titanium aluminide series, Ti-48at%Al and Ti-48at%Al-2at%Cr, in order to describe their microstructural changes during uniaxial compression. The fabrication of the material started by casting an ingot of the desired composition. After hot isostatic pressing (HIP) the specimens were deformed up to 77% with a compression rate of ∼ 10mm/s, X-ray diffraction and microscopical investigations confirm the expected two-phase material composition of tetragonal γ-Tial and hexagonal α 2 -Ti 3 Al respectively. The texture measurements were carried out by X-ray as well as by neutron diffraction. A comparison of both techniques is necessary in order to document that only a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction allows to obtain the whole texture information of all samples. Finally, the determined textures are discussed in correlation with deformation. (orig.)

  12. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  13. Wettability transition of laser textured brass surfaces inside different mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huangping; Abdul Rashid, Mohamed Raiz B.; Khew, Si Ying; Li, Fengping; Hong, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophobic surface on brass has attracted intensive attention owing to its importance in scientific research and practical applications. Laser texturing provides a simple and promising method to achieve it. Reducing wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity remains a challenge. Herein, wettability transition of brass surfaces with hybrid micro/nano-structures fabricated by laser texturing was investigated by immersing the samples inside different mediums. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were employed to characterize surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated surfaces of brass samples. Wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity was shortened by immersion into isopropyl alcohol for a period of 3 h as a result of the absorption and accumulation of organic substances on the textured brass surface. When the textured brass sample was immersed into sodium bicarbonate solution, flower-like structures on the sample surface played a key role in slowing down wettability transition. Moreover, it had the smallest steady state contact angle as compared to the others. This study provides a facile method to construct textured surfaces with tunable wetting behaviors and effectively extend the industrial applications of brass.

  14. Comparison between ASME and ISO standards on surface texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Jiang, Xiangqian; Liu, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhengao

    2006-11-01

    Surface texture is generally a significant technique requirement of high-tech products. Surface quality information can usually play an increasing role in achieving interoperability among existing products, create order in markets, simplify production and ensure safety. As the most authoritative standard organizations, ASME and ISO services are used throughout the world, their codes and standards influence global manufacturers and consumers. ASME B46.1 is one of many vital tools to promote surface measurement techniques, while ISO has a set standard system for surface measurement, analysis and evaluation. This paper compares the ASME B46.1 (2002) standard (Surface texture: surface roughness, waviness, and lay) with ISO 3274 (1997) standard on methods of surface profiles filtering. It preformed the present research in order to show the latest developments of the ASME B46.1 (2002) in the regime of contact profiling techniques where the degree of measurement control is highly advanced, and a large range of other techniques that present valid and useful descriptions of surface texture. Also, this paper shows the differences of terms, definitions and surface texture parameters between ASME B46.1 (2002) and ISO 4287 (1998). The different evaluation results have been calculated based on above two standards for the same surface data. Obviously, it is necessary to consider the divergence above to develop China's standards (GB) on surface texture.

  15. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad I. Sarsam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The pavement surface course should provide adequate levels of friction and ride quality and maintain low levels of noise and roughness. Many transportation departments perform routine skid resistant testing, the type of equipment used for testing varies depending on the preference of each transportation department. It was felt that modeling of the surface texture condition using different methods of testing may assist in solving such problem. In this work, Macro texture and Micro texture of asphalt and cement concrete pavement surface have been investigated in the field using four different methods (The Sand Patch Method, Outflow Time Method, British Pendulum Tester and Photogrammetry Technique. Two different grain sizes of sand have been utilized in conducting the Sand Patch while the Micro texture was investigated using the British Pendulum tester method at wet pavement surface conditions. The test results of the four methods were correlated to the skid number. It was concluded that such modeling could provide instant data in the field for pavement condition which may help in pavement maintenance management.

  16. Texture Feature Extraction and Classification for Iris Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Naimin

    Appling computer aided techniques in iris image processing, and combining occidental iridology with the traditional Chinese medicine is a challenging research area in digital image processing and artificial intelligence. This paper proposes an iridology model that consists the iris image pre-processing, texture feature analysis and disease classification. To the pre-processing, a 2-step iris localization approach is proposed; a 2-D Gabor filter based texture analysis and a texture fractal dimension estimation method are proposed for pathological feature extraction; and at last support vector machines are constructed to recognize 2 typical diseases such as the alimentary canal disease and the nerve system disease. Experimental results show that the proposed iridology diagnosis model is quite effective and promising for medical diagnosis and health surveillance for both hospital and public use.

  17. Predicting the Coupling Properties of Axially-Textured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Fuentes-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A description of methods and computer programs for the prediction of “coupling properties” in axially-textured polycrystals is presented. Starting data are the single-crystal properties, texture and stereography. The validity and proper protocols for applying the Voigt, Reuss and Hill approximations to estimate coupling properties effective values is analyzed. Working algorithms for predicting mentioned averages are given. Bunge’s symmetrized spherical harmonics expansion of orientation distribution functions, inverse pole figures and (single and polycrystals physical properties is applied in all stages of the proposed methodology. The established mathematical route has been systematized in a working computer program. The discussion of piezoelectricity in a representative textured ferro-piezoelectric ceramic illustrates the application of the proposed methodology. Polycrystal coupling properties, predicted by the suggested route, are fairly close to experimentally measured ones.

  18. Electromagnetic behavior of bulk textured YBaCuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, V.; Herrmann, P.F.; Agnoux, C.; Leriche, A.; Mautref, M.; Grivon, F.; Fevrier, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports electrical and magnetic results obtained on bulk YBaCuO samples manufactured by Melt Textured Growth process. These studies are important for the understanding of the limitation mechanisms of transport current. Resistive measurements on textured sample confirm the interest of these materials. Transport critical current densities in excess of 2.5 10 8 A/m 2 have been measured in a field of 2 T, at 77 K in oriented YBaCuO. The critical state concept for the calculation of internal flux profiles is used to model the magnetization behavior of textured materials. The authors compare magnetization measurements with theoretical curves for different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to crystallographic axes. This study allows to determine inductive critical current densities which are strongly influenced by the current path geometry. Then the authors compare these results to transport J ct values. Self field losses values are also presented

  19. Evaporation dynamics of completely wetting drops on geometrically textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhitarian, Loucine; Sobac, Benjamin; Dehaeck, Sam; Haut, Benoît; Colinet, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    This study deals with the evaporation dynamics of completely wetting and highly volatile drops deposited on geometrically textured but chemically homogeneous surfaces. The texturation consists in a cylindrical pillars array with a square pitch. The triple line dynamics and the drop shape are characterized by an interferometric method. A parametric study is realized by varying the radius and the height of the pillars (at fixed interpillar distance), allowing to distinguish three types of dynamics: i) an evaporation-dominated regime with a receding triple line; ii) a spreading-dominated regime with an initially advancing triple line; iii) a cross-over region with strong pinning effects. The overall picture is in qualitative agreement with a mathematical model showing that the selected regime mostly depends on the value of a dimensionless parameter comparing the time scales for evaporation and spreading into the substrate texture.

  20. Soil Texture Aanalysis by Laser Diffraction – Standardisation Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, Marjo; Kjoenaas, O. Janne

    2017-01-01

    -sized fraction results obtained by laser diffraction analysis of fine-textured soil samples are not comparable to those obtained with sedimentation and sieving methods, when translating to the traditional particle size limits clay, silt and sand. Also, operating procedures for pretreatment of soil samples...... translated into a texture class using defined separates of clay (0 - 2 µm), silt (2 µm to 20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm) and sand (20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm up to 2 mm) illustrated in a texture triangle. Until now pretreatment methods (e.g. humus and carbonate removal and dispersion) followed by standardised...... are variable, and the analyzed sample volumes are small, adding to uncertainty. In this study we first compared PSD’s from three different instruments for a set of soil samples to study reproducibility using the analytical operating procedures developed by the owner institutions (Malvern Mastersizer 2000...

  1. Ageing effects on the wettability behavior of laser textured silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, B. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nac. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Serro, A.P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Instituto Superior de Ciencias da Saude Egas Moniz, Quinta da Granja Monte de Caparica, 2829-511 Caparica (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro No. 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nac. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Saramago, B. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Colaco, R., E-mail: rogerio.colaco@ist.utl.pt [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    In the present work we investigate the ageing of acid cleaned femtosecond laser textured <1 0 0> silicon surfaces. Changes in the surface structure and chemistry were analysed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in order to explain the variation with time of the water contact angles of the laser textured surfaces. It is shown that highly hydrophobic silicon surfaces are obtained immediately after laser texturing and cleaning with acid solutions (water contact angle > 120{sup o}). However these surfaces are not stable and ageing leads to a decrease of the water contact angle which reaches a value of 80{sup o}. XPS analysis of the surfaces shows that the growth of the native oxide layer is most probably responsible for this behavior.

  2. Facilitating the Study of the Texturing Effect on Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate fundamental study of the surface texturing effect on hydrodynamic lubrication, analytical and experimental tools are required. While there is an extensive amount of theoretical and analytical analyses in the literature, relevant experimental studies are much rarer. A detailed study requires techniques by which one can (a produce micron-sized textures on a millimeter-scale area on a specimen surface and (b accurately measure the lubricating film thickness and load-carrying capacity of a bearing. The paper introduces the use of an efficient laser technique (direct laser interference patterning and a custom-designed fixed-incline slider tester to address these points. A steel slider was textured with the laser technique to produce a surface pattern in the inlet region of the bearing contact. The characterization of the load-carrying capacity for different convergence ratios K is presented.

  3. Stato dell’arte nella sintesi di texture sonore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemo Schwarz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of sound textures, such as rain, wind, or crowds, is an important application for cinema, multimedia creation, games and installations. However, despite the clearly defined requirements of naturalness and flexibility, no automatic method has yet found widespread use. After clarifying the definition, terminology, and usages of sound texture synthesis, we will give an overview of the many existing methods and approaches, and the few available software implementations, and classify them by the synthesis model they are based on, such as subtractive or additive synthesis, granular synthesis, corpus-based concatenative synthesis, wavelets, or physical modeling. Additionally, an overview is given over analysis methods used for sound texture synthesis, such as segmentation, statistical modeling, timbral analysis, and modeling of transitions.

  4. Nanopatterning spin-textures: A route to reconfigurable magnonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albisetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnonics is envisioned to enable highly efficient data transport and processing, by exploiting propagating perturbations in the spin-texture of magnetic materials. Despite the demonstrations of a plethora of proof-of-principle devices, the efficient excitation, transport and manipulation of spin-waves at the nanoscale is still an open challenge. Recently, we demonstrated that the spin-wave excitation and propagation can be controlled by nanopatterning reconfigurable spin-textures in a continuous exchange biased ferromagnetic film. Here, we show that by patterning 90° stripe-shaped magnetic domains, we spatially modulate the spin-wave excitation in a continuous film, and that by applying an external magnetic field we can reversibly “switch-off” the spin-wave excitation. This opens the way to the use of nanopatterned spin-textures, such as domains and domain walls, for exciting and manipulating magnons in reconfigurable nanocircuits.

  5. Artificial crawler model for texture analysis on silk fibroin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Bruno Brandoli; Gonçalves, Wesley Nunes; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Texture plays an important role in computer vision tasks. Several methods of texture analysis are available. However, these methods are not capable of extracting rich detail in images. This paper presents a novel approach to image texture classification based on the artificial crawler model. Here, we propose a new rule of movement that moves artificial crawler agents not only toward higher intensities but also toward lower ones. This strategy is able of capturing more detail because the agents explore the peaks as well as the valleys. Thus, compared with the state-of-the-art method, this approach shows an increased discriminatory power. Experiments on the most well known benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of our approach. We also tested our approach on silk fibroin scaffold analysis, and results indicate that our method is consistent and can be applied in real-world situations. (paper)

  6. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  7. Estimates of Aboveground Biomass from Texture Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Kelsey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maps of forest biomass are important tools for managing natural resources and reporting terrestrial carbon stocks. Using the San Juan National Forest in Southwest Colorado as a case study, we evaluate regional biomass maps created using physical variables, spectral vegetation indices, and image textural analysis on Landsat TM imagery. We investigate eight gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture measures (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation on four window sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, 7 × 7, 9 × 9 at four offsets ([1,0], [1,1], [0,1], [1,−1] on four Landsat TM bands (2, 3, 4, and 5. The map with the highest prediction quality was created using three texture metrics calculated from Landsat Band 2 on a 3 × 3 window and an offset of [0,1]: entropy, mean and correlation; and one physical variable: slope. The correlation of predicted versus observed biomass values for our texture-based biomass map is r = 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error is 45.6 Mg∙ha−1, and the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error is 0.31. We find that models including image texture variables are more strongly correlated with biomass than models using only physical and spectral variables. Additionally, we suggest that the use of texture appears to better capture the magnitude and direction of biomass change following disturbance compared to spectral approaches. The biomass mapping methods we present here are widely applicable throughout the US, as they are based on publically available datasets and utilize relatively simple analytical routines.

  8. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincuzzi, G., E-mail: girolamo.mincuzzi@alphanov.com; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We carried out metal surface texturing (Ripples, micro grooves, Spikes) using a high power, high repetition rate, industrial, Ultra-short pulses laser. • Extremely Fast processing is shown (Laser Scan speed as high as 90 m/s) with a polygon scanner head. • Stainless steel surface blackening with Ultra-short pulses laser has been obtained with unprecedented scanspeed. • Full SEM surface characterization was carried out for all the different structures obtained. • Reflectance measurements were carried out to characterize surface reflectance. - Abstract: Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm{sup −2}). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s{sup −1} to 25 m s{sup −1}. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s{sup −1} and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  9. The neural substrate for working memory of tactile surface texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda L; van Mier, Hanneke; Visser, Maya; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Fine surface texture is best discriminated by touch, in contrast to macro geometric features like shape. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a delayed match-to-sample task to investigate the neural substrate for working memory of tactile surface texture. Blindfolded right-handed males encoded the texture or location of up to four sandpaper stimuli using the dominant or non-dominant hand. They maintained the information for 10-12 s and then answered whether a probe stimulus matched the memory array. Analyses of variance with the factors Hand, Task, and Load were performed on the estimated percent signal change for the encoding and delay phase. During encoding, contralateral effects of Hand were found in sensorimotor regions, whereas Load effects were observed in bilateral postcentral sulcus (BA2), secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), pre-SMA, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and superior parietal lobule (SPL). During encoding and delay, Task effects (texture > location) were found in central sulcus, S2, pre-SMA, dlPFC, and SPL. The Task and Load effects found in hand- and modality-specific regions BA2 and S2 indicate involvement of these regions in the tactile encoding and maintenance of fine surface textures. Similar effects in hand- and modality-unspecific areas dlPFC, pre-SMA and SPL suggest that these regions contribute to the cognitive monitoring required to encode and maintain multiple items. Our findings stress both the particular importance of S2 for the encoding and maintenance of tactile surface texture, as well as the supramodal nature of parieto-frontal networks involved in cognitive control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pattern Formation and Reaction Textures during Dunite Carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.

    2015-12-01

    Alteration of olivine-bearing rocks by fluids is one of the most pervasive geochemical processes on the surface of the Earth. Serpentinized and/or carbonated ultramafic rocks often exhibit characteristic textures on many scales, from polygonal mesh textures on the grain-scale to onion-skin or kernel patterns on the outcrop scale. Strong disequilibrium between pristine ultramafic rocks and common geological fluids such as water and carbon dioxide leads to rapid reactions and coupled mechanical and chemical feedbacks that manifest as characteristic textures. Textural evolution during metasomatic reactions can control effective reaction rates by modulating dynamic porosity and therefore reactant supply and reactive surface area. We run hydrostatic experiments on thermally cracked dunites saturated with carbon dioxide bearing brine at 15 MPa confining pressure and 150°C to explore the evolution of physical properties and reaction textures as carbon mineralization takes place in the sample. Compaction and permeability reduction are observed throughout experiments. Rates of porosity and permeability changes are sensitive to pore fluid chemistry. After reaction, samples are imaged in 3-dimension (3D) using a dual-beam FIB-SEM. Analysis of the high resolution 3D microstructure shows that permeable, highly porous domains are created by olivine dissolution at a characteristic distance from pre-existing crack surfaces while precipitation of secondary minerals such as serpentine and magnesite is limited largely to the primary void space. The porous dissolution channels provide an avenue for fluid ingress, allow reactions to continue and could lead to progressive hierarchical fracturing. Initial modeling of the system indicates that this texture is the result of coupling between dissolution-precipitation reactions and the local stress state of the sample.

  11. Unconventional spin texture of a topologically nontrivial semimetal Sb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strózecka, A.; Eiguren, A.; Bianchi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    of Sb(110). The existence of the unconventional spin texture is corroborated by the investigations of the electron scattering on this surface. The charge interference patterns formed around single scattering impurities, imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy, reveal the absence of direct backscattering......The surfaces of antimony are characterized by the presence of spin-split states within the projected bulk band gap and the Fermi contour is thus expected to exhibit a spin texture. Using spin-resolved density functional theory calculations, we determine the spin polarization of the surface bands...

  12. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  13. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages produced by kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraković Katarina G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors, such as: milk composition, starter culture, flavourings addition, etc. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content, and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index, while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage.

  15. On uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Chantler, M.J.; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2009), s. 1-15 ISSN 1544-3558 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * texture * eye tracking Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-on uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions.pdf

  16. Texture evaluation in ductile fracture process by neutron diffraction measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, H.; Takamura, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Otake, Y.; Hama, T.; Kumagai, M.; Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-08-01

    A neutron diffraction measurement was performed to reveal microstructural aspects of the ductile fracture in ferritic steel. The diffraction patterns were continuously measured at the center of the reduced area while a tensile specimen was loaded under tension until the end of the fracture process. The measurement results showed that the volume fraction of (110)-oriented grains increased when the texture evolved as a result of plastic deformation. But the mechanism of texture evolution may be changed during necking, decreasing an increase rate of the volume fraction.

  17. Hierarchical Multiple Markov Chain Model for Unsupervised Texture Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.; Haindl, Michal; Zerubia, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2009), s. 1830-1843 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Classification * texture analysis * segmentation * hierarchical image models * Markov process Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-hierarchical multiple markov chain model for unsupervised texture segmentation.pdf

  18. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  19. Research on texture feature of RS image based on cloud model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Xue, Lixia

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new method applied to texture feature representation in RS image based on cloud model. Aiming at the fuzziness and randomness of RS image, we introduce the cloud theory into RS image processing in a creative way. The digital characteristics of clouds well integrate the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms in a unified way and map the quantitative and qualitative concepts. We adopt texture multi-dimensions cloud to accomplish vagueness and randomness handling of texture feature in RS image. The method has two steps: 1) Correlativity analyzing of texture statistical parameters in Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and parameters fuzzification. GLCM can be used to representing the texture feature in many aspects perfectly. According to the expressive force of texture statistical parameters and by Correlativity analyzing of texture statistical parameters, we can abstract a few texture statistical parameters that can best represent the texture feature. By the fuzziness algorithm, the texture statistical parameters can be mapped to fuzzy cloud space. 2) Texture multi-dimensions cloud model constructing. Based on the abstracted texture statistical parameters and fuzziness cloud space, texture multi-dimensions cloud model can be constructed in micro-windows of image. According to the membership of texture statistical parameters, we can achieve the samples of cloud-drop. By backward cloud generator, the digital characteristics of texture multi-dimensions cloud model can be achieved and the Mathematical Expected Hyper Surface(MEHS) of multi-dimensions cloud of micro-windows can be constructed. At last, the weighted sum of the 3 digital characteristics of micro-window cloud model was proposed and used in texture representing in RS image. The method we develop is demonstrated by applying it to texture representing in many RS images, various performance studies testify that the method is both efficient and effective. It enriches the cloud

  20. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery: Spectral and textural processing of ERTS imagery. [classification of Kansas land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A procedure was developed to extract cross-band textural features from ERTS MSS imagery. Evolving from a single image texture extraction procedure which uses spatial dependence matrices to measure relative co-occurrence of nearest neighbor grey tones, the cross-band texture procedure uses the distribution of neighboring grey tone N-tuple differences to measure the spatial interrelationships, or co-occurrences, of the grey tone N-tuples present in a texture pattern. In both procedures, texture is characterized in such a way as to be invariant under linear grey tone transformations. However, the cross-band procedure complements the single image procedure by extracting texture information and spectral information contained in ERTS multi-images. Classification experiments show that when used alone, without spectral processing, the cross-band texture procedure extracts more information than the single image texture analysis. Results show an improvement in average correct classification from 86.2% to 88.8% for ERTS image no. 1021-16333 with the cross-band texture procedure. However, when used together with spectral features, the single image texture plus spectral features perform better than the cross-band texture plus spectral features, with an average correct classification of 93.8% and 91.6%, respectively.

  1. The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on butter flavor and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A J; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Dean, L L; Drake, M A

    2008-02-01

    Butter is often stored for extended periods of time; therefore, it is important for manufacturers to know the refrigerated and frozen shelf life. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the sensory and physical characteristics of butter. Fresh butter was obtained on 2 occasions from 2 facilities in 113-g sticks and 4-kg bulk blocks (2 facilities, 2 package forms). Butters were placed into both frozen (-20 degrees C) and refrigerated storage (5 degrees C). Frozen butters were sampled after 0, 6, 12, 15, and 24 mo; refrigerated butters were sampled after 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 mo. Every 3 mo, oxidative stability index (OSI) and descriptive sensory analysis (texture, flavor, and color) were conducted. Every 6 mo, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFV), fatty acid profiling, vane, instrumental color, and oil turbidity were examined. A mixed-model ANOVA was conducted to characterize the effects of storage time, temperature, and package type. Storage time, temperature, and package type affected butter flavor, OSI, PV, and FFV. Refrigerated butter quarters exhibited refrigerator/stale off-flavors concurrent with increased levels of oxidation (lower oxidative stability and higher PV and FFV) within 6 mo of refrigerated storage, and similar trends were observed for refrigerated bulk butter after 9 mo. Off-flavors were not evident in frozen butters until 12 or 18 mo for quarters and bulk butters, respectively. Off-flavors in frozen butters were not correlated with instrumental oxidation measurements. Because butter is such a desirable fat source in terms of flavor and textural properties, it is important that manufacturers understand how long their product can be stored before negative attributes develop.

  2. Effects of Red and Green Glassworts (Salicornia herbacea L.) on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Reduced-salt Cooked Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of red and green glasswort on the physicochemical and textural properties of reduced-salt cooked sausages. The control was formulated with 1.5% NaCl; then, three reduced-salt treatments were prepared, with 0.75% NaCl (RS), 0.75% NaCl+1.0% red glasswort (RSR) and 0.75% NaCl+1.0% green glasswort (RSG), respectively. The addition of glasswort within the added amount of 1% had no influence on the pH value of the reduced-salt cooked sausages, regardless of the glasswort type. In terms of color, RSG treatment conveyed a higher hue angle value than the RSR treatment (p0.05). Furthermore, the addition of glasswort, regardless of its type, resulted in decreased cooking loss, and increased emulsion stability. As a result, reduced-salt cooked sausages formulated with either red or green glasswort demonstrated similar textural properties to those of the control. In conclusion, the type of glasswort within an added amount of 1% had no influence on the physicochemical and textural properties of reduced-salt cooked sausages, except for the color characteristics. In terms of color alteration by the addition of glasswort, the red glasswort, which in comparison with the green glasswort could minimize the color changes of reduced-salt cooked sausages, might be an effective source for manufacturing meat products. PMID:26761180

  3. Comparison of the microstructure and thermal stability of an AZ31 alloy processed by ECAP and large strain hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddahbi, M. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valle, J.A. del [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Prado, M.T. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: tpprado@cenim.csic.es; Ruano, O.A. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-25

    The aim of this work is to compare the microstructure, the texture, as well as the thermal stability of an AZ31 Mg alloy processed via two different severe plastic deformation processing techniques, namely large strain hot rolling (LSHR) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy and the texture was measured both by X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure obtained via LSHR has average grain sizes around 3 {mu}m, but it is quite heterogeneous. Additionally, a well-defined basal texture develops. ECAP gives rise to a more homogeneous and slightly coarser microstructure, with an average grain size of 7 {mu}m and a shear type texture. The higher resistance of the extruded sample to secondary recrystallization after severe post-deformation annealing is attributed to a texture effect.

  4. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  5. Critical currents and weak links in melt textured R123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veal, B. W.; Zhang, H.; Claus, H.; Chen, L.; Paulikas, A. P.; Koshelev, A.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2000-01-01

    Weak link behavior is studied, using magnetization and Hall probe measurements of ring samples, in welded melt-textured R123 monoliths and in dual-seeded samples with disoriented domains. Techniques for welding samples yield transport currents across the junction that are in excess of 10 4 A/cm 2

  6. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10 o ). In out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {110} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the grains will have a direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe

  7. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  8. The relation between surface texture of asphalt pavements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic conditions, road variables, skid resistance, texture depth, and accident data for the period 2000 - 2004 were analysed to develop models to establish the inter-relationships between skid resistance, macrotexture and incidence of accidents. Poisson regression relating to accident frequency and exposure variables ...

  9. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  10. Design and construction of an automatic texture goniometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, N.B. de; Pontes, E.W.; Monteiro, P.R.B.; Imakuma, K.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a two-axis automatic goniometer, operated by step motors, adaptable to the scanning goniometer SG-7 or SG-8 fabricated by Rigaku-Deuki. To allow the operation of this texture goniometer, computer codes has been developed. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Static Performance of Surface Textured Magnetorheological Fluid Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bompos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of journal bearings with artificial texturing on the bearing surface show potential benefits in certain cases. These benefits are usually focused on a specific operating area of the bearing, whereas under certain operating conditions the performance of the bearing is deteriorating due to the surface texturing. Gaining control over the viscosity of the lubricant may become a useful tool in order to take advantage of the surface texturing in a wider range of loads and journal velocities. One way to achieve this control is the use of magnetorheological fluid journal bearings. Magnetorheological fluids are solutions of iron based paramagnetic particles in conventional lubricant. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, these particles form chains, they hinder the flow of the lubricant and they ultimately alter its apparent viscosity. In this work the two techniques are combined in order to optimize the behaviour of the journal bearing in as much a variety of operating conditions as possible. Different shapes applied on the surface texturing will be examined.

  12. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture and % recovery of rhizobia I cells immediately after inoculation into such soils. Effects of inoculation methods (seed pelleting versus soil inoculation) on nodulation and plant growth were ...

  13. Deformation and recrystallization textures in commercially pure aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    1986-01-01

    The deformation and recrystallization textures of commercially pure aluminum (99.6 pct) containing large intermetallic particles (FeAl3) are measured by neutron diffraction, and the orientation distribution functions (ODF’s) are calculated. Sample parameters are the initial grain size (50 and 350...

  14. Colour and texture associations in voice-induced synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eMoos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.

  15. Cirrhosis Classification Based on Texture Classification of Random Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage. CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM.

  16. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  17. Bean Nodulation Patterns in Soils of Different Texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture and % recovery of rhizobia I cells immediately after in- oculation into such soils. Effects of inoculation methods (seed pelleting versus soil inocula- tion) on nodulation and plant ...

  18. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  19. Cosmological texture is incompatible with Planck-scale physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.; Toronto Univ., ON

    1992-01-01

    Nambu-Goldstone modes are sensitive to the effects of physics at energies comparable to the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that as a consequence of this the global texture proposal for structure formation requires rather severe assumptions about the nature of physics at the Planck scale

  20. A Database of Registered, Textured Models of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Lading, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set of 24 registered human faces represented by both shape and texture. The data was collected during 2003 as part of the preparation of the master thesis of Karl Sjöstrand (former name Karl Skoglund). The data is ready to be used in shape, appearance and data analysis....

  1. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as ...

  2. Instrumental characterisation of textural properties of fluid food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Scholten, E.

    2015-01-01

    To control or modify the textural properties of food, it is important to understand how the ingredients affect the product structure and how the product is perceived by the consumer. The relationship between these aspects is complex, and a complete understanding of the mechanisms relating structure

  3. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-10-31

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong <111> textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a <112> direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10{sup o}). In <111> out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the <111> grains will have a <112> direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong <111> textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe.

  4. effects of massaging time on texture, rheological properties, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPTIMUS ATS

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... Pineapple and mango-treated samples scored almost equally, but the first one probably by deepest changes in structure elements resulted in a product with the mashy texture. It follows that, kiwifruit and ginger could be effectively utilized at household or industrial level for tenderization of tough meat such ...

  5. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N =

  6. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N=69:

  7. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available and eyelashes that corrupt the iris region of interest. An accurate segmentation algorithm must localize and remove these noise components. Texture features are considered in this paper for describing iris and non-iris regions. These regions are classified using...

  8. Deciphering the Origin of Plume-Textured Geodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, George Donald; Jones, Francis Tucker

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an interpretation of the inward and outward growth and formation of plume textured geodes available from southern Brazil. Field occurrence, morphology of vesicles, growth history, closure of the agate shell, microscopic features, coherent reflection of light from convoluted surfaces, and accessory minerals of the inner cavity are…

  9. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rials with short and open channels are well explored because they are more ..... is important to note that the increase in unit cell con- stant, ao is not .... The strik- ing improvement in textural parameters suggests that the metal salts promote the silica condensation as a result possesses thicker pore walls. 3.3 TG Analysis.

  10. Aggregate breakdown mechanisms as affected by soil texture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil aggregates breakdown mechanisms depend on soil properties such as texture, clay mineralogy and organic matter content. Little is known about the effect of soil properties on aggregate breakdown mechanisms in South African soils. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between aggregate ...

  11. Fractional Directional Differentiation and Its Application for Multiscale Texture Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobang Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the directional derivative expression of Taylor formula for two-variable function from Taylor formula of one-variable function. Further, it proposes a new concept, fractional directional differentiation (FDD, and corresponding theories. To achieve the numerical calculation, the paper deduces power series expression of FDD. Moreover, the paper discusses the construction of FDD mask in the four quadrants, respectively, for digital image. The differential coefficients of every direction are not the same along the eight directions in the four quadrants, which is the biggest difference by contrast to general fractional differentiation and can reflect different fractional change rates along different directions, and this benefits to enlarge the differences among the image textures. Experiments show that, for texture-rich digital images, the capability of nonlinearly enhancing comprehensive texture details by FDD is better than those by the general fractional differentiation and Butterworth filter. By quantity analysis, it shows that state-of-the-art effect of texture enhancement is obtained by FDD.

  12. Anorexia Nervosa: Analysis of Trabecular Texture with CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Azadeh; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Bredella, Miriam A

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine indexes of skeletal integrity by using computed tomographic (CT) trabecular texture analysis of the lumbar spine in patients with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects and to determine body composition predictors of trabecular texture. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained. The study included 30 women with anorexia nervosa (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 6) and 30 normal-weight age-matched women (control group). All participants underwent low-dose single-section quantitative CT of the L4 vertebral body with use of a calibration phantom. Trabecular texture analysis was performed by using software. Skewness (asymmetry of gray-level pixel distribution), kurtosis (pointiness of pixel distribution), entropy (inhomogeneity of pixel distribution), and mean value of positive pixels (MPP) were assessed. Bone mineral density and abdominal fat and paraspinal muscle areas were quantified with quantitative CT. Women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight control subjects were compared by using the Student t test. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between trabecular texture and body composition. Results Women with anorexia nervosa had higher skewness and kurtosis, lower MPP (P anorexia nervosa. Conclusion Patients with anorexia nervosa had increased skewness and kurtosis and decreased entropy and MPP compared with normal-weight control subjects. These parameters were associated with lowest lifetime weight and duration of amenorrhea, but there were no such associations with bone mineral density. These findings suggest that trabecular texture analysis might contribute information about bone health in anorexia nervosa that is independent of that provided with bone mineral density. © RSNA, 2016.

  13. Assessment of Multibeam Backscatter Texture Analysis for Seafloor Sediment Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, S. A.; Hasan, R. C.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, there have been many debates to analyse backscatter data from multibeam echosounder system (MBES) for seafloor classifications. Among them, two common methods have been used lately for seafloor classification; (1) signal-based classification method which using Angular Range Analysis (ARA) and Image-based texture classification method which based on derived Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCMs). Although ARA method could predict sediment types, its low spatial resolution limits its use with high spatial resolution dataset. Texture layers from GLCM on the other hand does not predict sediment types, but its high spatial resolution can be useful for image analysis. The objectives of this study are; (1) to investigate the correlation between MBES derived backscatter mosaic textures with seafloor sediment type derived from ARA method, and (2) to identify which GLCM texture layers have high similarities with sediment classification map derived from signal-based classification method. The study area was located at Tawau, covers an area of 4.7 km2, situated off the channel in the Celebes Sea between Nunukan Island and Sebatik Island, East Malaysia. First, GLCM layers were derived from backscatter mosaic while sediment types (i.e. sediment map with classes) was also constructed using ARA method. Secondly, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used determine which GLCM layers contribute most to the variance (i.e. important layers). Finally, K-Means clustering algorithm was applied to the important GLCM layers and the results were compared with classes from ARA. From the results, PCA has identified that GLCM layers of Correlation, Entropy, Contrast and Mean contributed to the 98.77 % of total variance. Among these layers, GLCM Mean showed a good agreement with sediment classes from ARA sediment map. This study has demonstrated different texture layers have different characterisation factors for sediment classification and proper analysis is needed before

  14. Perturbed Yukawa textures in the minimal seesaw model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, Thomas; Schmitz, Kai [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK),69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-29

    We revisit the minimal seesaw model, i.e., the type-I seesaw mechanism involving only two right-handed neutrinos. This model represents an important minimal benchmark scenario for future experimental updates on neutrino oscillations. It features four real parameters that cannot be fixed by the current data: two CP-violating phases, δ and σ, as well as one complex parameter, z, that is experimentally inaccessible at low energies. The parameter z controls the structure of the neutrino Yukawa matrix at high energies, which is why it may be regarded as a label or index for all UV completions of the minimal seesaw model. The fact that z encompasses only two real degrees of freedom allows us to systematically scan the minimal seesaw model over all of its possible UV completions. In doing so, we address the following question: suppose δ and σ should be measured at particular values in the future — to what extent is one then still able to realize approximate textures in the neutrino Yukawa matrix? Our analysis, thus, generalizes previous studies of the minimal seesaw model based on the assumption of exact texture zeros. In particular, our study allows us to assess the theoretical uncertainty inherent to the common texture ansatz. One of our main results is that a normal light-neutrino mass hierarchy is, in fact, still consistent with a two-zero Yukawa texture, provided that the two texture zeros receive corrections at the level of O(10 %). While our numerical results pertain to the minimal seesaw model only, our general procedure appears to be applicable to other neutrino mass models as well.

  15. The Tortoise Versus the Hare: Computer Simulation of Euendolithic Microbial Alteration Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Lee, J.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Tiampo, K.

    2010-04-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the production of euendolithic microbial alteration textures in basalt glass; and produces textures that are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those observed in natural glass bioalteration.

  16. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  17. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  18. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...

  19. Support Vector Machine and Parametric Wavelet-Based Texture Classification of Stem Cell Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffreys, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    .... Since colony texture is a major discriminating feature in determining quality, we introduce a non-invasive, semi-automated texture-based stem cell colony classification methodology to aid researchers...

  20. Microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled deep-drawing steel sheet during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Le-yu; Wu, Lei; Liu, Ya-zheng; Cheng, Xiao-jie; Sun, Jin-hong

    2013-06-01

    In accordance with experimental results about the annealing microstructure and texture of cold-rolled deepdrawing sheet based on the compact strip production (CSP) process, a two-dimensional cellular automation simulation model, considering real space and time scale, was established to simulate recrystallization and grain growth during the actual batch annealing process. The simulation results show that pancaked grains form during recrystallization. {111} advantageous texture components become the main parts of the recrystallization texture. After grain growth, the pancaked grains coarsen gradually. The content of {111} advantageous texture components in the annealing texture increases from 55vol% to 65vol%; meanwhile, the contents of {112} and {100} texture components decrease by 4% and 8%, respectively, compared with the recrystallization texture. The simulation results of microstructure and texture evolution are also consistent with the experimental ones, proving the accuracy and usefulness of the model.

  1. Effect of Thermo-Mechanical Treatment on Texture and Microstructure Evolution of Polycrystalline Alpha Titanium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garmestani, Hamid

    2005-01-01

    The present work attempts to establish a unified path model for characterization as well as prediction of microstructure evolution in terms of texture and micro-texture, in commercially pure titanium...

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN TEXTURAL Y FISICOQUÍMICA DEL QUESO EDAM PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL AND TEXTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EDAM CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Osorio Tobón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Para el queso Edam una caracterización físico-química y textural fue realizada. Los resultados indicaron que los parámetros texturales tales como la dureza, cohesividad, adhesividad y masticabilidad son dependientes del tiempo de maduración pero no la resortabilidad del producto. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas contenido de grasa, proteína y humedad también son dependientes del tiempo, siendo estos cambios los responsables de las modificaciones de las propiedades texturales.A physical-chemical and textural characterization of Edam cheese was conducted. The results indicated that the textural parameters such as the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and chewiness were dependent upon of the maturation period but not the springiness of the product. The physical-chemistry properties such as fat content, protein and moisture content also depended upon the maturation processing, with these changes being responsible for the modifications of the textural properties.

  3. Intrinsic Problems In Determination Of Soil Texture In Calcareous Soils Of Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozna A. Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at studying the effect of removal of CaCO3 on the texture of the soil profile and that of the control section in some Aridisols of the Sudan. Sixty soil profiles were sampled from Shendi area latitude1636 and longitude 33 48 River Nile State Sudan. These soils were analyzed for CaCO3 and 20 of these profiles were found to be of relatively appreciable calcareousness and were therefore selected for this study. The following three weighted soil textures were determined 1 before any removal of the CaCO3 Texture1 2 after the removal of CaCO3 Texture2 3 after amending the texture by adding the clay sized CaCO3 to the silt fraction Texture 3. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among soil separates in the three textures except between clay of T2 and clay of T3 and among sand fractions in the three textures. That was not unexpected because the first texture included both mineral separates plus their equivalent size of CaCO3 the second texture included only the mineral separates in complete absence of CaCO3 while texture 3 was an amended texture. The change in the textural class amounted to 72 of the profiles. Statistical analysis in the weighted texture of the control section revealed that this texture was not affected except in two profiles. That could be attributed to the fact that the clay content of the soils of the study area did not fall at or near the boundary between any two major textural classes used in the Soil Taxonomy. The size of the CaCO3 was found in the order of clay size silt size sand size.

  4. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture Classifications for Simulating Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    texture classification. There may be instances where some SSURGO soil areas do not have an assigned soil texture classification, and “Null” will appear as...containing an attribute field for soil texture classification will have been produced. POINT OF CONTACT: The point of contact for technical inquiries is...ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-3 July 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture

  5. Room temperature growth of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia films on glass substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Li Peng; Mazumder, J

    2003-01-01

    Room temperature deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films on amorphous glass substrates was successfully achieved by conventional pulsed-laser deposition. The influence of the surrounding gases, their pressure and the deposition time on the structure of the films was studied. A columnar growth process was revealed based on the experimental results. The grown biaxial texture appears as a kind of substrate independence, which makes it possible to fabricate in-plane aligned YSZ films on various substrates.

  6. Pure Surface Texture Mapping Technology and it's Application for Mirror Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of pure surface texture mapping technology, pure texture surface rendering method is proposed. The method is combined pure surface texture rendering and view mirror, real-time rendering has an index of refraction, reflection, and the flow of water ripple effect. Through the experimental verification of the validity of the algorithm.

  7. A review of sensory and instrumental methods used to evaluate the texture of fish muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Durita

    2001-01-01

    in the mouth, until it is completely masticated. This makes texture difficult to describe and evaluate. In addition the muscle structure of fish is not homogenous, and this has important implications on texture measurements by instrumental means. Numerous instrumental and sensory methods have been used...... to evaluate the texture of fish and fish fillets, with varying results and there exists no universal recommended method....

  8. Texture and microstructure evolution in nickel electrodeposited from an additive-free Watts electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Nickel layers with 〈100〉, 〈210〉, 〈110〉 and 〈211〉 fiber textures were electrodeposited from additive-free Watts type electrolytes by adjusting both the pH and the applied current density. Quantitative crystallographic texture analysis by XRD was supplemented by micro-texture analysis applying EBSD...

  9. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  10. Caractérisation de textures à l'aide d'un codage directionnel local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Texture characterisation with a local directional coding. In this paper, we propose a texture characterisation method based on a coding of the local structure of the texture. The local information in four directions around a pixel is represented by a local directional code, which is the association of four directional elementary ...

  11. Characterization of changes in potato tissue during cooking in relation to texture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van N.

    1997-01-01

    Texture of cooked potatoes is an important quality aspect. The diversity in texture types was sensory evaluated. Most of the differences between texture types could be explained by differences between mealy and non-mealy characteristics. Furthermore, cultivars with similar mealy/non-mealy

  12. The texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil on cut slopes restored with OSSS - Influence of restoration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Chen, Jiao; Ai, Xiaoyan; Li, Ruirui; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Wei

    2017-09-15

    Outside soil spray seeding (OSSS) is widely used to restore cut slopes in southwest of China, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes to establish a soil layer for revegetation. The stability of artificial soil layer and its supply of water and nutrients for plants is crucial for successful restoration. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of OSSS, the texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil were studied, various soil samples were obtained from three cut slopes with different restoration time (restored with OSSS in 1996, 2003 and 2007 respectively) and one natural developed slope (NS). The properties measured including soil particle size distribution (PSD), texture, fractal dimension of PSD (D m ), the bias (C S ) and peak convex (C E ) coefficients of aggregate size distribution, structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), calcium carbonate content, Available nitrogen (N A ), Available phosphorus (P A ), and Available potassium (K A ). The results showed that different restoration time resulted in significant differences in soil PSD, D m , C S , C E , structure failure rate, bulk density, moisture, pH, N A , and K A . And these properties improved with increasing restoration age. However, there is still a huge disparity in soil texture, structure, and the availability of nutrients and moisture between the cut slopes and NS over a restoration period of up to 17 years, and this is caused by the little fine particles and the lack of slow release fertilizers and organic fertilizers in the artificial soil, resulting in poorer soil structure stability, retention and availability of moisture and nutrients on the cut slopes. Overall, the OSSS technique shows a long-term effectiveness in southwest of China, but there is still room for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Importance of Surface Texture to Infrared Remote Sensing Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L. E.; Adams, P. M.; Herr, K. C.; Salisbury, J. W.

    2001-11-01

    Thermal infrared remote sensing may be used to identify minerals present on the surface using diagnostic spectral bands. As band depth (spectral contrast) exhibited by the mineral increases, the mineral is easier to detect. In order to determine the expected spectral contrast, thermal infrared spectra of typical mineral endmembers are commonly measured in the laboratory. For example, for calcite, well-crystalline limestone is commonly studied. However, carbonates occur in several forms, including thin coatings, indurated carbonate (calcrete), and hot springs deposits. Different formation pathways may cause different microstructures and surface textures. This in turn can also affect the surface texture of the weathered material. Different surface textures can affect the measured band contrast, through roughness that causes a cavity (hohlraum) effect, and particle size and roughness on a scale that causes volume scattering. Thus since detection limits vary with the spectral contrast, surface texture can be an important variable in how detectable a mineral is. To study these issues, we have examined limestone and calcrete deposits at Mormon Mesa, Nevada that have two distinctly different microstructures and surface texture [Kirkland et al., 2001]. The limestone studied has larger grains and the grains frequently have flat, smooth surfaces on the order of 10-50 microns in cross-section length. The calcrete has smaller, more angular calcite grains, which exhibit almost no flat surfaces longer than 5 microns in cross-section length. We will show scanning electron microscope images to compare the different microstructures and surface textures of both the fresh and weathered surfaces, and we will show corresponding thermal infrared spectra to illustrate the different spectral signatures. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the microstructure of mineral deposits to accurately interpret infrared remote sensing data, especially for studies that lack ground

  14. Effect of surface texture and structure on the development of stable fluvial armors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide

    2018-04-01

    Stable fluvial armors are found in river systems under conditions of partial sediment transport and limited sediment supply, a common occurrence in nature. Stable armoring is also readily recreated in experimental flumes. Initially, this bed stabilizing phenomenon was examined for different flow discharges and solely related to surface coarsening and bedload transport reduction. The models developed suggest a specific armor composition (i.e., texture) dependent on the parent bed material and formative discharge. Following developments in topographic remote sensing, recent research suggests that armor structure is an important control on bed stability and roughness. In this paper, replicated flume runs during which digital elevation models (DEMs) were collected from both exposed and flooded gravel beds are used to interpret armoring manifestations and to assess their replicability. A range of methodologies was used for the analysis, providing information on (i) surface grain size and orientation, (ii) bed-elevation distributions, (iii) the spatial coherence of the elevations at the grain-scale, (iv) surface slope and aspect, (v) grain imbrication and (vi) the spatial variability in DEM properties. The bed-surface topography was found to be more responsive than bed-material size to changes in flow strength. Our experimental results also provide convincing evidence that gravel-beds' response to water-work during parallel degradation is unique (i.e., replicable) given the formative parameters. Based on this finding, relationships between the armors' properties and formative parameters are proposed, and are supported by adding extensive data from previous research.

  15. Texture-dependent effects of pseudo-chewing sound on perceived food texture and evoked feelings in response to nursing care foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroshi; Ino, Shuichi; Fujisaki, Waka

    2017-09-01

    Because chewing sounds influence perceived food textures, unpleasant textures of texture-modified diets might be improved by chewing sound modulation. Additionally, since inhomogeneous food properties increase perceived sensory intensity, the effects of chewing sound modulation might depend on inhomogeneity. This study examined the influences of texture inhomogeneity on the effects of chewing sound modulation. Three kinds of nursing care foods in two food process types (minced-/puréed-like foods for inhomogeneous/homogeneous texture respectively) were used as sample foods. A pseudo-chewing sound presentation system, using electromyogram signals, was used to modulate chewing sounds. Thirty healthy elderly participants participated in the experiment. In two conditions with and without the pseudo-chewing sound, participants rated the taste, texture, and evoked feelings in response to sample foods. The results showed that inhomogeneity strongly influenced the perception of food texture. Regarding the effects of the pseudo-chewing sound, taste was less influenced, the perceived food texture tended to change in the minced-like foods, and evoked feelings changed in both food process types. Though there were some food-dependent differences in the effects of the pseudo-chewing sound, the presentation of the pseudo-chewing sounds was more effective in foods with an inhomogeneous texture. In addition, it was shown that the pseudo-chewing sound might have positively influenced feelings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uterus segmentation in dynamic MRI using LBP texture descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namias, R.; Bellemare, M.-E.; Rahim, M.; Pirró, N.

    2014-03-01

    Pelvic floor disorders cover pathologies of which physiopathology is not well understood. However cases get prevalent with an ageing population. Within the context of a project aiming at modelization of the dynamics of pelvic organs, we have developed an efficient segmentation process. It aims at alleviating the radiologist with a tedious one by one image analysis. From a first contour delineating the uterus-vagina set, the organ border is tracked along a dynamic mri sequence. The process combines movement prediction, local intensity and texture analysis and active contour geometry control. Movement prediction allows a contour intitialization for next image in the sequence. Intensity analysis provides image-based local contour detection enhanced by local binary pattern (lbp) texture descriptors. Geometry control prohibits self intersections and smoothes the contour. Results show the efficiency of the method with images produced in clinical routine.

  17. Morphological and textural characterization of functionalized particulate silica xerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Lazaro A.; Mohallem, Nelcy D. S.; de Magalhães, Welington F.

    2006-03-01

    The functionalization of xerogels for use in chromatography and catalysis was carried out by solubilization of amorphous silica using a soxhlet extractor. Xerogels were prepared by sol-gel method using tetraethoxysilane, TEOS, ethanol, and water in a 1/3/10 molar ratio with HCl and HF as catalysts. The samples were prepared in monolithic form and dried at 70 °C and 550 °C for 1 h each. After functionalization, changes in textural and morphological characteristics of xerogels were investigated by means of nitrogen gas adsorption, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the analysis methods are based on different physical principles, the results are complementary, leading to a good knowledge of the texture of the samples studied.

  18. About normal distribution on SO(3) group in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savyolova, T. I.; Filatov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    This article studies and compares different normal distributions (NDs) on SO(3) group, which are used in texture analysis. Those NDs are: Fisher normal distribution (FND), Bunge normal distribution (BND), central normal distribution (CND) and wrapped normal distribution (WND). All of the previously mentioned NDs are central functions on SO(3) group. CND is a subcase for normal CLT-motivated distributions on SO(3) (CLT here is Parthasarathy’s central limit theorem). WND is motivated by CLT in R 3 and mapped to SO(3) group. A Monte Carlo method for modeling normally distributed values was studied for both CND and WND. All of the NDs mentioned above are used for modeling different components of crystallites orientation distribution function in texture analysis.

  19. Progress in melt-texturing of YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, K.; Lee, D.F.; Selvamanickam, V.

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS), tremendous efforts have been expanded toward the improvement of these materials. Due to the weak-link problem associated with grain boundaries, sintered bulk HTS possess a transport critical current density (J c ) on the order of 10 2 -10 3 A/cm 2 at 77 K. While these sintered superconductors may be utilized in low current applications, novel processing methods have to be developed to obtain HTS that can sustain high currents. Melt-texturing of HTS was found to result in a high degree of grain orientation, and is presently the most prominent processing method used to manufacture bulk YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (123) with superior transport and magnetic properties. In this review paper, various melt-texturing methods will be discussed, and the variation in J c with processing will be presented. (orig.)

  20. X-ray stress analysis in textured polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi; Harada, Jimpei

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between stress and strain in polycrystalline materials with fibre texture is examined on the basis of the strain analysis in the constituent crystallites within the Reuss approximation. By introducing the symmetry of reciprocal lattices for the constituent crystallites, the physical meaning of taking an average of the strains observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) is made clear. By using formulae obtained by the present treatment for the stress-strain relation in cubic specimens with fibre texture in the Laue classes m3-bar m hkl Bragg reflections with h≠k≠l split into doublets owing to the existence of crystallites with two different orientations under the stress field. This technique was confirmed by the profile analysis in XRD data observed for reflections of 222 and 420 in a cubic TiN thin film sputtered on a polyimide film. The technique of the stress analysis and its confirmation are introduced. (author)

  1. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...... with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted...... features and performance of learning algorithms is done and the best method is further used to classify objects by their surface textures with recognition results higher than 90 percent....

  2. The Honeycomb illusion: Uniform textures not perceived as such

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertamini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a series of patterns, in which texture is perceived differently at fixation in comparison to the periphery, such that a physically uniform stimulus yields a nonuniform percept. We call this the Honeycomb illusion, and we discuss it in relation to the similar Extinction illusion (Ninio & Stevens, 2000. The effect remains strong despite multiple fixations, dynamic changes, and manipulations of the size of texture elements. We discuss the phenomenon in relation to how vision achieves a detailed and stable representation of the environment despite changes in retinal spatial resolution and dramatic changes across saccades. The Honeycomb illusion complements previous related observations in suggesting that this representation is not necessarily based on multiple fixations (i.e., memory or on extrapolation from information available to central vision.

  3. Texture investigations of natural rock salt using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, A.

    1987-01-01

    The main benefits and constraints are described of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Tabulated are diffraction factors and absorption coefficients of Na, Cl, K, S, O, Ca and Mg for both methods and a comparison is made of neutron and X-ray penetration depths at 50% absorption for halite, sylvine, polyhalite, kieserite, anhydrite and hematite. Neutron diffraction was used for the study of preferred orientation in halite from mines in Zielitz (GDR), Bleicherode (GDR) and Werra (GDR). The experiments were carried out at the research reactor at ZfK Rossendorf, GDR. Samples were irradiated with a flux density of monochromatic thermal neutrons of 10 8 n.cm -2 s -1 . Measured were (200), (220) and (222) pole figures of halite. In the samples from Zielitz and Bleicherode a (100) fibre texture was found, in samples from Werra a (110) fibre texture. (E.S.) 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Applications of pattern recognition in aluminum alloy texture characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guizhong; Rehbein, D. K.; Foley, James C.; Thompson, R. B.

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology to extract texture information in Aluminum alloys using pattern recognition algorithm. The orientation of the samples can be obtained by the orientation Image Microscope (OIM) technique. The ISO DATA pattern recognition algorithm is implemented to classify the OIM data into different clusters. Based on the classification results, the probability density function (pdf) is estimated. Then, the pdf is expanded as a series of Legendre functions with coefficients, i.e., the orientation distribution coefficients (ODC) as texture parameters. Three of these ODC's are of special interests, namely W400, W420, and W440. This paper includes results from ultrasonic NDE and this novel algorithm.—Ames Laboratory is operated for U.S. Department of Energy by Iowa State University under Contract W-7405-ENG-82. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences as a part of the Center of Excellence of the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials.

  5. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-07-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  6. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped with a d......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...... with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted...

  7. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Nourhan; Elnemr, Heba A.

    2015-01-01

    The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others. PMID:26557845

  8. Statistical Analysis of Haralick Texture Features to Discriminate Lung Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Zayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haralick texture features are a well-known mathematical method to detect the lung abnormalities and give the opportunity to the physician to localize the abnormality tissue type, either lung tumor or pulmonary edema. In this paper, statistical evaluation of the different features will represent the reported performance of the proposed method. Thirty-seven patients CT datasets with either lung tumor or pulmonary edema were included in this study. The CT images are first preprocessed for noise reduction and image enhancement, followed by segmentation techniques to segment the lungs, and finally Haralick texture features to detect the type of the abnormality within the lungs. In spite of the presence of low contrast and high noise in images, the proposed algorithms introduce promising results in detecting the abnormality of lungs in most of the patients in comparison with the normal and suggest that some of the features are significantly recommended than others.

  9. Virtual Texture with Wallis Filter for Terrain Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-wen Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As Boeing 737-800 Flight simulator get more and more demanding in terms of rendering time and authenticity. In order to reduce the amount of image data, we use the large region low-resolution remote sensing image mosaic with small region high-resolution remote sensing image. Meanwhile, for the color imbalances between images, we propose the global Wallis transform method based on HSI color space, So that the color is consistent among the images. Finally, we present a novel texture technique to achieve real-time performance. The experiment shows that the method can make sure the texture fit the requirement of Boeing 737-800 Flight Simulator.

  10. Magnetization dynamics of imprinted non-collinear spin textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Robert, E-mail: r.streubel@ifw-dresden.de; Kopte, Martin; Makarov, Denys, E-mail: d.makarov@ifw-dresden.de [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fischer, Peter [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We study the magnetization dynamics of non-collinear spin textures realized via imprint of the magnetic vortex state in soft permalloy into magnetically hard out-of-plane magnetized Co/Pd nanopatterned heterostructures. Tuning the interlayer exchange coupling between soft- and hard-magnetic subsystems provides means to tailor the magnetic state in the Co/Pd stack from being vortex- to donut-like with different core sizes. While the imprinted vortex spin texture leads to the dynamics similar to the one observed for vortices in permalloy disks, the donut-like state causes the appearance of two gyrofrequencies characteristic of the early and later stages of the magnetization dynamics. The dynamics are described using the Thiele equation supported by the full scale micromagnetic simulations by taking into account an enlarged core size of the donut states compared to magnetic vortices.

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL Y TEXTURAL DE UNA BENTONITA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carriazo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracteriza una arcilla-bentonita colombiana (Valle del Cauca, mediante difracción de rayos X, técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, RMN y EPR y análisis textural. Los resultados indican que el componente principal en este material natural es una esmectita dioctaédrica (aluminosa. Igualmente, los resultados de RMN de 29Si y de 27Al revelan la substitución isomórfica de Al3+ por Si4+ en la capa tetraédrica. El estudio de EPR evidencia la presencia de hierro (III ocupando posiciones en la capa octaédrica del mineral de arcilla y formando nanoclusters, posiblemente de óxidos u oxihidróxidos. El análisis textural indica que el material es predominantemente mesoporoso.

  12. Mechanical properties of highly textured Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bufford, D.; Wang, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, X.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with individual layer thicknesses, h, varying from 1 to 200 nm. When, h, decreases to 5 nm or less, X-ray diffraction spectra show epitaxial growth of Cu/Ni multilayers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show the coexistence of nanotwins and coherent layer interfaces in highly (1 1 1) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with smaller h. Hardnesses of multilayer films increase with decreasing h, approach a maximum at h of a few nanometers, and show softening thereafter at smaller h. The influence of layer interfaces as well as twin interfaces on strengthening mechanisms of multilayers and the formation of twins in Ni in multilayers are discussed.

  13. Multispectral Imaging of Meat Quality - Color and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup

    of meat quality parameters, especially with regards to meat color and texture. Several image modalities have been applied, all considering multi- or hyper spectral imaging. The work demonstrates the use of computer vision systems for meat color measurements. The color is assessed by suitable...... transformations to the CIELAB color space, the common color space within food science. The results show that meat color assessment with a multispectral imaging is a great alternative to the traditional colorimeter, i.e. the vision system meets some of the limitations that the colorimeter possesses. To mention one......, it is possible to assess color of very complicated structures, such as salamis, with a vision system. More importantly though, the vision system embraces the complicated scattering properties of meat. The images can also lead to other analyses, e.g. image texture analysis relating to the structure of the meat...

  14. Color Texture Segmentation by Decomposition of Gaussian Mixture Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal; Pudil, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4225 (2006), s. 287-296 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition. CIARP 2006 /11./. Cancun, 14.11.2006-17.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MŠk 2C06019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : texture segmentation * gaussian mixture model * EM algorithm Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/grim-color texture segmentation by decomposition of gaussian mixture model.pdf

  15. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  16. Multiresolution texture models for brain tumor segmentation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Ahmed, Shaheen; Hossen, Jakir

    2011-01-01

    In this study we discuss different types of texture features such as Fractal Dimension (FD) and Multifractional Brownian Motion (mBm) for estimating random structures and varying appearance of brain tissues and tumors in magnetic resonance images (MRI). We use different selection techniques including KullBack - Leibler Divergence (KLD) for ranking different texture and intensity features. We then exploit graph cut, self organizing maps (SOM) and expectation maximization (EM) techniques to fuse selected features for brain tumors segmentation in multimodality T1, T2, and FLAIR MRI. We use different similarity metrics to evaluate quality and robustness of these selected features for tumor segmentation in MRI for real pediatric patients. We also demonstrate a non-patient-specific automated tumor prediction scheme by using improved AdaBoost classification based on these image features.

  17. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, M; Asim, T; Sushil, M; Shanta, C

    2015-01-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path. (paper)

  18. Correlating microstructure and texture in cold-rolled Ta ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, C.; Kumar, P.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of tantalum ingot cold-rolled and annealed under different conditions reveals several correlations between the microstructure, developed textures and thermomechanical processing parameters. For example, the hardness of rolled sheet is not significantly affected by the amount of reduction prior to the final anneal, while the final grain size decreases with an increasing number of intermediate annealing steps. Four classes of texture are found in the cold-rolled tantalum, but the finger-grained classes can only be produced via a 70 percent reduction in thickness prior to the final anneal. Although ample dislocation debris is produced by the rolling operation, clearly defined line dislocations and dislocations networks are absent, indicating that full recrystallization is not achieved in the finished sheets. A large concentration of ledge dislocations at the grain boundary regions is considered an important contributor to the good formability of tantalum

  19. Characterization of nano-textured samples in a production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Bilenberg, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Nano-textured surfaces have been characterized by optical diffraction techniques using an adapted commercial light microscope with two detectors, a CCD camera and a spectrometer. We demonstrate that the microscope has a resolution in the nanometer range, also in an environment with many vibrations......, such as a machine floor. The acquisition and analysing time for the topological parameters height, width and sidewall angle is only a few milliseconds. It is demonstrated that by simple adaptions to an optical microscope we can measure nano-textured surfaces with an uncertainty of a few nanometers for the height...... and width of the structures. The microscope has been validated by measuring on certified transfer artefact and 1D gratings. The measurements are very robust, such that vibrations of the sample and/or the microscope do not affect the results. The sample can be translated during acquisition, as long...

  20. Self-similarity of contact line depinning from textured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Adam T; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2013-01-01

    The mobility of drops on surfaces is important in many biological and industrial processes, but the phenomena governing their adhesion, which is dictated by the morphology of the three-phase contact line, remain unclear. Here we describe a technique for measuring the dynamic behaviour of the three-phase contact line at micron length scales using environmental scanning electron microscopy. We examine a superhydrophobic surface on which a drop's adhesion is governed by capillary bridges at the receding contact line. We measure the microscale receding contact angle of each bridge and show that the Gibbs criterion is satisfied at the microscale. We reveal a hitherto unknown self-similar depinning mechanism that shows how some hierarchical textures such as lotus leaves lead to reduced pinning, and counter-intuitively, how some lead to increased pinning. We develop a model to predict adhesion force and experimentally verify the model's broad applicability on both synthetic and natural textured surfaces.