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Sample records for stabilize wind-assisted irrigation

  1. Stability of Adrenaline in Irrigating Solution for Intraocular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuuka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Taogoshi, Takanori; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Kihira, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.

  2. Stability of a novel corticosteroid nasal irrigation solution: betamethasone 17-valerate added to extemporaneously prepared nasal irrigation solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kheng Yong; Lim, Wei Ching; Ooi, Shing Ming; Loh, Zhi Hui; Kong, Ming Chai; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2017-05-01

    There are no commercially available nasal irrigation solutions containing corticosteroids. Instead, such preparations are extemporaneously prepared by adding existing corticosteroid formulations to nasal irrigation solutions. The stability of the corticosteroid betamethasone 17-valerate (B17V), in nasal irrigation solutions of different compositions and pH and stored under different temperatures, was studied to determine the optimal choice of solution and storage conditions. Triplicate extemporaneous preparations made with B17V were prepared by adding a predetermined volume of B17V lotion to each nasal irrigation solution: normal saline (NS), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) powder dissolved in tap water, and a commercially available powder mixture (FLO Sinus Care Powder), dissolved in tap water or pre-boiled tap water. Preparations were stored at 30°C and 4°C. Sampling was carried out at 0, 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The concentrations of B17V and its degradation compound, betamethasone 21-valerate (B21V), were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Preparations stored at 30°C contained a lower amount of B17V and higher amount of B21V than those stored at 4°C. B17V stability in nasal irrigation solutions decreased in the following order: NS, FLO in fresh tap water, FLO in pre-boiled tap water, and NaHCO 3 . The degradation rate of B17V increased with higher storage temperature and higher pH. B17V is most stable when added to NS and least stable in NaHCO 3 solution. FLO solution prepared with either cooled boiled water or tap water is an alternative if administered immediately. Storage at 4°C can better preserve stability of B17V, over a period of 24 hours. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  3. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  4. Spray Irrigation Effects on Surface-Layer Stability in an Experimental Citrus Orchard during Winter Freezes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Martsolf, J. David

    1997-02-01

    Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Gainesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface-layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. It was found that surface-layer lapse rates were lower during irrigation periods than under similar conditions when irrigation was not occurring, indicating a greater degree of vertical mixing of surface-layer air with air from above treetops, as a result of local convective overturning induced by the condensation heating of water vapor released at the nozzles of the sprinklers. This provides an additional explanation to the well-accepted heat of fusion release effect, of how undertree irrigation of a citrus orchard during a freeze period helps protect crops

  5. Effect of Different Irrigation Solutions on the Colour Stability of Three Calcium Silicate-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F, Sobhnamayan; A, Adl; S, Ghanbaran

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown discoloration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in contact with root canal irrigation solutions. However, there are limited data on colour stability of other calcium silicate-based materials (CSMs). This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the colour stability of three CSMs in contact with different irrigation solutions. Three CSMs including White MTA (wMTA) Angelus, calcium enriched mixture (CEM), and Biodentine were assessed in this study. Forty five samples of each material were mixed according to the manufactures' instructions and then placed in silicone tubes. After 24 hours, the materials were removed from the moulds and 9 samples of each material left dry or immersed in normal saline, 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL), 2% chlorhexidinegluconate (CHX), or 17%EDTA for 24 hours. Colour changes were measured with a spectrophotometer. Data were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance, one way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. The highest discoloration of all materials was observed after contact with CHX. In the MTA Angelus and CEM cement groups, significant differences were observed between CHX and NaOCl and also between these two irrigants with the other three irrigants ( p < 0.05). In the Biodentine group, CHX created statistically significant discoloration compared to other irrigants ( p < 0.05). Only wMTA Angelus showed a significantly higher discoloration in contact with EDTA compared to normal saline and dry condition ( p < 0.05). wMTA Angelus showed a significantly higher colour change compared with CEM cement and Biodentine after contact with NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA ( p < 0.05). The contact of wMTA, CEM cement, and Biodentine with CHX should be avoided because this leads to severe discoloration. Contact with sodium hypochlorite also leads to discoloration of wMTA and CEM cements. Among of the three tested materials, wMTA showed the highest discoloration after contact with NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA.

  6. Effect of Different Irrigation Solutions on the Colour Stability of Three Calcium Silicate-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    F, Sobhnamayan; A, Adl; S, Ghanbaran

    2017-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Previous studies have shown discoloration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in contact with root canal irrigation solutions. However, there are limited data on colour stability of other calcium silicate-based materials (CSMs). Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the colour stability of three CSMs in contact with different irrigation solutions. Materials and Methods: Three CSMs including White MTA (wMTA) Angelus, calcium enriched mixture (CEM), and Biodentine were assessed in this study. Forty five samples of each material were mixed according to the manufactures’ instructions and then placed in silicone tubes. After 24 hours, the materials were removed from the moulds and 9 samples of each material left dry or immersed in normal saline, 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL), 2% chlorhexidinegluconate (CHX), or 17%EDTA for 24 hours. Colour changes were measured with a spectrophotometer. Data were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance, one way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. Results: The highest discoloration of all materials was observed after contact with CHX. In the MTA Angelus and CEM cement groups, significant differences were observed between CHX and NaOCl and also between these two irrigants with the other three irrigants (p Biodentine group, CHX created statistically significant discoloration compared to other irrigants (p Biodentine after contact with NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA (p Biodentine with CHX should be avoided because this leads to severe discoloration. Contact with sodium hypochlorite also leads to discoloration of wMTA and CEM cements. Among of the three tested materials, wMTA showed the highest discoloration after contact with NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA. PMID:28959768

  7. Importance of waste stabilization ponds and wastewater irrigation in the generation of vector mosquitoes in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Ensink, Jeroen; Van der Hoek, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3...... an overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles...

  8. Effect of Different Irrigation Solutions on the Colour Stability of Three Calcium Silicate-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Statement of Problem: Previous studies have shown discoloration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA in contact with root canal irrigation solutions. However, there are limited data on colour stability of other calcium silicate–based materials (CSMs. Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the colour stability of three CSMs in contact with different irrigation solutions. Materials and Methods: Three CSMs including White MTA (wMTA Angelus, calcium enriched mixture (CEM, and Biodentine were assessed in this study. Forty five samples of each material were mixed according to the manufactures’ instructions and then placed in silicone tubes. After 24 hours, the materials were removed from the moulds and 9 samples of each material left dry or immersed in normal saline, 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL, 2% chlorhexidinegluconate (CHX, or 17%EDTA for 24 hours. Colour changes were measured with a spectrophotometer. Data were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance, one way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. Results: The highest discoloration of all materials was observed after contact with CHX. In the MTA Angelus and CEM cement groups, significant differences were observed between CHX and NaOCl and also between these two irrigants with the other three irrigants (p < 0.05. In the Biodentine group, CHX created statistically significant discoloration compared to other irrigants (p < 0.05. Only wMTA Angelus showed a significantly higher discoloration in contact with EDTA compared to normal saline and dry condition (p < 0.05. wMTA Angelus showed a significantly higher colour change compared with CEM cement and Biodentine after contact with NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The contact of wMTA, CEM cement, and Biodentine with CHX should be avoided because this leads to severe discoloration. Contact with sodium hypochlorite also leads to discoloration of wMTA and CEM cements. Among of the three tested materials, w

  9. Wind assistance: A requirement for migration of shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert W.; Williams, Tony D.; Warnock, Nils; Bishop, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the importance of wind-assisted flight for northward (spring) migration by Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) along the Pacific Coast of North America. Using current models of energy costs of flight and recent data on the phenology of migration, we estimated the energy (fat) requirements for migration in calm winds and with wind-assisted flight for different rates of fat deposition: (1) a variable rate, assuming that birds deposit the minimum amount of fat required to reach the next stopover site; (2) a constant maximum rate of 1.0 g/day; and (3) a lower constant rate of 0.4 g/day. We tested these models by comparing conservative estimates of predicted body mass along the migration route with empirical data on body mass of Western Sandpipers at different stopover sites and upon arrival at the breeding grounds. In calm conditions, birds would have to deposit unrealistically high amounts of fat (up to 330% of observed values) to maintain body mass above absolute lean mass values. Fat-deposition rates of 1.0 g/day and 0.4 g/day, in calm conditions, resulted in a steady decline in body mass along the migration route, with predicted body masses on arrival in Alaska of only 60% (13.6 g) and 26% (5.9 g) of average lean mass (22.7 g). Conversely, birds migrating with wind assistance would be able to complete migration with fat-deposition rates as low as 0.4 g/day, similar to values reported for this size bird from field studies. Our results extend the conclusion of the importance of winds for large, long-distance migrants to a small, short-distance migrant. We suggest that the migratory decisions of birds are more strongly influenced by the frequency and duration of winds aloft, i.e. by events during the flight phase, than by events during the stopover phase of migration, such as fat-deposition rate, that have been the focus of much recent migration theory.

  10. Quality of Irrigation Water Affects Soil Functionality and Bacterial Community Stability in Response to Heat Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Sammy; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2018-02-15

    Anthropogenic activities alter the structure and function of a bacterial community. Furthermore, bacterial communities structured by the conditions the anthropogenic activities present may consequently reduce their stability in response to an unpredicted acute disturbance. The present mesocosm-scale study exposed soil bacterial communities to different irrigation water types, including freshwater, fertilized freshwater, treated wastewater, and artificial wastewater, and evaluated their response to a disturbance caused by heat. These effectors may be considered deterministic and stochastic forces common in agricultural operations of arid and semiarid regions. Bacterial communities under conditions of high mineral and organic carbon availability (artificial wastewater) differed from the native bacterial community and showed a proteobacterial dominance. These bacterial communities had a lower resistance to the heat treatment disturbance than soils under conditions of low resource availability (high-quality treated wastewater or freshwater). The latter soil bacterial communities showed a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Bacilli These results were elucidated by soil under conditions of high resource availability, which lost higher degrees of functional potential and had a greater bacterial community composition change. However, the functional resilience, after the disturbance ended, was higher under a condition of high resource availability despite the bacterial community composition shift and the decrease in species richness. The functional resilience was directly connected to the high growth rates of certain Bacteroidetes and proteobacterial groups. A high stability was found in samples that supported the coexistence of both resistant OTUs and fast-growing OTUs. IMPORTANCE This report presents the results of a study employing a hypothesis-based experimental approach to reveal the forces involved in determining the stability of a

  11. Color stabilities of calcium silicate-based materials in contact with different irrigation solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangul; Demiryurek, Ebru Ozsezer; Ozyurek, Taha

    2015-03-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been reported to cause tooth discoloration when applied in the esthetic zone. A previous study has shown discoloration of MTA in contact with root canal irrigation solutions. Moreover, there are limited data on color stability of novel calcium silicate-based materials. This study aimed to evaluate color changes of 4 calcium silicate-based materials in contact with different irrigation solutions. ProRoot white MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN), white MTA Angelus (Angelus Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina, Brazil), Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France), and BioAggregate (Innovative Bioceramix, Vancouver, BC, Canada) samples were assessed. Materials were mixed according to the manufacturers' instructions. Cylindric samples (10-mm diameter and 2-mm height) were obtained by curing in molds for each material's setting time at 100% humidity and 37°C. Each specimen was immersed in 5% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, or distilled water for 24 hours. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by using 2-way analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni tests. All materials exhibited clinically perceptible discoloration when immersed in sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate. ProRoot white MTA showed a statistically significant difference from Bioaggregate, Biodentine, and white MTA Angelus. Distilled water did not cause clinically perceptible discoloration of any material. In esthetically critical regions, compounds free of bismuth oxide, Biodentine, and BioAggregate can be considered as alternatives to MTA. However, all calcium silicate-based materials exhibited clinically perceptible color changes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal stability of Escherichia coli concentration patterns in two irrigation ponds in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination of water sources is an important water quality issue for agricultural irrigation ponds. Escherichia coli is a common microbial indicator used to evaluate recreational and irrigation water quality. We hypothesized that there is a temporally stable pattern of E.coli concentrations ...

  13. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  14. Temporal stability of E. coli concentration patterns in two irrigation ponds in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are about nine millions ponds in USA, and many of them serve as an important agricultural surface water source. E. coli concentrations are commonly used as indicator organisms to evaluate microbial water quality for irrigation and recreation. Our hypothesis was that there exists a temporally ...

  15. Grain Yield Stability of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Irrigation in Cold and Temperate Climatic Conditions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakhshayeshi Geshlagh,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield stability of bread wheat cultivars including Alvand, Alamout, Zarrin, Navid, Azar 2, Sabalan, Omid and Bezostiya under irrigation an experiment was conducted in RCBD for three cropping seasons (2007-2010 at six locations. Simple and combined analysis of variances for three years, each location and also combined analysis of variances for 3 years and 6 locations were implemented. Lin and Binns parameter, environmental coefficient of variations and rank method were used for determination of stable cultivars. Results of combined ANOVA (three years x six locations showed that interaction effect of year x location x genotype was significant. The highest grain yield belonged to the Alvand cultivar  with 3.74 tha -1. Results of stability analysis with Lin and Binns method also showed that Zarrin cultivar had the lowest within location variance for grain yield and lowest environmental coefficient of variations was belonged to cultivars Zarrin and Sabalan. The results of rank method showed that cultivars Alvand and Sabalan had the lowest rankingand cultivars Sabalan and Bezostiya had the lowest SDR among the experimental cultivars. It can be concluded that Zarrin and Sabalan cultivars had the highest yield stability and thus it can be recommended for locations in which it was studied.

  16. High altitude bird migration at temperate latitudes: a synoptic perspective on wind assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Kemp, Michael U; Tijm, Sander; Holleman, Iwan

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes the synoptic patterns of bird migration are strongly structured by the presence of cyclones and anticyclones, both in the horizontal and altitudinal dimensions. In certain synoptic conditions, birds may efficiently cross regions with opposing surface wind by choosing a higher flight altitude with more favourable wind. We observed migratory passerines at mid-latitudes that selected high altitude wind optima on particular nights, leading to the formation of structured migration layers at varying altitude up to 3 km. Using long-term vertical profiling of bird migration by C-band Doppler radar in the Netherlands, we find that such migration layers occur nearly exclusively during spring migration in the presence of a high-pressure system. A conceptual analytic framework providing insight into the synoptic patterns of wind assistance for migrants that includes the altitudinal dimension has so far been lacking. We present a simple model for a baroclinic atmosphere that relates vertical profiles of wind assistance to the pressure and temperature patterns occurring at temperate latitudes. We show how the magnitude and direction of the large scale horizontal temperature gradient affects the relative gain in wind assistance that migrants obtain through ascending. Temperature gradients typical for northerly high-pressure systems in spring are shown to cause high altitude wind optima in the easterly sectors of anticyclones, thereby explaining the frequent observations of high altitude migration in these synoptic conditions. Given the recurring synoptic arrangements of pressure systems across temperate continents, the opportunities for exploiting high altitude wind will differ between flyways, for example between easterly and westerly oceanic coasts.

  17. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, M E; Iriarte, M M; Mercado Guzmán, A; Coronado, O; Almanza, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1mLg(-1) for coliphage, between 1 and 100mLg(-1) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000mLg(-1) for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbyla, M.E.; Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M.; Mihelcic, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g −1 for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g −1 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g −1 for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in ponds may

  19. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbyla, M.E., E-mail: verbylam@mail.usf.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States); Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M. [Centro de Aguas y Saneamiento Ambiental, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Mihelcic, J.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g{sup −1} for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g{sup −1} for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g{sup −1} for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in

  20. Microbiological quality of a waste stabilization pond effluent used for restricted irrigation in Valle Del Cauca, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Peña, M R; Mara, D D

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of effluent reuse in agriculture after treatment in a series of anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds. The WSP system is located in Ginebra municipality, a small town in southwest Colombia. The total HRT is 12 days. Several samples of the final effluent were taken over a 55 day period and were analysed for E. coli, Streptococcus spp. and helminth eggs. Some additional grab samples were taken to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. The results showed that the system was able to remove 4 log units of E. coli, 1 log unit of Streptococcus spp. and 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella spp. were detected in the effluent of the facultative pond whilst Shigella spp. were not detected in any sample. The main species of helminth eggs encountered were Taenia spp., Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and Enterobius vermicularis. Removal efficiencies were satisfactory despite the relatively short HRT. Nevertheless, WHO guidelines were slightly surpassed in the case of E. coli for unrestricted irrigation. The helminth egg value was always below the maximum WHO limit. Hence, this effluent can be safely used for restricted irrigation provided that field workers are protected from direct contact with wastewater given the presence of Salmonella spp. in the facultative pond effluent.

  1. Modeling Irrigation Benefits on Beef Ranches

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Johnson, Roger G.; Schluntz, Larry J.; Ali, Mir B.

    1988-01-01

    A major irrigation benefit for beef ranchers is herd size stability. A sequential multiyear linear programming model was developed to trace the effect of drought with and without irrigation on a South Dakota ranch over 31 years. Irrigation benefits were higher with the dynamic model than with traditional static analysis.

  2. Strengths and weaknesses of temporal stability analysis for monitoring and estimating grid-mean soil moisture in a high-intensity irrigated agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Li, Xin; Jin, Rui; Kang, Jian; Cosh, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and estimating grid-mean soil moisture is very important for assessing many hydrological, biological, and biogeochemical processes and for validating remotely sensed surface soil moisture products. Temporal stability analysis (TSA) is a valuable tool for identifying a small number of representative sampling points to estimate the grid-mean soil moisture content. This analysis was evaluated and improved using high-quality surface soil moisture data that were acquired by a wireless sensor network in a high-intensity irrigated agricultural landscape in an arid region of northwestern China. The performance of the TSA was limited in areas where the representative error was dominated by random events, such as irrigation events. This shortcoming can be effectively mitigated by using a stratified TSA (STSA) method, proposed in this paper. In addition, the following methods were proposed for rapidly and efficiently identifying representative sampling points when using TSA. (1) Instantaneous measurements can be used to identify representative sampling points to some extent; however, the error resulting from this method is significant when validating remotely sensed soil moisture products. Thus, additional representative sampling points should be considered to reduce this error. (2) The calibration period can be determined from the time span of the full range of the grid-mean soil moisture content during the monitoring period. (3) The representative error is sensitive to the number of calibration sampling points, especially when only a few representative sampling points are used. Multiple sampling points are recommended to reduce data loss and improve the likelihood of representativeness at two scales.

  3. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  4. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation...

  5. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  6. Small Acreage Irrigation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Field irrigation application methods include surface (wild flooding, border, furrow, basins), sprinkler (hand line, wheel move, solid set, center pivot), low flow or micro-irrigation (drip, trickle, micro-spray), and subirrigation (water table manipulation under special conditions).

  7. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  8. Bifurcation and Chaos in a Price Game of Irrigation Water in a Coastal Irrigation District

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Baogui; Li, Yuting

    2013-01-01

    We propose a price game model of irrigation water in a coastal irrigation district. Then, we discuss the stability and codimension-two period-doubling (flip) bifurcation. Then, the MATLAB package Cl_MatContM is employed to illustrate its numerical bifurcations-based continuation methods. Lastly, the 0-1 test algorithm is used to compute the median value of correlation coefficient which can indicate whether the underlying dynamics is regular or chaotic.

  9. The Mawala irrigation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    de Bont, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  10. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture makes societies more likely to be ruled by authoritarian regimes. Ancient societies have long been thought to follow this pattern. We empirically show that irrigation affects political regimes even in the present. To avoid endogeneity, we use geographical and climatic...... variation to identify irrigation dependent societies. We find that countries whose agriculture depended on irrigation are about six points less democratic on the 21-point polity2 scale than countries where agriculture has been rainfed. We find qualitatively similar results across regions within countries...... both at the country level, and in premodern societies surveyed by ethnographers. (JEL: O11, N50, Q15)...

  11. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  12. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  13. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  14. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in vegetables and fish raised in wastewater irrigated fields and stabilization ponds during a non-cholera outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania: an environmental health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounmanou, Yaovi M G; Mdegela, Robinson H; Dougnon, Tamègnon V; Mhongole, Ofred J; Mayila, Edward S; Malakalinga, Joseph; Makingi, George; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-10-18

    Cholera, one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases, remains rampant and frequent in Tanzania and thus hinders existing control measures. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in wastewater, fish and vegetables during a non-outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania. From October 2014 to February 2015, 60 wastewater samples, 60 fish samples from sewage stabilization ponds and 60 wastewater irrigated vegetable samples were collected. Samples were cultured for identification of V. cholerae using conventional bacteriological methods. Isolates were confirmed as V. cholerae by detection of the outer membrane protein gene (ompW) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Isolates were further tested for antibiotic susceptibility and presence of virulence genes including, cholera enterotoxin gene (ctx), the toxin co-regulated pilus gene (tcpA) and the haemolysin gene (hlyA). The prevalence of V. cholerae in wastewater, vegetables and fish was 36.7, 21.7 and 23.3 %, respectively. Two isolates from fish gills were V. cholerae O1 and tested positive for ctx and tcpA. One of these contained in addition the hlyA gene while five isolates from fish intestines tested positive for tcpA. All V. cholerae isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin and some to tetracycline, but sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. Our results show that toxigenic and drug-resistant V. cholerae O1 species are present and persist in aquatic environments during a non-cholera outbreak period. This is of public health importance and shows that such environments may be important as reservoirs and in the transmission of V. cholerae O1.

  15. Behavior of arthroscopic irrigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; Dusée, L.; Herder, J. L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Pistecky, P. V.

    2005-01-01

    In the literature, no consensus exists about optimal irrigation of joints during arthroscopic operations. The goal of this paper is to study the behavior of irrigation systems resulting in the proposal of guidelines for optimal irrigation. To this end, optimal irrigation is defined as the steady

  16. Vision of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Braz-Tangerino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation not only has been a key factor for the development and maintenance of human societies but it still plays this role now and it is foreseen that in the future as well. Its evolution has been constrained to the advance in knowledge on matters regarding Agronomy and Water Engineering and in technology however, many challenges deserve further research. It is worth to note that Brazil has strongly promoted irrigation in the last decade. Within the limited extension of this article, some current topics in irrigation, some of them are innovative such us the research line studying water flow in soil-plant in Mediterranean plants and its consequences on water use,. and future challenges are presented with the purpose of stimulate publication of Irrigation papers in the journal “Ingeniería del Agua” among Portuguese and Spanish language communities.

  17. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

    2007-01-19

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.15 to -0.25 C.decade{sup -1}), which corresponds to a cooling estimated at -2.0 - -3.3 C since the introduction of irrigation practice. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 to -0.19 C.decade{sup -1}). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for most irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broadscale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide roughly 40% of global food production.

  18. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  19. The effect of irrigation uniformity on irrigation water requirements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of water in South Africa. Due to the limited amount of water resources, the efficient and equitable use of water is of paramount importance. This can only be achieved through effective design, maintenance and management of irrigation systems. The uniformity with which an irrigation ...

  20. Planning for an Irrigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  1. small scale irrigation management practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It yis against this background that this study focuses on small scale irrigation fadama farming being a ... inputs, fertilizer and irrigation water. ` The functions .... chemical fertilizer. More of irrigation water could also be used for better eсмciency. The farmers in the study area are not making eсicient use of their resources. There.

  2. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  3. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  4. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, L.E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of irrigant extrusion using passive ultrasonic irrigation, EndoActivator, or syringe irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Figueroa, Carolina; McClanahan, Scott B; Bowles, Walter R

    2014-10-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation is critical to endodontic success, and several new methods have been developed to improve irrigation efficacy (eg, passive ultrasonic irrigation [PUI] and EndoActivator [EA]). Using a novel spectrophotometric method, this study evaluated NaOCl irrigant extrusion during canal irrigation. One hundred fourteen single-rooted extracted teeth were decoronated to leave 15 mm of the root length for each tooth. Cleaning and shaping of the teeth were completed using standardized hand and rotary instrumentation to an apical file size #40/0.04 taper. Roots were sealed (not apex), and 54 straight roots (n = 18/group) and 60 curved roots (>20° curvature, n = 20/group) were included. Teeth were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl by 1 of 3 methods: passive irrigation with needle, PUI, or EA irrigation. Extrusion of NaOCl was evaluated using a pH indicator and a spectrophotometer. Standard curves were prepared with known amounts of irrigant to quantify amounts in unknown samples. Irrigant extrusion was minimal with all methods, with most teeth showing no NaOCl extrusion in straight or curved roots. Minor NaOCl extrusion (1-3 μL) in straight roots or curved roots occurred in 10%-11% of teeth in all 3 irrigant methods. Two teeth in both the syringe irrigation and the EA group extruded 3-10 μL of NaOCl. The spectrophotometric method used in this study proved to be very sensitive while providing quantification of the irrigant levels extruded. Using the PUI or EA tip to within 1 mm of the working length appears to be fairly safe, but apical anatomy can vary in teeth to allow extrusion of irrigant. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  7. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  8. Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... stability index; STI, stress tolerance index; Ys, yield in drought stress; Yp, normal irrigation. Wheat is one of the agricultural plants which are cultivated in large scale in semi-arid areas; where with varying rainfall in different years. Considering the low heritability of drought tolerance and lack of efficient.

  9. Sediment transport in irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez V., N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The world population is rapidly increasing and is expected to double to about 10 billion by the year 2050. To support an increasing population in terms of food sufficiency, more and more water will be required. Irrigation is the most critical component of the modern package of inputs to effect high crop production. Irrigation has been the largest recipient of public agricultural investment in the developing world. Hence, continued investment in irrigation along with reforms in instit...

  10. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  11. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  12. How patients experience antral irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Karin; Eliander, Lotta; Hytönen, Maija; Ylinen, Suvi; Laitio, Mirja; Virkkula, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Antral irrigation earlier had an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Nowadays, it is often considered too unpleasant. However, the experience of patients of this procedure has been very seldom evaluated. Nor has the effect on pain in rhinosinusitis been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' experience of discomfort and pain during antral irrigation. We also assessed facial pain caused by rhinosinusitis before the procedure and pain soon after the procedure. Doctors and 121 patients completed their questionnaires independently after antral irrigation in a university clinic, in a private hospital, and at a communal health center. Patients experienced mild pain during antral irrigation (mean and median visual analog scale score: irrigation was closely comparable to pain during dental calculus scaling. Facial pain assessed before antral irrigation decreased quickly after the procedure. Antral irrigation was well tolerated as an outpatient procedure. The procedure seems to relieve facial pain caused by the disease quickly. The role of antral irrigation in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis will need further investigation.

  13. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  14. Effects of Irrigation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Wheat under Drip Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhua Wang; Guojun Jiang; Xurong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In arid areas, wheat Growth and yield is extremely significant affected by irrigation, under different study of drip irrigation, the irrigation amount has impact on the physiological indicators of wheat, in order to help improve the efficiency of irrigation water use. In order to reveal the effects of irrigation on photosynthetic characteristics of the Wheat Under Drip Irrigation (WUDI), we designed four different irrigation treatments as W1 (315 mm), W2 (360 mm), W3 (405 mm) and W4 (450 mm) ...

  15. Irrigating The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  16. Determination of irrigation pumpage in parts of Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Irrigation pumpage was determined for parts of Kearny and Finney Counties in Southwestern Kansas using crop-acreage data and consumptive, irrigation-water requirements. Irrigated acreages for 1974-80 were compiled for wheat, grain sorghum, corn, and alfalfa using records from the U.S. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Consumptive-irrigation requirements were computed using a soil-moisture model. The model tabulated monthly soil-moisture and crop-water demand for various crops and computed the volume of irrigation water needed to maintain the available moisture at 50% for loamy soils or at 60% for sandy soils. Irrigated acres in the study area increased from 265,000 acres during 1974 to 321,000 acres during 1980. Irrigation pumpage increased from 584,000 acre-feet during 1974 to 738,000 acre-feet during 1980. Decreased consumptive-irrigation requirements during 1979 resulted in a comparatively small irrigation-pumpage estimate of 458,000 acre-feet. (USGS)

  17. [Effects of irrigation mode on winter wheat yield and water- and nutrient use efficiencies under maize straw returning to field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian-you; Pei, Xue-xia; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jiao-ai; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-yi

    2011-10-01

    In 2008-2010, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes on the grain yield, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat under maize straw returning to the field in a semi-arid and semi-humid monsoon region of Linfen, Shanxi Province of Northwest China. Irrigation at wintering time promoted tillering, irrigation at jointing stage increased the total tiller number and the fertile spike rate per tiller, whereas irrigation at booting stage promoted the dry matter accumulation in spike and increased the 1000-kernel mass. When the irrigation was implemented at two growth stages and the second irrigation time was postponed, both the dry matter translocation to leaf and the kernels per spike increased. Irrigation twice throughout the whole growth season induced a higher NUE and higher dry matter accumulation in spike, as compared to irrigation once. The irrigation amount at wintering time and the total irrigation amount had lesser effects on the tillering and the dry matter accumulation in spike. Increasing irrigation amount at jointing stage or booting stage more benefited the nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and translocation, and grain WUE, which in turn made the yield-formation factors be more balance and the grain yield be higher. It was concluded that to guarantee the irrigation amount at wintering time could achieve stabilized yield, and the optimal irrigation mode was irrigation at wintering time plus an additional irrigation at jointing stage (900 m3 hm(-2)), which could satisfy the water demand of winter wheat at its mid and later growth stage and increase the WUE of grain, and realize water-saving and high-yielding cultivation.

  18. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  19. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  20. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  1. Irrigation Water Management Practices in Smallholder Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... vegetables using small-scale irrigation. Key informants were interviewed and group discussions were conducted with smallholder vegetable farmers. Data were collected on household irrigation knowledge, experiences, skills, irrigation water sources as well as on irrigation water management practices such as methods, ...

  2. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering c...

  3. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of...: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Don Pedro Hydroelectric... Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241 and Greg Dias, Project Manager...

  4. 77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Sacramento, CA 95816. Robert Nees, or Representative, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA...

  5. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA 95381. Greg Dias or Representative, Modesto...

  6. Irrigation Controllers Specification and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense labeled irrigation controllers, which act like a thermostat for your sprinkler system telling it when to turn on and off, use local weather and landscape conditions to tailor watering schedules to actual conditions on the site.

  7. Irrigation Sprinklers Notice of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-efficiency irrigation sprinklers aim to deliver water more evenly to the landscape than traditional sprinklers and/or regulate outlet pressure to ensure a constant flow rate over a range of supply pressures.

  8. FARM LEVEL IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY DECISIONS OVER TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Schuck, Eric C.; Green, Gareth P.

    2002-01-01

    A time-series cross-sectional model of irrigation technology choice is developed for an irrigation district in California's Central Valley to show how changes in the relative price of irrigation water and variations in water supply over time influence the choice of irrigation system. Results indicate changes in crop mix and variations in water supply are at least as important as price in determining the choice of irrigation system.

  9. A MICROCOMPUTER MODEL FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Buller, Orlan H.; Dvorak, Gary J.; Manges, Harry L.

    1988-01-01

    ICEASE (Irrigation Cost Estimator and System Evaluator) is a microcomputer model designed and developed to meet the need for conducting economic evaluation of adjustments to irrigation systems and management techniques to improve the use of irrigated water. ICEASE can calculate the annual operating costs for irrigation systems and has five options that can be used to economically evaluate improvements in the pumping plant or the way the irrigation system is used for crop production.

  10. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  11. Irrigation management of crops rotations in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, J.; Teixeira, J.; Catalão, J.

    2012-04-01

    Due to climate change we cannot continue to perform irrigation systems design and irrigation management based only on historical records of weather stations, assuming that the statistical parameters of the meteorological data remains unchanged in time, being necessary to take into account the climatic data relative to climate change scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin the various climate models indicate an increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation and a more frequent occurrence of extreme events which will increase the risk of crop failure. Thus, it is important to adopt strategies to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in a changing climate. A very interesting technique to achieve this is the adoption of crops rotations, since they increase the heterogeneity of farming systems distributing the risk between crops and minimizing costs. This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change in the irrigation requirements of crop rotations for the Alentejo region in the South of Portugal, and the ability of crops rotation to reduce these impacts and stabilize crops production. The IrrigRotation software was used to estimate the water requirements of two crop rotations used in the Alentejo region, Sunflower-Wheat-Barley and Sugar beet-Maize-Tomato-Wheat. IrrigRotation is a soil water balance simulation model, continuous in time, based on the dual crop coefficients methodology, which allows to compute the irrigation requirements of crop rotations. The climate data used were the observed data of the Évora and Beja weather stations (1961-90), the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadRM3P model and the A2 scenarios of the HIRHAMh and HIRHAMhh models (2071-2100). The consideration of a set of climate change scenarios produces as a result a range of values for the irrigation requirements which can be used to define safety margins in irrigation design. The results show that for the Beja clay soils, with high values of soil water storage capacity

  12. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  13. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  14. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  15. Osteotomy irrigation: is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    Surgical placement of dental implants requires an osteotomy. There is suspicion that osseous drilling may generate detrimental heat in the site that may cause localized bone necrosis and, subsequently, failure of the dental implant to osseointegrate. Cooling aqueous irrigation has been advocated to prevent such overheating. However, irrigation can interfere with operator vision and precludes bone shaving collection from the drill flukes for use in autogenous grafting. Small diameter drills may generate more heat than larger diameter drills and may need to be irrigated when smaller diameter implants are to be placed in dense bone. Contemporary larger diameter drills may not generate detrimental heat and may incrementally remove any heat damaged bone from the previous drilling. It may be safe not to use irrigation for less bone dense sites when larger diameter drills are used. In addition, higher drill force and speed may minimize osseous heating by minimizing the time of in-bone drill operation and heat generation. Irrigation to prevent bone heating during the osteotomy may not be necessary when using contemporary drill designs with an expeditious drilling technique.

  16. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Dhaimy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i passive irrigation, (ii manually activated irrigation, and (iii passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682±0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876±0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910±0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α=5%. Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system.

  17. Estimating actual irrigation application by remotely sensed evapotranspiration observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Lorite, I.J.; SWAP, PEST

    2010-01-01

    Water managers and policy makers need accurate estimates of real (actual) irrigation applications for effective monitoring of irrigation and efficient irrigation management. However, this information is not readily available at field level for larger irrigation areas. An innovative inverse

  18. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  19. AGROCLIMATIC DETERMINANTS OF IRRIGATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  20. Solar irrigation program plan. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvis, R.L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes the ERDA solar irrigation program plan through fiscal year 1979. It is an update of the original program plan as outlined in Sandia Report SAND--76-0594. The updated goals of the plan are listed, the participants named, and their responsibilities outlined. ERDA has the program responsibility, ERDA field offices the contractural responsibility, and Sandia Laboratories the technical direction responsibilities. Three solar irrigation experiments planned, system analyses to be conducted, and the participants of the program are described. This document is intended to be used as a program guide for accomplishing the program goals.

  1. Instability of infiltration fronts due to long term irrigation of treated waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuther, Frederic; Weller, Ulrich; Schlüter, Steffen; Wallach, Rony; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation of treated waste water (TWW) is a common practice in arid and semiarid areas as it combines a sustainable, all-season available water recourse and the recycling of nutrients. Previous studies have shown that organic compounds can affect wettability of mineral surfaces and may change soil structure. Since TWW provides high loads of organic material, long-term irrigation can lead to persistent structure alteration, hydrophobicity, preferential flow, and leaching of chemicals and nutrients. In this study we (i) developed a new approach to quantify water movement in undisturbed soil cores via X-ray radiography and (ii) detected instabilities of water infiltration in soils irrigated with TWW since more than 20 years. We investigated soil samples from two orchards in Israel with long-term irrigation of TWW, one of them additionally irrigated with fresh water. The samples provide two different soil textures, and two different treatments of irrigation: fresh water and TWW. Furthermore, we included seasonal dependencies (dry season and rainy season) to determine persistency of effects. Undisturbed, cylindrical soil samples were taken from the upper soil layer (0-20cm) and irrigation experiments were performed inside an X-ray system. Via image analysis we quantified the infiltration front propagation and spatial moisture distribution as a function of time and repeated the experiments with different initial moisture contents. In this study we show that the stability of infiltration front in these soils is dependent on the irrigated water quality and on the initial water content. Furthermore, we demonstrate that long-term irrigation of TWW can lead to a persistent change in wettability, independent of the season. This study provides experimental evidence about importance of optimizing irrigation management to prevent preferential flow.

  2. A procedure to size solar-powered irrigation (photoirrigation) schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadros, F. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dpto e Fisica; Lopez-Rodriguez, F.; Marcos, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dpto de Expresion Grafica; Coello, J. [Universidad Agraria ' La Molina' , Lima (Peru)

    2004-04-01

    The high cost of photovoltaic solar power makes it necessary, before undertaking any subsequent study, to dimension photovoltaic installations as accurately as possible. We here present a procedure to estimate the required dimension of a photovoltaic installation designed to power a pumping system for the drip irrigation of an olive tree orchard in SW Spain. The method consists of three main stages: (1) One determines the irrigation requirements of the specific estate according to the characteristics of its soil-type and climate. (2) A hydraulic analysis of the pumping system is made according to the depth of the aquifer and the height needed to stabilize the pressure in the water distribution network. (3) Finally, one determines the peak photovoltaic power required to irrigate a 10 ha sub-plot of the estate taking into account the overall yield of the photovoltaic-pump-irrigation system. We call this arrangement 'photoirrigation', and believe that it may be of great utility to improve the output of such socially significant crops as olives and wine grapes, optimizing the use of water and solar energy resources at the same time as preserving the environment. (author)

  3. Cotton irrigation timing with variable seasonal irrigation capacities in the Texas south plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Ogallala Aquifer Region of Texas, the irrigation capacity (IC) for a given field often changes within a growing season due to seasonal depletion of the aquifer, in season changes in crop irrigation needs in dry years, or consequences of irrigation volume limits imposed by irrigation distr...

  4. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  5. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District filed an application for a...

  6. SURDEV: surface irrigation software; design, operation, and evaluation of basin, border, and furrow irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriëns, M.; Zerihun, D.; Boonstra, J.; Feyen, J.

    2001-01-01

    SURDEV is a computer package for the design, operation, and evaluation of surface irrigation. SURDEV combines three sub-programs: BASDEV (for basin irrigation), FURDEV (for furrow irrigation), and BORDEV for (border irrigation). This combination enables the user to simulate many of the problems

  7. Yield and water use of eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) under full and deficit irrigation irrigation regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karam, F.; Saliba, R.; Skaf, F.; Breidy, J.; Rouphael, Y.; Balendonck, J.

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine the effects of deficit irrigation on yield and water use of field grown eggplants. A total of 8 irrigation treatments (four each year), which received different amounts of irrigation water, were evaluated. In 2008, deficit irrigation was

  8. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  9. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  10. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  11. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  12. Water requirements for irrigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.; Kselik, R.A.L.; Allen, R.G.; Mollen, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture produces about 40% of all food and fibre on about 16% of all cropped land. As such, irrigated agriculture is a productive user of resources; both in terms of yield per cropped area and in yield per volume of water consumed. Many irrigation projects, however, use (divert or

  13. Micro-pressure drip irrigation technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... 1National Engineering Research Center for Water-saving Irrigation at Yangling, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,. Chinese Academy of ... Key words: Irrigation, drip irrigation, micro-pressure systems, agricultural and environmental biotechnology, ..... Based on an analysis of polyethylene (PE) plastic.

  14. Sediment transport in irrigation canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez V., N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The world population is rapidly increasing and is expected to double to about 10 billion by the year 2050. To support an increasing population in terms of food sufficiency, more and more water will be required. Irrigation is the most critical component of the modern package of inputs to

  15. Position paper : Whole bowel irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Although some volunteer studies have shown substantial decreases in the bioavailability of ingested drugs, no controlled clinical trials have been performed and there is no conclusive evidence that

  16. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  17. [Effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng-juan; He, Ming-rong; Li, Fei; Xu, Liang-liang; Huang, Chuan-hua; Qu, Mu

    2008-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of post-anthesis irrigation frequency on the grain quality of strong gluten winter wheat, two cultivars Jimai 20 and Gaocheng 8901 were subjected to a series of irrigation frequencies under rainfall proof conditions, with their grain yield and grain quality (farinograph parameters and loaf volume) and protein composition evaluated. The results indicated that with increasing irrigation frequency, the grain yield of the two cultivars, their wheat flour dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were noted to be increased first but decreased then. The grain yield and quality of Gaocheng 8901 were the highest when irrigated once after anthesis, while those of Jimai 20 were the best when irrigated twice after anthesis, respectively. The contents of monomeric protein, soluble glutenin, insoluble glutenin, total glutenin, flour protein, and wet gluten in the grains displayed the similar trends. Stepwise regression analysis showed that under the test post-anthesis irrigation frequencies, the key factor affecting dough stability time was insoluble glutenin content, and loaf volume was significantly correlated with total glutenin content. It was suggested that to maintain the quality stability of high grade strong gluten winter wheat, irrigation management should take the improvement of grain protein composition, and glutenin in particular, as the target.

  18. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2009-11-15

    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  19. A novel dual soil sensor for simultaneous water content and water potential determination in irrigation scheduling and environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Christof; Spohrer, Klaus; Karaj, Shkelqim; Müller, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Due to the climate change and decreasing water availability in many parts of the world, water efficient irrigation becomes more and more important to stabilize or even increase agricultural productivity. An efficient irrigation scheduling relies on soil water potential information in order to define the optimal irrigation start as well as on soil water content data to quantify the amount of soil water and thus to properly define irrigation depth. Furthermore, nutrient leaching and groundwater contamination will be reduced by controlled irrigation. Therefore, a novel dual soil sensor was developed which allows for simultaneous determination of water content and water potential at low costs suitable for distributed sensing. The soil water content measurement is realized with a dielectric measurement approach. Sensor elements are arranged on a printed circuit board, which can easily be inserted into the soil. Soil water potential data is deduced from water content measurements in porous matrices with known retention characteristics. The matrices are placed on the printed circuit board above a water content sensitive dielectric measuring area. In contrast to common granular matrix sensors, the matrices are characterized by a narrow pore size ranges by which the accuracy of soil water potential determination can be improved and a threshold characteristic suitable for irrigation is achieved. Sensor principle and laboratory experiments will be presented. For application in irrigation scheduling, the dual sensor is connected to off-the-shelf irrigation controllers by an additional interface controller. The interface controller activates moisture measurements of the sensor and compares the actual measurements with set-points of water content or water potential. The running time-based programme of the irrigation controller will be interrupted if measured soil water contents are above a predefined water content threshold or soil water potential measurements are below a

  20. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  1. A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF WATER SAVINGS FROM ADVANCED IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hornbaker, Robert H.; Mapp, Harry P., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized grain sorghum plant growth model is combined with recursive programming to analyze the potential irrigation water savings from adopting irrigation scheduling and low pressure center pivot irrigation technology. Results indicate that irrigation pumping can be reduced with increased yields and net returns by adopting low energy precision application (LEPA) irrigation systems. Variations in input and output prices affect optimal irrigation quantities for low pressure irrigation sy...

  2. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mailapalli, Damodhara R.; Raghuwanshi, Narendra S.; Singh, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in fur...

  3. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  4. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  5. IRRIGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  6. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  7. A review of transanal irrigation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mary

    2017-08-10

    This article discusses transanal irrigation: what it is, the clinical conditions that might be helped by it and less invasive options that should be considered before starting irrigation. It looks at the delivery of this procedure, describes the different options available and compares and contrasts devices manufactured by five different companies. Contraindications are listed and side-effects discussed. Problems and possible solutions are considered. Transanal irrigation education for nurses and teaching patients is reviewed. Follow-up is discussed, including the reasons why some patients abandon irrigation. Quality of life can be improved for those who become successful users of transanal irrigation. When patients do continue to irrigate, even when this is not problem free, it can help them regain control over their bowel dysfunction by allowing them to evacuate their bowels at a time and a place that is convenient.

  8. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  9. BRS Savanna: new six-rowed malting barley cultivar for irrigated crops in the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BRS Savanna, a cross between V. Morales x IF200113, is a spring andan early-maturing six-rowed barley, widely adaptedto irrigated areas of the savanna, in Central Brazil. It presents production stability and the industrial quality, grain yield and lodgingresistance are high. It is suitable for cultivation in the states of GO, MG and DF.

  10. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  11. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  12. Effect of irrigation systems on temporal distribution of malaria vectors in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shunji; Kaga, Takumi

    2014-04-01

    Previous research models have used climate data to explain habitat conditions of Anopheles mosquitoes transmitting malaria parasites. Although they can estimate mosquito populations with sufficient accuracy in many areas, observational data show that there is a tendency to underestimate the active growth and reproduction period of mosquitoes in semi-arid agricultural regions. In this study, a new, modified model that includes irrigation as a factor was developed to predict the active growing period of mosquitoes more precisely than the base model for ecophysiological and climatological distribution of mosquito generations (ECD-mg). Five sites with complete sets of observational data were selected in semi-arid regions of India for the comparison. The active growing period of mosquitoes determined from the modified ECD-mg model that incorporated the irrigation factor was in agreement with the observational data, whereas the active growing period was underestimated by the previous ECD-mg model that did not incorporate irrigation. This suggests that anthropogenic changes in the water supply due to extensive irrigation can encourage the growth of Anopheles mosquitoes through the alteration of the natural water balance in their habitat. In addition, it was found that the irrigation systems not only enable the active growth of mosquitoes in dry seasons but also play an important role in stabilizing the growth in rainy seasons. Consequently, the irrigation systems could lengthen the annual growing period of Anopheles mosquitoes and increase the maximum generation number of mosquitoes in semi-arid subtropical regions.

  13. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent of the sew......In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...

  14. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  15. Accounting for potassium and magnesium in irrigation water quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Oster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation with treated wastewater is expected to increase significantly in California during the coming decade as a way to reduce the impact of drought and mitigate water transfer issues. To ensure that such wastewater reuse does not result in unacceptable impacts on soil permeability, water quality guidelines must effectively address sodicity hazard. However, current guidelines are based on the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and thus assume that potassium (K and magnesium (Mg, which often are at elevated concentrations in recycled wastewaters, pose no hazard, despite many past studies to the contrary. Recent research has established that the negative effects of high K and Mg concentrations on soil permeability are substantial and that they can be accounted for by a new irrigation water quality parameter, the cation ratio of structural stability (CROSS, a generalization of SAR. We show that CROSS, when suitably optimized, correlates strongly with a standard measure of soil permeability reduction for an agricultural soil leached with winery wastewater, and that it can be incorporated directly into existing irrigation water quality guidelines by replacing SAR.

  16. Managing diminished irrigation capacity with preseason irrigation and plant density for corn production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the irrigation systems today in the U.S. Central Great Plains no longer have the capacity to match peak irrigation needs during the summer and must rely on soil water reserves to buffer the crop from water stress. Considerable research was conducted on preseason irrigation in the U.S. Great ...

  17. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  18. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  19. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  20. HEAVY METALS AND MICRONUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL AND GRAPEVINE UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils under natural conditions have heavy metals in variable concentrations and there may be an increase in these elements as a result of the agricultural practices adopted. Transport of heavy metals in soil mainly occurs in forms dissolved in the soil solution or associated with solid particles, water being their main means of transport. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metal and micronutrient content in the soil and in the grapevine plant and fruit under different irrigation strategies. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three irrigation strategies: full irrigation (FI, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, and deficit irrigation (DI. During the period of grape maturation, soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-80 cm. In addition, leaves were collected at the time of ripening of the bunches, and berries were collected at harvest. Thus, the heavy metal and micronutrient contents were determined in the soil, leaves, and berries. The heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the soil showed a stochastic pattern in relation to the different irrigation strategies. The different irrigation strategies did not affect the heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the vine leaves, and they were below the contents considered toxic to the plant. In contrast, the greater availability of water in the FI treatment favored a greater Cu content in the grape, which may be a risk to vines, causing instability and turbidity. Thus, adoption of deficit irrigation is recommended so as to avoid compromising the stability of tropical wines of the Brazilian Northeast.

  1. 75 FR 67095 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation...: The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) owns or has an interest in irrigation projects located on or... irrigation assessment rates to recover the [[Page 67096

  2. Surgical Site Irrigation in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadan, Olga; Becker, Hilton

    2018-02-15

    The incidence of infection following breast implant reconstruction remains high at the level of 24%. Surgical site irrigation is commonly used for its prevention. However, the lack of evidence-based guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in breast implant surgery necessitates research for optimal irrigation technique. composition and exposure time of irrigation solution for surgical site infection (SSI) prophylaxis using an in vitro model of a surgical site. The study design was an in vitro model to assess antibiotic irrigation of a surgical site. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Group A Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were seeded on blood agar growth medium and irrigated with various antibiotic and antiseptic solutions under different exposure times. The presence and quantity of the colonies grown were estimated after 24-hour incubation. Repetition of the studies for 5 times with each investigated irrigation solution and microorganism was performed. Optimal irrigation agents were chosen based on the ability to achieve sterility with minimal tissue toxicity. The optimal wound irrigation agents for SSI prophylaxis in our study were found to be 0.05% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic antibiotic solutions. Adding of vancomycin to the irrigation solutions did not show an increase in their effectiveness. Prolonged irrigation exposure time was necessary to achieve sterility of the in vitro model of a surgical site. We recommend 0.05% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic solution for topical SSI prophylaxis in breast implant surgery. Sufficient time of irrigation can be achieved by maintaining some of the solution in the pocket and delaying drainage for at least 30 minutes. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  4. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  5. Identifying the potential for irrigation development in Mozambique: Capitalizing on the drivers behind farmer-led irrigation expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, P.W.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; Bolding, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder irrigation in Central Mozambique predominantly takes place in an informal setting. This renders these smallholders and their activities invisible for policy purposes. Identification efforts of smallholder irrigation as well as the potential for new irrigation development are often the

  6. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  7. Scheduling irrigation in heterogeneous container nursery crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Vita, Di A.; Pardossi, A.; Bibbiani, C.; Marzialetti, P.; Balendonck, J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major production areas in Europe for Hardy Ornamental Nursery Stocks (HONS) is located around Pistoia (Tuscany, Italy). In this area, pot ornamental crops show low water use efficiency (WUE). Main reasons of poor irrigation efficiency are both the inaccurate irrigation scheduling, which

  8. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  9. Strategic irrigation against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark there are several organic orchards, that do not spray at all, and they seek non-spraying methods to prevent apple scab. In this pilot trial, irrigation with water at strategic moments was tested to prevent scab-infection. In April-June 2011 in five organic orchards we irrigated...

  10. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  11. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  12. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  13. CROP DENSITY AND IRRIGATION WITH SALINE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Feinerman, Eli

    1983-01-01

    The economic implications of plant density for irrigation water use under saline conditions are investigated, utilizing the involved physical and biological relationships. The analysis considers a single crop and is applied to cotton data. The results suggest that treating plant density as an endogenous control variable has substantial impact on profits and the optimal quantities and qualities of the applied irrigation water.

  14. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  15. Microbial transport into groundwater from irrigation: Comparison of two irrigation practices in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, L; Karki, N; Mackenzie, M; Sinton, L; Wood, D; Flintoft, M; Havelaar, P; Close, M

    2016-02-01

    Rising demand on food is leading to an increase in irrigation worldwide to improve productivity. Irrigation, for pastoral agriculture (beef, dairy and sheep), is the largest consumptive use of water in New Zealand. There is a potential risk of leaching of microbial contaminants from faecal matter through the vadose zone into groundwater. Management of irrigation is vital for protection of groundwater from these microbial contaminants and maintain efficient irrigation practices. Our research investigated flood and spray irrigation, two practices common in New Zealand. The aim was to identify the risk of microbial transport and mitigation practices to reduce or eliminate the risk of microbial transport into groundwater. Cowpats were placed on lysimeters over a typical New Zealand soil (Lismore silt loam) and vadose zone and the leachate collected after irrigation events. Samples of both cowpats and leachate were analysed for the microbial indicator Escherichia coli and pathogen Campylobacter species. A key driver to the microbial transport derived from the model applied was the volume of leachate collected: doubling the leachate volume more than doubled the total recovery of E. coli. The persistence of E. coli in the cowpats during the experiment is an important factor as well as the initial environmental conditions, which were more favourable for survival and growth of E. coli during the spray irrigation compared with the flood irrigation. The results also suggest a reservoir of E. coli surviving in the soil. Although the same was potentially true for Campylobacter, little difference in the transport rates between irrigation practices could be seen due to the poor survival of Campylobacter during the experiment. Effective irrigation practices include monitoring the irrigation rates to minimise leachate production, delaying irrigation until 14days post-cowpat deposition and only irrigating when risk of transport to the groundwater is minimal. To compare the risk of

  16. [Effects of irrigation scheme on the grain glutenin macropolymer's size distribution and the grain quality of winter wheat with strong gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Dian-Yong; Dai, Xing-Long; He, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    Taking two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Gaocheng 8901 and Jimai 20) with high quality strong gluten as test materials, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the grain glutenin macropolymer (GMP)'s content and size distribution, grain quality, and grain yield under effects of different irrigation schemes. The schemes included no irrigation in whole growth period (W0), irrigation once at jointing stage (W1), irrigation two times at wintering and jointing stages (W2), respectively, and irrigation three times at wintering, jointing, and filling stages (W3), respectively, with the irrigation amount in each time being 675 m3 x hm(-2). Among the test irrigation schemes, W2 had the best effects on the dough development time, dough stability time, loaf volume, grain yield, GMP content, weighted average surface area of particle D(3,2), weighted average volume of particle D(4,3), and volume percent and surface area percent of particle size >100 microm of the two cultivars. The dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were negatively correlated with the volume percent of GMP particle size 100 microm, D(3,2), and D(4,3). It was suggested that both water deficit and water excess had detrimental effects on the grain yield and grain quality, and irrigation level could affect the wheat grain quality through altering GMP particle size distribution.

  17. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  18. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen; Forner, Leopoldo

    2012-05-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layers and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation.

  19. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  20. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  1. Biomechanical performance of a collagen meniscus implant with regard to suture material and irrigation fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, Clemens; von Roth, Philipp; Schmidt, Sebastian; Ode, Jan-Erik; Wulsten, Dag; Hoburg, Arnd

    2017-08-01

    The role of meniscus scaffolds remains controversial as failure rates remain high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pullout strength of different suture materials used for fixation of the Collagen Meniscus Implant (CMI) regarding different suture materials, and type or temperature of irrigation fluid. One-hundred and twelve specimens were utilized with horizontal sutures and mounted to a dedicated test device. Loads were applied perpendicular to the CMI, until failure. Two differing suture materials - polydioxanone (PDS) and non-absorbable, braided polyester sutures (NABP) - were evaluated. Additionally, two common irrigation fluids - lactated Ringer's and electrolyte-free, hypotonic Mannitol-Sorbitol solution - were evaluated. Specimens were further evaluated according to different temperatures of the irrigation fluid. Half of the constructs were tested at room temperature (20°C) and half were evaluated at near-core body temperature (37°C). PDS sutures showed a significantly higher load-to-failure compared to NABP sutures (P=0.0008). Regarding the type of irrigation fluid, the electrolyte-free Mannitol-Sorbitol solution showed a significantly higher load-to-failure compared to the overall Ringer group (P b 0.0001). This was equivalent for both the PDS (P=0.015) and for the NABP sutures (P b 0.0001). The temperature of the irrigation fluid did not significantly influence load-to-failure. PDS sutures and electrolyte-free Mannitol-Sorbitol irrigation fluid provided the best biomechanical properties regarding load-to-failure testing. This study underlines the potential to improve construct stability for the CMI by alteration of the suture material and the type of irrigation fluid, which should be considered whenever scaffold fixation is conducted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Irrigation treatments, water use efficiency and crop sustainability in cereal-forage rotations in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems based on crop rotation are beneficial to crop sustainability and productivity. Wheat-forage rotations combined with irrigation are the agronomic techniques best able to exploit Mediterranean environmental conditions. This paper describes a long-term field trial to ascertain the effect of combined irrigation and durum wheat-forage rotations on crop yield and soil chemical properties. The two forage crops: annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and perennial lucerne were carried out through 1991-2008 under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The experiments were used to highlight the effect of irrigation and wheat-forage crop rotations on water use efficiency (WUE and sustainability of organic matter (OM in topsoil. Irrigation increased the dry matter (DM of annual binary mixture and lucerne by 49.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Continuous wheat rotation reduced seed yield (SY, stability of production, and crude protein (CP characteristics of kernel and OM in topsoil. The yearly gain in wheat after forage crops was 0.04 t (ha yr-1 under rainfed and 0.07 t (ha yr-1 under irrigation treatments. The CP and soil OM of wheat forage crops rotations, compared with those of continuous wheat under rainfed and irrigated was a 0.8 and 0.5 % increase in CP and 5.1 and 4.4 in OM, respectively. The rotations of annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and lucerne meadow under both irrigated treatments increased the OM over continuous wheat (9.3 % and 8.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture and 12.5 and 9.5 lucerne meadow under rainfed and irrigation, respectively. Irrigation reduced the impact of weather on crop growing, reducing water use efficiency (mean over rotations for DM production (15.5 in meadow and 17.5 in annual grass-clover winter binary mixture [L water (kg DM-1] and wheat SY. However, the agronomic benefits achieved by forage crops in topsoil are exhausted after three years of continuous wheat rotation.

  3. Irrigation water use in Kansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.

    2016-03-22

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of 2013 irrigation water use in Kansas. The published regional and county-level statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented. Total reported irrigation water use in 2013 was 3.3 million acre-feet of water applied to 3.0 million irrigated acres.

  4. Validation of an extracted tooth model of endodontic irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, C K; Burnside, G; Chan, S N; Giles, L H; Jarad, F D

    2011-01-01

    An extracted tooth model of endodontic irrigation, incorporating reproducible inoculation and irrigation procedures, was tested against Enterococcus faecalis using a variety of different irrigants in a Latin square methodology. ANOVA revealed no significant variations between the twelve teeth or experiments undertaken on different occasions; however, variation between irrigants was significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. To model transfer and bioaccumulation radionuclides during irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drandarski, N.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the irrigation test scenario presented in the BIOMOVS intercomparison study calculated by the computer code BIOPATH. The scenario defines a constant release of radionuclides into groundwater that is used for irrigation. Two separate irrigation methods are considered - ditch and overhead irrigation. (author). 3 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation.

  7. Yield and quality response of drip-irrigated pepper under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant linear relations were found between the pepper yield and the total water use for each irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals resulted in similar water use in the treatments with the same irrigation level. Water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) values were significantly influenced by the ...

  8. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and spatial management on maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spatial management of irrigation water and N fertilization can be employed to reduce interactive effects, thus increasing water and N use efficiency and reducing pollution. Partial root-zone irrigation is a modified form of deficit irrigation which involves irrigating only one part of the root z...

  9. Problems of Public Health Importance Associated with Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These effects arise from the source and quality of irrigation water, the irrigation method and the run-off from the irrigated land. The main effects are transmission of water-borne disease, proliferation of disease vectors with subsequent increase in water-based diseases, toxic effects from chemicals in irrigation water, and ...

  10. Growth and ionic content of quinoa under saline irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Pulvento, C.; Lavini, A.

    2014-01-01

    . An irrigation experiment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Volturno river plain. Three treatments irrigated with fresh water (Q100, Q50 and Q25) and three irrigated with saline water (Q100S, Q50S and Q25S) were tested. For saline irrigation, water with an electrical conductivity of 22 dS m-1 was used...

  11. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  12. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smallholder irrigation in South Africa comprises only 3% of the irrigated area. Despite this relatively small area share, Limpopo Province is using the development of smallholder irrigation as a way of developing rural areas and correcting historical imbalances. Unlike the smallholder irrigation developed in most African ...

  13. Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ) as influenced by flood irrigation and compost manure levels in zaria. ... A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying levels of irrigation volume, irrigation frequency and compost manure application on growth components, forage yield ...

  14. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  15. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Kennedy published his channel-forming discharge theory in 1895. Subsequently different theories have been developed and are used around the world. All of them assume uniform and steady flow conditions ...

  16. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  17. Adaptação, estabilidade e potencial produtivo de genótipos de Triticum durum L., irrigados por aspersão, no Estado de São Paulo Adaptability, stability and yield potential of Triticum durum L. genotypes under sprinkler irrigation in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felicio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 17 linhagens e duas cultivares de Triticum durum L. tendo como testemunha a cultivar IAC 24 de T. aestivum L., em experimentos semeados em condições de irrigação por aspersão nas localidades de Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto e Mococa, no período de 1998 a 2002, no Estado de São Paulo. Foram determinados os rendimentos de grãos e o comportamento de cada genótipo diante das variações ambientais. Análises de adaptação e estabilidade permitiram a identificação de genótipos com comportamento previsível a essas condições ambientais. Foram observados efeitos significativos para anos, locais e genótipos, destacando-se na média dos três locais quanto ao rendimento de grãos a linhagem de T. durum L. 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S". O melhor rendimento de grãos foi observado em Ribeirão Preto e o pior em Votuporanga. Observou-se nas linhagens 9 e 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S, 12 e 19 (GYS"S"/3/ STN"S"// HUI"S"/SOMOS"S" e 3 (STN"S"/3/TEZ"S"/YAV79// HUI"S" adaptabilidade específica, portanto, responsivas ao emprego de alta tecnologia. A incidência da ferrugem-da- folha somente foi constatada na cultivar IAC 24 da espécie de T. aestivum.In order to evaluate Triticum durum L. genotypes having as control the T. aestivum L. cultivar IAC, 24 experiments were carried out, under sprinkler irrigation, at Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto and Mococa locations, in the period 1998 to 2002, in the State of São Paulo. Grain yield and performance of each genotype in relation to the environment variation were evaluated. Adaptability and stability analysis were made identify genotypes with predictable performance in these environment conditions. Significant effects were observed for years, locations and genotypes. Considering the three locations, Triticum durum inbred line 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S" presented the highest yield. The highest grain yields were observed in Ribeirão Preto and

  18. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Irrigation Water: A Case of Tank Irrigation Systems in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic value of tank irrigation water was determined through Contingency Valuation Method by analyzing farmers’ willingness to pay for irrigation water under improved water supply conditions during wet and dry seasons of paddy cultivation. Quadratic production function was also used to determine the value of irrigation water. The comparison of the economic value of water estimated using different methods strongly suggests that the present water use pattern will not lead to sustainable use of the resource in the tank command areas. Policy options for sustainable use of irrigation water and management of tanks in India were suggested.

  19. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  20. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling under drip irrigation for maize crop in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; El-Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Taha, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area.

  1. 21 CFR 880.6960 - Irrigating syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... device is used to irrigate, withdraw fluid from, or instill fluid into, a body cavity or wound. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in...

  2. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  3. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Büyükcangaz; Mohammed Alhassan; Jacqueline Nyenedio Harris

    2017-01-01

    Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on...

  4. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the solar irrigation workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The ERDA Solar Irrigation Workshop was structured to be a major vehicle for information dissemination and technology transfer. It covered a wide range of subject matter related to crop irrigation including current hardware, economics, experiments, and international requirements. Speakers represented manufacturers, ranchers, governmental entities, universities and research firms. The proceedings consist of one page abstracts for each presentation, a brief biographical sketch of each speaker and sources for further information on each subject.

  6. Risk-Efficient Irrigation Strategies for Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sushil

    1988-01-01

    Agricultural production is risky. When farmers are risk-averse, they are likely to put a premium on production methods that reduce perceived risks. Irrigation is generally believed to be a riskreducing input. By using the concept of stochastic dominance, risk-efficient irrigation policies for wheat grown in central India are identified and quantitative estimates of benefits due to risk reduction are obtained. Such benefits were found to be of a large order of magnitude. The more common method...

  7. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    conclusion of the monitoring phase, turf specialists from California State University, Fresno determined the appearance of the smart plot was slightly less...studies conducted on farms in California that demonstrate activities that: 1) lead to more efficient applied water use or enhance water quality; 2...irrigation audit of the sprinklers systems was conducted by the Center for Irrigation Technology (CIT), California State University, Fresno to ensure the

  8. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez; Yoslén Fernández Gálvez; Mayra Martínez Pírez; Camilo Bonet Pérez; Manuel A Hernández Victoria; Arlandy Noy Perera

    2016-01-01

    This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the...

  9. Supplemental irrigation as an initiative to support water and food security: A global evaluation of the potential to support and increase precipitation-fed wheat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T. P.; Adamowski, J. F.; Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Supplemental irrigation is the practice of supporting precipitation-fed agriculture with limited irrigation. Precipitation-fed agriculture dominates the agricultural landscape, but is vulnerable to intraseasonal and interannual variability in precipitation and climate. The interplay between food security, water resources, ecosystem health, energy, and livelihoods necessitates evaluating and integrating initiatives that increase agricultural production while reducing demands on water resources. Supplemental irrigation is the practice of minimally irrigating in an effort to stabilize and increase agricultural production, as well as increase water productivity - the amount of crop produced per unit of water. The potential of supplemental irrigation to support both water and food security has yet to be evaluated at regional and global scales. We evaluate whether supplemental irrigation could stabilize and increase agricultural production of wheat by determining locally-calibrated water use-crop yield relationships, known as crop-water production functions. Crop-water production functions are functions of seasonal water use and crop yield, and previous efforts have largely ignored the effects of the temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season. We significantly improve upon these efforts and provide an opportunity to evaluate supplemental irrigation that appropriately acknowledges the effects of irrigation scheduling. Integrating agroclimatic and crop data with the crop-water model Aquacrop, we determine the increases in wheat production achieved by maximizing water productivity, sharing limited water between different years, and other irrigation scenarios. The methodology presented and evaluation of supplemental irrigation provides water mangers, policy makers, governments, and non-governmental organizations the tools to appropriately understand and determine the potential of this initiative to support precipitation-fed agriculture.

  10. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  11. Simulated climate effects of desert irrigation geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Moore, John C.; Cao, Long; Ji, Duoying; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-04-01

    Geoengineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of earth’s energy balance to counteract global warming, is an attractive proposition for sparsely populated deserts. We use the BNU and UVic Earth system models to simulate the effects of irrigating deserts under the RCP8.5 scenario. Previous studies focused on increasing desert albedo to reduce global warming; in contrast we examine how extending afforestation and ecological projects, that successfully improve regional environments, fair for geoengineering purposes. As expected desert irrigation allows vegetation to grow, with bare soil or grass gradually becoming shrub or tree covered, with increases in terrestrial carbon storage of 90.3 Pg C (UVic-ESCM) - 143.9 Pg C (BNU-ESM). Irrigating global deserts makes the land surface temperature decrease by 0.48 °C and land precipitation increase by 100 mm yr-1. In the irrigated areas, BNU-ESM simulates significant cooling of up to 4.2 °C owing to the increases in low cloud and latent heat which counteract the warming effect due to decreased surface albedo. Large volumes of water would be required to maintain global desert irrigation, equivalent 10 mm/year of global sea level (BNU-ESM) compensate for evapotranspiration losses. Differences in climate responses between the deserts prompt research into tailored albedo-irrigation schemes.

  12. The Effect of Initial Irrigation Conditions on Heap Leaching Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño Arellano, A. D.; Milczarek, M.; Yao, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2017-12-01

    Heap leaching is an unsaturated flow metal recovery process, in which mined ore is irrigated with a lixiviant to dissolve metal contained in the ore. The metal is then extracted from solution. Large scale operations involve stacking ore to depths of 6 to 18 meters on pads that may be hundreds of hectares in area. Heterogeneities within the stacked ore can lead to uneven wetting and the formation of preferential flow pathways, which reduces solution contact and lowers metal recovery. Furthermore, mineral dissolution can cause alteration of the porous media structure and loss of ore permeability. Many mine operators believe that slow initial irrigation rates help minimize permeability loss and increase metal recovery rates. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of varying initial irrigation rates on leach ore stability. These were conducted with large columns (1.5 m high, 0.5 m in diameter) packed with crushed ore samples that are known to have permeability constraints. The columns were highly instrumented to assess potential changes in material properties both spatially and temporally. Water content was measured with three different methods: capacitance soil moisture sensors placed at 20-cm intervals; a neutron probe to periodically log every 30 cm from four different directions; and electrical resistivity sensors to create a 2-dimensional tomography profile of water content over time. Tensiometers were paired with the soil moisture sensors to measure matric suction and characterize moisture retention characteristics. A non-reactive tracer was used to characterize advective-dispersive transport under unsaturated conditions. A dye solution was introduced at the end of each experiment to map preferential pathways. Continuous monitoring of settling at the surface assisted in measuring consolidation and loss in permeability.

  13. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Improved Irrigation Water — A Case Study of Malaprabha Irrigation Project in Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Durba Biswas; L. Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    In principle, the approach toward irrigation management in India has gradually shifted from a government-dominated, supply-side paradigm toward a user-preferred, demand-side paradigm. Yet, decisions regarding water allocation and irrigation charges do not adequately incorporate farmers' preferences and their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improved irrigation. Since public investment on irrigation projects is sizeable and the opportunity cost of irrigation water is increasing, there exists a nee...

  14. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  15. A Real-time Irrigation Forecasting System in Jiefangzha Irrigation District, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the irrigation efficiency, we need to know when and how much to irrigate in real time. If we know the soil moisture content at this time, we can forecast the soil moisture content in the next days based on the rainfall forecasting and the crop evapotranspiration forecasting. Then the irrigation should be considered when the forecasting soil moisture content reaches to a threshold. Jiefangzha Irrigation District, a part of Hetao Irrigation District, is located in Inner Mongolia, China. The irrigated area of this irrigation district is about 140,000 ha mainly planting wheat, maize and sunflower. The annual precipitation is below 200mm, so the irrigation is necessary and the irrigation water comes from the Yellow river. We set up 10 sites with 4 TDR sensors at each site (20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 80cm depth) to monitor the soil moisture content. The weather forecasting data are downloaded from the website of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The reference evapotranspiration is estimated based on FAO-Blaney-Criddle equation with only the air temperature from ECMWF. Then the crop water requirement is forecasted by the crop coefficient multiplying the reference evapotranspiration. Finally, the soil moisture content is forecasted based on soil water balance with the initial condition is set as the monitoring soil moisture content. When the soil moisture content reaches to a threshold, the irrigation warning will be announced. The irrigation mount can be estimated through three ways: (1) making the soil moisture content be equal to the field capacity; (2) making the soil moisture saturated; or (3) according to the irrigation quota. The forecasting period is 10 days. The system is developed according to B2C model with Java language. All the databases and the data analysis are carried out in the server. The customers can log in the website with their own username and password then get the information about the irrigation forecasting

  16. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic

  17. Soil phosphorus dynamics and availability and irrigated coffee yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Henrique Pereira Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research data have demonstrated that the P demand of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is similar to that of short-cycle crops. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of annual P fertilization on the soil P status by the quantification of labile, moderately labile, low-labile, and total P fractions, associating them to coffee yield. The experiment was installed in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol cultivated with irrigated coffee annually fertilized with triple superphosphate at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Phosphorus fractions were determined in two soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. The P leaf contents and coffee yield in 2008 were also evaluated. The irrigated coffee responded to phosphate fertilization in the production phase with gains of up to 138 % in coffee yield by the application of 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Coffee leaf P contents increased with P applications and stabilized around 1.98 g kg-1, at rates of 270 kg ha-1 P2O5 and higher. Soil P application caused, in general, an increase in bioavailable P fractions, which constitute the main soil P reservoir.

  18. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  19. Economic feasibility of converting center pivot irrigation to subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancements in irrigation technology have increased water use efficiency. However, producers can be reluctant to convert to a more efficient irrigation system when the initial investment costs are high. This study examines the economic feasibility of replacing low energy precision application (LEPA...

  20. Comparison between ultrasonic irrigation and syringe irrigation in clinical and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulan; Liu, Jianxin; Dong, Gang; Peng, Bin; Yang, Pishan; Chen, Zhenggang; Yang, Fang; Guo, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic irrigation and syringe irrigation were compared for their efficacy at cleaning root canal in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study used 60 anterior teeth or premolars from 60 patients with periapical periodontitis who were randomly assigned to a syringe irrigation group (group S) or an ultrasonic irrigation group (group U). After instrumentation with a K-file using the step-back technique, the two groups received ultrasonic or syringe irrigation using 40 mL of 2.5% NaOCl respectively, followed by conventional lateral compaction. The in vitro study used 60 extracted single-canal premolars, which were also divided into U and S groups, and underwent the same irrigation and compaction. Forty of them were evaluated histologically by light microscopy, and the remaining 20 by scanning electron microscopy. No difference in main root canal filling was observed between the U and S groups. Notably, group U had a larger number of obturated lateral canals than group S. Moreover, a smaller amount of organic debris and more open dentinal tubules were observed in the root canal in group U than in group S. Our findings suggest that ultrasonic irrigation has a greater capacity to clean instrumented root canals than syringe irrigation. (J Oral Sci 58, 373-378, 2016).

  1. Simulating the Effects of Widespread Adoption of Efficient Irrigation Technologies on Irrigation Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A. D.; Deines, J. M.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Irrigation technologies are changing: becoming more efficient, better managed, and capable of more precise targeting. Widespread adoption of these technologies is shifting water balances and significantly altering the hydrologic cycle in some of the largest irrigated regions in the world, such as the High Plains Aquifer of the USA. There, declining groundwater resources, increased competition from alternate uses, changing surface water supplies, and increased subsidies and incentives are pushing farmers to adopt these new technologies. Their decisions about adoption, irrigation extent, and total water use are largely unrecorded, limiting critical data for what is the single largest consumptive water use globally. Here, we present a novel data fusion of an annual water use and technology database in Kansas with our recent remotely-sensed Annual Irrigation Maps (AIM) dataset to produce a spatially and temporally complete record of these decisions. We then use this fusion to drive the Landscape Hydrologic Model (LHM), which simulates the full terrestrial water cycle at hourly timesteps for large regions. The irrigation module within LHM explicitly simulates each major irrigation technology, allowing for a comprehensive evaluation of changes in irrigation water use over time and space. Here we simulate 2000 - 2016, a period which includes a major increase in the use of modern efficient irrigation technology (such as Low Energy Precision Application, LEPA) as well as both drought and relative wet periods. Impacts on water use are presented through time and space, along with implications for adopting these technologies across the USA and globally.

  2. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study... Pedro Hydroelectric Project, Dispute Resolution Panel Chair, (202) 505-6861, [email protected] . d...

  3. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On... respect to the La Grange Project. In its December 19, 2012 Order Finding Licensing of Hydroelectric...

  4. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  5. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  6. Cleaning of Root Canal System by Different Irrigation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Miano, Lucas Martinati; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning of main and lateral canals using the irrigation methods: negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and manual irrigation (MI). Resin teeth were used. After root canal preparation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and radiographed pre- and post-irrigation using digital radiographic system [radiovisiography (RVG)]. The irrigation protocols were: MI1-manual irrigation [22 G needle at 5 mm short of working length-WL]; MI2-manual irrigation (30G needle at 2 mm short of WL); PUI; EV1-EndoVac (microcannula at 1 mm short of WL); EV2-Endovac (microcannula at 3 mm short of WL). The obtained images, initial (filled with contrast solution) and final (after irrigation) were analyzed by using image tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (5% significance level). EV1 and EV2, followed by PUI showed better cleaning capacity than manual irrigation (MI1 and MI2) (p irrigation and PUI promoted better cleaning of main and simulated lateral canals. Conventional manual irrigation technique may promote less root canal cleaning in the apical third. For this reason, the search for other irrigation protocols is important, and EndoVac and PUI are alternatives to contribute to irrigation effectiveness.

  7. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  8. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  9. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  11. How to perform irrigation of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-02-03

    rationale and key points: This article aims to help nurses to understand the importance of performing irrigation immediately following chemical injury to the eye, and outlines the most effective technique. It is essential that irrigation of the eye is understood and performed correctly. Chemical injury to the eye is an ophthalmic emergency. It presents a serious risk to the patient's vision and may cause blindness. The length of time the chemical remains in contact with the eye determines the severity of the injury. Immediate irrigation of the eye is essential to minimise preventable loss of vision. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would ensure immediate irrigation following chemical injury to the eye in your clinical area. 2. How you know when you have irrigated the eye for long enough, if you have previously performed this procedure, and how reading this article might influence your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  12. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  13. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  14. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  15. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  16. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  17. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  18. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  19. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkit Shamshery

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  20. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Tran, Davis V; Winter V, Amos G

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  1. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  2. Spatial Irrigation Management Using Remote Sensing Water Balance Modeling and Soil Water Content Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. Burdette

    Spatially informed irrigation management may improve the optimal use of water resources. Sub-field scale water balance modeling and measurement were studied in the context of irrigation management. A spatial remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration and soil water balance model was modified and validated for use in real-time irrigation management. The modeled ET compared well with eddy covariance data from eastern Nebraska. Placement and quantity of sub-field scale soil water content measurement locations was also studied. Variance reduction factor and temporal stability were used to analyze soil water content data from an eastern Nebraska field. No consistent predictor of soil water temporal stability patterns was identified. At least three monitoring locations were needed per irrigation management zone to adequately quantify the mean soil water content. The remote-sensing-based water balance model was used to manage irrigation in a field experiment. The research included an eastern Nebraska field in 2015 and 2016 and a western Nebraska field in 2016 for a total of 210 plot-years. The response of maize and soybean to irrigation using variations of the model were compared with responses from treatments using soil water content measurement and a rainfed treatment. The remote-sensing-based treatment prescribed more irrigation than the other treatments in all cases. Excessive modeled soil evaporation and insufficient drainage times were suspected causes of the model drift. Modifying evaporation and drainage reduced modeled soil water depletion error. None of the included response variables were significantly different between treatments in western Nebraska. In eastern Nebraska, treatment differences for maize and soybean included evapotranspiration and a combined variable including evapotranspiration and deep percolation. Both variables were greatest for the remote-sensing model when differences were found to be statistically significant. Differences in maize yield in

  3. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32 m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... root per cm3 soil) compared with root development in fully irrigated (FI) potatoes. Highest RLD existed in the top 30–40 cm of the ridge below which it decreased sharply. The RLD was distributed homogenously along the ridge and furrow but heterogeneously across the ridge and furrow with highest root...

  4. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and

  5. National Irrigation Water Quality Program Data-Synthesis Data Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seiler, Ralph L; Skorupa, Joseph P

    2001-01-01

    Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993...

  6. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  7. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  8. Shallot root distribution and bulb yield as influenced by irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    root depth) was unaffected by irrigation frequency to any significant extent. Number of bulbs per plant was the same in all the three irrigation treatments. The wet- treated shallots had the highest bulb diameter, bulb weight, and bulb yield.

  9. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  10. Interaction between Soil Physicochemical Parameters and Earthworm Communities in Irrigated Areas with Natural Water and Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourtel Ghanem Nadra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to study interaction between physical and chemical properties of soils and their earthworm community characteristics in different areas irrigated by wastewaters and well waters. The fields have different topography and agricultural practices conditions and are located in two regions of Batna department (Eastern Algeria. Both regions are characterized by a semiarid climate with cold winters and Calcisol soils. Nine fields were subject of this study. Three of these fields are located in Ouled Si Slimane region whose irrigation is effectuated by natural waters of Kochbi effluent. The other six fields are located at edges of Wed El Gourzi, effluent from Batna city, and partially treated through water treatment station. The best rates of water saturation and infiltration as well as abundance of earthworms were recorded at sites characterized by irrigation with wastewaters downstream of El Gourzi effluent. PCA characterizes two major groups: a group of hydrodynamic infiltration parameters and structural index stability of soil, explained by fields irrigated with wastewaters downstream of El Gourzi effluent. This group includes chemical characteristics: pH and electric conductivity. The second group is the characteristics of earthworms and includes organic matter content, active limestone levels, and Shannon Biodiversity Index.

  11. Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José M; Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez-Rubio, Ana G; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Montero, Antonio; Fernández, José E

    2017-02-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an 'Arbequina' orchard (1667 trees ha -1 ) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year -1 of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed. In general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters. The results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  13. Irrigated and non-irrigated radiofrequency ablation systems and ways of non-irrigated RF systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, A. V.; Evtushenko, V. V.; Bykov, A. N.; Sergeev, V. S.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Kurlov, I. O.

    2015-11-01

    Improving of radiofrequency ablation systems for the myocardium is one of the fundamental problems of cardiac surgery. We used pig left ventricular myocardium as a working model. Mean thickness of the left ventricular wall was 10.1 ± 5.6 mm. The studies were performed on 10 hearts. The mean weight of hearts was 294.7 ± 21g. Research is being done on the electrophysical bench in 2 stages. In the first stage the hearts were placed on the electrophysical bench and heated to 36.6°C. In the second stage heart cooled to 20°C. The monopolar radiofrequency exposure was processing on the myocardium by two types of electrodes: spherical irrigated electrode and non-irrigated penetrating one within 20 seconds. The electrical resistance of the myocardium was measured at different temperatures before and after exposure. This paper shows that the decrease in ambient temperature combined with using of new penetrating electrodes for radiofrequency ablation gives better results than using of irrigated and non-irrigated systems. This method allows significantly reduce time exposure for a maximum depth of destruction in the myocardium.

  14. Irrigation customer survey procedures and results: Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

    1987-08-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of data obtained from telephone and in-person survey of irrigators in the Pacific Northwest region. The telephone survey involved approximately 1250 completed responses from irrigators selected from throughout the Northwest. The in-person survey, which is documented in this report, involved approximately 250 completed responses from irrigators within public utility districts that obtain electricity for serving irrigation loads from Bonneville.

  15. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  16. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  17. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  18. Effects of different irrigation levels on the quality of Trincadeira grapes – Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pirata, Madalena; Coelho, Renato; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; da Silva, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the research on Trincadeira grape vine subject to three increasing levels of irrigation: i) non irrigation, ii) farmer irrigation or iii) full irrigation. During grape’s maturation, berry size and quality parameters were analyzed. Only in September all analysed parameters were significantly different: non-irrigated plants had smaller berries and lower brix, anthocyanins and polyphenols than irrigated ones.

  19. Irrigation development and management in Ghana: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... existing schemes. It is envisaged that irrigation will be seen in its right perspective as a multidisciplinary activity to ensure the success of schemes. There is the need for running a postgraduate programme in irrigation at the KNUST to enhance the nations efforts at developing and managing irrigation projects successfully.

  20. Breaking the Vicious Cycle in Irrigation Farming System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a pilot investigation into irrigation activities and the need for a reform to attain food security in Nigeria. Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the. Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin was chosen as epitome of irrigation projects in Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were administered on the 135 farmers ...

  1. 75 FR 29577 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... discretionary funds to subsidize irrigation projects. Funding to operate and maintain these projects needs to... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation... Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) owns, or has an interest in, irrigation projects located on or associated...

  2. Irrigation farmers motivation for participating in social networking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigation farmers motivation for participating in social networking in North Central Nigeria. ... The study focused on the motivation of farmers in participating in social networking on the use of irrigations in north central Nigeria. For the purpose of the study, social ... Key Words: Farmers, Irrigation, Motivation, Social Networking ...

  3. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  4. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  5. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a week during the ...

  6. Scheduling irrigation for jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ) | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to select suitable indicator for scheduling the irrigation of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) grown in the Loess Plateau. The relationships between plant-based indicators and soil matrix potential as well as meteorological factors of jujube under deficit irrigation compared with well irrigation were ...

  7. The impact of smallholder irrigation on household welfare: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of smallholder irrigated agriculture to enhance food security and alleviate rural poverty has led the South African Government to prioritise and invest significantly in irrigation establishment, rehabilitation and revitalisation. The question addressed in this study pertains to the extent to which smallholder irrigation ...

  8. Effects of seven different irrigation techniques on debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Conventional manual irrigation with a syringe and needle remains widely accepted technique in the irrigation procedures. However, its flushing action has some limitations. Currently, several techniques and systems are available and reported to improve the insufficiency of syringe irrigation. The aim of this study was to ...

  9. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  10. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  11. Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly different from that which received weekly irrigation throughout the crop growing season. Moreover, the productivity of water applied was higher while water loss to deep percolation was drastically reduced. Keywords: Deficit irrigation scheduling, Economic net return, Maize crop, Irrigation water management ...

  12. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section 152.32 Indians... Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all construction costs against any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long as Indian...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device intended to provide a pressurized stream of water to...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over the...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the colon...

  16. Small-scale irrigation and income distribution in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.; Ruben, R.

    2006-01-01

    Irrigation stimulates agricultural productivity and economic growth, but this may come at the cost of growing inequality. Using data at community and household level, this paper analyzes the distributional impacts of irrigation in Ethiopia. Regression analyses reveal the direct effects of irrigation

  17. Fertigation - Injecting soluble fertilizers into the irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) is the newest way for nursery managers to apply fertilizer, and has become a standard practice in container nurseries. Because of the inherent inefficient water distribution patterns in field irrigation systems, fertigation has not been widely used in bareroot nurseries. However, a bareroot nursery with a center-pivot irrigation...

  18. Socio–economic and environmental effects of Bakolori irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is in recognition of the enormous influence of irrigation on farm level productivity and enhanced living standard that government and development agencies embark on gigantic irrigation projects. This study therefore, investigated the socio - economic and environmental impacts of two irrigation projects in a semi arid ...

  19. Effects of Seven Different Irrigation Techniques on Debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-19

    Sep 19, 2015 ... and manual irrigation. In addition, machine (CanalBrush;. Coltène/Whaledent,. Langenau, ..... the optimal volume,[4,23] time of application,[24,25] or the activation method to use with irrigating solutions. .... Adequate irrigant replacement is prevented in a closed system because of a “dead-water zone” in.

  20. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  1. land evaluation for improved rice production in watari irrigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This study aimed at raising irrigated rice production in Watari Irrigation scheme, in Kano state, as to bridge the gap between the demand for rice and its supply. The food and Agricultural. Organization FAO, (1985) frame work for land evaluation for irrigated rice production was employed, and the soil map of the ...

  2. Fertilization and irrigation of Eucalyptus in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul W. Moore

    1983-01-01

    An experiment to determine the interaction of three levels of irrigation, three levels of fertility and three densities of planting was started at the University of California Moreno Ranch in 1982. Differential irrigation and fertility treatments will begin in June of 1983. Some current practices of irrigation and fertilization by southern California growers are...

  3. Socio-economic determinants of irrigation technology adoption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic determinants of irrigation technology adoption in the management of climate risk in Nigeria. ... Access to credit and mono cropping increased the probability of irrigated agriculture while rural location reduced irrigation agriculture. This study suggests the importance of access to credit, transaction cost, ...

  4. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  5. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  6. Determinants of micro irrigation adoption for maize production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an assessment of the determinants of micro irrigation adoption for maize production in smallholder irrigation schemes. The focus of the study was on Hama Mavhaire irrigation scheme in Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. An assessment of the major production constraints in the scheme was carried out, factors that ...

  7. Comparing the speed of irrigation between pulsatile lavage versus gravity irrigation: an Ex-vivo experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Lily R.; Gage, Mark J.; Yoon, Richard S.; Liporace, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The need for reoperation or wound infection treatments between pulsatile and gravity irrigation are statistically equivalent, however, it is unclear which method maximizes operative efficiency and expeditious irrigation. In this study we set out to determine the differences in irrigation rate between these various treatment methods. Methods This was an ex-vivo experimental laboratory study not involving human subjects. Irrigation rates were tested based on the time in seconds requi...

  8. Share of irrigated land and farm size in rainwater harvesting irrigation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, Mekonnen B.; Gardebroek, Koos

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall shortages constrain small-holders' agricultural production in developing countries and with ongoing climate change these shortages may increase in volume and frequency. Rainwater harvesting irrigation is an interesting technology that decreases this risk. Therefore, one would expect an

  9. Irrigation for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BiL

    cannot live without soil, we could live better if we knew more about the the soils endowment in the country given the .... A recent survey of small-scale irrigation in several regions has revealed the increased magnitude and intensity of ..... strengthened. This will help cultivate graduates as agents of change. In this conjunction ...

  10. Decision support for optimised irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiou, A.; Sawas, D.; Pasgianos, G.; Sigrimis, N.; Stanghellini, C.; Kempkes, F.L.K.

    2009-01-01

    The system, developed under the FLOW-AID (an FP6 project), is a farm level water management system of special value in situations where the water availability and quality is limited. This market-ready precision irrigation management system features new models, hardware and software. The hardware

  11. Water irrigating devices for the orthodontic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, F

    1990-01-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances increase the number of retention areas, resulting in increased possibilities for the accumulation of dental plaque. In addition, there is a risk of direct mechanical irritation. In spite of good toothcleaning most orthodontic patients develop generalized moderate gingivitis or an edematous type within one to two months after the placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. Since the gingival changes represent a reaction to the bacterial plaque products rather than to the orthodontic forces; the only way to control them is by effective oral hygiene. Braces and banded teeth have many tiny recesses that a toothbrush and other cleaning aids have difficulty reaching. For good oral hygiene, these should be kept free of food debris. Water irrigating devices irrigates these hard-to-clean areas to remove food and other debris. Pulsating jets of water very gently lift the free gingiva to rinse out crevices. The water irrigator also pulses into areas between teeth and gums to flush out trapped food and debris. Water irrigating devices cannot by any means be regarded as substitutes for more effective plaque-removing methods, such as tooth-brushing and flossing; rather, they should be considered as an adjunct to the total oral hygiene program.

  12. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  13. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the field work about 181 hand dug wells have been inventoried. Most of them were constructed between 2003 and 2007 as part of intervention for the purposes of irrigation, domestic and livestock's uses. At present the households are benefiting from these by producing different high value crops twice to three times ...

  14. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  15. CORRELATION AMONG FLUORIDE AND METALS IN IRRIGATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were ... exhaust fumes, process waters and waste from various industrial processes [1]. The uses of ... into four sub-systems: Lake Rudolf, Chew Bahir, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Afar. The seismically ...

  16. scale irrigation farmers in the free state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on only one objective of a broader research project with the title A technological and socio-economic evaluation of production systems for small- scale irrigation farming in the Free State Province. This project runs over a period of four years. It started in 1996 with the final objective of evaluating the.

  17. Irrigation management of muskmelon with tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of muskmelon have been increasing (MELO et al., 2014, thus, information on techniques for higher field productions are necessary. The experiment described in the present work was conducted in the IFTM, Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the muskmelon yield under different soil water tensions. A randomized block experimental design was used with five treatments (soil water tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kPa and four replications (plots of two rows of 14 plants. Two harvests were carried out and the fruit yield, stem diameter, number of fruits per plant and efficiency of water use were evaluated. Irrigation was performed with a drip irrigation system and managed with tensiometry. The cultivar Bonus n.2 was used with spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. The data of the variables were subjected to the F test and regression test. The treatments showed statistical differences in number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (fruit yield and stem diameter. The highest fruit yield found was 1.36 kg fruit-1 and the highest water use efficiency was 4.08 g mm-1 with irrigation for a soil water tension of 10 kPa. The lowest fruit yield was found with irrigation for a soil water tension of 50 kPa.

  18. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Purpose: The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing post transvesical prostatectomy surgical site infections. Study design: This was a prospective randomized cohort study with blinding of patients and outcome adjudicator.

  19. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  20. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... values of pear-jujube in anthesis and setting periods were identified between -40 kPa and - 25 kPa and the values can conduct precise irrigation of jujube in the Loess Plateau. Key words: Water stress, water ...... Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R, Morales D, Torrecillas A (1996). Water relations of Fino lemon ...

  1. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  2. Measurement Of Technical Efficiency In Irrigated Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured technical efficiency and identified its determinants in irrigated vegetable production in Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier model. A complete enumeration of 193 NADP-registered vegetable farmers was done. The predicted farm technical efficiency ranges from 25.94 to 96.24 per cent ...

  3. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  4. Irrigation et paludisme : un couple infernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation and Malaria - a Terrible Combination?. Increasing agricultural productivity is a priority in most of the developing countries and using irrigation is one of the most efficient ways of achieving this goal. Almost half a billion people in the world contract malaria every year and approximately one million die as a result. The majority of these victims are farmers or members of their families. In infected areas, malaria continues to have major negative impacts on agricultural productivity. For example, in the Equateur province of the DRC, after access to production means, fevers are considered the second biggest obstacle to the development of agricultural activities. In the Ivory Coast, a study has shown that growers suffering from malaria were about half as productive as their healthy colleagues. The disease often strikes at the start of the rainy season when work begins again in the fields. It reduces the amount of land cultivated and affects the amount of care taken with crops. Agricultural practices influence the risk of contracting malaria. Irrigation, in particular, can encourage the proliferation of vectors of the disease and make it more likely to spread. This tendency can be observed in many locations where irrigated rice production is on the increase. Paradoxically, however, an increased number of mosquitoes does not systematically result in more malaria. In Ethiopia, malaria is more prevalent close to the micro-dams sponsored by the government, whereas, in Tanzania, there is less malaria in irrigated areas. Various theories can be put forward in order to explain this paradox. In particular, increased income due to higher rice yields enables farmers to purchase insecticide-treated mosquito nets. It also allows them to eat better, which strengthens their immune systems. It also appears that the negative impact of irrigation systems is greater in areas, in which immunity levels were low in the population prior to the creation of

  5. Agricultural Liming, Irrigation, and Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, B. M.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Row crop farmers routinely add inorganic carbon to soils in the form of crushed lime (e.g., calcite or dolomite minerals) and/or inadvertently as bicarbonate alkalinity naturally dissolved in groundwater used for irrigation. In the soil these carbonates can act as either a source or sink of carbon dioxide, depending in large part on nitrogen fertilization and nitrification. The potentially variable fate of lime carbon is not accounted for in the IPCC greenhouse gas inventory model for lime emissions, which assumes that all lime carbon becomes carbon dioxide (irrigation additions are not accounted for). In a corn-soybean-wheat crop rotation at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in southwest Michigan, we are collecting soil porewater from several depths in the vadose zone across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient with and without groundwater irrigation. The soil profile in this region is dominated by carbonate rich glacial outwash that lies 1.5 m below a carbonate-leached zone. We analyze the porewater stoichiometry of calcium, magnesium, and carbonate alkalinity in a conceptual model to reveal the source/sink fate of inorganic carbon. High nitrate porewater concentrations are associated with net carbon dioxide production in the carbonate-leached zone, according to our model. This suggests that the acidity associated with nitrification of the nitrogen fertilizer, which is evident from soil pH measurements, is driving the ultimate fate of lime carbon in the vadose zone. Irrigation is a significant source of both alkalinity and nitrate in drier years, compared to normal rates of liming and fertilization. We will also explore the observed dramatic changes in porewater chemistry and the relationship between irrigation and inorganic carbon fate above and within the native carbonate layer.

  6. Mechanism of irrigation effects on gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, E S; Kornman, K S; Manwell, M A; Jones, A A; Newbold, D A; Wood, R C

    1994-11-01

    Although gingivitis is initiated by plaque and plaque removal controls gingivitis, gingival irrigation with water has been shown to reduce gingivitis without reducing plaque. This study attempted to explore possible mechanisms involved in the treatment of gingivitis by water irrigation. Patients (n = 125) with more than 20 teeth, less than 4 sites with probing depth (PD) deeper than 6 mm, bleeding on probing (BOP) frequency of 30% or higher, and no systemic disease were randomized to one of four treatment groups: toothbrushing alone (brush), toothbrushing plus chlorhexidine 0.12% rinse 2x/day (CHX), toothbrushing plus water irrigation 1x/day (irr+H2O), or toothbrushing plus chlorhexidine 0.04% irrigation 1x/day (irr+CHX). Six sites/tooth were examined at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months for BOP and PD using an automated probe, and for gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) by standard means. A prophylaxis and oral hygiene instructions were provided after baseline and 6 month measurements. Subgingival microbial samples and crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected from 2 teeth/subject at each time point. Microbial samples were processed for anaerobic culture and the predominant cultivable flora was determined. CHX and irr+CHX had a 30 to 35% decrease in mean PI, while brush and irr+H2O had only a 12 to 16% decrease. BOP was reduced by 14% in the brush group and 23 to 24% in the other groups. GI was significantly correlated with PI in the brush, CHX, and irr+CHX groups, but not in the irr+H2O group. Prevotella intermedia was significantly reduced in both irrigation groups, but not CHX or brush groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Long-term effect of irrigation with water from sewage treatment plant on AMF biodiversity and microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Torres, M. P.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    Shortage of water is one of the most important environmental problem in the Mediterranean areas that implicates the search for strategies for saving good quality water. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land can be a good solution for this problem because it reduces the utilization of fresh water and potentially could improve soil key parameters, but can modify physical-chemical and biological properties of the same. The aim of this work was to study the effect of long-term irrigation with treated waste water on microbial diversity, mainly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the soil and other properties related with the microbial community. The experiment was developed in an agricultural area with Citrus orchard, located in Alicante in the southeast Spain. Here, we tested whether the communities of AMF as well as soil microbial properties were affected by irrigation with water coming from sewage treatment plant during 40 years in a soil. To carry out this study the soil properties (dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, glomalin related soil protein, microbial biomass C and aggregate stability) and AMF diversity (the AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses) were analysed in the soil from two different plots with the same soil but with different type of irrigation (irrigated with fresh water and irrigated with treated water). The first results did not show significant differences in some soil properties between soil irrigated with water treated or not.

  8. Performance of Four Rice Cultivars Transplanted Monthly over Full Year under Irrigated Conditions in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Sekiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, the phenology and seasonal variations of the yields of different rice cultivars have rarely been studied, especially under fully-irrigated conditions. A trial was conducted to identify the most suitable calendar for rice production in Tanzania under fully-irrigated conditions. Four popular rice cultivars, NERICA1, Wahiwahi, IR64 and TXD306, were transplanted monthly from January to December 2011. The four cultivars recorded similarly higher or lower yields than the annual means when transplanted in July (0.50–0.57 kg/m2 and April (0.07–0.31 kg/m2. A yield-ranking analysis showed that plants transplanted in July was the most productive while those transplanted in April was the least productive, and also revealed a yield-seasonality for irrigated rice in Tanzania, a low-yield season (April–May, a high-yield season (June–August, and an unstable-yield season (September–March. These yield seasons would appear to be closely linked to seasonal temperature variations. When transplanted in April–May, plants were exposed to very low temperatures between panicle initiation and flowering, apparently reducing yield through cold-induced sterility. Those transplanted in June–August prolonged their growth under relatively low temperatures and increased yield through increasing biomass production. In September–March, yield levels varied greatly due to the shortened phenological growth durations at higher temperatures. We conclude that under fully-irrigated conditions in Tanzania, rice should be transplanted in July to ensure the maximum production and yield stability. The yield-seasonality suggests that implementing measures to protect plants from low and high temperature stress at critical phenological stages may allow year-round rice production under fully-irrigated conditions in Tanzania.

  9. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting of seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included precipitation, and air temperature. In a year of above-average precipitation, irrigation did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert. Future collection of survival data will determine whether a maintenance irrigation program is necessary to ensure establishmnent of native plants

  10. Irrigation Signals Detected From SMAP Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawston, Patricia M.; Santanello, Joseph A.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2017-12-01

    Irrigation can influence weather and climate, but the magnitude, timing, and spatial extent of irrigation are poorly represented in models, as are the resulting impacts of irrigation on the coupled land-atmosphere system. One way to improve irrigation representation in models is to assimilate soil moisture observations that reflect an irrigation signal to improve model states. Satellite remote sensing is a promising avenue for obtaining these needed observations on a routine basis, but to date, irrigation detection in passive microwave satellites has proven difficult. In this study, results show that the new enhanced soil moisture product from the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite is able to capture irrigation signals over three semiarid regions in the western United States. This marks an advancement in Earth-observing satellite skill and the ability to monitor human impacts on the water cycle.

  11. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield and quality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, the plants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation (PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot water holding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either...... the whole or one side of the pots, respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry side decreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DI and PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield...

  12. Endoluminal Isoproterenol Irrigation Decreases Renal Pelvic Pressure During Flexible Ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Nørby, Bettina; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Chr

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Irrigation during ureterorenoscopic procedures causes increased pelvic pressure (PP), which may lead to intrarenal backflow with potential harmful consequences. This study aims to investigate PP response to intraluminal administration of isoproterenol (beta-agonist; ISO) during flexible...... ureterorenoscopy. METHODS: Twelve patients admitted for retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS) were included. Patients were randomized to (1) irrigation with saline (n=6) or (2) irrigation with ISO 0.1mug/mL (n=6). Irrigation rate was standardized to 8mL/min. A ureteral catheter was retrogradely placed...... group, PP was a mean 19+/-3mm Hg (p=0.029). During endoscopy, PP peaks as high as 328mm Hg were noted during saline irrigation. The number of pressure peaks above 50mm Hg was minimized dramatically during ISO irrigation (p=0.035). No systemic side effects to ISO irrigation were observed. CONCLUSION...

  13. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES UNDER CENTRAL ANATOLIA CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ersoy Yildirim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is located within semi-arid climate zone and large portion of the country experience water deficits. Thus, efficient water use has become a significand issue in agricultural practices. Current global warming and climate change have aggravated such deficiencies. Konya province is located right at the center of Central Anatolia region and mostly groundwater is used in irrigations. Excessive groundwater withdrawals drop groundwaters levels and also increase energy costs. Although farmers pay quite high sums for energy, they were not using water efficiently and thus were not able to get desired benefits from the irrigations. In this study, irrigation practices of an irrigation cooperative were assessed and compared with optimum irrigation programs created through IRSIS irrigation scheduling software. It was concluded that all irrigation practices of the region were wrong and way behind the optimum ones.

  15. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  16. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  17. EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION WITH DEPURATED LIVESTOCK EFFLUENTS ON SOILS. A CASE STUDY FROM CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Francaviglia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the qualitative modifications of a Calcaric fluvisol after irrigation with fresh water and depurated pig-slurry effluents (aerobic and anaerobic treatment, and phytodepuration with a reed bed system. The accumulation of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn as total and as bio-available forms in the soil was evaluated, together with soil aggregate stability index, hydraulic conductivity of the saturated soil and the in situ infiltration rate. The experimental field was divided into three plots, and cultivated with silage maize for three years (2003-2005. Results showed that the irrigation with depurated and phytodepurated effluents produced significant changes in the soil chemical properties controlling soil permeability, and influenced the bio-available fraction of heavy metals.

  18. Effect of saline irrigation water on gas exchange and proline metabolism in ber (Ziziphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdi, D L; Bagri, G K

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in pots of 25 kg capacity to study the effect of saline irrigation (EC 0,5,10,15 and 20 dSm-1) prepared by mixing NaCl, NaSO4, CaCl and MgCl2 in 3:1 ratio of chloride and sulphate on gas exchange traits, membrane stability, chlorophyll stability index and osmolytic defense mechanism in Ziziphus rotundifolia and Ziziphus nummularia species of Indian jujube (Z.mauritiana). Result showed that net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration (e) and stomatal conductance were comparatively lower in Ziziphus nummularia, which further declined with increasing level of saline irrigation water. Chlorophyll stability and membrane stability also declined significantly in salt stress, with higher magnitude in Ziziphus nummularia. The activity of proline anabolic enzymes; Δ1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate reductase, Δ1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase and Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase were recorded higher in Ziziphus rotundifolia with decrease in proline dehydrogenase. The sodium content was observed higher in roots of Ziziphus rotundifolia and leaves of Ziziphus nummularia. Therefore, it is suggested that salt tolerance mechanism was more efficiently operative in Ziziphus rotundifolia owing to better management of physiological attributes, osmolytic defense mechanism and restricted translocation of sodium from root to leaves along with larger accumulation of potassium in its leaves.

  19. EFFECT OF ALKALINE STABILIZED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND YIELD, QUALITY AND NUTRITION OF SILAGE MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    BÜRÜN, Betül; TUNA, A. Levent; YOKAŞ, İbrahim; ÖZKUL, Hülya

    2012-01-01

    Reuse of domestic wastewater that does not contain heavy metals or pathogenic microorganisms, as irrigation water is a significant method in terms of water conservation all around the world. In this field trial which was conducted over two years, the domestic wastewater (DW) of Muğla City after being alkaline stabilized was used to irrigate maize plant for silage and the interaction of soil and water was also controlled during the trial. Alkaline stabilized domestic wastewater (ASDW) was appl...

  20. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  1. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  2. Performance stability of potato genotypes under rainfed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YDessalegn

    system. However, currently varieties such as. Zengena and Guasa can be recommended for both production systems. Key words: Potato; variety; yield; rainfed; irrigation; stability; Ethiopia. 1. Introduction. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown in the high and mid altitude areas of.

  3. Optimization of irrigation scheduling for spring wheat with mulching and limited irrigation water in an arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Combining mulch and irrigation scheduling may lead to an increase of crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE = crop yield/evapotranspiration) with limited irrigation water, especially in arid regions. Based on 2 years' field experiments with ten irrigation-mulching treatments of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Shiyang River Basin Experiment Station in Gansu Province of Northwest China, a simulation-based optimization model for deficit irrigation scheduling of plastic mulching spring wheat was used to analyze an optimal irrigation scheduling for different deficit irrigation scenarios. Results revealed that mulching may increase maximum grain yield without water stress by 0.4-0.6 t ha-1 in different years and WUE by 0.2-0.3 kg m-3 for different irrigation amounts compared with no mulching. Yield of plastic mulching spring wheat was more sensitive to water stress in the early and development growth stages with an increase of cumulative crop water sensitive index (CCWSI) by 42%, and less sensitive to water stress in the mid and late growth stages with a reduction of CCWSI by 24%. For a relative wet year, when irrigation water is only applied once it should be at the mid to end of booting growth stage. Two irrigations should be applied at the beginning of booting and heading growth stages. The irrigation date can be extended to the beginning of jointing and grain formation growth stages with more water available for irrigation. For a normal or a dry year, the first irrigation should be applied 5-8 days earlier than the wet year. The highest WUE of 3.6 kg m-3 was achieved with 180 mm of irrigation applied twice for mulching in a wet year. Combining mulch and an optimal deficit irrigation scheduling is an effective way to increase crop yield and WUE in arid regions.

  4. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  5. Determination of irrigation timing using crop temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Cho, T.; Yano, T.

    1989-01-01

    Much of the work relating canopy temperature to crop water stress has been done in the U. S. A. The leaf-based measurements are time consuming when the fields of the size larger. The measurement of canopy temperature using infrared thermometer is the most promising approach to irrigation scheduling. In this paper, three indices were examined. The first index used only canopy-air temperature differentials. The second index used canopy-air temperature differentials and vapor pressure deficits. The third index used crop water stress index (CWS1). These three indices were evaluated the applicability to irrigation scheduling. The canopy temperature are simulated for progressive soil drying using the continuity equation for water flux in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. With this model, characteristic features of these three indices were mathematically examined

  6. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  7. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  8. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Kundabala, Mala

    2014-03-01

    The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  9. Sensitivity of weather besed irrigation scheduling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, K.Q.; Lashari, B.K.; Laghari, N.U.Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the sensitivity of irrigation scheduling model (Mehran) carried out by changing input weather parameters (Temperatures, Wind velocity, Rainfall, and Sunshine hours) to see model sensitivity in computation/estimations (output) for Transpiration (T), Evaporation (E), and allocation of irrigation (I) water. Sensitivity analysis depends on the site and environmental conditions and is therefore an essential step in model validation and application. Mehran Model is weather based crop growth simulation model, which uses daily input data of max and min temperatures (temp), dew point temp (humidity), wind speed, daily sunshine hours (radiation) and computes T/sub c/E/sub s/, and allocates Irrigation accordingly. The input and output base values are taken as an average of three years actual field data used during the Mehran Model testing and calibration on wheat and cotton crops. The model sensitivity of specific input parameter was obtained by varying its value and keeping other input parameters at their base values. The input base values varied by+-10 and +-25%. The model was run for each modified input parameter, and output was compared statistically with base outputs. The ME% (Mean Percent Error) was used to obtain variations in output values. The results reveal that the model is most sensitive with variations in temperature. The 10 and 25% increase in temperature resulted increase in Cotton crop's Tc by 12.18 and 28.54%, corresponding Es by 22.32 and 37.88% and irrigation water allocation by 18.41 and 47.83 % respectively increased from average base values. (author)

  10. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    southwestern U.S., requiring states, particularly California , to establish mandates for reductions in water usage . On April 1, 2015, Governor Brown...and mostly dry summer season) in southern California , it is not a cost effective method to reduce potable water usage for landscape irrigation...mean time between failures MTTF mean time to failure MWDSC Metropolitan Water District of Southern California NAVFAC EXWC Naval Facilities

  11. Review of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Eliminating the residual debris and bacteria in the root canal system is one of the main purposes of the endodontic treatment. However, the complexity on the anatomy of the root canal system makes it difficult to eliminate the bacterial biofilm existing along the root canal surface and necrotic pulp tissue by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. Recently, more effective irrigant delivery systems for root canal irrigation have been developed. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices available in endodontics. Review The contents of this paper include as follows; - syringe-needle irrigation, manual dynamic irrigation, brushes - sonic and ultrasonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, rotary brush, RinsEndo, EndoVac, Laser Conclusion Though technological advances during the last decade have brought to fruition new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms, there are few evidence based study to correlate the clinical efficacy of these devices with improved outcomes except syringe irrigation with needle and ultrasonic irrigation. The clinicians should try their best efforts to deliver antimicrobial and tissue solvent solutions in predictable volumes safely to working length.

  12. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  13. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Alt, Martin; Rudolph, Isabell; Entling, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity) and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions) of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency) flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  14. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schirmel

    Full Text Available Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  15. Root zone sensors for irrigation management in intensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardossi, Alberto; Incrocci, Luca; Incrocci, Giorgio; Malorgio, Fernando; Battista, Piero; Bacci, Laura; Rapi, Bernardo; Marzialetti, Paolo; Hemming, Jochen; Balendonck, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world's water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower's experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method). An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS), such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS' (for both soil moisture and salinity) marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy) on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  16. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  17. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  18. Irrigation port hydration in phacoemulsification surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hisaharu; Masuda, Yoichiro; Hamajima, Yuki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    In most cases, hydration is performed by water injection into the stromal tissue with a needle. The technique is simple, however it is sometimes troublesome. We describe a simple technique for hydrating the corneal stroma in cataract surgery using an irrigation port. The technique began by pushing the irrigation port against the corneal stroma for a few seconds during phacoemulsification, which generated edema in the corneal incision that subsequently prevented leakage. This procedure is called the hydration using irrigation port (HYUIP) technique. A total of 60 eyes were randomized and placed in two groups, 30 eyes underwent surgeries using the HYUIP technique (HYUIP group) and 30 eyes underwent surgeries without the HYUIP technique (control). The three points evaluated during each surgery included 1) the occurrence of anterior chamber collapse during the pulling out of the I/A tip after inserting the intraocular lens, 2) the need for conventional hydration, and 3) watertight completion at the end stage of surgery. The anterior chamber collapse and the need for conventional hydration were significantly smaller in the HYUIP group compared to the control group. Regarding the self-sealing completion, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. The HYUIP technique is an effective method for creating self-sealing wound. In addition, this technique helps to prevent anterior chamber collapse.

  19. Pedoarchaeology of Early Agricultural Period Irrigation Systems in the Tucson Basin of the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburg, Jeffrey; Nials, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Pedoarchaeological studies were conducted at the Las Capas and Sunset Road sites in the Tucson Basin of Arizona in order to document and evaluate soil productivity and hydraulic soil properties of ancient agricultural irrigation systems. These ancient irrigated fields are on the margin of the Santa Cruz River floodplain, between two alluvial fans where high water tables and stable to aggrading geomorphic conditions facilitated diverting water from drainages and directing it to fields by gravity-fed canal irrigation. Archaeological investigations at these sites recently provided opportunities for documenting the configuration and evolution of the oldest irrigation systems yet identified in the United States, the earliest dating to more than three millennia in age. This research is significant archaeologically because of: (1) the antiquity ( 575-1225 B.C.) of the Early Agricultural period irrigation systems at these sites, (2) the fact that irrigation systems dated to different times are separated stratigraphically within the sites, and (3) the fact that extensive, well-preserved gridded irrigation features were identified using mechanical stripping, with nearly 100 ancient footprints preserved on a buried agricultural surface at Sunset Road. The stratigraphic separation of buried surfaces that were irrigated and the abundant cultivated irrigation plots facilitated soil sampling so that field, border, and uncultivated control samples could be compared in order to measure the anthropogenic effects of agriculture on soil quality in the irragric soils. Long-term indicators of agricultural soil quality such as organic carbon, nutrient content, and hydraulic soil water properties such as available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, indicate that soil changes were generally favorable for agricultural production and that these ancient irrigation systems were sustainable. Canals regularly supplied water to the fields, but they also supplied nutrient

  20. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to

  1. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  2. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  3. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  4. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  5. WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Capra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit irrigation (DI is an optimization strategy whereby net returns are maximized by reducing the amount of irrigation water; crops are deliberated allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. Although the DI strategy dates back to the 1970s, this technique is not usually adopted as a practical alternative to full irrigation by either academics or practitioners. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of confusion regarding its concept. In fact, a review of recent literature dealing with DI has shown that only a few papers use the concept of DI in its complete sense (e.g. both the agronomic and economic aspects. A number of papers only deal with the physiological and agronomical aspects of DI or concern techniques such as Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI and Partial Root Drying (PRD. The paper includes two main parts: i a review of the principal water management strategies under deficit conditions (e.g. conventional DI, RDI and PRD; and ii a description of a recent experimental research conducted by the authors in Sicily (Italy that integrates agronomic, engineering and economic aspects of DI at farm level. Most of the literature reviewed here showed, in general, quite positive effects from DI application, mostly evidenced when the economics of DI is included in the research approach. With regard to the agronomic effects, total fresh mass and total production is generally reduced under DI, whereas the effects on dry matter and product quality are positive, mainly in crops for which excessive soil water availability can cause significant reductions in fruit size, colour or composition (grapes, tomatoes, mangos, etc.. The experimental trial on a lettuce crop in Sicily, during 2005 and 2006, shows that the highest mean marketable yield of lettuce (55.3 t ha-1 in 2005 and 51.9 t ha-1 in 2006 was recorded in plots which received 100% of ET0-PM (reference evapotranspiration by the Penman- Monteith method applied water. In

  6. Improvement of sustainability of irrigation in olive by the accurate management of regulated deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmi, Houssem; Moreno, Marta M.; Gijón, M. Carmen; Pérez-López, David

    2015-04-01

    Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) is a useful tool to balance the improvement of productivity and water saving. This methodology is based in keeping the maximum yield with deficit irrigation. The key consists in setting water deficit during a non-sensitive phenological period. In olive, this phenological period is pit hardening, although, the accurate delimitation of the end of this period is nowadays under researching. Another interesting point in this methodology is how deep can be the water stress during the non-sensitive period. In this assay, three treatments were used in 2012 and 2013. A control treatment (T0), irrigated following FAO methodology, without water stress during the whole season and two RDI treatments in which water stress was avoided only during stage I and III of fruit growth. During stage II, widely considered as pit hardening, irrigation was ceased until trees reach the stated water stress threshold. Water status was monitored by means of stem water potential (ψs) measurements. When ψs value reached -2 MPa in T1 treatment, trees were irrigated but with a low amount of water with the aim of keeping this water status for the whole stage II. The same methodology was used for T2 treatment, but with a threshold of -3 MPa. Water status was also controlled by leaf conductance measurements. Fruit size and yield were determined at the end of each season. The statistically design was a randomized complete blocks with four repetitions. The irrigation amount in T1 and T2 was 50% and 65% less than T0 at the end of the study. There were no significant differences among treatments in terms of yield in 2012 (year off) and 2013 (year on).

  7. Irrigation and avifaunal change in coastal Northwest Mexico: has irrigated habit attracted threatened migratory species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Sievert; Grason, Emily; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in desert ecosystems can either reduce or increase species diversity. Groundwater pumping often lowers water tables and reduces natural wetlands, whereas canal irrigation often creates mesic habitat, resulting in great increases in avian diversity from irrigation. Here we compare a dataset of potential natural vegetation to recent datasets from areal and satellite imagery to show that 60% of the land in the coastal plain of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa lying below 200 m elevation has been converted by irrigation to more mesic habitats. We then use the record of bird specimens in the world's museums from this same region of Mexico to examine the avian community before and after the development of extensive irrigation. In general these museum records show an increase in the abundance and diversity of breeding birds associated with mesic habitats. Although thorn forest birds have likely decreased in total numbers, most are common enough in the remaining thorn forest that collection records did not indicate their probable decline. Four migrants having most of their breeding ranges in the US or Canada, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Cliff Swallow, Bell's Vireo, and Orchard Oriole, apparently have increased dramatically as breeders in irrigated habitats of NW Mexico. Because these species have decreased or even largely disappeared as breeding birds in parts of the US or Canada, further research should assess whether their increases in new mesic habitats of NW Mexico are linked to their declines as breeding birds in Canada and the US For Bell's Vireo recent specimens from Sinaloa suggest its new breeding population in NW Mexico may be composed partly of the endangered Least Bell's Vireo.

  8. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area....... The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...

  9. Reform of irrigation management and investment policy in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Easter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia.  Several things are evident from the review.  First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia.  Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA.  Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia.  Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects.  Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.

  10. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Irrigation of Pot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Vagner

    1975-01-01

    An air-lift principle for transport of water was adapted for automatic irrigation of experimental pots originally constructed for manual irrigation by the weighing method. The two irrigation techniques were compared in an experiment with increasing amounts of nitrogen fertilizer to spring barley....... Productions of grain and straw and chemical composition were almost the same after the two irrigation methods, and it was concluded that the laborious manual watering could be replaced by automatic irrigation. Comparison of the yield from individual plants in the pots showed a large difference between centre...... plants and border plants independent of irrigation principle. The increase in yield per pot with increasing N fertilization was at the highest N level caused only by an increase in yield of the border plants....

  11. Comparison of Decision Rules for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Practices Using a Nonlinear Mathematical Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Juma K.; Dillon, Carl R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.; Kanakasabai, Murali

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of decision rules has been made for case studies of corn production using subsurface drip irrigation under three agricultural management practices (no irrigation, uniform irrigation, and variable rate irrigation). The uniform irrigation strategy appeared to perform the best than the other two management practices under different risk scenarios.

  12. 25 CFR 171.415 - Can I place an obstruction on a BIA irrigation project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I place an obstruction on a BIA irrigation project... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.415 Can I place an obstruction on a BIA irrigation project? No. You may not place obstructions on BIA irrigation projects. (a) If you do so, we will...

  13. Tolerance of melon cultivars to irrigation water salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Francisco A. de L.; Medeiros, José F. de; Gheyi, Hans R.; Dias, Nildo da S.; Preston, Welka; Vasconcelos, Cybelle B. e L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of saline water for irrigation causes severe restriction to nutritional balance, growth and production in many crops due to the effect of salts on plant and soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to various levels of irrigation water salinity on yield and fruit quality. A field experiment was conducted in a split-plot randomized block design with four replicates. The factors were five levels of irrigation water s...

  14. Influence of Irrigation Scheduling Using Thermometry on Peach Tree Water Status and Yield under Different Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Remotely-sensed canopy temperature from infrared thermometer (IRT sensors has long been shown to be effective for detecting plant water stress. A field study was conducted to investigate peach tree responses to deficit irrigation which was controlled using canopy to air temperature difference (ΔT during the postharvest period at the USDA-ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center in Parlier, California, USA. The experimental site consisted of a 1.6 ha early maturing peach tree orchard. A total of 18 IRT sensors were used to control six irrigation treatments including furrow, micro-spray, and surface drip irrigation systems with and without postharvest deficit irrigation. During the postharvest period in the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons, ΔT threshold values at mid-day was tested to trigger irrigation in three irrigation systems. The results showed that mid-day stem water potentials (ψ for well irrigated trees were maintained at a range of −0.5 to −1.2 MPa while ψ of deficit irrigated trees dropped to lower values. Soil water content in deficit surface drip irrigation treatment was higher compared to deficit furrow and micro-spray irrigation treatments in 2012. The number of fruits and fruit weight from peach trees under postharvest deficit irrigation treatment were less than those well-watered trees; however, no statistically significant (at the p < 0.05 level reduction in fruit size or quality was found for trees irrigated by surface drip and micro-spray irrigation systems by deficit irrigation. Beside doubles, we found an increased number of fruits with deep sutures and dimples which may be a long-term (seven-year postharvest regulated deficit irrigation impact of deficit irrigation on this peach tree variety. Overall, deployment of IRT sensors provided real-time measurement of canopy water status and the information is valuable for making irrigation

  15. A Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach in irrigation networks maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza Permana, Angga; Rintis Hadiani, Rr.; Syafi'i

    2017-11-01

    Ponorogo Regency has 440 Irrigation Area with a total area of 17,950 Ha. Due to the limited budget and lack of maintenance cause decreased function on the irrigation. The aim of this study is to make an appropriate system to determine the indices weighted of the rank prioritization criteria for irrigation network maintenance using a fuzzy-based methodology. The criteria that are used such as the physical condition of irrigation networks, area of service, estimated maintenance cost, and efficiency of irrigation water distribution. 26 experts in the field of water resources in the Dinas Pekerjaan Umum were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and the result will be used as a benchmark to determine the rank of irrigation network maintenance priority. The results demonstrate that the physical condition of irrigation networks criterion (W1) = 0,279 has the greatest impact on the assessment process. The area of service (W2) = 0,270, efficiency of irrigation water distribution (W4) = 0,249, and estimated maintenance cost (W3) = 0,202 criteria rank next in effectiveness, respectively. The proposed methodology deals with uncertainty and vague data using triangular fuzzy numbers, and, moreover, it provides a comprehensive decision-making technique to assess maintenance priority on irrigation network.

  16. Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land

  17. Crop water stress of tomato as affected by irrigation regimes

    OpenAIRE

    H. Ismail; S. Z. Abubakar; M. A. Oyebode; N. J. Shanono; M. K. Dalhat

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Kadawa Kano State, Nigeria (located 11o 30’ N, 08o 30’ E and 486 m above mean sea level) during 2012/2013 dry season to evaluate crop water stress index of tomato (lycopersicon enculentum; UC82B) as affected by irrigation regimes. The experiment consisted of four levels of irrigation water application depth of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%  replacement of moisture depleted and three irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days) com...

  18. Irrigating grazed pasture decreases soil carbon and nitrogen stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Paul L; Kelliher, Francis M; Knight, Trevor L; O'Connell, Denis; Fraser, Scott; Schipper, Louis A

    2017-02-01

    The sustainability of using irrigation to produce food depends not only on the availability of sufficient water, but also on the soil's 'response' to irrigation. Stocks of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are key components of soil organic matter (SOM), which is important for sustainable agricultural production. While there is some information about the effects of irrigation on soil C stocks in cropping systems, there is a paucity of such studies in pastoral food production systems. For this study, we sampled soils from 34 paired, irrigated and unirrigated pasture sites across New Zealand (NZ) and analysed these for total C and N. On average, irrigated pastures had significantly (P stocks and the length of time under irrigation. This study suggests SOM will decrease when pastures under a temperate climate are irrigated. On this basis, increasing the area of temperate pasture land under irrigation would result in more CO 2 in the atmosphere and may directly and indirectly increase N leaching to groundwater. Given the large and increasing area of land being irrigated both in NZ and on a global scale, there is an urgent need to determine whether the results found in this study are also applicable in other regions and under different land management systems (e.g. arable). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Radionuclide kinetics in irrigated agrophytocenosis when using waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikov, V.G.; Mel'chenko, A.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    During experiments quantitative parameters of radionuclide kinetics as a result induced activity and radionuclide kinetics for natural heavy radionuclides from water used for irrigation into the vegetables crops for various kinds of irrigation depending on agrophytocenosis species have been investigated. Ways of reducing the radionuclide concentrations as far as economic and nutritive criteria are concerned using the simplest methods of treatment have been studied. It has been concluded that the highest radioactive contamination of vegetables crops takes place during sprinkling and the minimum one occurs during subsurface irrigation and gravity irrigation. 13 refs.; 3 tabs

  20. Hypochlorite solution for root canal irrigation that lacks a chlorinated odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajrabhaya, La-Ongthong; Sangalungkarn, Vanida; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna; Phruksaniyom, Chareerut

    2017-01-01

    This is an in vitro study to develop a formulation of a hypochlorite solution for root canal irrigation that lacks a chlorinated odor. The antibacterial effect, tissue dissolution efficacy, and the cytotoxicity of the solution were assessed in cell culture and were compared with those of commercial sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions. Trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCA) was used as the source of hypochlorite ions in solution. All required properties of the NaOCl irrigant were evaluated and compared with those of original 2.5% NaOCl solutions currently in use. Our results revealed that a TCA 3.5% + 1/6 Buffer-1 solution passed the short-term stability test. Moreover, no odor of chlorine gas was detected by three independent observers. The hypochlorite ion content and pH were stable over an incubation period of 4 weeks. The new solution did not differ from commercial products in terms of the dissolution property on bovine pulpal tissue ( P > 0.05). Moreover, the antibacterial effect of this solution on Enterococcus faecalis did not differ from that of the commercial products ( P > 0.05). In addition, our biocompatibility analysis demonstrated no difference among the tested solutions ( P > 0.05). According to the results of all properties tested, TCA 3.5% + 1/6 Buffer-1 could be considered an option for NaOCl irrigation with the benefit of no detectable chlorine odor.

  1. Direct and Total Benefits of Irrigation in India and its Implications to Irrigation Financing and Cost Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Madhusudan; Narayanamoorthy, Annasamy; Barker, Randolph

    2006-01-01

    Who benefits from irrigation development in an economy and who should pay for the cost? This question so far has not been well addressed in the irrigation literature. To answer this question we need to know, in addition to the information on farmers' level benefits (increased crop productivity), the magnitude of the total economy wide benefits derived by the farm and non-farm sector in the economy from irrigation development. In this study, taking an example from India, we have estimated the ...

  2. Modulation of physiological hemostasis by irrigation solution: comparison of various irrigation solutions using a mouse brain surface bleeding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasutaka; Doi, Kazuhisa; Harada, Daisuke; Kamikawa, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    Intraoperative bleeding often obscures the surgical field and may cause neurological damage. The irrigation fluids used during surgery might affect physiological hemostasis because they modulate the extracellular fluid composition of the bleeding area directly. The authors therefore investigated the influence of irrigation fluid on hemostasis in a mouse brain surface bleeding model. The cerebral cortices of ddY strain mice were exposed under irrigation with normal saline, lactated Ringer (LR) solution, or artificial CSF (ACF-95). To investigate the influence of electrolytes, calcium, potassium, or both were also added to the saline. After 10 minutes of irrigation at 100 ml/hour, sequential photographs of the surgical area were taken with a microscope, and the number of bleeding points was counted visually. Irrigation and counting were performed in a masked manner. There were significantly more bleeding points after irrigation with normal saline than with ACF-95; LR solution had a similar effect on physiological hemostasis as ACF-95. Saline augmented with calcium or potassium and calcium was superior to normal saline in terms of hemostasis. The authors demonstrated that the irrigation fluid used in neurosurgery affects bleeding at the surgical site. To avoid surgical site bleeding, ACF-95 and LR solution should be used as irrigation fluids instead of normal saline. The calcium and potassium content of irrigation solutions seems to be important in hemostasis.

  3. Comparison of sealer penetration using the EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Unal, Bayram

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the EndoVac irrigation system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and conventional endodontic needle irrigation on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Forty single-rooted, recently extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the irrigation technique used: conventional endodontic needle irrigation and EndoVac irrigation. All teeth were instrumented using the ProFile rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were then measured. Mann-Whitney test results showed that EndoVac irrigation resulted in a significantly higher percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation at both the 1- and 3-mm levels (P irrigation system significantly improved the sealer penetration at the 1- to 3-mm level over that of conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser assisted irrigation and hand irrigation for root canal decontamination: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivi, M.; Stefanucci, M.; Todea, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to compare the bactericidal efficiency of conventional method and LAI for root canal decontamination. Material and method: 22 human single root teeth, extracted for periodontal problems, mechanically prepared up to ISO 25 at the working lenght were divided in 2 groups: after sterilization, the teeth were infected with enterococcus faecalis and incubated for 4 weeks. Group A: 10 teeth were irrigated with conventional hand technique (CI): 3ml of 5% NaClO were used for two times of 30s each and after washing with sterile bi-distilled water for 20s, a final irrigation was performed with 3ml of 17% EDTA. Group B: 10 teeth were irrigated with 3ml of NaClO and activated by erbium laser, two cycles of 30s; also the final irrigation with 3ml of 17% EDTA was activated by erbium laser. In both the groups a resting time of 30s was used between the two sessions to allow the reaction rate of NaClO. The Erbium laser 2940 nm (LightWalker AT, Fotona; Lublijana, Slovenia) was used with 50microsecond pulse duration, at 15Hz, 20mJ, with a 600micron PIPS tip. Two samples were used as positive and negative control.

  5. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation

  6. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  7. Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magadlela, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with

  8. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... 8--Salmon and Steelhead Full Life-Cycle Population Models; and Request 9--Effects of the Project and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project Project... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District...

  9. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  10. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  11. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Xu; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-28

    To assess the efficacy and safety of a modified topical formalin irrigation method in refractory hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). Patients with CRP who did not respond to previous medical treatments and presented with grade II-III rectal bleeding according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were enrolled. Patients with anorectal strictures, deep ulcerations, and fistulas were excluded. All patients underwent flexible endoscopic evaluation before treatment. Patient demographics and clinical data, including primary tumor, radiotherapy and previous treatment options, were collected. Patients received topical 4% formalin irrigation in a clasp-knife position under spinal epidural anesthesia in the operating room. Remission of rectal bleeding and related complications were recorded. Defecation, remission of bleeding, and other symptoms were investigated at follow-up. Endoscopic findings in patients with rectovaginal fistulas were analyzed. Twenty-four patients (19 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 9.5 years were enrolled. The mean time from the end of radiotherapy to the onset of bleeding was 11.1 ± 9.0 mo (range: 2-24 mo). Six patients (25.0%) were blood transfusion dependent. The median preoperative Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was 3 points. Nineteen patients (79.2%) received only one course of topical formalin irrigation, and five (20.8%) required a second course. No side effects were observed. One month after treatment, bleeding cessation was complete in five patients and obvious in 14; the effectiveness rate was 79.1% (19/24). For long-term efficacy, 5/16, 1/9 and 0/6 patients complained of persistent bleeding at 1, 2 and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Three rectovaginal fistulas were found at 1 mo, 3 mo and 2 years after treatment. Univariate analysis showed associations of higher endoscopic VRS and ulceration score with risk of developing rectovaginal fistula. Modified formalin irrigation is an effective and safe

  12. Water quality irrigation in district of Lecce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardellicchio, N.; Dell'Atti, A.; Strisciullo, G.; Salamida, M.

    1996-01-01

    This work represents the continuation of the study undertaken in June 1991 and addressed to characterize the quality of subterranean waters in district of Lecce. The results of the determination, both chemical-analytical and microbiological, handled on patterns of stratum water used to irrigated and taken from 39 wells in the reclaimed area of Ugento Li Foggi illustrated and discussed. The results show the high contents of salinity and chlorides of the water caused by a sea water intrusion in the stratum which limits the use of the water resources in agriculture

  13. Nitrogen placement and source effects on nitrous oxide emissions and yields of irrigated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on how N fertilizer placement affects soil nitrous oxide (NO) emissions under irrigated conditions in the semiarid western United States. Our objective was to compare surface banding near corn row and broadcasting of three N sources (urea, polymer-coated urea [PCU], and stabilized urea [SU] containing urease and nitrification inhibitors) on NO emissions from a clay loam soil under sprinkler-irrigated continuous corn production. The N fertilizers were applied at a rate of 202 kg N ha to strip-till (2010 and 2011) and no-till (2011) corn at crop emergence, with ∼19 mm irrigation water applied the next day. Band-applied N had a 1.46-fold greater NO emission than broadcast N averaged over N sources and three studies. Soil NO-N emissions from urea were 1.48- and 1.74-fold greater than from PCU and SU, respectively, when averaged over N placement and studies. The N placement × source interaction was not significant. Averaged across studies, grain yield and N uptake did not vary with N placement, whereas grain yields were greater for SU than PCU but were not different from urea. Nitrous oxide emissions per unit of N applied, per unit of grain yield, and per unit N uptake were 59, 49, and 47% greater, respectively, with banded than with broadcast N fertilizer. These studies show that N placement and N source selection are important manageable factors that can affect NO emissions and need to be considered when developing NO mitigation practices in irrigated cropping systems in the semiarid western United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Irrigation of Cutaneous Abscesses Does Not Improve Treatment Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnock, Brian; Hendey, Gregory W

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation of the cutaneous abscess cavity is often described as a standard part of incision and drainage despite no randomized, controlled studies showing benefit. Our goal is to determine whether irrigation of a cutaneous abscess during incision and drainage in the emergency department (ED) decreases the need for further intervention within 30 days compared with no irrigation. We performed a single-center, prospective, randomized, nonblinded study of ED patients receiving an incision and drainage for cutaneous abscess, randomized to irrigation or no irrigation. Patient characteristics and postprocedure pain visual analog scale score were obtained. Thirty-day telephone follow-up was conducted with a standardized data form examining need for further intervention, which was defined as repeated incision and drainage, antibiotic change, or abscess-related hospital admission. Of 209 enrolled patients, 187 completed follow-up. The irrigation and no-irrigation groups were similar with respect to diabetes, immunocompromise, fever, abscess size, cellulitis, and abscess location, but the irrigation group was younger (mean age 36 versus 40 years) and more often treated with packing (89% versus 75%) and outpatient antibiotics (91% versus 73%). The need for further intervention was not different in the irrigation (15%) and no-irrigation (13%) groups (difference 2%; 95% confidence interval -8% to 12%). There was no difference in pain visual analog scale scores (5.6 versus 5.7; difference 0.1; 95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). Although there were baseline differences between groups, irrigation of the abscess cavity during incision and drainage did not decrease the need for further intervention. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Derivation of irrigation requirements for radiological impact assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahayni, Talal; Crout, Neil M J

    2016-11-01

    When assessing the radiological impacts of radioactive waste disposal, irrigation using groundwater contaminated with releases from the disposal system is a principal means of crop and soil contamination. In spite of their importance for radiological impact assessments, irrigation data are scarce and often associated with considerable uncertainty for several reasons including limited obligation to measure groundwater abstraction and differences in measuring methodologies. Further uncertainty arises from environmental (e.g. climate and landscape) change likely to occur during the assessment long time frame. In this paper, we derive irrigation data using the crop growth AquaCrop model relevant to a range of climates, soils and crops for use in radiological impact assessments. The AquaCrop estimates were compared with actual irrigation data reported in the literature and with estimates obtained from simple empirical methods proposed for use in radiological impact assessments. Further, the AquaCrop irrigation data were analysed using mixed effects modelling to investigate the effects of climate, soil and crop type on the irrigation requirement. Irrigation estimates from all models were within a reasonable range of the measured values. The AquaCrop estimates, however, were at the higher end of the range and higher than those from the empirical methods. Nevertheless, they may be more appropriate for conservative radiological assessments. The use of mixed effects modelling allowed for the characterisation of crop-specific variability in the irrigation data, and in contrast to the empirical methods, the AquaCrop and the mixed effects models accounted for the soil effect on the irrigation requirement. The approach presented in this paper is relevant for obtaining irrigation data for a specific site under different climatic conditions as well as for generic dose assessments. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the most comprehensive analyses of irrigation data in

  16. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  17. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing

  18. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  19. The relationship between irrigation water demand and drought in the Yellow River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Weihao; Peng, Shaoming; Jiang, Guiqin; Wu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In order to organize water for drought resistance reasonably, we need to study the relationship between irrigation water demand and meteorological drought in quantitative way. We chose five typical irrigation districts including the Qingtongxia irrigation district, Yellow River irrigation districts of Inner Mongolia in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the Fen river irrigation district and the Wei river irrigation district in the middle reaches of the Yellow River and t...

  20. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  1. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  2. More efficient irrigation may compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements due to climate change in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. We will present a recently published study1 that estimates the current level of water demand for Mediterranean agriculture and simulates the potential impacts of climate change, population growth and transitions to water-saving irrigation and conveyance technologies. The results indicate that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems, with large differences in the saving potentials across countries. Under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean. Both the Eastern and the Southern Mediterranean would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect. However, in some scenarios water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain. In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a large development2 that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops.

  3. Estimating climate-change effects on a Mediterranean catchment under various irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. von Gunten

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insight: The simulated catchment responses to climate change show clear differences between the irrigation scenarios. In future climate, groundwater levels and base flows decrease more when irrigation is present than without irrigation, because groundwater levels and base flow in present climate are already at low levels without irrigation. In contrast, annual peak discharges increase more in non-irrigated cases than in irrigated cases. Irrigation increases water availability and an associated rise in potential evapotranspiration results in higher actual evapotranspiration during summer. In non-irrigated scenarios, by contrast, actual evapotranspiration in summer is controlled by precipitation and thus decreases in future climate.

  4. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  5. Coordinated model predictive reach control for irrigation canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; Van Overloop, P.J.; De Schutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation canals are large-scale systems, covering vast geographical areas, and consisting of many interconnected canal reaches that interact with control structures such as pumps and gates. The control of such irrigation canals is usually done in a manual way, in which a human operator travels

  6. Hydrological interdependencies of irrigation systems and river catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.; Prieto, D.; Giesen, van de N.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses (re)distributing effects of small and large irrigation systems at the catchment scale. Scales of catchment and system, each with their own temporal and spatial properties, are to be integrated. To be able to quantify water fluxes in irrigation, water fluxes within the system at

  7. Potentials for Supplemental Irrigation in Some Rainfall Areas of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally believed that irrigation is not needed in the southern parts of Nigeria, usually referred to as the rainfall areas of Nigeria. This study investigated the need and potentials for irrigation in some parts of Imo, Abia and Ebonyi States of southeastern Nigeria with a view to ascertaining the extent of need and potentials ...

  8. Evaluating tensiometers and moisture sensors for cranberry irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling continues to be a major challenge in cranberry (Vaccinium marcrocarpon Ait.) production. Many growers tend to rely on the 25 mm per week “rule” from rain and irrigation despite evidence that in most years this results in some weeks with inadequate water and others with excess. ...

  9. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  10. Horizontal distribution of phosphorus in soils of irrigation ditches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horizontal distribution of phosphorus in soils of irrigation ditches. ... correlations were found between soil P and stream water P on one hand, and between soil pH and stream water pH on the other, indicating that the irrigation water may indeed, have had little or no influence on the properties of the ditches' soils.

  11. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt affect on soils. The study assessed the effect of industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and plant tissues in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. The degree of pollution was evaluated using Sodium adsorption ratio, pH, cations – Cl ...

  12. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  13. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  14. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semiarid climatic conditions. There were six irrigation treatments, five of which (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were based on adjustment ...

  15. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Private Irrigation Supply in Nandom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for private irrigation in Nandom district, Ghana. The study randomly sampled 236 farmers and analyzed data using descriptive statistics and ordered logit regression model. Results revealed that 94.5 percent of the farmers were WTP for private irrigation services with ...

  16. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on lettuce yield characteristics in greenhouse condition from December 2006 to March 2007. Irrigation levels of 100% of total class A pan (S1), 80% of total class A pan (S2), 60% of total class A pan (S3) and nitrogen levels of 0 kg ...

  17. Enhanced fodder yield of maize genotypes under saline irrigation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor quality irrigation water adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. This study was designed to evaluate the growth, fodder yield and ionic concentration of three promising maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under the influence of varying quality irrigation water, with different salinity levels. The genotypes, such as ...

  18. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  19. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... “Judith”) plant grown in a plastic greenhouse and irrigated by a drip irrigation system under Mediterranean ... shorter internodes sections and reductions in flower number, size and quality (Cameron et al., 1999; .... Water use of carnation under plastic greenhouse conditions is computed using water balance ...

  20. Irrigated Agriculture and Poverty Reduction in Kassena Nankana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge gap regarding the contribution of existing irrigation facilities to poverty reduction occasioned the case study of the Tono irrigation scheme located in the Kassena Nankana District in the Upper East Region of Ghana. A treatment and control experimental approach was adopted in the investigation.

  1. Performance and field practice of smallholder irrigation: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate performance and field irrigation practice of a smallholder scheme in Kenya. Farmers' irrigation practices were assessed through observations and questionnaires. Performance was evaluated using sprinkler discharge coefficient, Christiansen's uniformity (Cu), and ...

  2. Field Irrigation Practice and the Performance of Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At Mpudzi drag hose irrigation scheme, the distribution uniformity was 44.9%, application efficiency of the lower quarter was low at 26.4%, and Christiansen\\'s uniformity coefficient averaged 62.6%. These results indicated that the effectiveness of irrigation was low to medium implying an inefficient utilisation of resources, ...

  3. Commercial production of crops irrigated with gypsiferous mine water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology that could add value through agricultural production and utilise mine effluent. Crop response to irrigation with gypsiferous mine water, as well as the impact on soil and groundwater resources were investigated in a three-year field ...

  4. Mechanisms for enlarging lesion size during irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helen Høgh; Roman-Gonzalez, Javier; Johnson, Susan B

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation of cardiac arrhythmias was developed to increase the size of the radiofrequency-induced lesion, since cooling of the electrode tip allows use of higher power settings. The purpose of this study was to determine if the increased lesion size during......(3) (P radiofrequency irrigated-tip ablation is that higher power levels can be used...

  5. Effects Of Irrigation Frequency On Soil Moisture Potential And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigation frequency affects soil properties with a residual influence on soil moisture potential, crop performance and shoot yield of vegetables. This study investigated the effect of irrigation frequency on the growth, shoot yield of large green, soil moisture potential, and soil chemical properties based on ramdomised complete ...

  6. Performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at Mambilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in discharge can also be adjusted via use of uniform laterals, risers, and nozzles. This study further recommends an incorporation of a soil and water laboratory for the company to aid in monitoring the soil and water quality of the irrigation area. Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation ...

  7. The supplementary irrigation effects on drought tolerance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary irrigation is a high-performance operation for increasing crop production and income of farmers in dryland conditions. In order to study the effect of supplementary irrigation on drought tolerance and ornamental characteristics of safflower genotypes an experiment was conducted in 2013-14 at North ...

  8. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  9. Small private irrigation: A thriving but overlooked sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Giordano, M.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of smallholder farmers engage in irrigation using their own resources. They buy or rent irrigation equipment and draw water from nearby sources without depending on or without interference from public agencies or water user associations. The individualization of Agricultural

  10. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- grove that had been drip irrigated for 10 years. .... evaluated human risk of the organic contaminants in reclaimed wastewater used for ... of our study was to evaluate the effects of treated waste- water irrigation, of 10 years' ...

  11. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the

  12. Wireless sensor network effectively controls center pivot irrigation of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  13. Microbiological assessment of food crops irrigated with domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This could be expected to have an adverse effect on growth in the long term as soils might become salinised. The. Figure 1. Carrots and green peppers in trial bags irrigated through plastic bottles with greywater, tap water or hydroponics solution. TABLE 1. Mean chemical and microbiological analysis of irrigation solutions.

  14. Infrared thermometry for deficit irrigation of peach trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water shortage has been a major concern for crop production in the western states of the USA and other arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a potential water saving strategy to alleviate water shortage, however, the margin of error in irrigation manag...

  15. Improving of irrigation management: a learning based approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of a study that was conducted to identify social, cultural, economic and technological factors, which influence the adoption of irrigation scheduling practices on the farm. The study showed that irrigation farmers use different learning sources and that informal interaction and social networks ...

  16. The implication of irrigation in climate change impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Gang; Webber, Heidi; Hoffmann, Holger; Wolf, Joost; Siebert, Stefan; Ewert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of projected climate change on irrigation requirements and yields of six crops (winter wheat, winter barley, rapeseed, grain maize, potato, and sugar beet) in Europe. Furthermore, the uncertainty deriving from consideration of irrigation, CO2 effects on

  17. Irrigated cotton grown on sierozem soils in South Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gloldnaya steppe has large areas of fertile sierozem soils that are important for crop production and its accompanying economic development. The soils are fertile loams but because of the steppe’s dry environment, they need to be irrigated. Our objective was to study irrigation management of cot...

  18. Evaluation of amendments used to prevent sodification of irrigated fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinck, Elizabeth; Frost, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Gypsum and S are applied to soils being irrigated with Na-HCO 3 dominated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) produced water to protect soil structure and fertility. Wyoming law requires beneficial use of produced water and irrigation with CBNG produced water in the semi-arid Powder River Basin is becoming more common. Strontium isotopes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the gypsum and S applications in preventing sodification of these irrigated soils. The isotope ratio of Sr on the cation exchange complex of irrigated soil falls between that of the gypsum amendment (0.7074) and that of local soil (0.712-0.713). Strontium isotopes indicate that, to a depth of 30 cm, as much as 50% of the Sr on the irrigated soil cation exchange sites originated from the applied gypsum amendment on a field irrigated for 3 a. This was also true to a depth of 5 cm on a field irrigated less than 1 a. Strontium isotope ratio measurements of vegetation illustrate plant utilization of Sr from gypsum amendments, thereby reinforcing the conclusions about the presence of Sr from gypsum on the soil's exchange sites. This Sr tracing technique may be useful in a wide variety of settings where monitoring soil health is necessary, especially in settings where poor quality water is used for irrigation: a more common occurrence as demand for fresh water increases.

  19. Bureaucratic designs : the paradox of irrigation management transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy has been formulated and implemented worldwide, relying on three basic assumptions: that the irrigation agency are motivated to adapt their role in the sector's development; that farmers are willing to take over the system management; and that the process

  20. ARS irrigation research priorities and projects-An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) Irrigation Scheduling Technologies for Water Productivity; 2) Water Productivity (WP) at Multiple Scales; 3) Irrigation Applicatio...

  1. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    In this present study, the quality of municipal wastewater used for irrigation of spinach was investigated for its heavy metal build-up. .... digested samples were filtered with a 0.45 µm pore size cellulose nitrate membrane filter paper. ... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by Farooq et al.

  2. Comparative analysis of infiltration measurements of two irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infiltration test on two irrigated soils was carried out to determine the infiltration rates of the soils for proper irrigation scheduling and planning at the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA). The soil samples were taken from Agricultural Engineering Demonstration and the University Research farms. Soil classification ...

  3. Irrigation Development and Public-Private Partnerships in Morocco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agriculture is at the heart of Morocco's economic and social development, but in this water-stressed country, irrigation is critical to agricultural production. Irrigated agriculture plays an important role in meeting Morocco's food needs. It also generates more than three-quarters of the country's agricultural exports, providing ...

  4. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Marlorgio, F.; Battista, P.; Bacci, L.; Rapi, B.; Marzialetti, P.; Hemming, J.; Balendonck, J.

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of

  5. Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Using Sweet Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravitational drip irrigation system was developed using available materials. The system consisting of 4.0 l/hr Netafim pressure-compensating emitters was used to irrigate 0.0015 ha of land where sweet corn was planted under variable water applications in a randomised complete block design with three treatments.

  6. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  7. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC). The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses. Keywords: Arthroscopy, Hypothermia, Irrigation fluid temperature, Thermoregulation.

  8. Implications of rural irrigation schemes on household economy. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and quality of life as measured through the use of standardised HDI. In light of the above, there is a need to fund and develop more rural irrigation schemes so as to ensure livelihood security and rural development in Zimbabwe. Keywords: Rural livelihood, Poverty, Climate change, Irrigation, Lower Gweru, Extension.

  9. The heavy metal content of crops irrigated with untreated wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal content of crops irrigated with untreated wastewater: a case study of Nairobi, Kenya. ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... A study was conducted to determine the content of lead, cadmium and chromium in food crops irrigated with untreated wastewater at Kibera and Maili Saba, in Nairobi, ...

  10. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimised friction loss expressed as a percentage of the length of the pipeline was below 0.6%, which is much lower than the design norm of 1.5% that is endorsed by the South African Irrigation Institute. The main conclusion is that care should be taken when applying the friction loss norm when sizing irrigation mainlines ...

  11. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  12. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the management of soils under irrigation. The results from long-term irrigation case studies along the Lower Vaal River and Breede River show that the quality of soils can be improved. The opposite is also true where mismanagement occurred. Research on the salinity threshold of major crops (grapevines, wheat, maize, ...

  13. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  14. Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSRACT: Field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and 2010/11 irrigation seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research, Samaru Zaria, to assess the impact of two methods of administering Growth-stage deficit irrigation scheduling (GSDIS) on yield and soil water balance of an early maturing maize variety.

  15. IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY, WATER STORAGE, AND LONG RUN WATER CONSERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Joel R.; Willis, David B.

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based simulation model is used to illustrate the complex relationships between irrigation efficiency, water banking and water conservation under the prior appropriation doctrine. Increases in irrigation efficiency and/or establishment of water banks do not guarantee water conservation. Conservation requires reduction in the quantity of water consumptively used by agriculture.

  16. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Irrigation Project on the proposed rates about the following issues: (1) The methodology for O&M rate setting..., Irrigation Project Manager, (Project operations and management contracted to Tribes), R.R.1, Box 980, Harlem... Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of rate adjustments. SUMMARY: The...

  17. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  18. Wedlock or deadlock? Feminists' attempts to engage irrigation engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I describe my search for ways of thinking about, and conceptualizing, irrigation realities that allow recognition of gender as constitutive of such realities. This effort logically follows from the realization that in mainstream conceptualizations of irrigation it is difficult to

  19. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... However, when the amount of irrigation water exceeded the plant water requirement, eggplant yield decreased. Yield response factor (Ky) was determined as 0.81. Since Ky < 1, eggplants were not sensitive to water deficiency. In addition, the highest water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use ...

  20. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated whether electronic controllers in irrigation systems effectively save water. The study also assessed the effect of these controllers on crop yield using drip and sprinkler irrigation systems in severely arid climate conditions. Evapotranspiration (ET) controllers were installed in experimental fields of wheat ...

  1. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  2. A comparison of precision mobile drip irrigation, LESA and LEPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision mobile drip irrigation (PMDI) is a surface drip irrigation system fitted onto moving sprinkler systems that applies water through the driplines as they are dragged across the field. This application method can conserve water by limiting runoff, and reducing evaporative losses since the wat...

  3. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  4. Performance evaluation of a center pivot variable rate irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) for center pivots offers potential to match specific application rates to non-uniform soil conditions along the length of the lateral. The benefit of such systems is influenced by the areal extent of these variations and the smallest scale to which the irrigation syste...

  5. Investigating deficit irrigation as a climate-smart farming option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global water supplies available for irrigation are declining while food demand continues to rise. Deficit irrigation offers a promising strategy to reduce water use with minimal impacts to yields, but is likely to have a range of impacts on soil nutrient cycling processes and climate change mitigati...

  6. Technology transfer: Promoting irrigation progress and best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational efforts promoting irrigation best management practices are designed to increase adoption of these practices and increase public understanding of the importance of irrigation. They increase visibility and the impact of the Ogallala Aquifer Program and promote affiliated research and exten...

  7. Rainwater use by cotton under different irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater Use by Cotton Under Different Irrigation Systems To increase the efficiency by which agronomic crops use water input from both irrigation and rain during the growing season requires quantifying the proportion of rainfall used by the crop for any rain event. The rainfall pattern in the Texa...

  8. Yield, irrigation production efficiency and economic returns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gross return, net return and benefit-cost ratio exhibited quadratic relationship which can be used for optimising economic return of broccoli under variable irrigation and lateral spacing. The results revealed that drip irrigation system is profitable for broccoli production inspite of high initial investment. Journal of Science and ...

  9. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laurence J; George, Roy

    2017-10-23

    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  10. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  11. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy

    2017-01-01

    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled. PMID:29065540

  12. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  13. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  14. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  15. Using Cotton Model Simulations to Estimate Optimally Profitable Irrigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Sapkota, P.; Johnson, J.; Maas, S.

    2011-12-01

    In recent decades irrigation pumping from the Ogallala Aquifer has led to declines in saturated thickness that have not been compensated for by natural recharge, which has led to questions about the long-term viability of agriculture in the cotton producing areas of west Texas. Adopting irrigation management strategies that optimize profitability while reducing irrigation waste is one way of conserving the aquifer's water resource. Here, a database of modeled cotton yields generated under drip and center pivot irrigated and dryland production scenarios is used in a stochastic dominance analysis that identifies such strategies under varying commodity price and pumping cost conditions. This database and analysis approach will serve as the foundation for a web-based decision support tool that will help producers identify optimal irrigation treatments under specified cotton price, electricity cost, and depth to water table conditions.

  16. THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACHES TO THE OPERATION OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Olgarenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new methodological approaches to optimize the functioning processes of irrigation systems that have been passed a wide industrial verification in irrigation systems of the North Caucasus and proved from the standpoint of the landscape approach and on the basis of the laws of the technics, cybernetics, ecology and economic and mathematical methods. The methodological approach that has been proposed allows to consider the system as a multifactorial, closed with adjustable anthropogenic impacts on the environment, which allowed to develop a model of the irrigation system as a management object, taking into account environmental considerations and impacts on it natural and controllable factors, as well as the optimization factors. Determined classification which is required for operational planning and management of irrigation, including information and referral, seasonal and operational information. Improved planning and management process ensures of the irrigation forecast model, consisting of a control unit information base and the space-time optimization.

  17. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Yield and water productivity of potatoes grown in 4.32 m2 lysimeters were measured in coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam and imposed to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. PRD and DI as water-saving irrigation treatments received 65% of FI after...... tuber bulking and lasted for 6 weeks until final harvest. Analysis across the soil textures showed that fresh yields were not significant between the irrigation treatments. However, the same analysis across the irrigation treatments revealed that the effect of soil texture was significant on the fresh...... yield and loamy sand produced significantly higher fresh yield than the other two soils, probably because of higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis rates, and "stay-green" effect late in the growing season. More analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between the irrigation...

  18. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  19. Effects of climate change on irrigation adoption in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênis Antônio da Cunha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of climate change on irrigation adoption in Brazil. Temperature and precipitation projections for the 2010-2099 periods were employed under a number of different climate scenarios according the 4th Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. The results show that irrigation adoption will be affected by climate change. Given current conditions, irrigation has generally been adopted in Brazil to cope with reduced precipitation and temperature variations. The estimated irrigation probabilities in the future scenarios were quite different across Brazilian regions. The main explanation for this pattern is the distinct climatic conditions and production structures. Considering future climate change, over the next 30 years (2010 to 2039, the irrigation probability is expected to increase in all Brazilian regions. However, this trend is reversed in the long run.

  20. Comparison of water distribution mechanisms under two localized irrigation techniques (Drip Irrigation & Buried Diffuser) for one week irrigation period in a sandy soil of southeastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Ines; Kodešová, Radka; Mechergui, Mohamed; Nikodem, Antonín; Moussa, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The majority of agricultural ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin of northern Africa suffer from water shortage and positions these regions in a highly vulnerable to climate change. In arid regions of Tunisia and exactly in the Southeastern part, during each growing season, plant productivity in sandy-loamy soils is dramatically reduced by limited availability of soil water and nutrients. Thus, highly permeable soils are unable to retain adequate water and nutrient resource in the plant root zone. Moreover, the investments of supplemental irrigation and agricultural amendments of additional fertilization are not sustainable due to the leaching of water supplies and nutrients, which severely limit agricultural productivity. In addition, inadequate soil water distribution, costly irrigation and fertilization leads to negative responses to plant nutrients added to highly permeable soils. That's why we should use irrigation techniques with high water use efficiency. This paper focuses on the comparison between two localized irrigation techniques which are the Drip Irrigation (DI) and the Buried Diffuser (BD) that has the same flow rates (4 l/h). The BD is buried at 15 cm depths. Experimental data was obtained from Smar-Médenine located in South-East of Tunisia. The water distribution at the soil surface for BD is very important about 195 cm2 while for the DI is about 25.12 cm2. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model helped to evaluate the water distribution and compare the water balance obtained with those two irrigation techniques for one week irrigation period. There is a rapid kinetic which has a duration of 3 hours (irrigation time) and a slow kinetic which is the result of the water distribution in the soil, the plant uptake and the effect of climatic condition. There are two mechanisms that affect the two irrigation techniques: the water distribution and the position of irrigation system. As a result, irrigation with BD goes dipper in the soil. The transmission zone for this

  1. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  2. Irrigation dynamics associated with positive pressure, apical negative pressure and passive ultrasonic irrigations: a computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, José Enrique; Nurbakhsh, Babak; Layton, Gillian; Bussmann, Markus; Kishen, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Complexities in root canal anatomy and surface adherent biofilm structures remain as challenges in endodontic disinfection. The ability of an irrigant to penetrate into the apical region of a canal, along with its interaction with the root canal walls, will aid in endodontic disinfection. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the irrigation dynamics of syringe irrigation with different needle tip designs (open-ended and closed-ended), apical negative pressure irrigation with the EndoVac® system, and passive ultrasonic-assisted irrigation, using a computational fluid dynamics model. Syringe-based irrigation with a side-vented needle showed a higher wall shear stress than the open-ended but was localised to a small region of the canal wall. The apical negative pressure mode of irrigation generated the lowest wall shear stress, while the passive-ultrasonic irrigation group showed the highest wall shear stress along with the greatest magnitude of velocity. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  3. Scenario Studies on Effects of Soil Infiltration Rates, Land Slope, and Furrow Irrigation Characteristics on Furrow Irrigation-Induced Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibal, Jibrin M; Ramalan, A A; Mudiare, O J; Igbadun, H E

    2014-01-01

    Furrow irrigation proceeds under several soil-water-furrow hydraulics interaction dynamics. The soil erosion consequences from such interactions in furrow irrigation in Samaru had remained uncertain. A furrow irrigation-induced erosion (FIIE) model was used to simulate the potential severity of soil erosion in irrigated furrows due to interactive effects of infiltration rates, land slope, and some furrow irrigation characteristics under different scenarios. The furrow irrigation characteristics considered were furrow lengths, widths, and stream sizes. The model itself was developed using the dimensional analysis approach. The scenarios studied were the interactive effects of furrow lengths, furrow widths, and slopes steepness; infiltration rates and furrow lengths; and stream sizes, furrow lengths, and slopes steepness on potential furrow irrigation-induced erosion, respectively. The severity of FIIE was found to relate somewhat linearly with slope and stream size, and inversely with furrow lengths and furrow width. The worst soil erosion (378.05 t/ha/yr) was found as a result of the interactive effects of 0.65 m furrow width, 50 m furrow length, and 0.25% slope steepness; and the least soil erosion (0.013 t/ha/yr) was induced by the combined effects of 0.5 l/s, 200 m furrow length, and 0.05% slope steepness. Evidently considering longer furrows in furrow irrigation designs would be a better alternative of averting excessive FIIE.

  4. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  5. Comparison of two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation for root canal irrigation: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Fretes, V R; Ortiz, C P; Mereles, R; Sosa, V; Yubero, M F; Escobar, P M; Heilborn, C

    2016-02-01

    To compare in a laboratory study two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation, regarding the delivery of a contrast solution (CS) to working length (WL) and into simulated lateral canals and the effective volume of irrigant aspirated during negative pressure irrigation. Twenty single-canaled incisor training models were constructed with six simulated lateral canals each (2, 4 and 6 mm to WL) and a size 40, 0.04 taper apical size canal. Each model underwent all irrigation procedures (EndoVac at WL (EndoVac-0) and WL-2 mm (EndoVac-2), iNP needle with negative pressure (iNPn) and syringe irrigation with the iNP needle (iNPs) and a 30-G side-slot needle placed at WL (SI0) and WL-2 (SI2) mm in a crossover design. CS was delivered at 4 mL min(-1) for 60 s with a peristaltic pump and a recovery device collected the volume (in mL) of irrigant suctioned by the negative pressure groups. The irrigation procedures were digitally recorded, and a still image of the 60-s time-point of irrigation was evaluated for CS distance to WL (in millimetres) after irrigation and penetration into lateral canals (3-point scale). Statistical tests used were Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. EndoVac-0, iNPn and iNPs had median distances of CS to WL of 0 mm, followed by SI0 (0.2 mm), SI2 (0.7 mm) and EndoVac-2 (1.7 mm). There were no significant differences between EndoVac-0, iNPn, iNPs and SI0, but these were significantly different to SI2 and EndoVac-2 (P irrigation and that collected by iNPn (4 mL), but these were significantly greater than EndoVac-0 (2.8 mL, P irrigation procedures were ineffective at penetration into lateral canals. iNPn, EndoVac-0, iNPs and SI0 achieved greater irrigant penetration to WL. iNPn was able to collect a median volume of CS (4 mL) similar to that delivered by syringe irrigation (iNPp, SI0 and SI2). An adequate irrigant penetration into lateral canals could not be achieved by any of the systems. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John

  6. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  7. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  8. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  9. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  10. Interproximal biofilm removal by intervallic use of a sonic toothbrush compared to an oral irrigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawakoli, Pune N; Sauer, Bärbel; Becker, Klaus; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Attin, Thomas

    2015-08-05

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the potential of biofilm removal in interproximal tooth regions using intervallic cleaning with an oral irrigator or a sonic toothbrush. Three-species biofilms (Streptococcus mutans (OMZ 918), Streptococcus oralis SK 248 (OMZ 60), Actinomyces naeslundii (OMZ 745)) were grown on hydroxyapatite discs for 3 days in culture media. Every 24 h, specimens were incubated for 15 min in resazurin solution (i.e., culture medium and 10 % v/v alamarBlue®) to measure the metabolic activity with a fluorescence spectrophotometer in relative fluorescence units (rfu) at baseline. Then, specimens were fixed in interproximal holding devices and underwent treatment with an oral irrigator (WF; Waterpik® Sensonic WP-100E), an active sonic toothbrush (WPa), or an inactive sonic toothbrush (WPi; Waterpik® Sensonic SR-3000E) for 10 s (n = 18/group). Untreated biofilms served as controls (CO). After treatment, bacterial activity was re-measured, and specimens were re-grown in fresh medium for 24 h until next cleaning procedure. Altogether, cleaning was repeated in intervals of three treatment days (d1, d2, d3). After d3, SEM images were taken (n = 8) and CFU was measured (n = 3). Metabolic activity was analyzed for each disc separately, rfu values were averaged for d1 to compare initial biofilm stability, and ratios of baseline and post-treatment values were compared. Results were analyzed using ANOVA with the post-hoc Scheffé test, or Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Mann-Whitney test. Median baseline rfu-values of d1 resulted in 7821.8 rfu (interquartile range = 5114.5). Highest reduction in metabolic activity was recorded significantly for the oral irrigator used for 10 s (residual activity per day d1: WF 17.9 %, WPa 58.8 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WF 36.8 %, WPa 85.2 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WF 17.2.%, WPa 79.6 %, WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %). SEM images of untreated specimens (CO) and specimens treated with the sonic toothbrush

  11. Heavy metals concentrations in groundwater used for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Armanfar, Feridoun

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was characterization of selected heavy metals concentrations (Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and chromium) in groundwater used for ir-rigation in Tabriz City's countryside. After consulting with the experts of agriculture department and site survey, 38 irriga-tion water samples were taken from different farms (34 wells) without primary coordination with farm owners. All of samples were acidified to achieve pH≈2 and then were concentrated from 10 to 1 volume. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn in the samples (totally 228) were determined with a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In none of 38 farms, irrigation with surface runoff and industrial wastewater was ob-served. The average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn in the irrigated water were de¬termined 6.55, 0.79, 16.23, 3.41, 4.49, and 49.33µg/L, respectively. The average and even maxi¬mum concentrations of heavy metals in the irrigation water at the studied area were less than toxicity threshold limits of agricultural water. Currently, not using of surface runoff and industrial wastewater as irrigation water by farmers indicates that the controlling efforts by authorities have been effective in the area. Water used for irrigation of the farms and groundwater of the studied area are not polluted with heavy metals and there is no risk from this viewpoint in the region.

  12. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  13. Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maschietto Pucinelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15; conventional irrigation (n=17; healthy teeth (control (n = 10; and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control (n=10. After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p0.05. However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis.

  14. A review of groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasat, Ali; Mallants, Dirk; Walker, Glen; Silberstein, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of recharge under irrigated agriculture is one of the most important but difficult tasks. It is the least understood component in groundwater studies because of its large variability in space and time and the difficulty of direct measurement. Better management of groundwater resources is only possible if we can accurately determine all fluxes going into and out of a groundwater system. One of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in Australia, and the world, is to reduce uncertainty in estimating or measuring the recharge flux. Reducing uncertainty in groundwater recharge under irrigated agriculture is a pre-requisite for effective, efficient and sustainable groundwater resource management especially in dry areas where groundwater usage is often the key to economic development. An accurate quantification of groundwater recharge under irrigated systems is also crucial because of its potential impacts on soil profile salinity, groundwater levels and groundwater quality. This paper aims to identify the main recharge control parameters thorough a review of past field and modelling recharge studies in Australia. We find that the main recharge control parameters under irrigated agriculture are soil type, irrigation management, watertable depth, land cover or plant water uptake, soil surface conditions, and soil, irrigation water and groundwater chemistry. The most commonly used recharge estimation approaches include chloride mass balance, water budget equation, lysimeters, Darcy's law and numerical models. Main sources and magnitude of uncertainty in recharge estimates associated with these approaches are discussed.

  15. Constraining Agricultural Irrigation Surface Energy Budget Feedbacks in Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufforth, M. E.; Desai, A. R.; Suyker, A.

    2017-12-01

    The expansion and modernization of irrigation increased the relevance of knowing the effects it has on regional weather and climate feedbacks. We conducted a set of observationally-constrained simulations determining the result irrigation exhibits on the surface energy budget, the atmospheric boundary layer, and regional precipitation feedbacks. Eddy covariance flux tower observations were analyzed from two irrigated and one rain-fed corn/soybean rotation sites located near Mead, Nebraska. The evaluated time period covered the summer growing months of June, July, and August (JJA) during the years when corn grew at all three sites. As a product of higher continuous surface moisture availability, the irrigated crops had significantly higher amounts of energy partitioned towards latent heating than the non-irrigated site. The daily average peak of latent heating at the rain-fed site occurred before the irrigated sites and was approximately 45 W/m2 lower. Land surface models were evaluated on their ability to reproduce these effects, including those used in numerical weather prediction and those used in agricultural carbon cycle projection. Model structure, mechanisms, and parameters that best represent irrigation-surface energy impacts will be compared and discussed.

  16. Silicate fertilizer and irrigation depth in corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Eloy Dantas Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-magnesium silicates improve the soil physicochemical properties and provide benefits to plant nutrition, since they are sources of silica, calcium and magnesium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn fertilized with calcium-magnesium silicate. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil, using plastic pots containing 80 kg of soil. The treatments consisted of the combination of four irrigation depths, related to water replacement of 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the crop evapotranspiration, with fertilizer levels of 0, 82, 164 and 246 g of calcium-magnesium silicate, with three replications. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with the irrigation depths distributed in bands while the silicon levels constituted the subplots. Corn yield was influenced by calcium-magnesium silicate and by irrigation depth, obtaining the greatest grain yield with the dose of 164 g pot-1 irrigated at the highest water level. The water-use efficiency of in corn production tended to decrease when the irrigation depth was increased. The best water-use efficiency was observed when the irrigation level was between 87 and 174 mm, and the dose of silicate was 164 g pot-1.

  17. Irrigation scheduling of spring wheat using infrared thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegman, E.C.; Soderlund, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling for spring wheat requires information on different irrigation timing methods. Irrigation timing based on allowable root zone available water depletion and selected crop water stress index (CWSI) thresholds were evaluated in terms of their effect on spring wheat yield. A field study was conducted at Oakes, North Dakota in 1987 and 1988 on a Maddock sandy loam soil with two varieties of spring wheat (Marshall and Wheaton) using a split plot randomized block design. Irrigation was metered to each plot using trickle irrigation tubing. Neutron soil water measurements along with a water balance model were used to time irrigations that were based on different allowed root zone depletions. Infrared thermometer sensors (IRT) were used to measure in situ canopy temperatures and along with measured climatic information were used to time irrigations using the CWSI approach. Additionally, crop phenological stages and final grain yield were measured. The non-water-stressed baselines necessary for the CWSI differed between the two seasons but were similar to those from previous studies. The CWSI methods were feasible from the Feekes scale S4 (beginning pseudo-stem) to S11.2 (mealy ripe). Minimal yield reductions were observed using the CWSI method for thresholds less than 0.4-0.5 during this period. Minimal yield reductions were observed by maintaining the root zone allowable depletion below 50%. The grain yield-evapotranspiration (ET) relationship was linear in both years but with different slopes and intercepts. When analyzed on a relative basis to maximum ET (ETm), a single relationship fit both years’ data with a yield sensitivity factor of 1.58. Irrigations timed at CWSI = 0.5 reduced seasonal water application by 18% relative to treatments irrigated at CWSI = 0.2. (author)

  18. Changes of soil organic matter and microbial activity in irrigated and non irrigated olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Vavoulidou, Evagelia; Doula, Maria; Reppas, Spiros

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of olive cultivation techniques in Greece has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. A LIFE+ project was initiated (oLIVE-CLIMA; LIFE 11/ENV/000942) aiming to introduce new management practices in olive tree crops that lead to increased carbon dioxide uptake by plants as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere and reverse the trend of soil organic matter decline, erosion and desertification. This paper presents data on soil organic matter and microbial activity from a soil campaign in a pilot region in Greece, and particularly in the area of Chora, prefecture of Messinia, South west Peloponnese. The soil campaign took place during the period December 2012-February 2013. Twelve soil parcels of olive groves were selected (6 irrigated and 6 rainfed) and in each soil parcel six composite soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm depth at equal intervals along a straight line of the trunk of the tree to the middle of the distance from the nearest tree of the next tree series. The first three samples were under olive tree canopy. An additional composite sample was taken at depth of 10-40 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for soil physicochemical and biological properties. In this study results for total organic carbon (TOC), soil basal microbial respiration (BR), microbial biomass C (MB-C) from the region of Messinia, are presented. Organic matter was determined by dichromate oxidation. The microbial activity was measured by the amount of CO2 evolution, while microbial biomass C was determined by substrate-induced respiration, after the addition of glucose. The results showed considerable differences in TOC, BR and MB-C associated with the sampling position and soil depth. The higher TOC, BR and MB-C values, in most cases, were determined in samples taken from points under the canopy, but not close to the tree trunk compared to the sampling points outside the canopy. This indicates the positive effect of

  19. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Mahan; Robert J. Lascano

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET) using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effec...

  20. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  1. Climate change and irrigation demand: Uncertainty and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Woznicki

    2015-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Uncertainty in irrigation demand was found to increase moving from 2020–2039 to 2060–2079, with demand generally decreasing moving further into the future for corn and soybean. A shift in timing of peak irrigation demand and increases in temperature lead to corn yield reductions. However, soybean yield increased under these conditions. Finally, the adaptation strategy of planting earlier increased irrigation demand and water available for transpiration, while delaying planting resulted in demand decreases for both crops.

  2. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  3. Changes in the HPLC phenolic profile of virgin olive oil from young trees (Olea europaea L. Cv. Arbequina) grown under different deficit irrigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M Paz; Tovar, M Jesús; Girona, Joan; Motilva, M José

    2002-09-11

    The HPLC phenolic profile of virgin olive oils obtained from young olive trees (Arbequina cv.) grown under different deficit irrigation strategies was studied. Deficit irrigation (RDI) did not affect all the phenolic compounds in the same way. Lignans, vanillic acid, vanillin, and the unknown phenolic compound named P24 increased in the oils from the most irrigated treatments. The secoiridoid derivatives and the unknown phenolic compound named P19 increased in the oils from the most stressed irrigation treatments. The period of growth where a water stress significantly affects the phenolic profile of oils was between pit hardening and the first stages of fruit growth and oil accumulation, independently of the water applied during the previous period to harvest. The phenolic profile and those parameters related to phenol content, oxidative stability, and the bitter index were significantly affected only in the most severe RDI strategies. Other strategies produced important savings in irrigation requirements and an increase in the water use efficiency without noticeably affecting the phenolic profile.

  4. Wastewater application by spray irrigation on a field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida; effects on ground-water quality and quantity, 1980-82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J.F.; Hunn, J.D.; Calhoun, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    A field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida, used for land application of wastewater by spray irrigation was the site of a ground-water monitoring study to determine effects of spray irrigation on water-table elevations and ground-water quality. The study was conducted during 1980-82 in cooperation with the City of Tallahassee. The wastewater has relatively high concentrations of chloride, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon , coliform bacteria, sodium, and potassium. These substances are usually attenuated before they can impact the ground water. However, increases in chloride and nitrate-nitrogen were evident in ground water in some of the monitoring wells during the study. Chloride concentrations increased five-fold or more in some wells directly affected by spray irrigation, and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased eight-fold or more. Ground-water levels in the area of the spray field fluctuated over a range of several feet. These fluctuations were affected somewhat by spray irrigation, but the primary control on water levels was rainfall. As of December 1982, constituents introduced to the system by spray irrigation of effluent had not exceeded drinking water standard in the ground water. However, the system had not yet stabilized and more changes in ground-water quality could be expected. (USGS)

  5. Site-specific variable rate irrigation as a means to enhance water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of irrigated cropland in the US is watered with sprinkler irrigation systems. These systems are inherently more efficient in distributing water than furrow or flood irrigation. Appropriate system design of sprinkler irrigation equipment, application methods, and farming practices (e.g. ...

  6. Effects of different irrigation regimes and nitrogen levels on yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigation water amount applied, fruit yield and some quality parameters, yield response factor, irrigation water use efficiency, water use efficiency, water saving at different N levels and irrigation regimes were determined. Results show that irrigation regimes and N levels had significant effects on fruit yield. The best ...

  7. Estimation of furrow irrigation sediment loss using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The area irrigated by furrow irrigation in the U.S. has been steadily decreasing but still represents about 20% of the total irrigated area in the U.S. Furrow irrigation sediment loss is a major water quality issue and a method for estimating sediment loss is needed to quantify the environmental imp...

  8. The effects of drip line depths and irrigation levels on yield, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sefer bozkurt

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... water use efficiency (WUE) and the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) increased as the irrigation was reduced. Key words: Subsurface drip irrigation, irrigation level, water use efficiency. INTRODUCTION. Lettuce is the most popular vegetable with the highest consumption rate and economic importance ...

  9. 25 CFR 171.410 - Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? 171... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.410 Can I install a fence on a BIA irrigation project? Yes. Fences are considered structures and may be installed in compliance with § 171.405. ...

  10. 25 CFR 171.210 - Where will BIA provide my irrigation service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where will BIA provide my irrigation service? 171.210 Section 171.210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Service § 171.210 Where will BIA provide my irrigation service? (a) We...

  11. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect...

  12. 25 CFR 171.400 - Who is responsible for structures on a BIA irrigation project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for structures on a BIA irrigation... WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.400 Who is responsible for structures on a BIA irrigation project? (a) We may build, operate, maintain, rehabilitate or remove...

  13. Irrigation management using an expert system, soil water potentials, and vegetative indices for spatial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems are irrigation systems that are capable of applying different water depths both in the direction of travel and along the length of the irrigation system. However, when compared to traditional irrigation systems, VRI systems require a higher level of management...

  14. Irrigation Scheduling for Green Bell Peppers Using Capacitance Soil Moisture Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Femminella, K.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable production areas are intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between N-fertilizer rates and irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensor irrigation controllers (SMS) on yield, irrigation water use

  15. Plant, soil and weather based cues for irrigation timing in soybean production 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expanded use of irrigation management tools are needed to improve irrigation and water use efficiency in eastern Arkansas soybean production. In 2014 we initiated an Arkansas Soybean Promotion Board supported project to examine irrigation initiation timing on a sandy loam soil in a furrow-irrigated ...

  16. Effect of irrigation Interval on the Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during 2010 and 2011 dry seasons under irrigation at the Ajiwa Irrigation Site in Katsina State (Lat. 130 17' N and Long. 70 05' E) to study the effects of irrigation intervals on the yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Treatments consisted of four irrigation intervals (2, 4, 6 and 8 day) laid out in a ...

  17. Optimization of irrigation water in stone fruit and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Jose Mª; Castillo, Cristina; Temnani, Abdel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    In water scarcity areas, it must be highlighted that the maximum productions of the crops do not necessarily imply maximum profitability. Therefore, during the last years a special interest in the development of deficit irrigation strategies based on significant reductions of the seasonal ET without affecting production or quality has been observed. The strategies of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) are based on the reduction of water supply during non critical periods, the covering of water needs during critical periods and maximizing, at the same time, the production by unit of applied water. The main objective of this experiment was to implement, demonstrate and disseminate a sustainable irrigation strategy based on deficit irrigation to promote its large scale acceptance and use in woody crops in Mediterranean agroecosystems, characterized by water scarcity, without affecting the quality standards demanded by exportation markets. Five demonstration plots were established in representative crops of the irrigating community of Campotejar (Murcia, Spain): i) Peach trees, cv. catherina in the "Periquitos" farm; ii) Apricot trees, cv. "Red Carlet" in "La Hoya del Fenazar" farm; iii) Nectarine trees, cv. Viowhite in "Agrícola Don Fernando" farm; iv) Table grape, cv "Crimson Seedless" in "La Hornera" farm; and v) Paraguayan cv. carioca in "The Hornera" farm. In each demonstration plot, at least two irrigation treatments were established: i) Control (CTL), irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (120% of crop evapotranspiration) and ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated as CTL during critical periods and decreasing irrigation in non-critical periods. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential and Trunk Diameter Fluctuation derived indices: maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) and trunk daily growth rate (TGR); vegetative growth of the different crops from trunk diameter and pruning dry weight, fruit growth and fruit

  18. Assessing the Efficacy of the SWAT Auto-Irrigation Function to Simulate Irrigation, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Response to Management Strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-arid Texas High Plains, the underlying Ogallala Aquifer is experiencing continuing decline due to long-term pumping for irrigation with limited recharge. Accurate simulation of irrigation and other associated water balance components are critical for meaningful evaluation of the effects of irrigation management strategies. Modelers often employ auto-irrigation functions within models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. However, some studies have raised concerns as to whether the function is able to adequately simulate representative irrigation practices. In this study, observations of climate, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET, leaf area index (LAI, and crop yield derived from an irrigated lysimeter field at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas were used to evaluate the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation functions. Results indicated good agreement between simulated and observed daily ET during both model calibration (2001–2005 and validation (2006–2010 periods for the baseline scenario (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency; NSE ≥ 0.80. The auto-irrigation scenarios resulted in reasonable ET simulations under all the thresholds of soil water deficit (SWD triggers as indicated by NSE values > 0.5. However, the auto-irrigation function did not adequately represent field practices, due to the continuation of irrigation after crop maturity and excessive irrigation when SWD triggers were less than the static irrigation amount.

  19. Evaluation of an operational real-time irrigation scheduling scheme for drip irrigated citrus fields in Picassent, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dazhi; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Jiménez Bello, Miguel Angel; Martínez Alzamora, Fernando; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture accounts worldwide for 40% of food production and 70% of fresh water withdrawals. Irrigation scheduling aims to minimize water use while maintaining the agricultural production. In this study we were concerned with the real-time automatic control of irrigation, which calculates daily water allocation by combining information from soil moisture sensors and a land surface model. The combination of soil moisture measurements and predictions by the Community Land Model (CLM) using sequential data assimilation (DA) is a promising alternative to improve the estimate of soil and plant water status. The LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) was chosen to assimilate soil water content measured by FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) into CLM and improve the initial (soil moisture) conditions for the next model run. In addition, predictions by the GFS (Global Forecast System) atmospheric simulation model were used as atmospheric input data for CLM to predict an ensemble of possible soil moisture evolutions for the next days. The difference between predicted and target soil water content is defined as the water deficit, and the irrigation amount was calculated by the integrated water deficit over the root zone. The corresponding irrigation time to apply the required water was introduced in SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition system) for each citrus field. In total 6 fields were irrigated according our optimization approach including data assimilation (CLM-DA) and there were also 2 fields following the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) water balance method and 4 fields controlled by farmers as reference. During the real-time irrigation campaign in Valencia from July to October in 2015 and June to October in 2016, the applied irrigation amount, stem water potential and soil moisture content were recorded. The data indicated that 5% 20% less irrigation water was needed for the CLM-DA scheduled fields than for the other fields

  20. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid regions which suffer from water scarcity. A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation ...

  1. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo; Verhaagen, Bram; Rivas, David Fernandez; Versluis, Michel; Wesselink, Paul; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods: The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was

  2. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  3. 76 FR 58293 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... expenses include the following: (a) Salary and benefits for the project engineer/manager and project... Mexico 87104, Telephone: (505) 563-3100. Pine River Irrigation Project..... John Waconda, Superintendent...

  4. Evapotranspiration-based irrigation scheduling of lettuce and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficient irrigation water management, which in turn supports water conservation, mitigation of groundwater depletion/degradation, energy savings, and crop quality maintenance. Past research in California has revealed strong relationships between fract...

  5. Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation: a Case Study from Debre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    . Dominant soil texture .... Localized aquifers with intergranular porosity and permeability (unconsolidated sediments: alluvial ..... to see how much effective they are for irrigation data and what additional information they provide compared to ...

  6. Irrigation et intensification de la production agricole au Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigation et intensification de la production agricole au Sahel : perceptions paysannes sur la double riziculture et les variétés de riz utilisées sur les aménagements hydro - agricoles au Niger.

  7. Simulated evapotranspiration from a landfill irrigated with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Evapotranspiration from a landfill area, irrigated with leachate water, was simulated with the SOIL model. Three different types of vegetation (bare soil, grass ley, and willow) were used both with and without irrigation. The highest simulated evapotranspiration (604 mm) during the growing season was found from an irrigated willow stand with a high interception capacity. The lowest evapotranspiration (164 mm) was found from the bare soil. The relatively high evapotranspiration from the willow was probably caused by the high LAI (Leaf Area Index) and the low aerodynamic resistance within the willow stand. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce most of the leakage water from a landfill by irrigation of willow stands. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  8. Improving efficiencies of irrigation and nitrogen uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Three years of field studies and lysimeter experiments on irrigated wheat had the objective of finding ways of managing irrigation and N fertilization to minimize losses and reduce contamination of groundwater. Applied N had significant positive effects on crop-water consumptive use. The highest N losses occurred during early growth. Irrigation had little effect on N loss when it was practiced efficiently. Under the prevailing conditions, it is recommended that no N be applied to wheat at planting, in order to limit N losses by leaching caused by the high precipitation that usually occurs during early development when crop-N requirements are small. No more than 120 kg N ha -1 should be applied in total to minimize groundwater pollution and maximize N-uptake efficiency and economic returns. Also, for economic and environmental reasons, irrigation should be limited to 80% of the total requirement and to depths of 40 to 60 mm. (author)

  9. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    . The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...... be the focus in China in future research:More attention need to paid to studying the unified management policy and mechanism of water resources, studying the water resources cycle and transformation under environmental change, studying new methods for water resources carrying capacity and evaluation...

  10. Potential use of industrial wastewater in irrigation - case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4, Cl, K, heavy metals and trace elements. Results indicate that majority of the effluents from these industries have high relative conformity with irrigation water because of their relative conformity with FAO recommended (FAO 1992) standards.

  11. Sustainable irrigation and nitrogen management of fertigated vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Incrocci, L.; Voogt, W.; Pardossi, A.; Magán, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fertigation in combination with drip irrigation is being increasingly used in vegetable crop production. From a nutrient management perspective, this combination provides the technical capacity for precise nitrogen (N) nutrition, both spatially and temporally. With these systems, N and other

  12. Heavy metal pollution of vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    144) and edible parts of both exotic and traditional vegetables (samples = 240) irrigated with wastewater from some parts of Accra were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals in mg/l were quantified in wastewater from Accra and ...

  13. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lazicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  14. Effect of Different Irrigation Water Regime on Cucumber Yield and Water Use under Sprinkler System

    OpenAIRE

    Adeogun, E. O

    2017-01-01

    A research study was conducted on irrigation research field in National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, NCAM, Ilorin, Nigeria to determine the effect of different irrigation water regime on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) yield, water use efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency. Cucumber grown under field condition using sprinkler irrigation system on an irrigation research field showed good production responses. Yield of cucumber was reasonably appreciable when the crop was admin...

  15. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield pl...

  16. Evaluation of best management practices under intensive irrigation using SWAT model

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Land management practices such as conservation tillage and optimum irrigation are routinely used to reduce non-point source pollution and improve water quality. The calibrated and validated SWAT-IRRIG model is the first modified SWAT version that reproduces well the irrigation return flows (IRF) when the irrigation source is outside of the watershed. The application of this SWAT version in intensive irrigated systems permits to better evaluate the best management practices (BMPs) in such syst...

  17. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  18. Column leaching experiments of a uranium ore by atomizing irrigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yingying; Lei Zeyong; Chen Haihui

    2007-01-01

    Column leaching experiments ora uranium ore were made by atomizing irrigation technique. The leaching results are compared with the results obtained by spray irrigation and drip irrigation techniques respectively under the same conditions of column leaching experiments. The results show that the atomizing irrigation technique has more uniform solution distribution, higher leaching rate, shorter leaching period, and less ratio of liquid to solid. Consequently, the atomizing irrigation technique is suitable to the ore. (authors)

  19. Amelioration of the irrigated lands of the Vakhsh valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikromov, Islomkul; Mirzoev, Mm

    2015-04-01

    In the agro-industrial country like Tajikistan, the efficient use of irrigation of arable land is important because it contributes to the solution of the State Program of the Food independence of the country, by increasing the yield of agricultural production per unit of irrigated area. The irrigated area in the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1.01.2014g. equal to about 750 thousand. ha, per capita, on average, less than 0.10 hectares. and its share in relation to agricultural land is only 10.5%. However, more than 90% of crop production are grown on these lands. Given the demographic growth of the population of the republic specific area of irrigated land from year to year is becoming less and less of that call into question the successful solution of the above program. Therefore, in our view, to ensure food independence of the country in addition to the development of land from the reserve, should focus on the amelioration of existing irrigated areas, improve the culture of land and water, on modernization of reclamation systems contribute to a high degree of adaptability based on a high degree of water metering, water distribution, water and resource conservation, the use of the latest technology and irrigation techniques. Condition of the soil is their estimated figures is mainly determined by its productivity. It is determined by the degree of salinity of soils, the depth of the groundwater level and salinity, erosion and on stony ground. Vakhsh valley in Tajikistan is one of the main oases, ensuring production of agricultural products but, in recent years due to a number of man-made reasons: Adherence crop irrigation, low technical condition of irrigation systems and as a consequence their efficiency and utilization of irrigation water and farming, inoperable drainage system, or lack of them all, the virtual absence of vodouchёta on the field, no use of it modern technology and irrigation techniques, etc., the level of both fresh and saline groundwater rose

  20. Heavy Metals Concentrations in Groundwater Used for Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Armanfar, Feridoun

    2012-01-01

    Background: The main objective of this study was characterization of selected heavy metals concentrations (Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and chromium) in groundwater used for ir-rigation in Tabriz City's countryside.Methods: After consulting with the experts of agriculture department and site survey, 38 irriga-tion water samples were taken from different farms (34 wells) without primary coordination with farm owners. All of samples were acidified to achieve pH≈2 and then were concentrat...

  1. Compliance and efficacy of saline irrigation in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Duk; Kim, Joon Ho; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Jang, Min-Seok; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance with and effectiveness of nasal irrigation in children with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and to assess its clinical course. Seventy-seven children with refractory CRS resistant to medical treatment including antibiotics and nasal corticosteroids were included. We evaluated patients' nasal symptom and Lund Mackay CT scores at baseline. All patients were educated about nasal irrigation and encouraged to perform nasal irrigation 1-3 times a day. After 1 month, patients were reevaluated regarding compliance with the protocol and improvement of CRS by assessing symptom score and endoscopic evaluation. The patients were followed up for at least two months to assess need for further treatment including surgery. Mean age of patients was 8.3 years ranging from 4 to 13 years. Mean follow-up duration with nasal saline irrigation was 6.2 months (2-32 months). Forty nine patients (63.6%) successfully carried out nasal irrigation during follow-up (good compliance [GC] group) and 28 patients (36.4%) did not successfully carry out nasal irrigation (poor compliance [PC] group). There were no significant differences between GC and PC groups regarding clinical characteristics and baseline Lund-MacKay CT scores. Subjective and objective improvements were observed in 36 patients (73.5%) in the GC group and 14 patients (50.0%) in the PC group. Surgery including endoscopic sinus surgery and/or adenoidectomy was performed in 8 patients (16.3%) in the GC group and 12 patients (42.9%) in the PC group. The rate of surgical treatment was significantly different between the groups (p=0.019). Nasal irrigation in children with long standing CRS is relatively well tolerated (63.6%) and effective. Nasal saline irrigation should be considered as a primary treatment tool in CRS even in pediatric age group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Irrigation Investments in Romania. Size, Results, Efficiency (1965-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel LUP

    2017-05-01

    Operation of the irrigation systems was defective to: there was not sufficient electric power for pumping water, fertilizers and pesticides and other production factors so that the yields per hectare were 50-70% under projected level. Economically all national irrigation system produced loses instead profits. At present about 1.5 million hectare are within rehabilitation course especially in the Danube Plane, which can be operated in profitability terms.

  3. Temperature-controlled irrigated tip radiofrequency catheter ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In patients with ventricular tachycardias due to structural heart disease, catheter ablation cures radiofrequency ablation. Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation using power control and high infusion rates enlarges lesion......: We conclude that temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation with irrigated tip catheters using low target temperature and low infusion rate enlarges lesion size without increasing the incidence of cratering and reduces coagulum formation of the tip....

  4. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supplemental irrigation in farming systems : history of a practice and outlooks for Burkina Faso. Études. Adoption et impacts de l'irrigation de complément en zone sahélienne : modélisation bioéconomique d'une exploitation à Kongoussi. Études. Analyse comparative des modes d'exhaure et de deux techniques culturales ...

  5. Irrigation in the Lower Durance: positive impacts of the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Blavoux, B.

    1995-01-01

    The water of river Durance is used to produce hydroelectricity and as stretch of water for tourism and since the thirteenth century for irrigation. The inherited situation is a well extended network of gravitation irrigation canals. This system is spendthrift of water, the water supplies are roughly 5 times the farming needs. The impact of this irrigation on the alluvial aquifer of the Lower Durance is the generalisation of the highest level of the water table in summer on the plain though the water budget has an average deficit of 550 mm. In addition, the nitrate concentration is maintained to an average of 17 mg/l in groundwater and 5 mg/l in streams by dilution. In fact, the irrigation dictates an average input of water with 25.4 mg/l of NO 3- . The natural isotopic tracing (oxygen 18) allows to say that 50 to 75% of the water of the alluvial aquifer come from irrigation. To improve the knowledge about the efficiency of irrigation, a mathematical groundwater model has been created. As a result, 53% of the water is lost while reaching the agricultural parcels, 19% is infiltrated during watering at the parcel and only 28% are used to satisfy the needs of plants. The realisation of this model has allowed to simulate the impact on groundwater of changes in irrigation practices which would lead to reduce the consummation of water. In the case of Lower Durance, the reduction of irrigation losses would have a strong impact on the quantity and quality of water in the alluvial aquifer. (J.S.). 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Micro-irrigation systems, automation and fertigation in citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Parameshwar Sidramappa Shirgure

    2012-01-01

    Citrus is number one group of fruits grown in more than 140 countries in the world. Micro-irrigation systems and fertigation management is one of the main concerns of the modem citrus fruit production irrespective of availability of soil, water and fertilizer resources. A variety of recommendations have emerged world over on irrigation systems and fertigation based on soil and leaf analysis of the nutrients, evapo-transpiration and water use pattern. The research review of literature has reve...

  7. Performance assessment of the Gash Delta Spate Irrigation System, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreamlak, Araya Z.; Tanakamaru, Haruya; Tada, Akio; Adam, Bashir M. Ahmed; Elamin, Khalid A. E.

    2018-02-01

    The Gash Delta Spate Irrigation System (GDSIS), located in eastern Sudan with a net command area of 100 000 ha (an area currently equipped with irrigation structures), was established in 1924. The land is irrigated every 3 years (3-year rotation) or every 2 years (2-year rotation) so that about 33 000 or 50 000 ha respectively can be cultivated annually. This study deals with assessing the performance of the 3- and 2-year rotation systems using the Monte Carlo simulation. Reliability, which is a measure of how frequently the irrigation water supply satisfies the demand, and vulnerability, which is a measure of the magnitude of failure, were selected as the performance criteria. Combinations of five levels of intake ratio and five levels of irrigation efficiency for the irrigation water supply of each rotation system were analysed. Historical annual flow data of the Gash River for 107 years were fit to several frequency distributions. The Weibull distribution was the best on the basis of the Akaike information criteria and was used for simulating the ensembles of annual river flow. The reliabilities and vulnerabilities of both rotation systems were evaluated at typical values of intake ratio and irrigation efficiency. The results show that (i) the 3-year rotation is more reliable in water supply than the 2-year rotation, (ii) the vulnerability of the 3-year rotation is lower than that of the 2-year rotation and (iii) therefore the 3-year rotation is preferable in the GDSIS. The sensitivities of reliability and vulnerability to changes in intake ratio and irrigation efficiency were also examined.

  8. [Effects of tilage mode and deficit irrigation on the yield and water use of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest under sprinkler irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Peng; Shen, Xiao-Jun

    2012-02-01

    To develop a suitable tillage mode and irrigation schedule of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest under sprinkler irrigation, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes (conventional tillage and no-tillage) and different irrigation schedules (45 and 22.5 mm of irrigating water quota) on the water consumption, seed yield, water use efficiency, and fiber quality of cotton. Comparing with conventional tillage, no-tillage decreased the soil evaporation among cotton plants by 20.3%. Whether with conventional tillage or with no-tillage, deficit irrigation (22.5 mm of irrigating water quota) did not affect seed yield and fiber quality, while decreased the water consumption and improved the water use efficiency. No-tillage with 22.5 mm of irrigating water quota under sprinkler irrigation not only decreased the soil evaporation effectively, but also achieved water-saving, high quality and high yield of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest.

  9. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  10. Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bo Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Film hole irrigation is an advanced low-cost and high-efficiency irrigation method, which can improve water conservation and water use efficiency. Given its various advantages and potential applications, we conducted a laboratory study to investigate the effects of soil texture, bulk density, initial soil moisture, irrigation depth, opening ratio (ρ, film hole diameter (D, and spacing on cumulative infiltration using SWMS-2D. We then proposed a simplified model based on the Kostiakov model for infiltration estimation. Error analyses indicated SWMS-2D to be suitable for infiltration simulation of film hole irrigation. Additional SWMS-2D-based investigations indicated that, for a certain soil, initial soil moisture and irrigation depth had the weakest effects on cumulative infiltration, whereas ρ and D had the strongest effects on cumulative infiltration. A simplified model with ρ and D was further established, and its use was then expanded to different soils. Verification based on seven soil types indicated that the established simplified double-factor model effectively estimates cumulative infiltration for film hole irrigation, with a small mean average error of 0.141–2.299 mm, a root mean square error of 0.177–2.722 mm, a percent bias of −2.131–1.479%, and a large Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient that is close to 1.0.

  11. Participatory management reforms in irrigation sector of sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan has been making efforts to restructuring the century old irrigation system by involving beneficiaries (water users) at various units of the irrigation system management. The main purposes of reforms are to improve O and M (Operation and Maintenance) of irrigation system, to make balance in expenditure and revenue, to improve crop production through efficient use of water, to maintain affordable drainage system and to adopt PWRM (Participatory Water Resource Management) approach. In these reforms, the Sindh provincial irrigation department was transferred to an autonomous body as SmA (Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority). Under SmA, CAWB (Canal Area Water Board) at each canal command area, water users association at watercourse level and Farmer Organizations at each secondary canal (Distributary/ Minor) command area were being formed. So far 335 FOs (Farmers Organizations) have been formed in Sindh. To evaluate the performance of FOs in their day to day activities such as water distribution, O and M of irrigation channels, conflict management and revenue (Abiana) collection, IMI (Institutional Maturity Index) of FOs is conducted. The objective IMI analysis was to assess the maturity of FOs in terms of organizational aspects, conflict resolution, financial aspects, water distribution, operation and maintenance, environmental aspects and capacity building of FOs. The IMI analyses identified the weaker aspects of the FOs and need of focus these aspects for improved performance of FOs through effective social mobilization and capacity building activities. (author)

  12. Fiber quality of upland cotton under different irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Cordão Sobrinho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAiming to evaluate the effect of irrigation depths on fiber quality of upland cotton, an experiment was conducted from July to December 2010 in Barbalha-CE, Brazil. The treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two upland cotton cultivars (BRS Aroeira and BRS Araripe and five irrigation depths (260.93, 418.93, 514.21, 711.81 and 894.68 mm, arranged in a split-plot design with four replicates. A line-source sprinkler irrigation system was used and irrigation depth in the control treatment was calculated according to the crop evapotranspiration. The analysed fiber quality variables were: fiber percentage, length, uniformity, short-fiber index, resistance, elongation at rupture, micronaire index, maturity, degree of yellowing, reflectance degree and count strength product (CSP index. The irrigation depths influenced fiber length, short-fiber index, strength, micronaire index, maturity and reflectance degree. The cultivars influenced fiber percentage, length and color (degree of yellowing. The best results of fiber quality were found with irrigation depths of 514.21 and 418.93 mm for the upland cotton cultivars BRS Araripe and BRS Aroeira, respectively.

  13. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia. It links IMT with the issue of bureaucratic reform and argues that its potential to address current problems in government irrigation systems cannot be achieved if the irrigation agency is not convinced about the need for management transfer. IMT’s significance cannot be measured only through IMT outcomes and impacts, without linking these with how the irrigation agency perceives the idea of management transfer in the first place, how this perception (redefines the agency’s position in IMT, and how it shapes the agency’s action and strategy in the policy formulation and implementation. I illustrate how the irrigation agency contested the idea of management transfer by referring to IMT policy adoption in 1987 and its renewal in 1999. The article concludes that for management transfer to be meaningful it is pertinent that the issue of bureaucratic reform is incorporated into current policy discussions.

  14. Bureaucratic Reform in Irrigation: A Review of Four Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance of government-managed irrigation systems persists globally. This paper argues that addressing performance requires not simply more investment or different policy approaches, but reform of the bureaucracies responsible for irrigation management. Based on reform experiences in The Philippines, Mexico, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan, we argue that irrigation (policy reform cannot be treated in isolation from the overall functioning of government bureaucracies and the wider political structure of the states. Understanding of how and why government bureaucracies shape reform processes and outcomes is crucial to increase the actual significance of reforms. To demonstrate this, the paper links reform processes in the irrigation sector with the wider discourse of bureaucratic reform in the political science, public administration, and organisational science literature. Doing so brings to light the need for systematic comparative research on the organisational characteristic of the irrigation bureaucracies, their bureaucratic identities, and how these are shaped by various segments within the bureaucracies to provide the insights needed to improve irrigation systems performance.

  15. Economic risk assessment of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.

  16. Conserving energy through new irrigation technologies. Technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The benefits and applications of five irrigation technologies are explored: mobile drop-tube irrigation, computerized scheduling, reduced-pressure center pivots, well design and development, and automated gated-pipe systems. Perhaps the most promising of the new irrigation technologies is the low-energy, precision-application (LEPA) system. This mobile system used one-half the energy of conventional sprinkler systems and distributes water with greater efficiency through a series of low-pressure drop tubes suspended above the crop. Computerized methods of irrigation scheduling have been developed to help farmers conserve water and energy. Special computer programs determine when a crop needs water and how much to apply for optimal plant growth, thus preventing the unnecessary costs of pumping more water than the crop needs. Field test results show that replacing traditional scheduling methods of irrigation with computerized scheduling can reduce energy and water use by as much as 35%. The irrigation industry is actively promoting reduced-pressure water application methods, particularly for center-pivot systems. Reduced-pressure systems expend less energy but produce the same crop yields as conventional high-pressure systems, as long as excessive water runoff does not occur. If well design and development techniques are applied when a well is drilled into an unconsolidated acquifer, the well's life expectancy, as well as its operating efficiency, can increase, the later by as much as 40%.

  17. Estimation of Maize photosynthesis Efficiency Under Deficit Irrigation and Mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadithi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research aims at estimating maize photosynthesis efficiency under deficit irrigation and soil mulching. A split-split plot design experiment was conducted with three replicates during the fall season 2000 and spring season 2001 at the experimental Station of Soil Dept./ Iraq Atomic Energy Commission. The main plots were assigned to full and deficit irrigation treatments: (C) control. The deficit irrigation treatment included the omission of one irrigation at establishment (S1, 15 days), vegetation (S2, 35 days), flowering (S3, 40 days) and yield formation (S4, 30 days) stages. The sub-plots were allocated for the two varieties, Synthetic 5012 (V1) and Haybrid 2052 (V2). The sub-sub-plots were assigned to mulch (M1) with wheat straw and no mulch (M0). Results showed that the deficit irrigation did not affect photosynthesis efficiency in both seasons, which ranged between 1.90 to 2.15% in fall season and between 1.18 and 1.45% in spring season. The hybrid variety was superior 9.39 and 9.15% over synthetic variety in fall and spring seasons, respectively. Deficit irrigation, varieties and mulch had no significant effects on harvest index in both seasons. This indicates that the two varieties were stable in their partitioning efficiency of nutrient matter between plant organ and grains under the condition of this experiment. (Author) 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  19. Potential for Photovoltaic Solar Installation in Non-Irrigated Corners of Center Pivot Irrigation Fields in the State of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B.

    2011-07-01

    The State of Colorado expressed an interest in assessing the potential for photovoltaic (PV) solar installations on non-irrigated corners of center-pivot irrigation (CPI) fields throughout the state. Using aerial imagery and irrigated land data available from the Colorado Water Conservation Board, an assessment of potentially suitable sites was produced. Productivity estimates were calculated from that assessment. The total area of non-irrigated corners of CPI fields in Colorado was estimated to be 314,674 acres, which could yield 223,418 acres of installed PV panels assuming 71% coverage in triangular plots. The total potential annual electricity production for the state was estimated to be 56,821 gigawatt hours (GWH), with an average of 1.3 GWH per available plot.

  20. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...