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Sample records for stabilize relative equilibria

  1. Stability of relative equilibria of three vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    involved. The only comprehensive analysis available in the literature, by Tavantzis and Ting [Phys. Fluids 31, 1392 (1988)], is not easy to follow nor is it very physically intuitive. The symmetry between the three vortices is lost in this analysis. A different analysis is given based on explicit formulas...... for the three eigenvalues determining the stability, including a new formula for the angular velocity of rotation of a collinear relative equilibrium. A graphical representation of the space of vortex circulations is introduced, and the resultants between various polynomials that enter the problem are used...

  2. Lagrangian relative equilibria for a gyrostat in the three-body problem: bifurcations and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirao, Juan L G; Vera, Juan A, E-mail: juan.garcia@upct.e, E-mail: juanantonio.vera@upct.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Hospital de Marina, 30203 Cartagena, Region de Murcia (Spain)

    2010-05-14

    In this paper we consider the non-canonical Hamiltonian dynamics of a gyrostat in the frame of the three-body problem. Using geometric/mechanic methods we study the approximate dynamics of the truncated Legendre series representation of the potential of an arbitrary order. Working in the reduced problem, we study the existence of relative equilibria that we refer to as Lagrange type following the analogy with the standard techniques. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear stability of Lagrangian relative equilibria if the gyrostat morphology form is close to a sphere. Thus, we generalize the classical results on equilibria of the three-body problem and many results on them obtained by the classic approach for the case of rigid bodies.

  3. Stability of Magnetic Equilibria in Radio Balloons

    OpenAIRE

    Benford, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Current-carrying flows, in the laboratory and in astrophysical jets, can form remarkably stable magnetic structures. Decades of experience shows that such flows often build equilibria that reverse field directions, evolving to an MHD Taylor state, which has remarkable stability properties. We model jets and the magnetic bubbles they build as reversed field pinch equilibria by assuming the driver current to be stiff in the MHD sense. Taking the jet current as rigid and a fixed function of posi...

  4. MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation

  5. Motion Control along Relative Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is control of mechanical systems as they evolve along the steady motions called relative equilibria. These trajectories are of interest in theory and applications and have the characterizing property that the system's body-fixed velocity is constant. For example, constant......-speed rotation about a principal axis is a relative equilibrium of a rigid body in three dimensions. We focus our study on simple mechanical control systems on Lie groups, i.e., mechanical systems with the following properties: the configuration manifold is a matrix Lie group, the total energy is equal...... on a Lie group is locally controllable along a relative equilibrium. These conditions subsume the well-known local controllability conditions for equilibrium points. Second, for systems that have fewer controls than degrees of freedom, we present a novel algorithm to control simple mechanical control...

  6. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse[1985]. Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs

  7. Stability analysis of cylindrical Vlasov equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A general method of stability analysis is described which may be applied to a large class of such problems, namely those which are described dynamically by the Vlasov equation, and geometrically by cylindrical symmetry. The method is presented for the simple case of the Vlasov-Poisson (electrostatic) equations, and the results are applied to a calculation of the lower-hybrid-drift instability in a plasma with a rigid rotor distribution function. The method is extended to the full Vlasov-Maxwell (electromagnetic) equations. These results are applied to a calculation of the instability of the extraordinary electromagnetic mode in a relativistic E-layer interacting with a background plasma

  8. Stability analysis of cylindrical Vlasov equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A general method of stability analysis is described which may be applied to a large class of such problems, namely those which are described dynamically by the Vlasov equation, and geometrically by clindrical symmetry. The method is presented for the simple case of the Vlasov-Poisson (electrostatic) equations, and the results are applied to a calculation of the lower-hybrid-drift instability in a plasma with a rigid rotor distribution function. The method is extended to the full Vlasov-Maxwell (electromagnetic) equations. These results are applied to a calculation of the instability of the extraordinary electromagnetic mode in a relativistic E-layer interacting with a background plasma

  9. Ideal MHD stability of high poloidal beta equilibria in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Chance, M.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Jardin, S.C.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Phillips, M.W.; Hughes, M.H.; Kesner, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments in TFTR have expanded the operating space of the device to include plasmas with values of var-epsilon β p dia ≡ 2μ 0 var-epsilon perpendicular >/ p >> 2 as large as 1.6, and Troyon normalized diamagnetic beta β N dia ≡ β t perpendicular aB t /10 -8 I p as large as 4.7. At values of var-epsilon β p dia ≥ 1.3, a separatrix was observed to enter the vacuum vessel, producing a naturally diverted discharge. Plasmas with large values of var-epsilon β p dia were created with both the plasma current, I p , held constant and with I p decreased, or ramped down, before the start of neutral beam injection. A convenient characterization of the change in I p using experimental parameters can be defined by the ratio of I p before the ramp down, to I p during the neutral beam heating phase, F I p . The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria is investigated to determine their location in stability space, and to study the role of plasma current and pressure profile modification in the creation of these high var-epsilon β p and β N plasmas. The evolution of these plasmas is modelled from experimental data using the TRANSP code. Two-dimensional equilibria are computed from the TRANSP results and used as input to both high and low-n stability codes including PEST. The high var-epsilon β p equilibria, which generally have an oblate cross-sectional shape, are in the first stability region to high-n ballooning modes. At constant I p , these equilibria generally have maximum pressure gradients near the magnetic axis and are stable to n=1 modes without a stabilizing conducting wall. The effect of the current profile shape on the stability of low-n kink/ballooning modes and the requirements for these plasmas to access the second stability region are examined. 6 refs

  10. Close pairs of relative equilibria for identical point vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane reveals configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. New numerical solutions of this kind are fou......, however, for symmetrically nested equilateral triangles. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.......Numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane reveals configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. New numerical solutions of this kind are found...... also has this property, and new relative equilibria close to the nested, symmetrically arranged, regular heptagons have been found. The centered regular nonagon is also marginally stable. Again, a new family of close relative equilibria has been found. The closest relative equilibrium pairs occur...

  11. Equilibria, Stability, and Transport of AN Ion Ring Confined Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence Craig

    This thesis studies various aspects of a fusion plasma magnetically confined in an axisymmetric field reversed geometry with no toroidal field, where part of the total azimuthal current is carried by a ring of energetic large orbit ions: (1) Two new methods are presented for efficiently computing ion ring equilibria in parameter regimes of physical interest. (2) Ideal magnetodydrodynamic stability is analyzed in the high toroidal mode number limit, where the ion ring can be taken to be noninteracting. A numerical study of field reversed configurations both with and without ring currents shows that plasma compression can stabilize interchange perturbations. High (beta) interchange stability is found to favor a peaked ring current density profile rather than one which is hollowed out in the region of plasma confinement. Stability to perturbations which bend magnetic field lines (e.g., ballooning modes) is also found to improve as the ring current density profile becomes more peaked. (3) The equations of motion for incompressible mode perturbations in the vicinity of the vortex point are solved analytically to obtain the ballooning stability condition F > (1 + (VBAR)(epsilon)(VBAR))/2 where F is the fraction of the current density carried by the ring ions and (epsilon) is the flux surface ellipticity. Higher order corrections to the eigenfrequencies due to compressional effects are obtained in the limit of circular flux surfaces. (4) Modeling the ring as an exponential rigid rotor, an iterative procedure is used to obtain optimal values of E(,P)/E(,R), the ratio of the total energy of the confined plasma to the total ring energy. Magnetohydrodynamically stable equilibria are obtained with E(,P)/E(,R(, )) (where B(,o) is the magnitude of the applied field and brackets indicate a volume average) varies between 1 and 7. (5) Classical mass and heat transport on time scales short compared to the ring decay time are analyzed using simple, steady state models. Mass flow is

  12. Stability and attractive basins of multiple equilibria in delayed two-neuron networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yu-Jiao; Zhang Hua-Guang; Wang Zhan-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Multiple stability for two-dimensional delayed recurrent neural networks with piecewise linear activation functions of 2r (r ≥ 1) corner points is studied. Sufficient conditions are established for checking the existence of (2r + 1) 2 equilibria in delayed recurrent neural networks. Under these conditions, (r + 1) 2 equilibria are locally exponentially stable, and (2r + 1) 2 — (r + 1) 2 — r 2 equilibria are unstable. Attractive basins of stable equilibria are estimated, which are larger than invariant sets derived by decomposing state space. One example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. (general)

  13. Control algorithms along relative equilibria of underactuated Lagrangian systems on Lie groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...

  14. Control Algorithms Along Relative Equilibria of Underactuated Lagrangian Systems on Lie Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...

  15. MHD stability for a class of tokamak equilibria with fixed boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, W

    1977-08-01

    The stability behavior with respect to internal modes is discussed for a class of tokamak equilibria with non-circular cross-sections and essentially flat current profiles. The stability analysis is performed numerically with the help of a normal mode code, which extremizes the Lagrangian of the system. It is found that the Mercier criterion is both necessary and sufficient for stability. Strong numerical evidence for this result is given. MHD-stable high-beta equilibria exist in this model.

  16. Stability of certain families of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria posses a number of symmetries that may be used to generate a family of hitherto unknown equilibria if there exists a foliation of the original one by magnetic surfaces. In addition to the possibility of producing analytic equilibria from old ones, this family is studied to find among its members those with minimal energy, those lasting longer under slightly resistive conditions, and those linearly stable. It is shown that in general none of these properties implies any other, thus clarifying the difference among these concepts

  17. Deep water periodic waves as Hamiltonian relative equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Lie She Liam, L.S.L.; Lakhturov, I.; Andonowati, A.; Biggs, N.

    2007-01-01

    We use a recently derived KdV-type of equation for waves on deep water to study Stokes waves as relative equilibria. Special attention is given to investigate the cornered Stokes-120 degree wave as a singular solution in the class of smooth steady wave profiles.

  18. Stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode in equilibria with flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.; Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Stabilizing influence of mass flows, either directly or through their shearing action, on various modes is now generally recognized. Here we examine linear and nonlinear stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode in equilibria with toroidal rotation, using our nonlinear, initial-value MHD code CTD, which can be used to generate self-consistent equilibria with flows in arbitrary geometries. It is well known that equilibrium mass flows introduce complications in determination of MHD equilibria and their stability properties, such as the loss of self-adjointness and an increase in the number of conditions required to uniquely determine the equilibria. Thus, even with purely toroidal flows, an implicit statement about the equation of state is needed, in addition to a knowledge of the magnetic field and velocity profiles; rotation in an adiabatic plasma leads to a different equilibrium than, for example, in an isothermal one, with possibly quite different stability properties. We find that the expected stabilizing influence of toroidal rotation on n = 1 is generally absent in adiabatically generated equilibria in which, of all the relevant thermodynamic variables, only the specific entropy is a flux function, s = s (ψ). Fortunately, physically more relevant isothermal case where the temperature is constant on flux surfaces, T = T(ψ), has more favorable stability characteristics. On the other hand, an inconsistent but common practice of ignoring density perturbations, a benign omission for static equilibria, leads to overly optimistic results when equilibrium flows axe present, predicting stability when there may not be any. The crucial role played by the equation of state in determining equilibrium raises questions regarding the role of parallel transport in stability calculations; this and other nonideal effects, along with the role of plasma β vs. the rotational β, and nonlinear stability when the mode is pushed beyond marginality, will be discussed

  19. Stability of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equilibria through spectral deformation and Fourier-Hermite expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminos, Evangelos; Bénisti, Didier; Gremillet, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    We study the stability of spatially periodic, nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equilibria as an eigenproblem in a Fourier-Hermite basis (in the space and velocity variables, respectively) of finite dimension, N. When the advection term in the Vlasov equation is dominant, the convergence with N of the eigenvalues is rather slow, limiting the applicability of the method. We use the method of spectral deformation introduced by Crawford and Hislop [Ann. Phys. (NY) 189, 265 (1989)] to selectively damp the continuum of neutral modes associated with the advection term, thus accelerating convergence. We validate and benchmark the performance of our method by reproducing the kinetic dispersion relation results for linear (spatially homogeneous) equilibria. Finally, we study the stability of a periodic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode with multiple phase-space vortices, compare our results with numerical simulations of the Vlasov-Poisson system, and show that the initial unstable equilibrium may evolve to different asymptotic states depending on the way it was perturbed. © 2011 American Physical Society

  20. Bilinear Relative Equilibria of Identical Point Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, H.; Beelen, Peter; Brøns, Morten

    2012-01-01

    , obtained using Sturm’s comparison theorem, is that if p(z) satisfies the ODE for a given q(z) with its imaginary zeros symmetric relative to the x-axis, then it must have at least n−m+2 simple, real zeros. For m=2 this provides a complete characterization of all zeros, and we study this case in some detail....... In particular, we show that, given q(z)=z 2+η 2, where η is real, there is a unique p(z) of degree n, and a unique value of η 2=A n , such that the zeros of q(z) and p(z) form a relative equilibrium of n+2 point vortices. We show that $A_{n} \\approx\\frac{2}{3}n + \\frac{1}{2}$, as n→∞, where the coefficient of n...

  1. Energy principle for stability of general force-free MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Jensen, T.H.; Lee, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    An energy principle has been constructed for the determination of stability of general force-free equilibria against ideal- and dissipative-(tearing)-MHD modes. The concept of accessible neighbouring equilibria, with the inclusion of singular currents on mode rational surfaces, is used. The driving source of these instabilities may be either the parallel current density or the parallel current density gradient. This energy prnciple is well suited for numerical implementation. Reduction of this energy principle to some known cases is also presented. (author)

  2. Recent progress in the relative equilibria of point vortices — In memoriam Hassan Aref

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Brøns, Morten; Krishnamurthy, Vikas S.

    2013-01-01

    Hassan Aref, who sadly passed away in 2011, was one of the world's leading researchers in the dynamics and equilibria of point vortices. We review two problems on the subject of point vortex relative equilibria in which he was engaged at the time of his death: bilinear relative equilibria...... and the geometry of the three-vortex problem as it relates to equilibria. A set of point vortices is in relative equilibrium if it is at most rotating rigidly around the center of vorticity, and the configuration is bilinear if the vortices are placed on two orthogonal lines in the co-rotating frame. A very...

  3. Graphical Derivatives and Stability Analysis for Parameterized Equilibria with Conic Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří; Ramírez, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 687-704 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Variational analysis and optimization * Parameterized equilibria * Conic constraints * Sensitivity and stability analysis * Solution maps * Graphical derivatives * Normal and tangent cones Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/outrata-0449259.pdf

  4. Phase equilibria in stratified thin liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Blawzdziewicz, J.; Wajnryb, E.

    2005-01-01

    Phase equilibria between regions of different thickness in thin liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles are investigated using a quasi-two-dimensional thermodynamic formalism. Appropriate equilibrium conditions for the film tension, normal pressure, and chemical potential of the particles in the film are formulated, and it is shown that the relaxation of these parameters occurs consecutively on three distinct time scales. Film stratification is described quantitatively for a hard-spher...

  5. Morse Theory and Relative Equilibria in the Planar n-Vortex Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth E.

    2018-04-01

    Morse theoretical ideas are applied to the study of relative equilibria in the planar n-vortex problem. For the case of positive circulations, we prove that the Morse index of a critical point of the Hamiltonian restricted to a level surface of the angular impulse is equal to the number of pairs of real eigenvalues of the corresponding relative equilibrium periodic solution. The Morse inequalities are then used to prove the instability of some families of relative equilibria in the four-vortex problem with two pairs of equal vorticities. We also show that, for positive circulations, relative equilibria cannot accumulate on the collision set.

  6. EFFECT OF PROFILES AND SHAPE ON IDEAL STABILITY OF ADVANCED TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKOWSKI,MA; CASPER,TA; FERRON,JR; TAYLOR,TS; TURNBULL,AD

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/

    {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (> 2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  7. Effect of Profiles and Space on Ideal Stability of Advanced Tokamak Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, M A; Casper, T A; Ferron, J R; Taylor, T S; Turnbull, A D

    2003-07-07

    The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/{l_angle}P{r_brace} {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (>2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  8. Relative Equilibria of a Rigid Satellite in a Central Gravitational Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beck, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    .... These equilibria correspond to fixed points of a reduced set of equations expressed in a rotating frame and are representative of an orbiting satellite with fixed attitude relative to an observer...

  9. Stability of the n=1 ideal internal kink for large aspect ratio Shafranov equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Bussac, M.N.

    1991-09-01

    Stability limits for the ideal internal kink mode are calculated analytically for the Shafranov current profile using the large aspect ratio expansion. For equilibria with q(a)>2 and circular cross section, the maximum stable poloidal beta is below 0.1. In the absence of a conducting wall, an equilibrium with q(a)<2 is unstable at arbitrarily small positive poloidal beta or shear inside the q = 1 surface. The effects of non-circularity are discussed and quantitative results are given for elliptic cross sections. (author) 2 figs., 10 refs

  10. Stabilization of the stochastically forced equilibria for nonlinear discrete-time systems with incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryashko, Lev [Ural Federal University, Lenina, 51, Ekaterinburg, 620000 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A stabilization problem of the equilibrium of stochastically forced nonlinear discrete-time system with incomplete information is considered. Our approach uses a regulator which synthesizes the required stochastic sensitivity of the equilibrium. Mathematically, this problem is reduced to the solution of some quadratic matrix equations. A description of attainability sets and algorithms for regulators design is given. The general results are applied to the suppression of unwanted large-amplitude oscillations around the equilibria of the stochastically forced Verhulst model with noisy observations.

  11. Free-boundary ideal MHD stability of W7-X divertor equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nührenberg, C.

    2016-07-01

    Plasma configurations describing the stellarator experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) are computationally established taking into account the geometry of the test-divertor unit and the high-heat-flux divertor which will be installed in the vacuum chamber of the device (Gasparotto et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 2121). These plasma equilibria are computationally studied for their global ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability properties. Results from the ideal MHD stability code cas3d (Nührenberg 1996 Phys. Plasmas 3 2401), stability limits, spatial structures and growth rates are presented for free-boundary perturbations. The work focusses on the exploration of MHD unstable regions of the W7-X configuration space, thereby providing information for future experiments in W7-X aiming at an assessment of the role of ideal MHD in stellarator confinement.

  12. Pierce instability and bifurcating equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The report investigates the connection between equilibrium bifurcations and occurrence of the Pierce instability. Electrons flowing from one ground plane to a second through an ion background possess a countable infinity of static equilibria, of which only one is uniform and force-free. Degeneracy of the uniform and simplest non-uniform equilibria at a certain ground plan separation marks the onset of the Pierce instability, based on a newly derived dispersion relation appropriate to all the equilibria. For large ground plane separations the uniform equilibrium is unstable and the non-uniform equilibrium is stable, the reverse of their stability properties at small separations. Onset of the Pierce instability at the first bifurcation of equilibria persists in more complicated geometries, providing a general criterion for marginal stability. It seems probable that bifurcation analysis can be a useful tool in the overall study of stable beam generation in diodes and transport in finite cavities

  13. The stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria - Comparing the thermodynamic approach with the energy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the stability analysis of current-carrying plasmas, i.e., plasma systems that are forced by external mchanisms to carry a nonrelaxing electrical current. Under restriction to translationally invariant configurations, the thermodynamic stability criterion for a multicomponent plasma is rederived within the framework of nonideal MHD. The chosen dynamics neglects scalar resistivity, but allows for other types of dissipation effects both in Ohm's law and in the equation of motion. In the second section of the paper, the thermodynamic stability criterion is compared with the ideal MHD based energy principle of Bernstein et al. With the help of Schwarz's inequality, it is shown that the former criterion is always more 'pessimistic' than the latter, i.e., that thermodynamic stability implies stability according to the MHD principle, but not vice versa. This reuslt confirms the physical plausible idea that dissipational effects tend to weaken the stability properties of current-carrying plasma equilibria by breaking the constraints of ideal MHD and allowing for possibly destabilizing effects such as magnetic field line reconfiguration.

  14. A note on relative equilibria in a rotating shallow water layer

    KAUST Repository

    Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid

    2013-05-08

    Relative equilibria of two and three satellite vortices in a rotating shallow water layer have been recorded via particle image velocimetry (PIV) and their autorotation speed was estimated. This study shows that these equilibria retain the fundamental characteristics of Kelvin\\'s equilibria, and could be adequately described by the classical idealized point vortex theory. The same conclusion can also be inferred using the experimental dataset of Bergmann et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 679, 2011, pp. 415-431; J. Fluid Mech., vol. 691, 2012, pp. 605-606) if the assigned field\\'s contribution to pattern rotation is included. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  15. The Impact of Prophage on the Equilibria and Stability of Phage and Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei; Nadeem, Alina; Wahl, Lindi M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a bacteriophage model that includes prophage, that is, phage genomes that are incorporated into the host cell genome. The general model is described by an 18-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations. This study focuses on asymptotic behaviour of the model, and thus the system is reduced to a simple six-dimensional model, involving uninfected host cells, infected host cells and phage. We use dynamical system theory to explore the dynamic behaviour of the model, studying in particular the impact of prophage on the equilibria and stability of phage and host. We employ bifurcation and stability theory, centre manifold and normal form theory to show that the system has multiple equilibrium solutions which undergo a series of bifurcations, finally leading to oscillating motions. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate and confirm the analytical predictions. The results of this study indicate that in some parameter regimes, the host cell population may drive the phage to extinction through diversification, that is, if multiple types of host emerge; this prediction holds even if the phage population is likewise diverse. This parameter regime is restricted, however, if infecting phage are able to recombine with prophage sequences in the host cell genome.

  16. A note on the energy of relative equilibria of point vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    Analytical formulas are derived for the energy of simple relative equilibria of identical point vortices such as the regular polygons, both open and centered, and the various known configurations consisting of nested regular polygons with or without a vortex at the center. ©2007 American Institute...... of Physics...

  17. Analysis of rotation-vibration relative equilibria on the example of a tetrahedral four atom molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, K; Sadovskii, DA; Zhilinskii, BI

    2004-01-01

    We study relative equilibria ( RE) of a nonrigid molecule, which vibrates about a well-defined equilibrium configuration and rotates as a whole. Our analysis unifies the theory of rotational and vibrational RE. We rely on the detailed study of the symmetry group action on the initial and reduced

  18. Confinement Effects on Chemical Equilibria: Pentacyano(PyrazineFerrate(II Stability Changes within Nanosized Droplets of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofilo Borunda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale confinement is known to impact properties of molecules and we observed changes in the reactivity of an iron coordination complex, pentacyano(pyrazineferrate(II. The confinement of two coordination complexes in a sodium AOT/isooctane reverse micellar (RM water droplet was found to dramatically increase the hydrolysis rate of [Fe(CN5pyz]3− and change the monomer-dimer equilibria between [Fe(CN5pyz]3− and [Fe2(CN10pyz]6−. Combined UV-Vis and 1H-NMR spectra of these complexes in RMs were analyzed and the position of the monomer-dimer equilibrium and the relative reaction times were determined at three different RM sizes. The data show that the hydrolysis rates (loss of pyrazine are dramatically enhanced in RMs over bulk water and increase as the size of the RM decreases. Likewise, the monomer-dimer equilibrium changes to favor the formation of dimer as the RM size decreases. We conclude that the effects of the [Fe(CN5pyz]3− stability is related to its solvation within the RM.

  19. Confinement Effects on Chemical Equilibria: Pentacyano(Pyrazine)Ferrate(II) Stability Changes within Nanosized Droplets of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borunda, Teofilo; Myers, Alexander J; Mary Fisher, J; Crans, Debbie C; Johnson, Michael D

    2018-04-09

    Nanoscale confinement is known to impact properties of molecules and we observed changes in the reactivity of an iron coordination complex, pentacyano(pyrazine)ferrate(II). The confinement of two coordination complexes in a sodium AOT/isooctane reverse micellar (RM) water droplet was found to dramatically increase the hydrolysis rate of [Fe(CN)₅pyz] 3- and change the monomer-dimer equilibria between [Fe(CN)₅pyz] 3- and [Fe₂(CN) 10 pyz] 6- . Combined UV-Vis and ¹H-NMR spectra of these complexes in RMs were analyzed and the position of the monomer-dimer equilibrium and the relative reaction times were determined at three different RM sizes. The data show that the hydrolysis rates (loss of pyrazine) are dramatically enhanced in RMs over bulk water and increase as the size of the RM decreases. Likewise, the monomer-dimer equilibrium changes to favor the formation of dimer as the RM size decreases. We conclude that the effects of the [Fe(CN)₅pyz] 3- stability is related to its solvation within the RM.

  20. Synchronization of delay-coupled nonlinear oscillators: an approach based on the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Wim; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2009-09-01

    We consider the synchronization problem of an arbitrary number of coupled nonlinear oscillators with delays in the interconnections. The network topology is described by a directed graph. Unlike the conventional approach of deriving directly sufficient synchronization conditions, the approach of the paper starts from an exact stability analysis in a (gain, delay) parameter space of a synchronized equilibrium and extracts insights from an analysis of its bifurcations and from the corresponding emerging behavior. Instrumental to this analysis a factorization of the characteristic equation is employed that not only facilitates the analysis and reduces computational cost but also allows to determine the precise role of the individual agents and the topology of the network in the (in)stability mechanisms. The study provides an algorithm to perform a stability and bifurcation analysis of synchronized equilibria. Furthermore, it reveals fundamental limitations to synchronization and it explains under which conditions on the topology of the network and on the characteristics of the coupling the systems are expected to synchronize. In the second part of the paper the results are applied to coupled Lorenz systems. The main results show that for sufficiently large coupling gains, delay-coupled Lorenz systems exhibit a generic behavior that does not depend on the number of systems and the topology of the network, as long as some basic assumptions are satisfied, including the strong connectivity of the graph. Here the linearized stability analysis is strengthened by a nonlinear stability analysis which confirms the predictions based on the linearized stability and bifurcation analysis. This illustrates the usefulness of the exact linearized analysis in a situation where a direct nonlinear stability analysis is not possible or where it yields conservative conditions from which it is hard to get qualitative insights in the synchronization mechanisms and their scaling properties

  1. Applications of point vortex equilibria: blocking events and the stability of the polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Müller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates non-linear dynamics of atmospheric flow phenomena on different scales as interactions of vortices. Thereby, we apply the idealised, two-dimensional concept of point vortices considering two important issues in atmospheric dynamics. First, we propose this not widely spread concept in meteorology to explain blocked weather situations using a three-point vortex equilibrium. Here, a steady state is given if the zonal mean flow is identical to the opposed translational velocity of the vortex system. We apply this concept exemplarily to two major blocked events establishing a new pattern recognition technique based on the kinematic vorticity number to determine the circulations and positions of the interacting vortices. By using reanalysis data, we demonstrate that the velocity of the tripole in a westward direction is almost equal to the westerly flow explaining the steady state of blocked events. Second, we introduce a novel idea to transfer a stability analysis of a vortex equilibrium to the stability of the polar vortex concerning its interaction with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Here, the point vortex system is built as a polygon ring of vortices around a central vortex. On this way we confirm observations that perturbations of the polar vortex during the QBO east phase lead to instability, whereas the polar vortex remains stable in QBO west phases. Thus, by applying point vortex theory to challenging problems in atmospheric dynamics we show an alternative, discrete view of synoptic and planetary scale motion.

  2. Complete mode-set stability analysis of magnetically insulated ion diode equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    We present the first analysis of the stability of magnetically insulated ion diodes that is fully relativistic and includes electromagnetic perturbations both parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. Applying this formalism to a simple diode equilibrium model that neglects velocity shear and density gradients, we find a fast growing mode that has all of the important attributes of the low frequency mode observed in numerical simulations of magnetically insulated ion diodes, which may be a major cause of ion divergence. We identify this mode as a modified two-stream instability. Previous stability analyses indicate a variety of unstable modes, but none of these exhibit the same behavior as the low frequency mode observed in the simulations. In addition, we analyze a realistic diode equilibrium model that includes velocity shear and an electron density profile consistent with that observed in the numerical simulations. We find that the diocotron instability is reduced, but not fully quenched by the extension of the electron sheath to the anode. However, the inclusion of perturbations parallel to the applied magnetic field with a wavelength smaller than the diode height does eliminate growth of this instability. This may explain why the diocotron mode has been observed experimentally with proton sources, but not with LiF, since the turn on of LiF is not uniform

  3. New families of vortex patch equilibria for the two-dimensional Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, B. B.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    Various modified forms of contour dynamics are used to compute multipolar vortex equilibria, i.e., configurations of constant vorticity patches which are invariant in a steady rotating frame. There are two distinct solution families for "N + 1" point vortex-vortex patch equilibria in which a finite-area central patch is surrounded by N identical point vortices: one with the central patch having opposite-signed vorticity and the other having same-signed vorticity to the satellite vortices. Each solution family exhibits limiting states beyond which no equilibria can be found. At the limiting state, the central patch of a same-signed equilibrium acquires N corners on its boundary. The limiting states of the opposite-signed equilibria have cusp-like behaviour on the boundary of the central patch. Linear stability analysis reveals that the central patch is most linearly unstable as it approaches the limiting states. For equilibria comprising a central patch surrounded by N identical finite-area satellite patches, again two distinct families of solutions exist: one with the central patch and satellite patches having the same-signed vorticity and the other in which they are opposite-signed. In each family, there are two limiting behaviours in which either the central patch or the satellite patches develop corners or cusps. Streamline plots and time-dependent simulations indicate that opposite-signed multipolar equilibria are robust structures and same-signed equilibria are generally less stable. Streamlines also reveal stable and unstable (saddle point) stagnation points, indicating the existence of new equilibria in which additional patches of vorticity are "grown" at the stagnation points. Examples of such equilibria are computed, and a general numerical routine is briefly described for finding even more complex finite-area equilibria. Finally, new nested polygonal vortex equilibria consisting of two sets of polygonally arranged vortex patches (named "N + N" equilibria

  4. Gyroscopic Control and Stabilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Li-Sheng; Krishnaprasad, P. S

    1991-01-01

    .... To assess the stability of relative equilibria in the resultant feedback systems, they extend the energy-momentum block-diagonalization theorem of Simo, Lewis, Posbergh, and Marsden to gyroscopic systems with symmetry...

  5. Attractive evolutionary equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend

    2011-01-01

    We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary

  6. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  7. Chemical Equilibria of Fluorine in Soils as Related to Contamination in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrashidi, Moustafa Ali

    1985-12-01

    Thermodynamic data were selected for forty-five fluorine minerals and solution species which may play important roles in the fluorine chemistry of soils. Equilibrium reactions and stability constants for these minerals and species were calculated and used to develop stability diagrams in soils. Aluminum fluoride, fluorite, fluorophlogopite, and fluorapatite may be stable in soils. Other metal fluorides, e.g. sodium, potassium, and magnesium fluorides, are too soluble to persist in soils. Minerals such as malladrite, bararite, hieratite, cryolite, and fluorpargasite are unstable in soils. Solution complexes of aluminum fluorides and iron fluorides are the major solution species in strongly acid soils. In slightly acid and alkaline soils, fluoride is the predominant species in soil solution. The solubilities of aluminum fluoride, fluorite, and fluorophlogopite were investigated. The average equilibrium constant (K('0)) determined was 10('-17.37) for aluminum fluoride, 10('-10.3) for fluorite and 10('7.94) for fluorophlogopite. The solubility of fluoride was investigated in selected soils with and without added minerals. The fluoride solubility for strongly acid and near neutral soils without added minerals was undersaturated with respect to aluminum fluoride and fluorite, respectively. The fluoride solubility for alkaline soils was close to that of fluorophlogopite. Fluoride application as sodium fluoride to soils increased significantly the pH, the solubilities of organic matter, and of all 15 elements investigated particularly those of aluminum and iron. Excess fluoride application depressed vegetative growth and increased the uptake of fluoride and aluminum by plants. It decreased the amounts of other elements absorbed especially for those plants grown on acid soils. Increasing phosphorus application decreased fluoride content in plants, reduced its toxicity, and enhanced the absorption of other elements. Excess addition of soluble fluoride compounds, such as

  8. A development of the direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of transient stability of a system of synchronous generators based on the determination of non- stable equilibria on a multidimensional sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A development of the direct Lyapunov method for the analysis of transient stability of a system of synchronous generators based on the determination of non- stable equilibria on a multidimensional sphere.We consider the problem of transient stability analysis for a system of synchronous generators under the action of strong perturbations. The aim of our work is to develop methods to analyze a transient stability of the system of synchronous generators, which allow getting trustworthy results on reserve transient stability under different perturbations. For the analysis of transient stability, we use the direct Lyapunov method.One of the problems for this method application is to find the Lypunov function that well reflects the properties of a parallel system of synchronous generators. The most reliable results were obtained when the analysis of transient stability was performed with a Lyapunov function of energy type. Another problem for application of the direct Lyapunov method is to determine the critical value of the Lyapunov function, which requires finding the non-stable equilibria of the system. Determination of the non-stable equilibria requires studying the Lyapunov function in a multidimensional space in a neighborhood of a stable equilibrium for the post-breakdown system; this is a complicated non-linear problem.In the paper, we propose a method for determination of the non-stable equilibria on a multidimensional sphere. The method is based on a search of a minimum of the Lyapunov function on a multidimensional sphere the center of which is a stable equilibrium. Our method allows, comparing with the other, e.g., gradient methods, reliable finding a non-stable equilibrium and calculating the critical value. The reliability of our method is proved by numerical experiments. The developed methods and a program realized in a MATLAB package can be recommended for design of a post-breakdown control system of synchronous generators or as a

  9. Institutions, Equilibria and Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria...... membership are evaluated. Core equivalence is shown for bargaining economies. The theory of risk aversion is extended and the relation between risk taking and wealth is experimentally investigated. Other topics include: determinacy in OLG with cash-in-advance constraints, income distribution and democracy...... in OLG, learning in OLG and in games, optimal pricing of derivative securities, the impact of heterogeneity...

  10. The phase equilibria and thermal stability of the long-period stacking ordered phase in the Mg–Cu–Y system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Min; Su, Xiulan; Li, Hongxiao; Ren, Yuping; Qin, Gaowu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 14H LPSO structure has been confirmed to be stable in the Mg–Cu–Y system. • Partial isothermal sections of the Mg–Cu–Y system from 300 to 450 °C have been established. • Reaction L + α-Mg ↔ 14H + Mg 2 Cu has been determined in the Mg–Cu–Y system. • The thermal stability of the 14H phase in the Mg–Cu–Y system has been well studied. - Abstract: Phase equilibria in the Mg-rich Mg–Cu–Y system at 300, 400 and 450 °C have been experimentally investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that a long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase 14H is stable in the Mg–Cu–Y system, which is the only one ternary intermetallic compound that gets a thermodynamic equilibrium with the a-Mg phase. The equilibrium 14H phase has a very limited solid solution range, and can be nearly regarded as a ternary stoichiometric compound with a formulae as Mg 91 Cu 4 Y 5 . The thermal stability of the 14H phase in the Mg–Cu–Y system has been well studied, which shows that the 14H phase disappears varying from 442 °C to 490 °C depending on the alloy composition. The isothermal sections of the Mg-rich Mg–Cu–Y system at 300, 400 and 450 °C have been finally established, and moreover, a quasi-peritectic reaction L + α-Mg ↔ 14H + Mg 2 Cu has been determined occurring at 442 °C with an estimated liquid composition of Mg 77 Cu 18 Y 5

  11. Inverse plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model

  12. On the stability of some systems of exponential difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Psarros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the stability of the zero equilibria of two systems of difference equations of exponential type, which are some extensions of an one-dimensional biological model. The stability of these systems is investigated in the special case when one of the eigenvalues is equal to -1 and the other eigenvalue has absolute value less than 1, using centre manifold theory. In addition, we study the existence and uniqueness of positive equilibria, the attractivity and the global asymptotic stability of these equilibria of some related systems of difference equations.

  13. Two stability problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two general problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability are addressed in this paper. First, a general stability condition previously derived by the author for a class of real systems, occurring especially in plasma physics, is proved to persist to second order, despite the addition of several antisymmetric operators of first order in the linearized stability equation. Second, for a special but representative choice of the stability operators, a nonperturbative analysis demonstrates the existence of a critical density for the appearance of an overstability and the connected Hopf bifurcation, as suggested in a previous paper [Phys. Lett. A 180, 257 (1993)

  14. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2014-12-15

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents\\' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  15. Quota Swapping, Relative Stability, and Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, E.W.J.; Vos, de B.I.; Buisman, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    One of the oldest elements of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the principle of ‘relative stability’. Relative stability means that yearly established Total Allowable Catches (TACs) for each fish stock are divided between the Member States of the European Union (EU) according to a fixed

  16. Electret Stability Related to Spherulites in Polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    Electret charge stability has been related to the size of the spherulites in polypropylene. As the size of the spherulites is decreased the stability is increased. This is seen for isothermal conditions at 90 °C and 120 °C as well as for 90 % relative humidity at 50 °C. The charge release...... temperature is also increased in thermally stimulated voltage discharge experiments as the size of the spherulites is decreased. The size of the spherulites is controlled though the cooling rate from polypropylenes liquid state....

  17. Peeling-Ballooning Mode Analysis in Shifted-Circle Tokamak Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, B.; Kruger, S. E.; Hegna, C. C.; Snyder, P. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Zhu, P.

    2009-11-01

    Progress in understanding edge localized modes (ELMs) has been made by investigating the stability properties of edge localized peeling-ballooning modes. We focus on the evolution of ideal MHD modes over a large spectrum in two shifted-circle tokamak equilibria, using the extended-MHD code NIMROD. The TOQ-generated equilibria model a H-mode plasma with a pedestal pressure profile and parallel edge currents. A vacuum region is prescribed by a resistivity profile that transitions from a small to very large value at a specified location. The vacuum model is benchmarked against the linear ideal MHD codes ELITE & GATO. We demonstrate vacuum effects on the stability by adjusting the vacuum location relative to the pedestal pressure region. Ballooning-like instabilities dominate distant vacuum cases, whereas peeling mode physics is expected to dominate as the vacuum approaches the pedestal. Numerical simulations of the early nonlinear stages of edge localized MHD instabilities are presented. Comparisons between equilibria that have ``ballooning'' dominated instabilities relative to equilibria that are ``peeling'' dominated are made.

  18. Axisymmetric ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G.N.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the ideal MHD equilibrium states of an axisymmetric plasma with incompressible flows are governed by an elliptic partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function ψ containing five surface quantities along with a relation for the pressure. Exact equilibria are constructed including those with non vanishing poloidal and toroidal flows and differentially varying radial electric fields. Unlike the case in cylindrical incompressible equilibria with isothermal magnetic surfaces which should have necessarily circular cross sections [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and H. Tasso, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1492 (1997)], no restriction appears on the shapes of the magnetic surfaces in the corresponding axisymmetric equilibria. The latter equilibria satisfy a set of six ordinary differential equations which for flows parallel to the magnetic field B can be solved semianalytically. In addition, it is proved the non existence of incompressible axisymmetric equilibria with (a) purely poloidal flows and (b) non-parallel flows with isothermal magnetic surfaces and vertical stroke B vertical stroke = vertical stroke B vertical stroke (ψ) (omnigenous equilibria). (orig.)

  19. A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study on acid-base equilibria in ethanol-aqueous solution of acetazolamide and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chufán, E E; Suvire, F D; Enriz, R D; Pedregosa, J C

    1999-07-12

    Acid-base equilibria in ethanol-aqueous solution of 5-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (acetazolamide, H(2)acm), 5-tertbutyloxycarbonylamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (B-H(2)ats), 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (Hats) and 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (Hatm) at 25 degrees C, 0.15 mol dm(-3) ionic strength (NaNO(3)), have been investigated by potentiometry and UV spectrophotometry. The ionization constants were calculated with SUPERQUAD program from potentiometric measurements and by a method according to Edsall et al. using the mole fractions determined by complementary tri-stimulus colorimetry (CTS). The constants obtained by potentiometry were: B-H(2)ats, pk(a(1))=7.33(3) and pk(a(2))=9.27(1); Hats, pk(a(1))=2.51(3) and pk(a(2))=8.49(1); Hatm, pk(a(1))=1.92(1) and pk(a(2))=6.81(1); whereas the constants determined by spectrophotometry were: H(2)acm, pk(a(1))=7.78(1) and pk(a(2))=9.57(2); B-H(2)ats, pk(a(1))=7.71(2) and pk(a(2))=9.61(2); Hats, pk(a(1))=2.19(3) and pk(a(2))=8.61(2); Hatm, pk(a(2))=6.90(2). Theoretical calculations using MO semiempirical and ab-initio RHF/6-31G* computations for the compounds were also performed. It was possible to clarify the preferred deprotonation mechanism of acetazolamide and B-H(2)ats in which the first deprotonation takes place at the carbonamido group.

  20. Resurrecting Equilibria Through Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Richard C.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Bunzel, Helle

    In an overlapping generations model, momentary equilibria are defined as points that lie on the intergenerational offer curve, i.e., they satisfy agents' optimality conditions and market clearing at any date. However, some dynamic sequences commencing from such points may not be considered valid ...

  1. Behavioral learning equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose behavioral learning equilibria, where boundedly rational agents learn to use a simple univariate linear forecasting rule with correctly specified unconditional mean and first-order autocorrelation. In the long run, agents learn the best univariate linear forecasting rule, without fully

  2. Mini Review: Relational Stability in the Expression of Normality, Variation and Control of Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Hoermann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone concentrations only become sufficient to maintain a euthyroid state through appropriate stimulation by pituitary TSH. In such a dynamic system under constant high pressure, guarding against overstimulation becomes vital. Therefore, several defensive mechanisms protect against accidental overstimulation, such as plasma protein binding, conversion of T4 into the more active T3, active transmembrane transport, counter-regulatory activities of reverse T3 and thyronamines and negative hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback control of TSH. TSH has gained a dominant but misguided role in interpreting thyroid function testing in assuming that its exceptional sensitivity thereby translates into superior diagnostic performance. However, TSH-dependent thyroid disease classification is heavily influenced by statistical analytic techniques such as uni- or multivariate-defined normality. This demands a separation of its conjoint roles as a sensitive screening test and accurate diagnostic tool. Homeostatic equilibria (set points in healthy subjects are less variable, and do not follow a pattern of random variation, rather indicating signs of early and progressive homeostatic control across the euthyroid range. In the event of imminent thyroid failure with a reduced FT4 output per unit TSH, conversion efficiency increases in order to maintain FT3 stability. In such situations, T3 stability takes priority over set point maintenance. This suggests a concept of relational stability. These findings have important implications for both TSH reference limits and treatment targets for patients on levothyroxine. The use of archival markers is proposed to facilitate the homeostatic interpretation of all parameters.

  3. Ideal MHD beta-limits of poloidally asymmetric equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, A.M.M.; Miller, A.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Dalhed, H.E. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The ideal MHD stability of poloidally asymmetric equilibria, which are typical of a tokamak reactor design with a single-null poloidal divertor is examined. As with symmetric equilibria, stability to non-axisymmetric modes improves with increasing triangularity and ellipticity, and with lower edge safety factor. Pressure profiles optimized with respect to ballooning stability are obtained for an asymmetric shape, resulting in β/sub critical/ approx. = 5.7%. The corresponding value for an equivalent symmetric shape is β/sub critical/ approx. = 6.5%

  4. Ideal MHD beta-limits of poloidally asymmetric equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M.; Miller, A.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Dalhed, H.E. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The ideal MHD stability of poloidally asymmetric equilibria, which are typical of a tokamak reactor design with a single-null poloidal divertor is examined. As with symmetric equilibria, stability to non-axisymmetric modes improves with increasing triangularity and ellipticity, and with lower edge safety factor. Pressure profiles optimized with respect to ballooning stability are obtained for an asymmetric shape, resulting in ..beta../sub critical/ approx. = 5.7%. The corresponding value for an equivalent symmetric shape is ..beta../sub critical/ approx. = 6.5%.

  5. On Learning Equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinstra, J.; Wagener, F.O.O.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate an inflationary overlapping generations model where households predict future inflation rates by running a least squares regression of inflation rates or prices on their past levels. We critically examine the results on learning equilibria obtained by Bullard (1994) and Schönhofer (1999) in this framework. They show that an increase in the money growth rate may lead to limit cycles and endogenous business cycles. We suggest an alternative estimation procedure, that starts from ...

  6. Behavioral Learning Equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Hommes, Cars; Zhu, Mei

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper led to an article in 'Journal of Economic Theory' (2014). Volume 150, pp. 778-814. We propose behavioral learning equilibria as a plausible explanation of coordination of individual expectations and aggregate phenomena such as excess volatility in stock prices and high persistence in inflation. Boundedly rational agents use a simple univariate linear forecasting rule and correctly forecast the unconditional sample mean and first-order sample autocorrelation. In the long ...

  7. A relation between Liapunov stability, non-wanderingness and Poisson stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.H.

    1985-07-01

    In this work, some of the relations among Liapunov stability, non-wanderingness and Poisson stability are considered. In particular it is shown that for a non-wandering point in a set, positive (resp. negative) Liapunov stability in that set implies positive (resp. negative) Poisson stability in the same set. (author)

  8. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.

    2017-01-16

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  9. Multiple equilibria in a simple elastocapillary system

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, Michele

    2012-09-28

    We consider the elastocapillary interaction of a liquid drop placed between two elastic beams, which are both clamped at one end to a rigid substrate. This is a simple model system relevant to the problem of surface-tension-induced collapse of flexible micro-channels that has been observed in the manufacture of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). We determine the conditions under which the beams remain separated, touch at a point, or stick along a portion of their length. Surprisingly, we show that in many circumstances multiple equilibrium states are possible. We develop a lubrication-type model for the flow of liquid out of equilibrium and thereby investigate the stability of the multiple equilibria. We demonstrate that for given material properties two stable equilibria may exist, and show via numerical solutions of the dynamic model that it is the initial state of the system that determines which stable equilibrium is ultimately reached. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  10. The Pierce diode with an external circuit: II, Non-uniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The non-uniform (non-linear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described theoretically, and explored via computer simulation. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at α = 2π are not observed. The stability characteristics of the non-uniform equilibria are also worked out, and are consistent with the simulations. 8 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Phase Equilibria and Crystallography of Ceramic Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Ng, W; Roth, R S; Vanderah, T A; McMurdie, H F

    2001-01-01

    Research in phase equilibria and crystallography has been a tradition in the Ceramics Division at National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standatrds and Technology (NBS/NIST) since the early thirties. In the early years, effort was concentrated in areas of Portland cement, ceramic glazes and glasses, instrument bearings, and battery materials. In the past 40 years, a large portion of the work was related to electronic materials, including ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, ionic conductors, dielectrics, microwave dielectrics, and high-temperature superconductors. As a result of the phase equilibria studies, many new compounds have been discovered. Some of these discoveries have had a significant impact on US industry. Structure determinations of these new phases have often been carried out as a joint effort among NBS/NIST colleagues and also with outside collaborators using both single crystal and neutron and x-ray powder diffraction techniques. All phase equilibria diagrams were included in Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, which are collaborative publications between The American Ceramic Society (ACerS) and NBS/NIST. All x-ray powder diffraction patterns have been included in the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). This article gives a brief account of the history of the development of the phase equilibria and crystallographic research on ceramic oxides in the Ceramics Division. Represented systems, particularly electronic materials, are highlighted.

  12. ON MAGNETIC EQUILIBRIA IN BAROTROPIC STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaza, Cristóbal; Reisenegger, Andreas [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Valdivia, Juan Alejandro, E-mail: cyarmaza@uc.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-04-01

    Upper main-sequence stars, white dwarfs, and neutron stars are known to possess stable, large-scale magnetic fields. Numerical works have confirmed that stable magnetohydrodynamic equilibria can exist in non-barotropic, stably stratified stars. On the other hand, it is unclear whether stable equilibria are possible in barotropic stars, although the existing evidence suggests that they are all unstable. This work aims to construct barotropic equilibria in order to study their properties, as a first step to test their stability. We have assumed that the star is a perfectly conducting, axially symmetric fluid, allowing for both poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic field. In addition, we made the astrophysically justified assumption that the magnetic force has a negligible influence on the fluid structure, in which case the equilibrium is governed by the Grad–Shafranov equation, involving two arbitrary functions of the poloidal flux. We built a numerical code to solve this equation, allowing for an arbitrary prescription for these functions. Taking particularly simple, but physically reasonable choices for these functions with a couple of adjustable parameters, all of the equilibria found present only a small (≲10%) fraction of the magnetic energy stored in the toroidal component, confirming previous results. We developed an analytical model in order to study in more detail the behavior of the magnetic energy over the full range of parameters. The model confirms that the toroidal fraction of the energy and the ratio of toroidal to poloidal flux are bounded from above for the whole range of parameters.

  13. Adsorption analysis equilibria and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Duong D

    1998-01-01

    This book covers topics of equilibria and kinetics of adsorption in porous media. Fundamental equilibria and kinetics are dealt with for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous particles. Five chapters of the book deal with equilibria and eight chapters deal with kinetics. Single component as well as multicomponent systems are discussed. In kinetics analysis, we deal with the various mass transport processes and their interactions inside a porous particle. Conventional approaches as well as the new approach using Maxwell-Stefan equations are presented. Various methods to measure diffusivity, such

  14. Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A; Khrennikov, A; Parfionov, G; Starkov, K

    2006-01-01

    Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered

  15. Free boundary skin current MHD [magnetohydrodynamic] equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.

    1988-02-01

    Function theoretic methods in the complex plane are used to develop simple parametric hodograph formulae which generate sharp boundary equilibria of arbitrary shape. The related method of Gorenflo and Merkel is discussed. A numerical technique for the construction of solutions, based on one of the methods is presented. A study is made of the bifurcations of an equilibrium of general form. 28 refs., 9 figs

  16. Gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamics and the associated equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, related to the recent paper by W. W. Lee ["Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective," Phys. Plasmas 23, 070705 (2016)], and their associated equilibria properties are discussed. This set of equations consists of the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation, the gyrokinetic parallel Ohm's law, and the gyrokinetic Ampere's law as well as the equations of state, which are expressed in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, A , and support both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and the associated currents. The corresponding gyrokinetic MHD equilibria can be reached when ϕ→0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇.(J∥+J⊥)=0 and the associated magnetic islands, if they exist. Examples of simple cylindrical geometry are given. These gyrokinetic MHD equations look quite different from the conventional MHD equations, and their comparisons will be an interesting topic in the future.

  17. On stability relative to vector elements of the orbit in general relativity motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdil'din, M.M.; Bejsenova, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a question of a new type of stability - stability relative to vector elements of the orbit is considered in general relativity mechanics in case of the Lenze-Thirring and two body rotation. (author)

  18. Numerical computation of FCT equilibria by inverse equilibrium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Shinji; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1986-11-01

    FCT (Flux Conserving Tokamak) equilibria were obtained numerically by the inverse equilibrium method. The high-beta tokamak ordering was used to get the explicit boundary conditions for FCT equilibria. The partial differential equation was reduced to the simultaneous quasi-linear ordinary differential equations by using the moment method. The regularity conditions for solutions at the singular point of the equations can be expressed correctly by this reduction and the problem to be solved becomes a tractable boundary value problem on the quasi-linear ordinary differential equations. This boundary value problem was solved by the method of quasi-linearization, one of the shooting methods. Test calculations show that this method provides high-beta tokamak equilibria with sufficiently high accuracy for MHD stability analysis. (author)

  19. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  20. Aromaticity and relative stabilities of azines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Judy I-Chia; Li, Qianshu; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué

    2010-11-05

    The most refined nucleus-independent chemical shift index (NICS(0)(πzz)) and the extra cyclic resonance energies (ECREs), based on the block localized wave function (BLW) method, show that the aromaticity of all azines is like that of benzene. The same is true for aza-naphthalenes relative to naphthalene. The lower relative energies of isomers with vicinal N's are due to the weakness of NN bonds rather than to reduced aromaticity.

  1. Hermite Polynomials and the Inverse Problem for Collisionless Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, O.; Neukirch, T.; Troscheit, S.; Wilson, F.

    2017-12-01

    It is long established that Hermite polynomial expansions in either velocity or momentum space can elegantly encode the non-Maxwellian velocity-space structure of a collisionless plasma distribution function (DF). In particular, Hermite polynomials in the canonical momenta naturally arise in the consideration of the 'inverse problem in collisionless equilibria' (IPCE): "for a given macroscopic/fluid equilibrium, what are the self-consistent Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium DFs?". This question is of particular interest for the equilibrium and stability properties of a given macroscopic configuration, e.g. a current sheet. It can be relatively straightforward to construct a formal solution to IPCE by a Hermite expansion method, but several important questions remain regarding the use of this method. We present recent work that considers the necessary conditions of non-negativity, convergence, and the existence of all moments of an equilibrium DF solution found for IPCE. We also establish meaningful analogies between the equations that link the microscopic and macrosopic descriptions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium, and those that solve the initial value problem for the heat equation. In the language of the heat equation, IPCE poses the pressure tensor as the 'present' heat distribution over an infinite domain, and the non-Maxwellian features of the DF as the 'past' distribution. We find sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Hermite series representation of the DF, and prove that the non-negativity of the DF can be dependent on the magnetisation of the plasma. For DFs that decay at least as quickly as exp(-v^2/4), we show non-negativity is guaranteed for at least a finite range of magnetisation values, as parameterised by the ratio of the Larmor radius to the gradient length scale. 1. O. Allanson, T. Neukirch, S. Troscheit & F. Wilson: From one-dimensional fields to Vlasov equilibria: theory and application of Hermite polynomials, Journal of Plasma Physics, 82

  2. Stability and Relative Stability of Linear Systems with Many Constant Time Delays. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Larry Keith

    1976-01-01

    A method of determining the stability of linear systems with many constant time delays is developed. This technique, an extension of the tau-decomposition method, is used to examine not only the stability but also the relative stability of retarded systems with many delays and a class of neutral equations with one delay. Analytical equations are derived for partitioning the delay space of a retarded system with two time delays. The stability of the system in each of the regions defined by the partitioning curves in the parameter plane is determined using the extended tau-decomposition method. In addition, relative stability boundaries are defined using the extended tau-decompositon method in association with parameter plane techniques. Several applications of the extended tau-decomposition method are presented and compared with stability results obtained from other analyses. In all cases the results obtained using the method outlined herein coincide with and extend those of previous investigations. The extended tau-decomposition method applied to systems with time delays requires less computational effort and yields more complete stability analyses than previous techniques.

  3. Stability and perfection of nash equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Damme, Eric

    1991-01-01

    I have been pleased with the favourable reception of the first edition of this book and I am grateful to have the opportunity to prepare this second edition. In this revised and enlarged edition I corrected some misprints and errors that occurred in the first edition (fortunately I didn't find too many) and I added a large number of notes that give the reader an impression of what kind of results have been obtained since the first edition was printed and that give an indication of the direction the subject is taking. Many of the notes discuss (or refer to papers discussing) applications of the refinements that are considered. Of course, it is the quantity and the quality of the insights and the applications that lend the refinements their validity. Although the guide to the applications is far from complete, the notes certainly allow the reader to form a good judgement of which refinements have really yielded new insights. Hence, as in the first edition, I will refrain from speculating on which refinements of...

  4. Three-dimensional force-free looplike magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, John M.; Guzdar, Parvez N.; Usikov, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Computations of three-dimensional force-free magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, del x B = lambdaB with lambda = lambda(sub 0), a constant are presented. These equilibria are determined by boundary conditions on a surface corresponding to the solar photosphere. The specific boundary conditions used correspond to looplike magnetic fields in the corona. It is found that as lambda(sub 0) is increased, the loops of flux become kinked, and for sufficiently large lambda(sub 0), develop knots. The relationship between the kinking and knotting properties of these equilibria and the presence of a kink instability and related loss of equilibrium is explored. Clearly, magnetic reconnection must be involved for an unknotted loop equilibrium to become knotted, and speculations are made about the creation of a closed hyperbolic field line (X-line) about which this reconnection creating knotted field lines is centered.

  5. Micro-oxygenation does not eliminate hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans from wine; it simply shifts redox and complex-related equilibria to reversible oxidized species and complexed forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Eduardo; Hernandez-Orte, Purificación; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2018-03-15

    This work seeks to assess the effects of micro-oxygenation (MOX) on the present and potential levels of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSCs) of wine. With such purpose, three red wines with a tendency to develop sulfury off-odors were subjected to three different MOX conditions (4.4-20mg/L delivered at 0.05 or 0.2mg/L/day). Samples were further subjected to Accelerated Reductive aging (AR) and analyzed for free and Brine Releasable (BR) VSCs and redox potential. Although MOX induced strong decreases in the levels of all free VSCs, hardly affected the ability of the wine to release back hydrogen sulfide and other mercaptans during AR-aging. During aging BR-levels of MOX samples became in most cases similar or higher than non-oxygenated controls. BR-levels and the fractions free/BR follow characteristic sigmoid plots when represented versus redox potential suggesting that all changes are the result of reversible equilibria between free, metal-complexed and oxidized forms of VSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Relative Stability of Tetraoxo-bisanthrenes related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent experimental and theoretical studies of the photochemical proton transfer from hypericin, it was conjectured that the relative stability of the various hypericin radical anions parallels the relative stability of the corresponding tetraoxo derivatives of the parent hydrocarbon (bisanthrene). In order to test this hypothesis, ...

  7. Stability of biogenic metal(loid) nanomaterials related to the colloidal stabilization theory of chemical nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Turner, Raymond J

    2018-02-25

    In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures. Different macromolecules (e.g. proteins, peptides, lipids, DNA, and polysaccharides) or secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, organic acids, and alkaloids) naturally produced by organisms have been indicated as main contributors to the stabilization of Bio-Me-nanostructures. Nevertheless, the chemical-physical mechanisms behind the ability of these molecules in providing stability to Bio-Me-nanomaterials are unknown. In this context, transposing the stabilization theory of chemically synthesized Me-nanomaterials (Ch-Me-nanomaterials) to biogenic materials can be used towards a better comprehension of macromolecules and secondary metabolites role as stabilizing agents of Bio-Me-nanomaterials. According to this theory, nanomaterials are generally featured by high thermodynamic instability in suspension, due to their high surface area and surface energy. This feature leads to the necessity to stabilize chemical nanostructures, even during or directly after their synthesis, through the development of (i) electrostatic, (ii) steric, or (iii) electrosteric interactions occurring between molecules and nanomaterials in suspension. Based on these three mechanisms, this review is focused on parallels between the stabilization of biogenic or chemical nanomaterials, suggesting which chemical-physical mechanisms may be

  8. Relative Stability of cis- and trans-Hydrindanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Tori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative stabilities of several cis- and trans-hydrindanones were compared using both isomerization experiments and MM2 calculations. The generally believed rule that cis-hydrindanones are more stable than trans-isomers is applicable, but is not always true. This review introduces examples, mainly from studies in our laboratory, to explain these facts.

  9. Predicting phase equilibria in one-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M. R.; Esina, Z. N.

    2015-07-01

    It is shown that Simon equation coefficients for n-alkanes and n-alcohols can be modeled using critical and triple point parameters. Predictions of the phase liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and liquid-solid equilibria in one-component systems are based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, Van der Waals and Simon equations, and the principle of thermodynamic similarity.

  10. Speculative equilibria and asymptotic dominance in a market with adaptive CRRA traders (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, Mikhail; Bottazzi, Giulio; Pancotto, Francesca

    2005-05-01

    We consider a simple pure exchange economy with two assets, one riskless, yielding a constant return on investment, and one risky, paying a stochastic dividend. Trading takes place in discrete time and in each trading period the price of the risky asset is fixed through the market clearing condition. Individual demands are expressed as fractions of traders wealth and depend on traders forecasts about future price movement. Under these assumptions, we derive the stochastic dynamical system that describes the evolution of price and wealth. We study the cases in which one or two agents operate in the market, identifying the possible equilibria and discussing their stability conditions. The main novelty of this paper rests in the abstraction from the precise characterization of agents' beliefs and preferences. In this respect our results generalize several previous contributions in the field. In particular, we show that, irrespectively of agents' behavior, the system can only possess isolated generic equilibria where a single agent dominates the market and continuous manifolds of non-generic equilibria where heterogeneous agents hold finite shares of the aggregate wealth. Moreover, we show that all possible equilibria belong to a one dimensional "Equilibria Market Line". Finally we discuss the role of different parameters for the stability of equilibria and the selection principle governing market dynamics.

  11. Nash Equilibria in Fisher Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsul, Bharat; Babu, Ch. Sobhan; Garg, Jugal; Mehta, Ruta; Sohoni, Milind

    Much work has been done on the computation of market equilibria. However due to strategic play by buyers, it is not clear whether these are actually observed in the market. Motivated by the observation that a buyer may derive a better payoff by feigning a different utility function and thereby manipulating the Fisher market equilibrium, we formulate the Fisher market game in which buyers strategize by posing different utility functions. We show that existence of a conflict-free allocation is a necessary condition for the Nash equilibria (NE) and also sufficient for the symmetric NE in this game. There are many NE with very different payoffs, and the Fisher equilibrium payoff is captured at a symmetric NE. We provide a complete polyhedral characterization of all the NE for the two-buyer market game. Surprisingly, all the NE of this game turn out to be symmetric and the corresponding payoffs constitute a piecewise linear concave curve. We also study the correlated equilibria of this game and show that third-party mediation does not help to achieve a better payoff than NE payoffs.

  12. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  13. Phase diagrams and heterogeneous equilibria a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Predel, Bruno; Pool, Monte

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook provides an introduction to the practical application of phase diagrams. It is intended for students and researchers in chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy, and materials science as well as in engineering and physics. Heterogeneous equilibria are described by a minimum of theory illustrated by practical examples and realistic case discussions from the different fields of application. The treatment of the physical and energetic background of phase equilibria leads to the discussion of the thermodynamics of mixtures and the correlation between energetics and composition. Thus, tools for the prediction of energetic, structural, and physical quantities are provided. The authors treat the nucleation of phase transitions, the production and stability of technologically important metastable phases, and metallic glasses. Furthermore, the text also concisely presents the thermodynamics and composition of polymer systems.

  14. The relative importance of stabilizing mechanisms of coexistence - ESA 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Yenni, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    Stabilizing mechanisms of coexistence, by definition, cause a species to experience greater intraspecific competition than interspecific. This results in negative frequency-dependent growth rates for that species causing a negative relationship between its relative frequency in the community and its growth rate in the next year. The most crucial aspect of this negative relationship for persistence is that it enables a species to increase when rare. This has been empirically demonstrated for p...

  15. High-pressure, flux-conserving tokamak equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dory, R.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1976-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) tokamak equilibria are found with values of ..beta.. up to 20 percent and prescribed MHD safety factor values (e.g., q(axis) = 1 and q(edge) = 4.8) for tokamaks with aspect ratio A = 4 and D-shaped cross section. If such equilibria could be attained experimentally, they would be very attractive for decreasing the projected costs of tokamak power reactors substantially. In the flux-conserving tokamak (FCT) model, where rapid heating is applied to an already relatively hot plasma, these high ..beta.. equilibria are achievable. We study the quasi-static evolution of FCT equilibria as ..beta.. increases. An operating window is found in the pressure profile width w/sub p/: for high ..beta.. the values of w/sub p/ must lie between 0.40 and 0.55 of the plasma minor width. Within this window, plasma current and poloidal ..beta.. increase monotonically with ..beta... For fixed plasma boundary, significant poloidal surface currents are induced, but these can be eliminated by small increases in the plasma minor radius, the pressure profile width, and the vacuum toroidal field.

  16. Tokamak equilibria with non-parallel flow in a triangularity-deformed axisymmetric toroidal coordinate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ap Kuiroukidis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a generalized Grad–Shafranov equation (GGSE in a triangularity-deformed axisymmetric toroidal coordinate system and solve it numerically for the generic case of ITER-like and JET-like equilibria with non-parallel flow. It turns out that increase of the triangularity improves confinement by leading to larger values of the toroidal beta and the safety factor. This result is supported by the application of a criterion for linear stability valid for equilibria with flow parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the parallel flow has a weaker stabilizing effect.

  17. The CHEASE code for toroidal MHD equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetjens, H. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Bondeson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. for Electromagnetic Field Theory and Plasma Physics; Sauter, O. [ITER-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    CHEASE solves the Grad-Shafranov equation for the MHD equilibrium of a Tokamak-like plasma with pressure and current profiles specified by analytic forms or sets of data points. Equilibria marginally stable to ballooning modes or with a prescribed fraction of bootstrap current can be computed. The code provides a mapping to magnetic flux coordinates, suitable for MHD stability calculations or global wave propagation studies. The code computes equilibrium quantities for the stability codes ERATO, MARS, PEST, NOVA-W and XTOR and for the global wave propagation codes LION and PENN. The two-dimensional MHD equilibrium (Grad-Shafranov) equation is solved in variational form. The discretization uses bicubic Hermite finite elements with continuous first order derivates for the poloidal flux function {Psi}. The nonlinearity of the problem is handled by Picard iteration. The mapping to flux coordinates is carried out with a method which conserves the accuracy of the cubic finite elements. The code uses routines from the CRAY libsci.a program library. However, all these routines are included in the CHEASE package itself. If CHEASE computes equilibrium quantities for MARS with fast Fourier transforms, the NAG library is required. CHEASE is written in standard FORTRAN-77, except for the use of the input facility NAMELIST. CHEASE uses variable names with up to 8 characters, and therefore violates the ANSI standard. CHEASE transfers plot quantities through an external disk file to a plot program named PCHEASE using the UNIRAS or the NCAR plot package. (author) figs., tabs., 34 refs.

  18. Gauge stability of 3+1 formulations of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, A M; Novikov, I D

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the analysis of gauge stability of 3+1 formulations of general relativity (GR). Evolution of coordinate perturbations and the corresponding perturbations of lapse and shift can be described by a system of eight quasi-linear partial differential equations. Stability with respect to gauge perturbations depends on the choice of gauge and a background metric, but it does not depend on a particular form of a 3+1 system if its constrained solutions are equivalent to those of the Einstein equations. Stability of a number of known gauges is investigated in the limit of short-wavelength perturbations. All fixed gauges except a synchronous gauge are found to be ill posed. A maximal slicing gauge and its parabolic extension are shown to be ill posed as well. A necessary condition is derived for well-posedness of metric-dependent algebraic gauges. Well-posed metric-dependent gauges are found, however, to be generally unstable. Both instability and ill-posedness are associated with the existence of growing modes of coordinate perturbations related to perturbations of physical accelerations of reference frames

  19. Can markets compute equilibria?

    CERN Document Server

    Monroe , Hunter K

    2009-01-01

    Recent turmoil in financial and commodities markets has renewed questions regarding how well markets discover equilibrium prices, particularly when those markets are highly complex. A relatively new critique questions whether markets can realistically find equilibrium prices if computers cannot. For instance, in a simple exchange economy with Leontief preferences, the time required to compute equilibrium prices using the fastest known techniques is an exponential function of the number of goods. Furthermore, no efficient technique for this problem exists if a famous mathematical conjecture is

  20. Radion stabilization by stringy effects in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Subodh P.; Brandenberger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We consider the effects of a gas of closed strings (treated quantum mechanically) on a background where one dimension is compactified on a circle. After we address the effects of a time-dependent background on aspects of the string spectrum that concern us, we derive the energy-momentum tensor for a string gas and investigate the resulting space-time dynamics. We show that a variety of trajectories are possible for the radius of the compactified dimension, depending on the nature of the string gas, including a demonstration within the context of general relativity (i.e. without a dilaton) of a solution where the radius of the extra dimension oscillates about the self-dual radius, without invoking matter that violates the various energy conditions. In particular, we find that in the case where the string gas is in thermal equilibrium, the radius of the compactified dimension dynamically stabilizes at the self-dual radius, after which a period of usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology of the three uncompactified dimensions can set in. We show that our radion stabilization mechanism requires a stringy realization of inflation as scalar field driven inflation invalidates our mechanism. We also show that our stabilization mechanism is consistent with observational bounds

  1. Equilibria in aqueous cadmium-chloroacetate-glycinate systems. A convolution-deconvolution cyclic voltammetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, R.; Rabia, M.K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Stability constants and composition of cadmium-glycinate binary complexes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Furthermore, binary and ternary complex equilibria for chloroacetates and glycinate with cadmium in 0.1 M aqueous KNO 3 at pH 10.4 and 298 K were investigated. Cadmium forms binary complexes with chloroacetates of low stability and ternary ones with chloroacetate-glycinate of significant stability. (author)

  2. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  3. Learning to Play Efficient Coarse Correlated Equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2018-03-10

    The majority of the distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Coarse correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific coarse correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm, which guarantees that the agents’ collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient coarse correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  4. Equilibria of the three-body problem with rigid dumb-bell satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elipe, A.; Palacios, M.; Pretka-Ziomek, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the orbital-rotational motion of an asymmetric dumb-bell (two masses with fixed distance among them) under the attraction of a central body. For this model, we find some equilibria and give sufficient conditions for their stability

  5. A numerical algorithm to find all feedback Nash equilibria in scalar affine quadratic differential games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This note deals with solving scalar coupled algebraic Riccati equations. These equations arise in finding linear feedback Nash equilibria of the scalar N-player affine quadratic differential game. A numerical procedure is provided to compute all the stabilizing solutions. The main idea is to

  6. Exotic equilibria of Harary graphs and a new minimum degree lower bound for synchronization

    KAUST Repository

    Canale, Eduardo A.

    2015-02-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. This work is concerned with stability of equilibria in the homogeneous (equal frequencies) Kuramoto model of weakly coupled oscillators. In 2012 [R. Taylor, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 1-15 (2012)], a sufficient condition for almost global synchronization was found in terms of the minimum degree-order ratio of the graph. In this work, a new lower bound for this ratio is given. The improvement is achieved by a concrete infinite sequence of regular graphs. Besides, non standard unstable equilibria of the graphs studied in Wiley et al. [Chaos 16, 015103 (2006)] are shown to exist as conjectured in that work.

  7. Why mixed equilibria may not be conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    on dropping Lewis' eccentric ‘coordination' requirement as well as that of common knowledge, they are confused on whether conventions should be regarded as proper thereby precluding mixed equilibria. In this paper I argue that mixed equilibria may not be conventions, but also suggest that the reason...... for this reveals that though common knowledge is not necessary for a convention to operate, it may be utilized as to identify the conventional aspect of a given practice....

  8. Stability of coupled rigid body and geometrically exact rods, block diagonalization and the energy, momentum method

    OpenAIRE

    Simo, J. C.; Posbergh, T. A.; Marsden, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies the energy-momentum method to the problem of nonlinear stability of relative equilibria. The method is applied in detail to the stability analysis of uniformly rotating states of geometrically exact rod models, and a rigid body with an attached flexible appendage. Here, the flexible appendage is modeled as a geometrically exact rod capable of accommodating arbitrarily large deformations in three dimensions; including extension, shear, flexure and twist. The mod...

  9. Open Problems Related to the Hurwitz Stability of Polynomials Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltazar Aguirre-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of robust stability analysis of linear systems, the development of techniques and methods that help to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions to determine stability of convex combinations of polynomials is paramount. In this paper, knowing that Hurwitz polynomials set is not a convex set, a brief overview of some results and open problems concerning the stability of the convex combinations of Hurwitz polynomials is then provided.

  10. Equilibria of iterative softmax and critical temperatures for intermittent search in self-organizing neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tino, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Kwok and Smith (2005) recently proposed a new kind of optimization dynamics using self-organizing neural networks (SONN) driven by softmax weight renormalization. Such dynamics is capable of powerful intermittent search for high-quality solutions in difficult assignment optimization problems. However, the search is sensitive to temperature setting in the softmax renormalization step. It has been hypothesized that the optimal temperature setting corresponds to the symmetry-breaking bifurcation of equilibria of the renormalization step, when viewed as an autonomous dynamical system called iterative softmax (ISM). We rigorously analyze equilibria of ISM by determining their number, position, and stability types. It is shown that most fixed points exist in the neighborhood of the maximum entropy equilibrium w= (N(-1), N(-1), ..., N(-1)), where N is the ISM dimensionality. We calculate the exact rate of decrease in the number of ISM equilibria as one moves away from w. Bounds on temperatures guaranteeing different stability types of ISM equilibria are also derived. Moreover, we offer analytical approximations to the critical symmetry-breaking bifurcation temperatures that are in good agreement with those found by numerical investigations. So far, the critical temperatures have been determined only by trial-and-error numerical simulations. On a set of N-queens problems for a wide range of problem sizes N, the analytically determined critical temperatures predict the optimal working temperatures for SONN intermittent search very well. It is also shown that no intermittent search can exist in SONN for temperatures greater than one-half.

  11. On Equilibria of the Two-fluid Model in Magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzeskakis, Dimitri J.; Stratis, Ioannis G.; Yannacopoulos, Athanasios N.

    2004-01-01

    We show how the equilibria of the two-fluid model in magnetohydrodynamics can be described by the double curl equation and through the study of this equation we study some properties of these equilibria

  12. Symmetry transforms for ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg I

    2002-11-01

    A method for constructing ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria is introduced. The method consists of the application of symmetry transforms to any known MHD equilibrium [ O. I. Bogoyavlenskij, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 8616, (2000)]. The transforms break the geometrical symmetries of the field-aligned solutions and produce continuous families of the nonsymmetric MHD equilibria. The method of symmetry transforms also allows to obtain MHD equilibria with current sheets and exact solutions with noncollinear vector fields B and V. A model of the nonsymmetric astrophysical jets outside of their accretion disks is developed. The total magnetic and kinetic energy of the jet is finite in any layer c(1)ball lightning with dynamics of plasma inside the fireball.

  13. Existence of pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Yuya; Kuroiwa, Daishi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness. By employing an existence theorem of Pareto equilibria due to Yu and Yuan([10]), several existence theorems of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for the multiobjective games are established in a similar way to Flores-B´azan.

  14. Stability of small axial wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-03-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m>=1)modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also constant current density equilibria can be stabilized for P per >P par and large β per . (authors)

  15. Computing Equilibria of Two Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    Theory. The application areas of Game Theory fathoms most academic disciplines, all the way from Political Science and Economics through Biology to Computer Science. It also has played an important role in areas Philosophy and Ethics. It has even been used to politically justify military conflicts...... with computing equilibria of game theoretic models where only two agents are involved. The work described ranges from the theoretical development of algorithms for computing refined equilibria, which satisfy additional constraints beyond being an equilibrium, to the practical solving of real life games. Part I...

  16. Wind turbine power and sound in relation to atmospheric stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric stability cannot, with respect to modem, toll wind turbines, be viewed as a 'small perturbation to a basic neutral state' This can be demonstrated by comparison of measured wind velocity at the height of the rotor with the wind velocity expected in a neutral or 'standard' atmosphere.

  17. Electret Stability Related to the Crystallinity in Polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    Through mixing isotactic-polypropylene (i-PP) and atactic-polypropylene (a-PP), we have demonstrated the importance of the crystallinity in polypropylene as an electret material. A high degree of crystallinity in polypropylene, used as an electret, gives a better charge stability towards...

  18. The Spectral Web of stationary plasma equilibria. II. Internal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    The new method of the Spectral Web to calculate the spectrum of waves and instabilities of plasma equilibria with sizeable flows, developed in the preceding Paper I [Goedbloed, Phys. Plasmas 25, 032109 (2018)], is applied to a collection of classical magnetohydrodynamic instabilities operating in cylindrical plasmas with shear flow or rotation. After a review of the basic concepts of the complementary energy giving the solution path and the conjugate path, which together constitute the Spectral Web, the cylindrical model is presented and the spectral equations are derived. The first example concerns the internal kink instabilities of a cylindrical force-free magnetic field of constant α subjected to a parabolic shear flow profile. The old stability diagram and the associated growth rate calculations for static equilibria are replaced by a new intricate stability diagram and associated complex growth rates for the stationary model. The power of the Spectral Web method is demonstrated by showing that the two associated paths in the complex ω-plane nearly automatically guide to the new class of global Alfvén instabilities of the force-free configuration that would have been very hard to predict by other methods. The second example concerns the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a rotating theta-pinch. The old literature is revisited and shown to suffer from inconsistencies that are remedied. The most global n = 1 instability and a cluster sequence of more local but much more unstable n =2 ,3 ,…∞ modes are located on separate solution paths in the hydrodynamic (HD) version of the instability, whereas they merge in the MHD version. The Spectral Web offers visual demonstration of the central position the HD flow continuum and of the MHD Alfvén and slow magneto-sonic continua in the respective spectra by connecting the discrete modes in the complex plane by physically meaningful curves towards the continua. The third example concerns the magneto-rotational instability

  19. Equilibrator: Modeling Chemical Equilibria with Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Griend, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Equilibrator is a Microsoft Excel program for learning about chemical equilibria through modeling, similar in function to EQS4WIN, which is no longer supported and does not work well with newer Windows operating systems. Similar to EQS4WIN, Equilibrator allows the user to define a system with temperature, initial moles, and then either total…

  20. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical condition...

  1. Equilibria with incompressible flows from symmetry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiroukidis, Ap, E-mail: kouirouki@astro.auth.gr, E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr [Technological Education Institute of Serres, 62124 Serres (Greece); Throumoulopoulos, G. N., E-mail: kouirouki@astro.auth.gr, E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece)

    2015-08-15

    We identify and study new nonlinear axisymmetric equilibria with incompressible flow of arbitrary direction satisfying a generalized Grad Shafranov equation by extending the symmetry analysis presented by Cicogna and Pegoraro [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022520 (2015)]. In particular, we construct a typical tokamak D-shaped equilibrium with peaked toroidal current density, monotonically varying safety factor, and sheared electric field.

  2. Phase equilibria of carbohydrates in polar solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A method for calculating interaction energies and interaction parameters with molecular mechanics methods is extended to predict solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) for saccharides in aqueous solution, giving results in excellent agreement with experimental values. Previously, the method has been shown...

  3. Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics of Solid - Equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, John Edward

    The research discussed in this dissertation has been divided into two parts. The first portion deals with the classical thermodynamics of compounds that are typically used as model compounds for coal liquids. The bulk of the work has been an experimental study of the solid-liquid solubilities (SLE) for a large number of these compounds in various solvents and a smaller study of the vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of some of these systems. The second method is the traditional experimental method for obtaining the activity coefficients which represent the liquid phase nonidealities in a system. The first method is an alternative method for obtaining the same information which, though older than the VLE method, has been largely overlooked by chemical engineers. In this portion of the dissertation, it will be shown that solid-liquid solubility data are a viable source for information on liquid phase nonidealities in these types of systems, which have been somewhat ignored in the literature because of the difficulty associated with VLE experimentation on systems with high relative volatilities. The second portion of the dissertation is a discussion of work done to investigate the applicability of statistical mechanics to the prediction of liquid phase nonidealities in complex systems like these. Because the present state -of-the-art has not yet progressed to the level needed, the work presented is concerned mostly with additions to that art (improvements in the tools available). The directions for future research in this area needed to apply these statistical mechanical methods to the type of system studied in part A are discussed.

  4. Coenzyme B12 model studies: An HSAB approach to the equilibria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Kinetics and equilibria of the axial ligation of alkyl(aquo)cobaloximes by imidazole and cyanide have been measured spectrophotometrically in aqueous solutions of ionic strength 1⋅0 M at 25°C as a function of pH. Comparison of KIMD and. KCN– of CH3, C2H5 and BrCH2 cobaloximes indicates that their stability ...

  5. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrothermal alkali feldspar-mica-aluminosilicate equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverjensky, D.A.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of minerals retrieved from consideration of solid-solid and dehydration equilibria with calorimetric reference values, and those of aqueous species derived from studies of electrolytes, are not consistent with experimentally measured high-temperature solubilities in the systems K2O- and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-HCl (e.g., K-fs - Ms - Qtz - K+ - H+). This introduces major inaccuracies into the computation of ionic activity ratios and the acidities of diagenetic, metamorphic, and magmatic hydrothermal fluids buffered by alkali silicate-bearing assemblages. We report a thermodynamic analysis of revised solubility equilibria in these systems that integrates the thermodynamic properties of minerals obtained from phase equilibria studies (Berman, 1988) with the properties of aqueous species calculated from a calibrated equation of state (Shock and Helgeson, 1988). This was achieved in two separate steps. First, new values of the free energies and enthalpies of formation at 25??C and 1 bar for the alkali silicates muscovite and albite were retrieved from the experimental solubility equilibria at 300??C and Psat. Because the latter have stoichiometric reaction coefficients different from those for solid-solid and dehydration equilibria, our procedure preserves exactly the relative thermodynamic properties of the alkali-bearing silicates (Berman, 1988). Only simple arithmetic adjustments of -1,600 and -1,626 (??500) cal/mol to all the K- and Na-bearing silicates, respectively, in Berman (1988) are required. In all cases, the revised values are within ??0.2% of calorimetric values. Similar adjustments were derived for the properties of minerals from Helgeson et al. (1978). Second, new values of the dissociation constant of HCl were retrieved from the solubility equilibria at temperatures and pressures from 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbars using a simple model for aqueous speciation. The results agree well with the conductance-derived dissociation

  6. Reflexivity, expectations feedback and almost self-fulfilling equilibria: economic theory, empirical evidence and laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss recent work on bounded rationality and learning in relation to Soros’ principle of reflexivity and stress the empirical importance of non-rational, almost selffulfilling equilibria in positive feedback systems. As an empirical example, we discuss a behavioral asset pricing model with

  7. Construction of Subgame-Perfect Mixed Strategy Equilibria in Repeated Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Kimmo; Schoenmakers, Gijsbertus

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how to construct subgame-perfect mixed-strategy equilibria in discounted repeated games with perfect monitoring.We introduce a relatively simple class of strategy profiles that are easy to compute and may give rise to a large set of equilibrium payoffs. These sets are called

  8. Systematic identification method for data analysis and phase equilibria modelling for lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perederic, Olivia A.; Cunico, Larissa P.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2018-01-01

    Industrial use of lipids has been increasing as a consequence of increased developments related to biobased economies. In addition to applications in food-products, lipids are used by many industrial sectors, for example, biodiesel, edible oil, health, and personal care. Phase equilibria...

  9. Analytical and numerical calculations of field-reversed theta-pinch equilibria based on a generalized Hill's vortex model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.V.; Hammer, J.H.; Barnes, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    We have been investigating methods for numerically extending the analytic solutions of field reversed theta pinch equilibria so that the results may be used in various stability and dynamics studies. We have used generalizations of elliptical Hill's vortex equilibria which accomodate separatrices with more rectangular shapes and which allow plasma to exist outside the separatrix. Although the equilibria are specified analytically inside the plasma surface, numerical techniques are required to generate the solution in the vacuum region. Two computer codes have been used in sequence. The first determines a set of external coils and their currents so that they match the known coil field inside the plasma. Then, given this coil field, we compute the contribution from the plasma currents to the fields in the vacuum region

  10. DOD/NGO Relations and Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    DOD/NGO RELATIONS AND STABILITY, SECURITY, TRANSITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS IN SUB - SAHARAN AFRICA BY...West. Sub - Saharan Africa represents an enormous potential for recruitment of future suicide bombers. It also provides ample human capital and demand...environments. The US and its allies must focus efforts on sub - Saharan Africa in the form of stability, security, transition, and reconstruction

  11. Phase Equilibria Prediction for Systems Containing Lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ana Perederic, Olivia; Cunico, Larissa; Sarup, Bent

    ,modelling and simulation. An important aspect in phase equilibria prediction is represented byquality of the data used for regression of model parameters. In previous work, Cunico et al. [5]applied several consistency tests for VLE data sets involving lipids that are available in openliterature and their results show...... parameters for lipidsby proposing new values, aimed to offer a better prediction of phase equilibria calculation(vapourliquidequilibrium VLE, solidliquidequilibrium, SLE). The regression of the newparameters is done using carefully selected VLE data sets, screened out for possible erroneousdata. VLE data...... selection is performed based on the quality factor given by the differentconsistency tests available in ThermoData Engine (TDE) from NIST. More than 60 VLE data setsconsisting of over 600 data points, available in CAPEC LIPIDS Mixture Database, are used for theregression of the 54 binary interaction...

  12. Microtubule Stabilizing Agents as Potential Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurodegenerative Tauopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.; Huryn, Donna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.

    2012-01-01

    The microtubule (MT)-associated protein tau, which is highly expressed in the axons of neurons, is an endogenous MT-stabilizing agent that plays an important role in the axonal transport. Loss of MT-stabilizing tau function, caused by misfolding, hyperphosphorylation and sequestration of tau into insoluble aggregates, leads to axonal transport deficits with neuropathological consequences. Several in vitro and preclinical in vivo studies have shown that MT-stabilizing drugs can be utilized to compensate for the loss of tau function and to maintain/restore an effective axonal transport. These findings indicate that MT-stabilizing compounds hold considerable promise for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and related tauopathies. The present article provides a synopsis of the key findings demonstrating the therapeutic potential of MT-stabilizing drugs in the context of neurodegenerative tauopathies, as well as an overview of the different classes of MT-stabilizing compounds. PMID:23020671

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows: Symmetry approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicogna, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.Fermi” dell' Università di Pisa and INFN, Sez. di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Pegoraro, F., E-mail: pegoraro@df.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.Fermi” dell' Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    We identify and discuss a family of azimuthally symmetric, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with poloidal and toroidal flows in terms of solutions of the Generalized Grad Shafranov (GGS) equation. These solutions are derived by exploiting the incompressibility assumption, in order to rewrite the GGS equation in terms of a different dependent variable, and the continuous Lie symmetry properties of the resulting equation and, in particular, a special type of “weak” symmetries.

  14. Tree island pattern formation and alternative equilibria in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. A.; D'Odorico, P.; Engel, V.

    2012-12-01

    The tree islands of the Florida Everglades are patterned ecogeomorphic features where elevated woody vegetation patches are surrounded by wet marsh filled with herbaceous vegetation. This wet savanna landscape exhibits an uneven distribution of soil resources with enhanced soil phosphorus concentrations underlying elevated tree islands. In contrast, the surrounding low lying marsh has low phosphorous availability. This patchy patterned landscape sustains high levels of biodiversity, but the processes determining the stability and resilience of the patterned tree island landscape remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear what controls the relation between individual form and processes within a tree island and the spatial organization of tree islands on the landscape. To this end, a process-based model that relates vegetation dynamics to nutrients and soil accretion/loss through ecogeomorphic feedbacks and interactions with hydrologic drivers was developed. The model reveals that the stable coexistence of tree islands and marshes emerges as an effect of their both being (meta-) stable states of the system. Self organization of patterns on the landscape occurs within a subset of the parameter space. As such, tree islands are found to have only a limited resilience. Change in hydroperiod and or vegetation cover can result in an rapid shift to a stable marsh state. Under certain hydrologic conditions this state can become destabilized and promote once again ontogenesis of tree islands. As such, the tree island susceptibility to a rapid (slow) transition between alternative equilibria needs to be accounted for while developing a plan for their management, conservation and restoration.

  15. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  16. Salt marsh stability modelled in relation to sea level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Bartholdy, Anders; Kroon, Aart

    2010-01-01

    Accretion on a natural backbarrier salt marsh was modeled as a function of high tide level, initial salt marsh level and distance to the source. Calibration of the model was based on up to ca 80 year old marker horizons, supplemented by 210Pb/137Cs datings and subsequent measurements of clay...... that mass depth down core can be directly related to the bulk dry density of the surface layer by means of a logarithmic function. The results allow for an evaluation of the use of marker horizons in the topmost layers and show that it is important to know the level of the marker in relation to the salt...

  17. Structures and related properties of helical, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-11-01

    The three dimensional structure of several peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations. Each peptide formed a predictable, rigid structure, consisting of an α-helix, a "scaffold" region which packed along one face of the helix, and two disulfide bridges which covalently connect the helix and scaffold regions. The peptide Apa-M5 was designed to constrain the M5 peptide from MLCK in a helical geometry using the apamin disulfide scaffold. This scaffold constrains the N- terminal end of the helix with two disulfide bridges and a reverse turn. Like the M5 peptide, Apa-M5 was found to bind calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent 1:1 stoichiometry. However, the dissociation constant of the (Apa-M5)-calmodulin complex, 107 nM, was 100-fold higher than the dissociation constant of the M5-calmodulin complex. This difference was due to a putative steric overlap between the Apa-M5 scaffold and calmodulin. The peptide Apa-Cro was designed to replace the large structural protein matrix of λ Cro with the apamin disulfide scaffold. However, Apa-Cro did not bind the consensus DNA operator half-site of λ Cro, probably due to a steric overlap between the Apa-Cro disulfide framework and the DNA. The amino acid sequence of the scaffold-disulfide bridge arrangement of the peptide Max was derived from the core sequence of scyllatoxin, which contains an α-helix constrained at the C-terminal end by two disulfide bridges and a two-stranded βsheet scaffold. Max was shown to fold with >84% yield to form a predictable, stable structure that is similar to scyllatoxin. The folding and stability properties of Max make this scaffold and disulfide bridge arrangement an ideal candidate for the development of hybrid sequence peptides. The dynamics of a fraying C-terminal end of the helix of the peptide Apa-AlaN was determined by analysis of 15N NMR relaxation properties.

  18. Policing in Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations: Problems and Proposed Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serafino, Nina M

    2004-01-01

    One of the most crucial and difficult tasks in peacekeeping and related stability operations is creating a secure and stable environment, both for the foreign peacekeepers and for the indigenous population...

  19. Rapidly convergent algorithms for 3-D tandem and stellarator equilibria in the paraxial approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, B.

    1984-04-01

    Tandem and stellarator equilibria at high ..beta.. have proved hard to compute and the relaxation methods of Bauer et al., Chodura and Schluter, Hirshman, Strauss, and Pearlstein et al. have been slow to converge. This paper reports an extension of the low-..beta.. analytic method of Pearlstein, Kaiser, and Newcomb to arbitrary ..beta.. for tandem mirrors which converges in 10 to 20 iterations. Extensions of the method to stellarator equilibria are proposed and are very close to the analytic method of Johnson and Greene - the stellarator expansion. Most of the results of all these calculations can be adequately described by low-..beta.. approximations since the MHD stability limits occur at low ..beta... The tandem mirror, having weak curvature and a long central cell, allows finite Larmor radius effects to eliminate most ballooning modes and offers the possibility of really high average ..beta... This is the interest in developing such three-dimensional numerical algorithms.

  20. Coexistence of equilibria in a New Keynesian model with heterogeneous beliefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, Anna; Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The recent macroeconomic literature has been stressing the importance of considering heterogeneous expectations while addressing monetary policy. In this paper we consider a standard New Keynesian model, described by a two-dimensional nonlinear map, to analyze the bifurcation structure when agents have heterogeneous expectations and update their beliefs based on past performance. Depending on the degree of reactivity of the monetary policy to inflation and output deviations from the target equilibrium, different kind of dynamics may occur. We find that multiple equilibria and complicated dynamics, associated to codimension-2 bifurcations, may arise even if the monetary policy is set to respond more than point for point to inflation, as the Taylor principle prescribes. We show that if the monetary policy accommodates for a sufficient degree of output stabilization, complicated dynamics can be avoided and the number of coexisting equilibria reduces.

  1. The Zr-Ti-Cr system. Equilibria at 900 and 1100 C degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arico, Sergio F.; Gribaudo, Luis M.

    2003-01-01

    Main contributions to the knowledge of the ternary system Zr-Ti-Cr were published in the sixties. Stability domains of phases at temperatures between 500 and 1400 C degrees were there presented. Here, results related to the phase diagram at 900 and 1100 C degrees are informed. Three alloys with 40 at.% Cr and different Zr/Ti ratios and one more, richer in Cr, were elaborated. Specimens of the alloys were heat treated 1000 and 800 h at 900 and 1100 C degrees respectively. Phase characterizations were performed by optic metallography and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compositions were determined by microprobe. Alloys with 40 at.% Cr at both temperatures have biphasic equilibria between the intermetallic Laves phase AB 2 and the body-centered cubic solid solution containing principally zirconium and titanium. The Cr-rich alloy presents equilibrium of the AB 2 compound and the Cr-rich solid solution. Results of the present and previous works are used in order to propose new isothermal sections at 900 and 1100 C degrees. (author)

  2. Dynamic data evaluation for solid-liquid equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Kang, Jeong Won

    The accuracy and reliability of the measured data sets to be used in regression of model parameters is an important issue related to modeling of phase equilibria. It is clear that good parameters for any model cannot be obtained from low quality data. A thermodynamic consistency test for solid...... studies considering the methodology proposed for SLE thermodynamic consistency tests and data from open literature and databases such as NIST-TDE®, DIPPR® and DECHEMA® are presented. The SLE consistency test and data evaluation is performed in a software containing option for data analysis, model analysis......-liquid systems using a relation between the solid and liquid activity coefficients for systems containing metals [1], where the data from the two phases are given were proposed. However, as consistency tests based on the Gibbs–Duhem equation are not feasible, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some...

  3. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  4. Stability Analysis of a Rigid Body with Attached Geometrically Nonlinear Rod by the Energy-Momentum Method

    OpenAIRE

    Posbergh, T. A.; Simo, J. C.; Marsden, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper applies the energy-momentum method to the problem of nonlinear stability of relative equilibria of a rigid body with attached flexible appendage in a uniformly rotating state. The appendage is modeled as a geometrically exact rod which allows for finite bending, shearing and twist in three dimensions. Application of the energy-momentum method to this example depends crucially on a special choice of variables in terms of which the second variation block diagonalizes into blocks a...

  5. Dividing a Cake by Majority: The Simplest Equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    David Baron; Ehud Kalai

    1990-01-01

    In a stochastic game of dividing a cake by majority, the simplest equilibria are the Baron-Ferejohn (1989) ones. The formal definition of simplicity and the computational methods of the equilibria make use of an automaton measure of complexity adopted for stochastic games.

  6. Numerical determination of axisymmetric toroidal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Dalhed, H.E.; Greene, J.M.

    1978-07-01

    Numerical schemes for the determination of stationary axisymmetric toroidal equilibria appropriate for modeling real experimental devices are given. Iterative schemes are used to solve the elliptic nonlinear partial differential equation for the poloidal flux function psi. The principal emphasis is on solving the free boundary (plasma-vacuum interface) equilibrium problem where external current-carrying toroidal coils support the plasma column, but fixed boundary (e.g., conducting shell) cases are also included. The toroidal current distribution is given by specifying the pressure and either the poloidal current or the safety factor profiles as functions of psi. Examples of the application of the codes to tokamak design at PPPL are given

  7. Solid-phase equilibria on Pluto's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sugata P.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2018-03-01

    Pluto's surface is covered by volatile ices that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Multicomponent phase equilibria may be calculated using a thermodynamic equation of state and, without additional assumptions, result in methane-rich and nitrogen-rich solid phases. The former is formed at temperature range between the atmospheric pressure-dependent sublimation and condensation points, while the latter is formed at temperatures lower than the sublimation point. The results, calculated for the observed 11 μbar atmospheric pressure and composition, are consistent with recent work derived from observations by New Horizons.

  8. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Pair processes and equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    The work of Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Zel'dovich and Sunyaev (1971) is extended and generalized, through the inclusion of pair-producing photon processes and effects due to the finite size of the plasma, in an investigation of the equilibria of relativistic thermal plasmas which takes into account electron-positron creation and annihilation and photons produced within the plasma. It is shown that the bridge between an effectively thin plasma and an effectively thick plasma occurs in the transrelativistic region, where the dimensionless temperature value is between 0.1 and 1.0 and the temperature remains in this region over a great luminosity range.

  9. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  10. Equilibria in social belief removal [Journal article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available revision.2 In the rest of the paper we shall assume the domain of a social removal function is the set of all n-tuples of basic removal functions. 4 Removal equilibria When is the outcome ( i)i2A of an operation of social removal an equilibrium point... the inductive hypothesis. Also, let?s say two removal functions > and >0 are revision-equivalent iff >( )^: >0( )^: for all 2 L . (i.e., the revision functions defined from them via the Levi Identity [16] are the same). Then we have: Proposition 6 F1...

  11. Equilibria in social belief removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available outcomes. This is illustrated by the following example, taken from [20, p16]. Example 5 Suppose two agents {1, 2} who wish to go to a concert together, but must choose be- tween going to a Mozart (Mo) concert or a Mahler (Ma) concert. Thus the set... preferred. Moreover, both agents prefer to see the Mozart concert. Thus the preference relation precedesorequal of both agents is specified completely by (Mo,Ma) ∼ (Ma,Mo) ≺ (Ma,Ma) ≺ (Mo,Mo). (Just for this example we are using ∼ and ≺ to denote...

  12. High-pressure fluid phase equilibria phenomenology and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Ulrich K

    2012-01-01

    The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram class...

  13. Equilibria of perceptrons for simple contingency problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R W; Dupuis, Brian

    2012-08-01

    The contingency between cues and outcomes is fundamentally important to theories of causal reasoning and to theories of associative learning. Researchers have computed the equilibria of Rescorla-Wagner models for a variety of contingency problems, and have used these equilibria to identify situations in which the Rescorla-Wagner model is consistent, or inconsistent, with normative models of contingency. Mathematical analyses that directly compare artificial neural networks to contingency theory have not been performed, because of the assumed equivalence between the Rescorla-Wagner learning rule and the delta rule training of artificial neural networks. However, recent results indicate that this equivalence is not as straightforward as typically assumed, suggesting a strong need for mathematical accounts of how networks deal with contingency problems. One such analysis is presented here, where it is proven that the structure of the equilibrium for a simple network trained on a basic contingency problem is quite different from the structure of the equilibrium for a Rescorla-Wagner model faced with the same problem. However, these structural differences lead to functionally equivalent behavior. The implications of this result for the relationships between associative learning, contingency theory, and connectionism are discussed.

  14. Fluorite solubility equilibria in selected geothermal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Jenne, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Calculation of chemical equilibria in 351 hot springs and surface waters from selected geothermal areas in the western United States indicate that the solubility of the mineral fluorite, CaF2, provides an equilibrium control on dissolved fluoride activity. Waters that are undersaturated have undergone dilution by non-thermal waters as shown by decreased conductivity and temperature values, and only 2% of the samples are supersaturated by more than the expected error. Calculations also demonstrate that simultaneous chemical equilibria between the thermal waters and calcite as well as fluorite minerals exist under a variety of conditions. Testing for fluorite solubility required a critical review of the thermodynamic data for fluorite. By applying multiple regression of a mathematical model to selected published data we have obtained revised estimates of the pK (10,96), ??Gof (-280.08 kcal/mole), ??Hof (-292.59 kcal/mole), S?? (16.39 cal/deg/mole) and CoP (16.16 cal/deg/mole) for CaF2 at 25??C and 1 atm. Association constants and reaction enthalpies for fluoride complexes with boron, calcium and iron are included in this review. The excellent agreement between the computer-based activity products and the revised pK suggests that the chemistry of geothermal waters may also be a guide to evaluating mineral solubility data where major discrepancies are evident. ?? 1977.

  15. Digital Image Stabilization Method Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cameras mounted on vehicles frequently suffer from image shake due to the vehicles’ motions. To remove jitter motions and preserve intentional motions, a hybrid digital image stabilization method is proposed that uses variational mode decomposition (VMD and relative entropy (RE. In this paper, the global motion vector (GMV is initially decomposed into several narrow-banded modes by VMD. REs, which exhibit the difference of probability distribution between two modes, are then calculated to identify the intentional and jitter motion modes. Finally, the summation of the jitter motion modes constitutes jitter motions, whereas the subtraction of the resulting sum from the GMV represents the intentional motions. The proposed stabilization method is compared with several known methods, namely, medium filter (MF, Kalman filter (KF, wavelet decomposition (MD method, empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based method, and enhanced EMD-based method, to evaluate stabilization performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the other stabilization methods.

  16. Implications of climate variability for the detection of multiple equilibria and for rapid transitions in the atmosphere-vegetation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathiany, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Claussen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany); Fraedrich, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Paleoclimatic records indicate a decline of vegetation cover in the Western Sahara at the end of the African Humid Period (about 5,500 years before present). Modelling studies have shown that this phenomenon may be interpreted as a critical transition that results from a bifurcation in the atmosphere-vegetation system. However, the stability properties of this system are closely linked to climate variability and depend on the climate model and the methods of analysis. By coupling the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), an atmosphere model of intermediate complexity, with the simple dynamic vegetation model VECODE, we assess previous methods for the detection of multiple equilibria, and demonstrate their limitations. In particular, a stability diagram can yield misleading results because of spatial interactions, and the system's steady state and its dependency on initial conditions are affected by atmospheric variability and nonlinearities. In addition, we analyse the implications of climate variability for the abruptness of a vegetation decline. We find that a vegetation collapse can happen at different locations at different times. These collapses are possible despite large and uncorrelated climate variability. Because of the nonlinear relation between vegetation dynamics and precipitation the green state is initially stabilised by the high variability. When precipitation falls below a critical threshold, the desert state is stabilised as variability is then also decreased. (orig.)

  17. Relaxed MHD equilibria inside 3D shaped conducting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassam, A.; Tenbarge, J.; Dorland, W.; Landreman, M.; Sengupta, W.

    2017-10-01

    A 3D nonlinear dissipative MHD code is developed to allow relaxation to low-beta MHD equilibrium inside a shaped 3D conducting boundary with prescribed conserved axial magnetic flux and no external current. Formation of magnetic islands is allowed. Heat sources would be eventually introduced to allow possible non-stationary convection depending on the MHD stability properties. The initial development is done using UMHD (Guzdar et al., PF, 1993). A primary objective is to minimize numerical boundary noise. In particular, codes which specify the normal magnetic field B.n on bounding surfaces are prone to boundary noise generation. We shape the boundary to conform to the desired field shape so that B.n is zero on the boundary, employing curvilinear coordinates. Significant noise reduction has been achieved by this approach. Boundary noise is strongly suppressed if the boundary is modeled as a sharp ramp-down in resistivity, allowing relaxation to equilibrium but no penetration into the low resistivity region. Initial results have been verified w.r.t. analytic calculation in the weak shaping limit. A rotational transform is observed in helical shaping. Relaxed equilibria inside helically symmetric conducting boundaries will be presented.

  18. Equilibria of Müucket-Treder's Problem. Analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricopi, Dumitru; Šuran, Marian Doru

    The two-body problem in the Mucket-Treder post-Newtonian classical field is tackled from the particular standpoint of equilibria. Starting from the motion equations and first integrals written in standard polar coordinates, we apply McGheetype transformations of the second kind. Then we search for the equilibria, considering the whole interplay among the parameter μ of the field, the constant α of the field, and the integration constants of energy h and angular momentum C. The number of equilibria is found for each situation

  19. Toddlers' temperament profiles: stability and relations to negative and positive parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Prinzie, P.; Asscher, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the type and stability of temperament profiles in toddlers, and relations of profile probability to negative and positive parenting trajectories. Mothers (N  = 96) rated their child’s (41 girls and 54 boys) Sociability, Anger Proneness, and Activity Level four times during 1

  20. Modeling of Phase Equilibria Containing Associating Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    glycol + heptane, methylcyclohexane, hexane, propylene glycol + heptane, diethylene glycol + heptane, triethylene glycol + heptane, and tetraethylene glycol + heptane. The data obtained were correlated with the NRTL model and two different versions of the UNIQUAC equation. The NRTL model and one...... in terms of an activity coefficient model or an equation of state. Our target in this thesis is to review and develop such models capable of describing qualitatively as well as quantitatively phase equilibria in multicomponent multiphase systems containing non-polar, polar, and associating compounds...... coefficient) calculations has been carried out. UNIFAC is an activity coefficient model while AFC is a model specifically developed for Pow calculations. Five different versions of UNIFAC and the AFC correlation model have been compared with each other and with experimental data. The range of applicability...

  1. A thermodynamic solution model for calcium carbonate: Towards an understanding of multi-equilibria precipitation pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Donnet, Marcel; Bowen, Paul; Lemaître, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic solubility calculations are normally only related to thermodynamic equilibria in solution. In this paper, we extend the use of such solubility calculations to help elucidate possible precipitation reaction pathways during the entire reaction. We also estimate the interfacial energy of particles using only solubility data by a modification of Mersmann’s approach. We have carried this out by considering precipitation reactions as a succession of small quasi-equilibrium states. Thu...

  2. Proceeding of 1998-workshop on MHD computations. Study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kako, T.; Watanabe, T. [eds.

    1999-04-01

    This is the proceeding of 'Study on Numerical Methods Related to Plasma Confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. These are also various talks on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Proceeding of 1998-workshop on MHD computations. Study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1999-04-01

    This is the proceeding of 'Study on Numerical Methods Related to Plasma Confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. These are also various talks on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Correlation between Thermal Stability Map and Base Substitution Map of DNA from Related Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husimi, Yuzuru; Shibata, Keizo

    1984-10-01

    The number density of substituted bases among related bacteriophages (fd, 1 and M13) is heterogeneous along the DNA strand although most base substitutions do not alter the coded amino acids. Local thermal stability of the double helical DNA is also heterogeneous. There is a negative correlation between these two maps. The same conclusion holds between less closely related phages, φX174 and G4.

  5. Robustness and flexibility in compact quasiaxial stellarators: Global ideal MHD stability and energetic particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Diallo, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about the flexibility and robustness of a compact quasiaxial stellarator design are addressed by studying the effects of varied pressure and rotational transform profiles on expected performance. For thirty, related, fully three-dimensional configurations the global, ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability is evaluated as well as energetic particle transport. It is found that tokamak intuition is relevant to understanding the magnetohydrodynamic stability, with pressure gradient driving terms and shear stabilization controlling both the periodicity preserving, N=0, and the non-periodicity preserving, N=1, unstable kink modes. Global kink modes are generated by steeply peaked pressure profiles near the half radius and edge localized kink modes are found for plasmas with steep pressure profiles at the edge as well as with edge rotational transform above 0.5. Energetic particle transport is not strongly dependent on these changes of pressure and current (or rotational transform) profiles, although a weak inverse dependence on pressure peaking through the corresponding Shafranov shift is found. While good transport and MHD stability are not anticorrelated in these equilibria, stability only results from a delicate balance of the pressure and shear stabilization forces. A range of interesting MHD behaviors is found for this large set of equilibria, exhibiting similar particle transport properties

  6. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  7. Strategic trade between two regions with partial local consumer protection - General setup and nash equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Iordan V.; Vassilev, Andrey A.

    2017-12-01

    We construct a model of the trade relations between two regions for the case when the trading entities (consumers) compete for a scarce good and there is an element of strategic interdependence in the trading process. Additionally, local consumers enjoy partial protection in the form of guaranteed access to a part of the locally-supplied quantity of the good. The model is formulated for the general asymmetric case, where the two regions differ in terms of parameters such as income, size of the local market supply, degree of protection and transportation costs. For this general model we establish the existence of Nash equilibria and obtain their form as a function of the model parameters, producing a typology of the equilibria. This is a required step in order to rigorously study various types of price dynamics for the model.

  8. Existence of General Competitive Equilibria: A Variational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of general competitive equilibria in economies with agents and goods in a finite number. We show that there exists a Walras competitive equilibrium in all ownership private economies such that, for all consumers, initial endowments do not contain free goods and utility functions are locally Lipschitz quasiconcave. The proof of the existence of competitive equilibria is based on variational methods by applying a theoretical existence result for Generalized Quasi Variational Inequalities.

  9. Surface current equilibria from a geometric point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Salat, A.

    1993-04-01

    This paper addresses the inverse problem of the existence of surface current MHD equilibria in toroidal geometry with vanishing magnetic field inside. Inverse means that the plasma-vacuum interface rather than the external wall or conductors are given and the latter remain to be determined. This makes a reformulation of the problem possible in geometric terms: What toroidal surfaces with analytic parameterization allow a simple analytic covering by geodesics? If such a covering by geodesics (field lines) exists, their orthogonal trajectories (current lines) also form a simple covering and are described by a function satisfying a nonlinear partial differential equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type whose coefficients are combinations of the metric elements of the surface. All known equilibria - equilibria with zero and infinite rotational transform and the symmetric ones in the case of finite rotational transform - turn out to be solutions of separable cases of that equation and allow a unified description if the toroidal surface is parametrized in the moving trihedral associated with a closed curve. Analogously to volume current equilibria, the only continuous symmetries compatible with separability are plane, helical and axial symmetry. In the nonseparable case numerical evidence is presented for cases with chaotic behaviour of geodesics, thus restricting possible equilibria for these surfaces. For weak deviation from axisymmetry KAM-type behaviour is observed, i.e. destruction of geodesic coverings with a low rational rotational transform and preservation of those with irrational rotational transform. A previous attempt to establish three-dimensional surface current equilibria on the basis of the KAM theorem is rejected as incomplete, and a complete proof of the existence of equilibria in the weakly nonaxisymmetric case, based on the twist theorem for mappings, is given. Finally, for a certain class of strong deviations from axisymmetry an analytic criterion is

  10. Computation of Stackelberg Equilibria of Finite Sequential Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosanski, Branislav; Branzei, Simina; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2015-01-01

    The Stackelberg equilibrium is a solution concept that describes optimal strategies to commit to: Player~1 (the leader) first commits to a strategy that is publicly announced, then Player~2 (the follower) plays a best response to the leader's choice. We study Stackelberg equilibria in finite...... sequential (i.e., extensive-form) games and provide new exact algorithms, approximate algorithms, and hardness results for finding equilibria for several classes of such two-player games....

  11. Determination of 3D Equilibria from Flux Surface Knowledge Only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the method of Christiansen and Taylor, from which complete tokamak equilibria can be determined given only knowledge of the shape of the flux surfaces, can be extended to 3-dimensional equilibria, such as those of stellarators. As for the tokamak case, the given geometric knowledge has a high degree of redundancy, so that the full equilibrium can be obtained using only a small portion of that information

  12. Classification and stability of simple homoclinic cycles in R5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podvigina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Heteroclinic cycles, unions of equilibria and connection trajectories, can be structurally stable in a Γ-equivariant system due to the existence of invariant subspaces. A structurally stable heteroclinic cycle is called simple if all connecting trajectories are one-dimensional. Heteroclinic cycles where equilibria are related by a symmetry γ ∈ Γ are called homoclinic. This paper presents a complete study of simple homoclinic cycles in R 5 . We find all symmetry groups Γ such that a Γ-equivariant dynamical system in R 5 can possess a simple homoclinic cycle. We introduce a classification of simple homoclinic cycles in R n based on the action of the system symmetry group. For systems in R 5 , we list all classes of simple homoclinic cycles. For each class, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability and fragmentary asymptotic stability in terms of eigenvalues of linearization near the steady state involved in the cycle. For any action of the groups Γ which can give rise to a simple homoclinic cycle, we list classes to which the respective homoclinic cycles belong, thus determining the conditions for the asymptotic stability of these cycles. (paper)

  13. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O2+y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, A.; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, D.; Scheinost, A.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P.; Boshoven, J.; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M.; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D.

    2017-10-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2sbnd ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the only study available in the literature on the whole pseudo-binary system. In addition, a minimum melting point is identified here for compositions near (U0.6Zr0.4)O2+y, around 2800 K. The solidus line is rather flat on a broad range of compositions around the minimum. It increases for compositions closer to the pure end members, up to the melting point of pure UO2 (3130 K) on one side and pure ZrO2 (2970 K) on the other. Solid state phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-monoclinic) have also been observed in the ZrO2-rich compositions X-ray diffraction. Investigations under 0.3 MPa air (0.063 MPa O2) revealed a significant decrease in the melting points down to 2500 K-2600 K for increasing uranium content (x(UO2)> 0.2). This was found to be related to further oxidation of uranium dioxide, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For example, a typical oxidised corium composition U0.6Zr0.4O2.13 was observed to solidify at a temperature as low as 2493 K. The current results are important for assessing the thermal stability of the system fuel - cladding in an oxide based nuclear reactor, and for simulating the system behaviour during a hypothetical severe accident.

  14. Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with flow and studies of equilibria fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agim, Y.Z.

    1989-08-01

    A set of reduced ideal MHD equations is derived to investigate equilibria of plasmas with mass flow in general two-dimensional geometry. These equations provide a means of investigating the effects of flow on self-consistent equilibria in a number of new two-dimensional configurations such as helically symmetric configurations with helical axis, which are relevant to stellarators, as well as axisymmetric configurations. It is found that as in the axisymmetric case, general two-dimensional flow equilibria are governed by a second-order quasi-linear partial differential equation for a magnetic flux function, which is coupled to a Bernoulli-type equation for the density. The equation for the magnetic flux function becomes hyperbolic at certain critical flow speeds which follow from its characteristic equation. When the equation is hyperbolic, shock phenomena may exist. As a particular example, unidirectional flow along the lines of symmetry is considered. In this case, the equation mentioned above is always elliptic. An exact solution for the case of helically symmetric unidirectional flow is found and studied to determine flow effects on the magnetic topology. In second part of this thesis, magnetic fluctuations due to the thermally excited MHD waves are investigated using fluid and kinetic models to describe stable, uniform, compressible plasma in the range above the drift wave frequency and below the ion cyclotron frequency. It is shown that the fluid model with resistivity yields spectral densities which are roughly Lorentzian, exhibit equipartition with no apparent cutoff in wavenumber space and a Bohm-type diffusion coefficient. Under certain conditions, the ensuing transport may be comparable to classical values. For a phenomenological cutoff imposed on the spectrum, the typical fluctuating-to-equilibrium magnetic field ratio is found to be of the order of 10 -10

  15. Developmental and Functional Expression of miRNA-Stability Related Genes in the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, ?rica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Ot?vio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We fi...

  16. A Hierarchy of Dynamic Equilibria and a View of a Fly's Equilibrium Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    Understanding structures within a structure is a topic that has fascinated Leo throughout his life, and we are now benefiting from his fundamental insights when we think about living organisms. A living organism is far from statistical equilibrium and it does not have a single critical parameter. Nevertheless, each organism has a hierarchical structure within itself. Recently, asking how often a fly must sense its orientation in order to balance in air has led us to suggest one of the fly's 17 steering muscles, the first basalar muscle, is responsible for maintaining flight stability. Here I suggest that the chain of events associated with flight equilibrium reflex can be viewed as a succession of local linear transformation about a set of dynamic equilibria. Each of the functionally different parts, the sensors, motor neurons, muscles, wing-hinges, flapping wings, and the thorax, operates near its own dynamic equilibrium, often close to the boundary between stability and instability. Locomotion rises as an organism responds to a small perturbation from these equilibria. Kadanoff session.

  17. Marital stability and repartnering: infertility-related stress trajectories of unsuccessful fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D; Costa, Maria E; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-12-01

    To compare the trajectories of infertility-related stress between patients who remain in the same relationship and patients who repartner. Longitudinal cohort study using latent growth modeling. Fertility centers. Childless men and women evaluated before starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. None. Marital stability and infertility-related stress. The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants separated and repartnered while pursuing fertility treatments. Marital stability significantly predicted the initial status of infertility stress and infertility stress growth levels. Specifically, patients who repartnered had higher infertility stress levels at all time points compared with those who remained in the same relationship, regardless of the partner they were with at assessment. Furthermore, results showed an increasing stress trajectory over time for those who repartnered, compared with those who remained in a stable relationship. Men and women in fertility treatment who form a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital relationships and lead to repartnering. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alkanol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Araus, Karina A.; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO 2 + C 5 alcohol) binary systems were measured. → Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. → No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. → Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. → Correlation results showed relative deviations ≤8 % (liquid) and ≤2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO 2 + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO 2 + 2-pentanol), and (CO 2 + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  19. On the Sympatric Evolution and Evolutionary Stability of Coexistence by Relative Nonlinearity of Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Florian; Münkemüller, Tamara; Johst, Karin; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    If two species exhibit different nonlinear responses to a single shared resource, and if each species modifies the resource dynamics such that this favors its competitor, they may stably coexist. This coexistence mechanism, known as relative nonlinearity of competition, is well understood theoretically, but less is known about its evolutionary properties and its prevalence in real communities. We address this challenge by using adaptive dynamics theory and individual-based simulations to compare community stabilization and evolutionary stability of species that coexist by relative nonlinearity. In our analysis, evolution operates on the species' density-compensation strategies, and we consider a trade-off between population growth rates at high and low resource availability. We confirm previous findings that, irrespective of the particular model of density dependence, there are many combinations of overcompensating and undercompensating density-compensation strategies that allow stable coexistence by relative nonlinearity. However, our analysis also shows that most of these strategy combinations are not evolutionarily stable and will be outcompeted by an intermediate density-compensation strategy. Only very specific trade-offs lead to evolutionarily stable coexistence by relative nonlinearity. As we find no reason why these particular trade-offs should be common in nature, we conclude that the sympatric evolution and evolutionary stability of relative nonlinearity, while possible in principle, seems rather unlikely. We speculate that this may, at least in part, explain why empirical demonstrations of this coexistence mechanism are rare, noting, however, that the difficulty to detect relative nonlinearity in the field is an equally likely explanation for the current lack of empirical observations, and that our results are limited to communities with non-overlapping generations and constant resource supply. Our study highlights the need for combining ecological and

  20. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  1. Conflict of interests and social stability in the field of labour relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour relations are characterized by strong (existential conflict of interest between the employee and the employer. Therefore, labour relations must represent a legal term of the balance of interest of its entities, in order to be stable and have perspective. In other words, there is reciprocity of rights and obligations of the entities in labour relations. However, the employer is a stronger party, both legally and factually. The traditional task of labour law is to mitigate that legal and factual inequality of the employee and the employer to the extent necessary to ensure social security of employees and the employer himself, and social milieu and stability of the society as a whole. To this effect, appropriate limitations of the employer's authority are incorporated into the labour relations and appropriate principles for the operation of the system of labour relations are determined.

  2. Sexual dysfunction related to psychotropic drugs: a critical review. Part III: mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, A; Giupponi, G; Duffy, D M; Pompili, M; Grözinger, M; Kapfhammer, H P; Conca, A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs: this article presents a critical review of the current literature. Although many studies have been published on sexual side effects of psychopharmacological treatment, only a minority relate to mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, many of the studies on sexual dysfunction associated with mood stabilizers and anxiolytic drugs are limited by other methodological flaws. While there is evidence to suggest that mood stabilizers, with some exceptions, negatively affect sexual functioning, there is still insufficient evidence to draw any clear conclusions about the effects of anxiolytic drugs on sexual function. There is some weak evidence to indicate that switching from enzyme-inducing to non-enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs, could be clinically useful. Some researchers recommend that sexual dysfunction in patients taking antiepileptic drugs should in general be treated according to standard guidelines for the management of sexual dysfunction, since reliable data on special populations is not available. However, specific approaches may be useful, but cannot yet be recommended until further validating research has been conducted. We did not find evidence supporting the use of any specific treatment strategy for sexual dysfunction associated with anxiolytic treatment. This study was conducted in 2013 using the paper and electronic resources of the library of the Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari (APSS) in Trento, Italy (http://atoz.ebsco.com/Titles/2793). The library has access to a wide range of databases including DYNAMED, MEDLINE Full Text, CINAHL Plus Full Text, The Cochrane Library, Micromedex healthcare series, BMJ Clinical Evidence. The full list of available journals can be viewed at http

  3. Neural Network Inverse Model Control Strategy: Discrete-Time Stability Analysis for Relative Order Two Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the discrete-time stability analysis of a neural network inverse model control strategy for a relative order two nonlinear system. The analysis is done by representing the closed loop system in state space format and then analyzing the time derivative of the state trajectory using Lyapunov’s direct method. The analysis shows that the tracking output error of the states is confined to a ball in the neighborhood of the equilibrium point where the size of the ball is partly dependent on the accuracy of the neural network model acting as the controller. Simulation studies on the two-tank-in-series system were done to complement the stability analysis and to demonstrate some salient results of the study.

  4. Influence of the temperature on the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (water + 1-propanl + linalool or geraniol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Li; Li, Hengde; Huang, Cheng; Feng, Yuqing; Chu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Yuying; Tan, Wei; Qin, Yanlin; Sun, Dalei; Fang, Yanxiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ternary LLEs containing linalool and geraniol are presented. • Distribution ratios of 1-propanol in the mixtures are examined. • Influence of the temperature on the LLE is studied. • The LLE data were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. - Abstract: Linalool and geraniol are the primary components of rose oil, palmarosa oil, and citronella oil and many other essential oils, and two important compounds used in the flavour and fragrance, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industries. Phase equilibria (LLE, VLE, solubility, etc.) and related thermodynamic properties of a mixture are essential in the processes design and control of mass transfer process. In this work, experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibria data of the systems (water + 1-propanl + linalool) and (water + 1-propanl + geraniol) are presented. The (liquid + liquid) equilibria of both systems were determined with a tie-line method at T = (283.15, 298.15 and 313.15) K under atmospheric pressure. The well-known Hand, Bachman and Othmer–Tobias equations were used to test the reliability of the experimental values. The influence of the temperature on the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of the mixtures, the binodal curves and distribution ratios of 1-propanl are shown and discussed. Moreover, the NRTL and UNIQUAC models were applied to fit the data for both ternary systems. The interaction parameters obtained from both models successfully correlated the equilibrium compositions. Furthermore, the ternary systems could be represented using the binary parameters of the thermodynamic model with a function of temperature.

  5. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Érica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Otávio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we first described the

  6. Chemical equilibria in actinide carbonate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenthe, I.; Robouch, P.; Vitorge, P.

    1986-01-01

    By spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods it is shown that trimers are formed in media of high ionic strength (3 M NaClO 4 ) and total concentrations of hexavalent actinides higher than 10 -3 M. The equilibrium constants for the reactions 3 MO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- ↔ (MO 2 ) 3 (CO 3 ) 6 6- + 3 CO 3 2- are lg K(U)=-11.3±0.1; lg K(NP)=-10.1±0.1; lg K(Pu)=-7.4±0.2. It is demonstrated that one of the cations of the trimer can be exchanged with another actinide cation: the equilibrium constants for the reactions 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- + MO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- ↔ (UO 2 ) 2 MO 2 (CO 3 ) 6 6- + 3 CO 3 3- are lg K=-11.3±0.1, -10.0±0.2 and -8.8 respectively for M=U, Np, Pu. Thus, polynuclear complexes can be efficient solution ''carriers'' for other hexavalent actinides in waste disposal. Some properties of the solid phases MO 2 CO 3 (s) are discussed. Experimental studies of chemical equilibria of americium (III, IV) are reviewed: in carbonate media americium(III) species are AmCO 3 + , Am(CO 3 ) 2 - , Am(CO 3 ) 3 3- , (Am 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ) 6 and (NaAm(CO 3 ) 2 ) s ; for americium-(IV) lg β 5 ≅ 40. In 3 M NaClO 4 solubility measurements of neptunium(V) show that lg β 1 =5.09, lg β 2 =8.15, lg β 3 =10.46, lg Ks(NaNpO 2 CO 3 )=10.56 and lg Ks(Na 3 NpO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 )=12.44; ionic strength corrections are proposed on the basis of these results. (orig.)

  7. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.

    1995-03-01

    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Mathematical Model for Multicomponent Adsorption Equilibria Using Only Pure Component Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model for nonideal adsorption equilibria in multicomponent mixtures is developed. It is applied with good results for pure substances and for prediction of strongly nonideal multicomponent equilibria using only pure component data. The model accounts for adsorbent-adsorbate and ads......A mathematical model for nonideal adsorption equilibria in multicomponent mixtures is developed. It is applied with good results for pure substances and for prediction of strongly nonideal multicomponent equilibria using only pure component data. The model accounts for adsorbent...

  9. The essential spectrum of an operator relative to the stability of a toroidal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, J.; Geymonat, G.

    1980-05-01

    The essential spectrum of the self-adjoint Hilbert space operator of the linearized equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics which determines equilibrium stability is analyzed for the case of a toroidally confined plasma. The essential spectrum relative to the magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic energy equations is defined in terms of an isolated eigenvalue of finite multiplicity, and the solution of the eigenvalue problem of a system of two second-order ordinary differential equations with periodic boundary conditions is shown to correspond to the essential spectrum.

  10. Numerical calculation of axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ross L.; Rasband, S. N.; Vanfleet, Richard R.

    1993-12-01

    Efficient techniques for computing axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria are described. These equilibria may be obtained either by requiring global thermal equilibrium, by specifying the midplane radial density profile, or by specifying the radial profile of ∫n dz. Both splines and finite-differences are used, and the accuracy of the two is compared by using a new characterization of the thermal equilibrium density profile which gives a simple formula for estimating the radial and axial gradient scale lengths of thermal equilibria. It is found that for global thermal equilibrium 1% accuracy is achieved with splines if the distance between neighboring splines is about two Debye lengths while finite differences require a grid spacing of about one-half Debye length to achieve the same accuracy.

  11. It takes two to tango: Equilibria in a model of sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe show that the Varian model of sales with more than two firms has two types of equilibria: a unique symmetric equilibrium, and a continuum of asymmetric equilibria. In contrast, the 2-firm game has a unique equilibrium that is symmetric. For the n-firm case the asymmetric equilibria

  12. Phase equilibria of didecyldimethylammonium nitrate ionic liquid with water and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Lugowska, Katarzyna; Pernak, Juliusz

    2007-01-01

    The phase diagrams for binary mixtures of an ammonium ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium nitrate, [DDA][NO 3 ], with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, and decan-1-ol): hydrocarbons (toluene, propylbenzene, hexane, and hexadecane) and with water were determined in our laboratory. The phase equilibria were measured by a dynamic method from T 220 K to either the melting point of the ionic liquid, or to the boiling point of the solvent. A simple liquidus curve in a eutectic system was observed for [DDA][NO 3 ] with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and octan-1-ol); aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene and propylbenzene) and with water. (Solid + liquid) equilibria with immiscibility in the liquid phase were detected with the aliphatic hydrocarbons heptane and hexadecane and with decan-1-ol. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for the system [DDA][NO 3 ] with hexadecane was observed for the whole mole fraction range of the ionic liquid. The observation of the upper critical solution temperature in binary mixtures of ([DDA][NO 3 ] + decan-1-ol, heptane, or hexadecane) was limited by the boiling temperature of the solvent. Characterisation and purity of the compounds were determined by elemental analysis, water content (Fisher method) and differential scanning microcalorimetry (d.s.c.) analysis. The d.s.c. method of analysis was used to determine melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion. The thermal stability of the ionic liquid was resolved by the thermogravimetric technique-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) technique over a wide temperature range from (200 to 780) K. The thermal decomposition temperature of 50% of the sample was greater than 500 K. The (solid + liquid) phase equilibria, curves were correlated by means of different G Ex models utilizing parameters derived from the (solid + liquid) equilibrium. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all calculated data are dependent upon the particular system and the particular

  13. Phase equilibria of didecyldimethylammonium nitrate ionic liquid with water and organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.pl; Lugowska, Katarzyna [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Pernak, Juliusz [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland)

    2007-05-15

    The phase diagrams for binary mixtures of an ammonium ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium nitrate, [DDA][NO{sub 3}], with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, and decan-1-ol): hydrocarbons (toluene, propylbenzene, hexane, and hexadecane) and with water were determined in our laboratory. The phase equilibria were measured by a dynamic method from T 220 K to either the melting point of the ionic liquid, or to the boiling point of the solvent. A simple liquidus curve in a eutectic system was observed for [DDA][NO{sub 3}] with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and octan-1-ol); aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene and propylbenzene) and with water. (Solid + liquid) equilibria with immiscibility in the liquid phase were detected with the aliphatic hydrocarbons heptane and hexadecane and with decan-1-ol. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for the system [DDA][NO{sub 3}] with hexadecane was observed for the whole mole fraction range of the ionic liquid. The observation of the upper critical solution temperature in binary mixtures of ([DDA][NO{sub 3}] + decan-1-ol, heptane, or hexadecane) was limited by the boiling temperature of the solvent. Characterisation and purity of the compounds were determined by elemental analysis, water content (Fisher method) and differential scanning microcalorimetry (d.s.c.) analysis. The d.s.c. method of analysis was used to determine melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion. The thermal stability of the ionic liquid was resolved by the thermogravimetric technique-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) technique over a wide temperature range from (200 to 780) K. The thermal decomposition temperature of 50% of the sample was greater than 500 K. The (solid + liquid) phase equilibria, curves were correlated by means of different G {sup Ex} models utilizing parameters derived from the (solid + liquid) equilibrium. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all calculated data are dependent upon the particular

  14. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals and biosimilars in relation to storage, handling and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincal, F.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins or biopharmaceuticals provide effective treatment for many diseases and medical conditions, and vaccines, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies are critical biodefense biopharmaceuticals which constitute an indispensable part of biodefense stockpiles. The manufacturing process for biopharmaceuticals and their generic forms which are called biosimilars is far more complex than for low molecular weight drugs and generics. Any minor change made at any stage may have a critical effect on the clinical efficacy and safety. Potential immunogenicity is the key issue for biopharmaceuticals and biosimilars and may have serious clinical consequences ranging from allergy and anaphylaxis, as well as loss of efficacy of the product. Immunogenicity may be influenced by factors related to manufacturing process, formulation, aggregate formation, contaminants and impurities, and also by the factors related to the storage and handling. Stability is particularly important with larger protein molecules, because their in vivo effects often depend on their three-dimensional structure. Proteins usually aggregate from partially unfolded molecules and aggregates can enhance immunogenicity. Although product formulations are developed to maximize and maintain the fraction of the protein molecules present in the native state, significant amounts of aggregates can form, especially over pharmaceutically relevant time scales and under stress conditions. Exposure to air-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces, light, temperature fluctuations or minor impurities can induce aggregation. Such exposure can occur during processing steps, as well as in the final product container during storage, shipment and handling. Biopharmaceuticals are particularly sensitive to temperature changes and/or shaking. Strict storage and handling conditions and timely and effective stability/shelf-life testing are therefore essential for maintaining product integrity and stability, and hence efficacy

  15. The relative contributions of physical and microbiological factors to cohesive sediment stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundkvist, M.; Grue, M.; Friend, P. L.; Flindt, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    The stabilising effects of natural benthic diatom and bacterial assemblages on cohesive sediments were compared with those caused by physico-chemical binding alone. Cohesive sediment beds were reconstructed in 4 annular laboratory miniflumes, using sediment collected at 5-6 m water depth from a local fjord. The sediment was left to stabilise (consolidate) for 1, 2, 5 and 10 days, before being fully resuspended in a series of erosion experiments. The flumes were aerated and subjected to different light/dark conditions; antibiotics were used to isolate diatom from bacteria effects. During consolidation, a constant current velocity was maintained, at a speed well below erosion threshold. 'Natural' sediment regained 27% of its original stability after 1 day, and 85% after 5 days. Complete 'natural' sediment stability was regained within 10 days. Benthic diatoms (mainly Nitzchia sp., Gyrosigma sp. and Pennales sp.) were responsible for about 80% of the biostabilisation, whilst bacteria contributed ˜12%, indicating the importance of light as a controlling factor for surface sediment stability. Relative to physico-chemical binding, the increase in erosion threshold induced by benthic diatoms was 120%, and by bacteria 20%. Where the assemblage consisted of both diatoms and bacteria, the increase was 150%, indicating that natural bed values are not a simple summation of the two effects, i.e. diatoms plus bacteria. Using the results, a first generation empirical relationship describing the relative contributions of microbenthic and physico-chemical factors in the development of erosion threshold is presented. Empirical relationships containing biostabilisation coefficients are important for better computer model predictions of sediment transport.

  16. Film Grain-Size Related Long-Term Stability of Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-22

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cell is high enough to be commercially viable. The next important issue is the stability of the device. This article discusses the effect of the perovskite grain-size on the long-term stability of inverted perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films composed of various sizes of grains were prepared by controlling the solvent annealing time. The grain-size related stability of the inverted cells was investigated both in ambient atmosphere at relative humidity of approximately 30-40 % and in a nitrogen filled glove box (H 2 Operovskite film having the grain size larger than 1 μm (D-10) decreases less than 10 % with storage in a glove box and less than 15 % when it was stored under an ambient atmosphere for 30 days. However, the cell using the perovskite film composed of small (∼100 nm) perovskite grains (D-0) exhibits complete loss of PCE after storage under the ambient atmosphere for only 15 days and a PCE loss of up to 70 % with storage in the glove box for 30 days. These results suggest that, even under H 2 O-free conditions, the chemical- and thermal-induced production of pin holes at the grain boundaries of the perovskite film could be the reason for long-term instability of inverted perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nash Equilibria in Symmetric Games with Partial Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Markey, Nicolas; Vester, Steen

    2014-01-01

    and symmetry constraints, which make the computation of Nash equilibria difficult. We show several undecidability results, and for bounded-memory strategies, we precisely characterize the complexity of computing pure Nash equilibria (for qualitative objectives) in this game model.......We investigate a model for representing large multiplayer games, which satisfy strong symmetry properties. This model is made of multiple copies of an arena; each player plays in his own arena, and can partially observe what the other players do. Therefore, this game has partial information...

  18. Nash Equilibria in Symmetric Graph Games with Partial Observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Markey, Nicolas; Vester, Steen

    2017-01-01

    and symmetry constraints, which make the computation of Nash equilibria difficult. We show several undecidability results, and for bounded-memory strategies, we precisely characterize the complexity of computing pure Nash equilibria for qualitative objectives in this game model.......We investigate a model for representing large multiplayer games, which satisfy strong symmetry properties. This model is made of multiple copies of an arena; each player plays in his own arena, and can partially observe what the other players do. Therefore, this game has partial information...

  19. From single helical relaxed states to helical equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the Single Helical relaxed states studied by R. Paccagnella [Phys. Plasmas 23, 092512 (2016)] and the so-called "helical ohmic equilibria," i.e., plasma states that are solutions of the helical Grad Shafranov equation and that satisfy the constraint imposed by the Ohm law. The existence of marginally stable helical equilibria is clearly demonstrated, while the ohmic constraint is not exactly satisfied within the proposed first order perturbation theory. The model predictions are however satisfactorily compared with experimental trends.

  20. Learnability of e–stable equilibria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christev, A.; Slobodyan, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2014), s. 959-984 ISSN 1365-1005 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : adaptive learning * expectational stability * stochastic gradient Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2014

  1. Learnability of e–stable equilibria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christev, A.; Slobodyan, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2014), s. 959-984 ISSN 1365-1005 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : adaptive learning * expectational stability * stochastic gradient Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2014

  2. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica de Sousa

    Full Text Available In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we

  3. Structure and stability insights into tumour suppressor p53 evolutionary related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pagano

    Full Text Available The p53 family of genes and their protein products, namely, p53, p63 and p73, have over one billion years of evolutionary history. Advances in computational biology and genomics are enabling studies of the complexities of the molecular evolution of p53 protein family to decipher the underpinnings of key biological conditions spanning from cancer through to various metabolic and developmental disorders and facilitate the design of personalised medicines. However, a complete understanding of the inherent nature of the thermodynamic and structural stability of the p53 protein family is still lacking. This is due, to a degree, to the lack of comprehensive structural information for a large number of homologous proteins and to an incomplete knowledge of the intrinsic factors responsible for their stability and how these might influence function. Here we investigate the thermal stability, secondary structure and folding properties of the DNA-binding domains (DBDs of a range of proteins from the p53 family using biophysical methods. While the N- and the C-terminal domains of the p53 family show sequence diversity and are normally targets for post-translational modifications and alternative splicing, the central DBD is highly conserved. Together with data obtained from Molecular Dynamics simulations in solution and with structure based homology modelling, our results provide further insights into the molecular properties of evolutionary related p53 proteins. We identify some marked structural differences within the p53 family, which could account for the divergence in biological functions as well as the subtleties manifested in the oligomerization properties of this family.

  4. Relative stiffness of 3 bandage/splint constructs for stabilization of equine midmetacarpal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, John D; Cary, Julie A; Stephens, Robert R; Potts, Logan B

    2015-01-01

    Determine the relative stiffness of 3 bandage/splint constructs intended for emergency fracture stabilization. Experimental model. A single plane free end deflection model was developed to simulate the forces placed on a bandage/splint construct during stabilization of a complete mid-metacarpal bone fracture. The total deflection of the model in one plane was measured following application of 3 different bandage/splint combinations including a classic, 3 layered Robert Jones Bandage (RJB) with a splint placed on the outside of the bandage (RJB-3), an RJB with splint placed after the first of 3 bandage layers (RJB-1), and a single layer full limb bandage with external splint (SS). Comparisons were made between the deflections of the model with each bandage/splint combinations in an effort to determine the most effective method for field fracture stabilization. Laboratory. No animals were utilized in data collection for this study. Two live horses were utilized during the pilot study. Application of bandage and splint to a model intended to simulate the bending force on a lower forelimb fracture in a horse Deflection was determined by the difference between the height of the model's supported free end before application of a 4.5 kg weight and at the conclusion of the deflection test. There was no significant difference in the amount of deflection between bandage/splint combinations (78 ± 32 mm (RJB-1), 94 ± 44 mm (RJB-3), and 93 ± 33 mm (SS)) CONCLUSIONS: The one-layer bandage with splint was equivalent to either RJB configuration in the mean amount of deflection in the simple model of a fracture. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  5. 222Rn concentration in the outdoor atmosphere and its relation to the atmospheric stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    The radon in the outdoor atmosphere has been monitored continuously since 1991. On the basis of the measured data mainly the average daily and the average annual courses of the 222 Rn concentrations have been studied. The annual courses of 222 Rn concentration are similar for all years. They present the annual variations. The average course of the 222 Rn concentration calculated on the basis of all continual measurements in the years 1991-1997 reaches the maximum value in October and the minimum value in April. The average daily courses of the 222 Rn concentration for the individual months of the year. The average daily courses have a form of waves with a maximum in the morning hours and with a minimum in the afternoon. The maximal amplitudes of daily waves have been reached in the summer months, from June till August. The amplitudes of daily waves are very small at the end of an autumn and during the winter months. The analysis of the daily waves and annual courses of 222 Rn showed that the amplitudes of the daily waves are in proportion to the global solar radiation irradiating the Earth's surface. The day duration influence on the phase of the daily wave and the wind velocity influence mainly on the level of the radon concentration. For the study of the relation of the radon concentration in the outdoor atmosphere to the stability the data of the atmosphere were obtained and they were correlated with the radon concentration. The results indicate that the 222 Rn concentrations int he outdoor atmosphere could be used for determination of the vertical atmospheric stability and these ones could reflect the atmospheric stability more completely than the different classifications based on the knowledge pertinent to the meteorological parameters. (authors)

  6. Stochastic Equilibria under Imprecise Deviations in Terminal-Reward Concurrent Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bouyer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in concurrent games played on graphs. While existence is guaranteed with safety objectives for each player, Nash equilibria need not exist when players are given arbitrary terminal-reward objectives, and their existence is undecidable with qualitative reachability objectives (and only three players. However, these results rely on the fact that the players can enforce infinite plays while trying to improve their payoffs. In this paper, we introduce a relaxed notion of equilibria, where deviations are imprecise. We prove that contrary to Nash equilibria, such (stationary equilibria always exist, and we develop a PSPACE algorithm to compute one.

  7. MOMCON: A spectral code for obtaining three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Lee, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    A new code, MOMCON (spectral moments code with constraints), is described that computes three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria in a fixed toroidal domain using a Fourier expansion for the inverse coordinates (R, Z) representing nested magnetic surfaces. A set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations for the spectral coefficients of (R, Z) is solved using an accelerated steepest descent method. A stream function, lambda, is introduced to improve the mode convergence properties of the Fourier series for R and Z. The convergence rate of the R-Z spectra is optimized on each flux surface by solving nonlinear constraint equations relating the m>=2 spectral coefficients of R and Z. (orig.)

  8. Strengthening transversus abdominis in pregnancy related pelvic pain: the pressure biofeedback stabilization training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, Dharmarajan; Senthil Kumar, N Sundaramurthy

    2012-05-28

    Pregnancy related pelvic pain (PRPP) refers to musculoskeletal type of persistent posterior pelvic pain during and after pregnancy with feature of reduced endurance capacity for standing, walking and sitting which leads to severe discomfort and considerable impairment of daily activities. To test the effect of pressure biofeedback stabilizer training, on the pain and dysfunction of a thirty year old subject who presented with PRPP. Single case design. Oswestry pain and disability index, TrA efficacy. An initial assessment was followed by treatment sessions which consist of 2 phases (Phase A & Phase B). The baseline phase (A) consists of conventional therapeutic exercises while the intervention phase (B) consists of pressure biofeedback training in conjunction with the conventional therapeutic exercises. The study data demonstrated that the subject showed minimal improvement in pain, disability and TrA efficacy during the baseline phase and shown a steady improvement in all these variables during the intervention phase. Core muscle performance (TrA) can be retrained with pressure biofeedback stabilization training program in subject with PRPP thereby reducing pain and disability.

  9. Model Checking Coalition Nash Equilibria in MAD Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Federico; Melatti, Igor; Salvo, Ivano; Tronci, Enrico; Alvisi, Lorenzo; Clement, Allen; Li, Harry

    We present two OBDD based model checking algorithms for the verification of Nash equilibria in finite state mechanisms modeling Multiple Administrative Domains (MAD) distributed systems with possibly colluding agents (coalitions) and with possibly faulty or malicious nodes (Byzantine agents). Given a finite state mechanism, a proposed protocol for each agent and the maximum sizes f for Byzantine agents and q for agents collusions, our model checkers return PASS if the proposed protocol is an ɛ-f-q-Nash equilibrium, i.e. no coalition of size up to q may have an interest greater than ɛ in deviating from the proposed protocol when up to f Byzantine agents are present, FAIL otherwise. We implemented our model checking algorithms within the NuSMV model checker: the first one explicitly checks equilibria for each coalition, while the second represents symbolically all coalitions. We present experimental results showing their effectiveness for moderate size mechanisms. For example, we can verify coalition Nash equilibria for mechanisms which corresponding normal form games would have more than 5 ×1021 entries. Moreover, we compare the two approaches, and the explicit algorithm turns out to outperform the symbolic one. To the best of our knowledge, no model checking algorithm for verification of Nash equilibria of mechanisms with coalitions has been previously published.

  10. Cryptographically Blinded Games: Leveraging Players' Limitations for Equilibria and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel; Park, Sunoo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we apply methods from cryptography to enable mutually distrusting players to implement broad classes of mediated equilibria of strategic games without trusted mediation. Our implementation uses a pre-play 'cheap talk' phase, consisting of non- binding communication between players pr...

  11. On Nash equilibria for noncooperative games governed by Burgers equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-50 ISSN 0022-3239 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/03/0934 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Nash equilibria * noncooperative games * Burgers equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.688, year: 2007

  12. The Quality of Equilibria for Set Packing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jasper de; Uetz, Marc

    2017-01-01

    We introduce set packing games as an abstraction of situations in which $n$ selfish players select subsets of a finite set of indivisible items, and analyze the quality of several equilibria for this class of games. Assuming that players are able to approximately play equilibrium strategies, we show

  13. The Spectral Web of stationary plasma equilibria. II. Internal modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The new method of the Spectral Web to calculate the spectrum of waves and instabilities of plasma equilibria with sizeable flows, developed in the preceding Paper I [Goedbloed, Phys. Plasmas 25, 032109 (2018)], is applied to a collection of classical magnetohydrodynamic instabilities operating in

  14. From Singularity Theory to Finiteness of Walrasian Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Sofia B.S.D.; Dakhlia, Sami F.; Gothen, Peter

    The paper establishes that for an open and dense subset of smooth exchange economies, the number of Walrasian equilibria is finite. In particular, our results extend to non-regular economies; it even holds when restricted to the subset of critical ones. The proof rests on concepts from singularit...

  15. Kinetics and equilibria for the axial ligation of bromomethyl (aqua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 6. Kinetics and equilibria for the axial ligation of bromomethyl (aqua)cobaloxime with pyridines - Isolation characterization and DNA binding. Kotha Laxma Reddy K Ashwini Kumar N Ravi Kumar Reddy Penumaka Nagababu A Panasa Reddy S ...

  16. Properties of feedback Nash equilibria in scalar LQ differential games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, Jacob

    In this paper we study the scalar linear quadratic differential game with state feedback information structure. Using a geometric approach, we present a complete characterization when this game will have no, one or multiple equilibria. Furthermore, we investigate the effect on this solution

  17. A Numerical Algorithm to find All Scalar Feedback Nash Equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this note we generalize a numerical algorithm presented in [9] to calculate all solutions of the scalar algebraic Riccati equations that play an important role in finding feedback Nash equilibria of the scalar N-player linear affine-quadratic differential game. The algorithm is based on

  18. Algorithms for Computing Nash Equilibria in Deterministic LQ Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review a number of algorithms to compute Nash equilibria in deterministic linear quadratic differential games.We will review the open-loop and feedback information case.In both cases we address both the finite and the infinite-planning horizon.

  19. Computing Proper Equilibria of Zero-Sum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2007-01-01

    We show that a proper equilibrium of a matrix game can be found in polynomial time by solving a linear (in the number of pure strategies of the two players) number of linear programs of roughly the same dimensions as the standard linear programs describing the Nash equilibria of the game....

  20. A new transiently chaotic flow with ellipsoid equilibria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHIRIN PANAHI

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... Abstract. In this article, a simple autonomous transiently chaotic flow with cubic nonlinearities is proposed. This system represents some unusual features such as having a surface of equilibria. We shall describe some dynamical properties and behaviours of this system in terms of eigenvalue structures, ...

  1. From self-fulfilling mistakes to behavioral learning equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Nishimura, K.; Venditti, A.; Yannelis, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    This essay links some of my own work on expectations, learning and bounded rationality to the inspiring ideas of Jean-Michel Grandmont. In particular, my work on consistent expectations and behavioral learning equilibria may be seen as formalizations of JMG’s ideas of self-fulfilling mistakes. Some

  2. Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria and Displacement by DNA Constituents. M.M. Shoukry1,2,* Ayser Al-Alousi2 and Sameya M. Tarek. 1Deparment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic University, Madina, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, ...

  3. High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: Experimental methods and systems investigated (2005-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; Dohrn, Ralf; Peper, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    A review of systems is given, for which experimental high-pressure phase-equilibrium data were published in the period between 2005 and 2008, continuing a series of reviews. To find candidates for articles that are of interest for this survey a three-stage search strategy was used including...... a systematic search of the contents of the 17 most important journals of the field. Experimental methods for the investigation of high-pressure phase equilibria were classified, described and illustrated using examples from articles of the period between 2005 and 2008. For the systems investigated......, the reference, the temperature and pressure range of the data, and the experimental method used for the measurements is given in 54 tables. Vapor–liquid equilibria, liquid–liquid equilibria, vapor–liquid–liquid equilibria, solid–liquid equilibria, solid–vapor equilibria, solid–vapor–liquid equilibria, critical...

  4. Stability of whey protein hydrolysate powders: effects of relative humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Dasong; Chen, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yingjia; Labuza, Theodore P

    2014-05-01

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is now considered as an important and special dairy protein ingredient for its nutritional and functional properties. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of environmental relative humidity (RH) and storage temperature on the physicochemical stability of three WPH powders with hydrolysis degrees (DH) of 5.2%, 8.8% and 14.9%, respectively. The water sorption isotherms of the three WPH powders fitted the Guggenheim-Andersson-DeBoer model well. An increase in water content leaded to a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg), following a linear Tg vs log water content relationship. Moreover, an increase in DH caused the decrease in Tg at the same water content. Changes in microstructure and colour occurred significantly when the WPH powders were stored at high environmental RH or temperature, especially for those with high DH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food-related lifestyles: Cross-cultural validity and intra-cultural stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Bredahl, Lone

    The food-related lifestyle instrument (FRL) is a 69-item survey questionnaire measuring 23 lifestyle dimensions in five life domains: (a) ways of shopping, (b) cooking methods, (c) quality aspects, (d) consumption situations, and (e) purchasing motives. In the first part of the analysis, consumer...... samples from Denmark (N = 1209), France (N = 1000), Germany (N = 1000), Spain (N = 1000) and the U.K. (N = 1000) are tested for cross-cultural validity using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate that the factorial structure is invariant, between countries...... in terms of factor pattern, factor loadings, factor covariances and factor variances. In the second factor part of the analysis, replication samples from France (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000), Germany (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1042), and the UK (N1 = 1000, N2 = 1000) are examined for intra-cultural stability using the same...

  6. Coordination of bis(tricarbonylchromium) complexes to small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Structure, relative stabilities, and bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Halla, J. Oscar C.; Robles, Juvencio; Solà, Miquel

    2008-11-01

    Bis(tricarbonylchromium) complexes of two- to four-fused benzenoid rings were investigated by means of the B3LYP method. Our analysis was focused on both the molecular structure of the different isomers and their relative energies. For all the studied cases, the isomer with the lowest energy resulted to be the anti where both Cr(CO) 3 units are bonded to the most external rings. According to the calculated dissociation energies for the lowest energy isomers, stabilization due to metal bicomplexation is similar in angular and linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), while the less energetically favorable complexation occurs in PAH with a compact arrangement of six-membered rings like in pyrene.

  7. Stability of neutrino parameters and self-complementarity relation with varying SUSY breaking scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. Sashikanta; Roy, Subhankar; Singh, N. Nimai

    2018-03-01

    The scale at which supersymmetry (SUSY) breaks (ms) is still unknown. The present article, following a top-down approach, endeavors to study the effect of varying ms on the radiative stability of the observational parameters associated with the neutrino mixing. These parameters get additional contributions in the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM). A variation in ms will influence the bounds for which the Standard Model (SM) and MSSM work and hence, will account for the different radiative contributions received from both sectors, respectively, while running the renormalization group equations (RGE). The present work establishes the invariance of the self complementarity relation among the three mixing angles, θ13+θ12≈θ23 against the radiative evolution. A similar result concerning the mass ratio, m2:m1 is also found to be valid. In addition to varying ms, the work incorporates a range of different seesaw (SS) scales and tries to see how the latter affects the parameters.

  8. Self-Referential Processing in Adolescents: Stability of Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Bondy, Erin; Stanton, Colin H.; Webb, Christian A.; Shankman, Stewart A.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    The self-referential encoding task (SRET)—an implicit measure of self-schema—has been used widely to probe cognitive biases associated with depression, including among adolescents. However, research testing the stability of behavioral and electrocortical effects is sparse. Therefore, the current study sought to evaluate the stability of behavioral markers and event-related potentials (ERP) elicited from the SRET over time in healthy, female adolescents (n = 31). At baseline, participants were administered a diagnostic interview and a self-report measure of depression severity. In addition, they completed the SRET while 128-channel event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded to examine early (P1) and late (late positive potential [LPP]) ERPs. Three months later, participants were re-administered the depression self-report measure and the SRET in conjunction with ERPs. Results revealed that healthy adolescents endorsed, recalled, and recognized more positive and fewer negative words at each assessment, and these effects were stable over time (rs = 0.44–0.83). Similarly, they reported a faster reaction time when endorsing self-relevant positive words, as opposed to negative words, at both the initial and follow-up assessment (r = 0.82). Second, ERP responses, specifically potentiated P1 and late LPP positivity to positive versus negative words, were consistent over time (rs = 0.56–0.83), and the internal reliability of ERPs were robust at each time point (rs = 0.52–0.80). As a whole, these medium-to-large effects suggest that the SRET is a reliable behavioral and neural probe of self-referential processing. PMID:27302282

  9. The study of complex equilibria of uranium(VI) with selenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubal, P.; Havel, J.

    1997-01-01

    Uranyl (M)-selenate (L) complex equilibria in solution were investigated by spectrophotometry in visible range and potentiometry by means of uranyl ion selective electrode. The formation ML and ML 2 species was proved and the corresponding stability constants calculated were: log β 1 = 1.57 6 ± 0.01 6 , log β 2 = 2.42 3 ± 0.01 3 (I 3.0 mol 1 -1 Na(ClO 4 , SeO 4 ) (spectrophotometry) at 298.2 K. Using potentiometry the values for infinite dilution (I → 0 mol 1 -1 ) were: log β 1 = 2.64 ± 0.01, log β 2 ≤ 3.4 at 298.2 K. Absorption spectra of the complexes were calculated and analysed by deconvolution technique. Derivative spectrophotometry for the chemical model determination has also been successfully applied. (author)

  10. Mineral equilibria and zircon, garnet and titanite U-Pb ages constraining the PTt path of granite-related hydrothermal systems at the Big Bell gold deposit, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2018-01-01

    The Big Bell deposit (75 t gold) is located in a narrow spur of the Meekatharra greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Two ore bodies are located in a calcic-potassic contact alteration zone overprinting lineated granodiorite dykes and amphibolite: almandine-cummingtonite-hornblende skarn (1-3 g/t Au, 1700 g/t As, 330 g/t W) and the muscovite-microcline gneiss (3-5 g/t Au, 580 g/t Sb, 620 g/t W) of the Main Lode. Genetic models vary from pre- to post-metamorphic replacement. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs in amphibolite constrain peak metamorphic temperature to 670 ± 50 °C. In contrast, garnet-biotite thermometry provides estimates of 578 ± 50 and 608 ± 50 °C for garnet-cordierite-biotite schist bordering the skarn and enveloping the Main Lode. Garnet-cordierite and garnet-hornblende pairs extend the range of fluid temperature to 540 ± 65 °C, well below peak metamorphic temperature. At 540-600 °C, the alteration assemblage andalusite + sillimanite constrains pressure to 300-400 MPa corresponding to 11-14 km crustal depth. Published U-Pb ages indicate that metamorphism took place in the aureole of the southeast granodiorite-tonalite batholith (2740-2700 Ma), followed by gold mineralization at 2662 ± 5 Ma and by the emplacement of biotite granite and Sn-Ta-Nb granite-pegmatite dykes at 2625-2610 Ma. Amphibolite xenoliths in granite northwest of the deposit record the lowest temperature (628 ± 50 °C), suggesting it lacks a metamorphic aureole. The rare metal dykes are spatially associated with epidote-albite and andradite-diopside skarns (≤1.5 g/t Au), mined where enriched in the weathered zone. We analysed hydrothermal zircon intergrown with andradite. Concordant U-Pb ages of 2612 ± 7 and 2609 ± 10 Ma confirm the presence of a second granite-related system. The zircons display oscillatory zoning and have low Th/U ratios (0.05-0.08). Low-Th titanite from an albite granite dyke has a concordant but reset U-Pb age of 2577 ± 7 Ma.

  11. Stability model for one-dimensional FRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Hewitt, T.G.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Symon, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of transport near the separatrix in FRC devices is important for determining the performance to be expected from an FRC reactor or from FRC experiments. A computer code was constructed for studying the micro-stability properties of FRCs near the separatrix as a first step in obtaining quasilinear transport coefficients that can be used in a transport code. We consider collisionless ions and electrons, without an expansion in powers of a parameter, like the electron or ion gyroradius, and we approximate the equilibrium with an infinitely long axially and translationally symmetric equilibrium. Thus, in our equilibria, there are only an axial magnetic field and a radial electric field. Our equilibria are collisionless, two-species, diffuse-profile, one-dimensional, theta-pinch equilibria. We allow the possibility that there be a magnetic field null in order to be able to model FRC devices more realistically

  12. Molecular equilibria and condensation temperatures in carbon-rich gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, C. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1995-04-01

    Detailed chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out using a number of different C/O ratios, in order to determine the relative condensation sequence of various phases. For C/O > 1, we calculated the condensation temperatures of graphite, TiC, and SiC, and found that the condensation temperature of graphite is strongly dependent on the C/O ratio, but insensitive to pressure, whereas for TiC and SiC, there is a strong dependence on pressure, but almost no dependence on C/O. In all cases, TiC condenses before SiC. For most regions of PC/O space when C/O > 1, graphite condenses before TiC and SiC, but for a C/O ratio of about 1.2, TiC condenses before graphite for pressures above approximately 30 dyne/cm 2, and this limiting pressure decreases with decreasing C/O ratio. We found that the main species governing the condensation of graphite, TiC, and SiC were the gas phase species H, H 2, C 2H, C 2H 2, Ti, and Si. By identifying the key equilibria involving these species, a few simple analytic formulae were found that estimate the condensation temperatures, which are generally in good agreement with the detailed calculations, with any differences being easily explained by the neglect of some minor species. These results exhibit the basic dependence of the condensation sequence on C/O, pressure, and temperature for C, TiC, and SiC. To form grains in the winds of an AGB star, the gas density must be high enough for grains to form in a reasonable timescale at or below their condensation temperature. From kinetic considerations and stellar models, we argue that grains are most likely to form in the pressure range 0.2 population found in meteorites. The nitrogen chemistry was investigated and it was found that AIN always condenses at a much lower temperature than SiC. However, Al and N are often found in substantial amounts in association with SiC. We infer that these elements must form a solid solution with SiC at higher temperatures. We note that a small amount

  13. Stability-indicating assay method for determination of actarit, its process related impurities and degradation products: Insight into stability profile and degradation pathways☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abiramasundari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of the drug actarit was studied under different stress conditions like hydrolysis (acid, alkaline and neutral, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation as recommended by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. Drug was found to be unstable in acidic, basic and photolytic conditions and produced a common degradation product while oxidative stress condition produced three additional degradation products. Drug was impassive to neutral hydrolysis, dry thermal and accelerated stability conditions. Degradation products were identified, isolated and characterized by different spectroscopic analyses. Drug and the degradation products were synthesized by a new route using green chemistry. The chromatographic separation of the drug and its impurities was achieved in a phenomenex luna C18 column employing a step gradient elution by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC–PDA–MS. A specific and sensitive stability-indicating assay method for the simultaneous determination of the drug actarit, its process related impurities and degradation products was developed and validated. Keywords: Actarit, Forced degradation, Stability-indicating assay method

  14. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05-0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  15. On Equilibria for ADM Minimization Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leah; Levin, Asaf

    In the ADM minimization problem, the input is a set of arcs along a directed ring. The input arcs need to be partitioned into non-overlapping chains and cycles so as to minimize the total number of endpoints, where a k-arc cycle contributes k endpoints and a k-arc chain contains k + 1 endpoints. We study ADM minimization problem both as a non-cooperative and a cooperative games. In these games, each arc corresponds to a player, and the players share the cost of the ADM switches. We consider two cost allocation models, a model which was considered by Flammini et al., and a new cost allocation model, which is inspired by congestion games. We compare the price of anarchy and price of stability in the two cost allocation models, as well as the strong price of anarchy and the strong price of stability.

  16. Goal conflict and the moderating effects of intention stability in intention-behavior relations: physical activity among Hong Kong chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Chan, Darius K S

    2008-02-01

    This study examined how goal conflict influences the pattern of the moderating effects of intention stability on the intention-behavior relations in the context of physical activity participation. A longitudinal study of 136 young adult students with three waves of data collection (a 2-week interval between waves) was conducted. Results showed a significant three-way interaction among intention, goal conflict,& intention stability in explaining vigorous-intensity physical activity (Beta = -.25, p goal conflict was low, the intention-behavior relations were stronger with stable intentions and weaker with unstable intentions. However, when the level of goal conflict was high, the intention-behavior relations were weaker with stable intentions and stronger with unstable intentions. Possible underlying processes of goal conflict and intention stability on the intention-behavior relations are discussed.

  17. Chemical equilibria relating the isotopic hydrogens at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyper, J.W.; Souers, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen fusion will require a fuel mixture of liquefied or frozen D 2 and T 2 . The composition of this fuel mixture is described by the equilibrium constant K/sub DT/. The theory of isotopic exchange reactions is discussed as applied to the hydrogen isotopes. A literature survey of the values of K/sub HD/, K/sub HT/, and K/sub DT/ found no values of K/sub DT/ for temperatures below 25 0 K and no values of K/sub HD/ and K/sub HT/ for temperatures below 50 0 K. The existing data are critically evaluated, and simplified formulas for the three equilibrium constants in the temperature range 50 to 300 0 K are derived from them. Harmonic approximation theory with rotational correction was used to calculate values of K/sub HD/, K/sub HT/, and K/sub DT/ in the temperature range 4.2 to 50 0 K. It is found that K/sub DT/ = 2.995 exp(-10.82/T) in the temperature range 16.7 to 33.3 0 K to an accuracy of 1%. Tables, graphs, and equations of K/sub HD/, K/sub HT/, and K/sub DT/ are given for the temperature range 4.2 to 50 0 K. 27 references, 14 tables, 8 figures

  18. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  19. Relative metabolic stability, but disrupted circadian cortisol secretion during the fasting month of Ramadan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad Bahijri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic feeding and sleep schedule disturbances are stressors that exert damaging effects on the organism. Practicing Muslims in Saudi Arabia go through strict Ramadan fasting from dawn till sunset for one month yearly. Modern era Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia are associated with disturbed feeding and sleep patterns, namely abstaining from food and water and increasing daytime sleep, and staying awake and receiving food and water till dawn. HYPOTHESIS: Strict Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia may influence metabolism, sleep and circadian cortisol secretion. PROTOCOL: Young, male Ramadan practitioners were evaluated before and two weeks into the Ramadan. Blood samples were collected at 9.00 am and 9.00 pm for measurements of metabolic parameters and cortisol. Saliva was collected serially during the day for cortisol determinations. RESULTS: Ramadan practitioners had relative metabolic stability or changes expected by the pattern of feeding. However, the cortisol circadian rhythm was abolished and circulating insulin levels and HOMA index were increased during this period. DISCUSSION: The flattening of the cortisol rhythm is typical of conditions associated with chronic stress or endogenous hypercortisolism and associated with insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Modern Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia are associated with evening hypercortisolism and increased insulin resistance. These changes might contribute to the high prevalence of chronic stress-related conditions, such as central obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2, and their cardiovascular sequelae observed in the Kingdom.

  20. [Stability of phonetics to determine the horizontal jaw relation in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xixi; Liu, Jianzhang; Tan, Jian-guo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular position when speaking with the intercuspal position and to check the stability of phonetics when determining the horizontal jaw relation in healthy adults. A total of 19 healthy volunteers were recruited. Seven Chinese letters, namely, /xi/, /er/, /yi/, /ci/, /mi/, /ni/, and /ri/, were chosen in the test. O-bite was used to record the mandibular position when speaking these letters. A full-adjusted articulator was used to find the mandibular position during speech, and the mandibular position was measured using a vernier caliper. The mandibular position during speech with intercuspal position was compared in both anterior-posterior and left-right directions of the horizontal plane. Multi-factor analysis of variance was conducted for the statistical analysis of the effect of objects and letters on the mandibular position. 1) The mandibular position was in front of the intercuspal occlusion position when speaking all seven letters, and almost no deviation was observed in the left and right directions (the mandibular position value of 82% was in the range of 0.5 mm). 2) Different objects had different mandibular positions during speech, whereas different letters did not. The distance between the centric relation position and the intercuspal position had a positive correlation with the range of the mandibular position during speech. The mandibular position was in front of the intercuspal position when speaking all seven words in the test. In the same object, the mandibular position was stable during speech.

  1. Tilt and shift mode stability in a spheromak with a flux core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, J.M.; Jardin, S.C.

    1984-07-01

    The stability of spheromak equilibria with a flux core, or reversal coil, is studied by means of an ideal MHD code. Results depend critically upon whether the flux hole region (the current free area just inside the separatrix) is treated as perfectly conducting plasma or as vacuum. This indicates that the tilt and shift modes persist as resistive instabilities if they are stable in ideal MHD. Specifically, for nonoptimally shaped equilibria, the flux core must nearly touch the current channel if the flux hole is vacuum, whereas the core may be slightly outside the separatrix if the flux hole has conducting plasma. A larger margin exists for optimally shaped equilibria.

  2. Lime Stabilization of Fine-Grained Greenlandic Sediments in Relation to Construction Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Hans Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability of the fine-grained sediments. This presentation will include results of laboratory studies of lime stabilization on a clay soil from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The result includes tests...

  3. On the extremum electric charge problem of steady electromagnetic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of steady electromagnetic equilibria has earlier been predicted in terms of an extended formulation of Maxwell's equation. In this connection of variational problem was formulated for finding extremum values of the total electric charge of such equilibria in the axisymmetric case. In this paper the variational procedure has been cast into a new form, in terms of a generating function F. This simplifies the variational procedure substantially, by incorporating the field equations of the electric and magnetic potentials into the integrals of the charge q o , the magnetic moment M o , the mass m o and the angular momentum s o of the system. As a result, the variational procedure reduces to finding extremum values of q o , by varying F under the constraints of a given asymptotic form of F at infinity, and of one quantum condition. At this stage it appears possible for a set of extremum values of q o to arise from such a procedure. (au)

  4. Vlasov tokamak equilibria with sheared toroidal flow and anisotropic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiroukidis, Ap, E-mail: kouirouki@astro.auth.gr [Technological Education Institute of Serres, 62124 Serres (Greece); Throumoulopoulos, G. N., E-mail: gthroum@uoi.gr [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Tasso, H., E-mail: het@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    By choosing appropriate deformed Maxwellian ion and electron distribution functions depending on the two particle constants of motion, i.e., the energy and toroidal angular momentum, we reduce the Vlasov axisymmetric equilibrium problem for quasineutral plasmas to a transcendental Grad-Shafranov-like equation. This equation is then solved numerically under the Dirichlet boundary condition for an analytically prescribed boundary possessing a lower X-point to construct tokamak equilibria with toroidal sheared ion flow and anisotropic pressure. Depending on the deformation of the distribution functions, these steady states can have toroidal current densities either peaked on the magnetic axis or hollow. These two kinds of equilibria may be regarded as a bifurcation in connection with symmetry properties of the distribution functions on the magnetic axis.

  5. Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens

    Material and energy balances and equilibrium data form the basis of most design calculations. While material and energy balances may be stated without much difficulty, the design engineer is left with a choice between a wide variety of models for describing phase equilibria in the design...... of physical separation processes. In a thermodynamic sense, design requires detailed knowledge of activity coefficients in the phases at equilibrium. The prediction of these quantities from a minimum of experimental data is the broad scope of this thesis. Adequate equations exist for predicting vapor......-liquid equilibria from data on binary mixtures, composed of structurally simple molecules with a single functional group. More complex is the situation with mixtures composed of structurally more complicated molecules or molecules with more than one functional group. The UNIFAC method is extended to handle...

  6. Electronic absorption study on acid-base equilibria for some keto and thioketo pyrimidine derivatives. Experimental and theoretical evidence of enolization and solute-solvent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, H.

    2007-08-01

    The UV-vis spectra of recently synthesized 1-amino-5-benzoyl-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-one, ( I), and 1-amino-5-benzoyl-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-thione ( II), were studied in aqueous methanol (5%, v/v, methanol) and pure methanol. The nature of the electronic transitions and the role of carbonyl oxygen of I and thiocarbonyl sulfur of II in the behavior of the observed UV-vis spectra were discussed. The carbonyl group at position 2 of I and the thiocarbonyl group of II were found to be enolized instead of protonation. Quantum chemical calculations showed agreement with the experimental evidence. However, the carbonyl group of the benzoyl moiety at position 5 of both compounds underwent neither enolization nor protonation. Acid-base equilibria of the compounds against varying pH have been examined in detail. The p Ka values of all related equilibria were determined at room temperature and an ionic strength of 0.10 M from the pH-dependence of the absorbance values using the Henderson-Haselbalch equation and graphical logarithmic analysis. The mean acidity constants for the protonated forms of the compounds were determined as p Ka1 = 4.214 and p Ka2 = 6.678 for I and p Ka1 = 3.739 and p Ka2 = 6.258 for II. The mean acidity constants (p Ka3) for the enol form of I and the thioenol form of II were determined as 11.278 and 11.063, respectively. The preferred dissociation mechanisms were discussed based on the data of UV-vis spectroscopy and a mechanism was proposed for each compound. The formation of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding were found with I but not with II. The intramolecular bonding stabilizing the enol form was favoured at pH values corresponding to p Ka1 and above. On the other hand, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding stabilizing the free form of the carbonyl group was favoured at all pH values.

  7. Relative stability of ploidy in a marine Synechococcus across various growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Sepulveda, Blanca; Pitt, Frances; N'Guyen, An N; Ratin, Morgane; Garczarek, Laurence; Millard, Andrew; Scanlan, David J

    2018-01-12

    Marine picocyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus are ubiquitous phototrophs in oceanic systems. Consistent with these organisms occupying vast tracts of the nutrient impoverished ocean, most marine Synechococcus so far studied are monoploid, i.e., contain a single chromosome copy. The exception is the oligoploid strain Synechococcus sp. WH7803, which on average possesses around 4 chromosome copies. Here, we set out to understand the role of resource availability (through nutrient deplete growth) and physical stressors (UV, exposure to low and high temperature) in regulating ploidy level in this strain. Using qPCR to assay ploidy status we demonstrate the relative stability of chromosome copy number in Synechococcus sp. WH7803. Such robustness in maintaining an oligoploid status even under nutrient and physical stress is indicative of a fundamental role, perhaps facilitating recombination of damaged DNA regions as a result of prolonged exposure to oxidative stress, or allowing added flexibility in gene expression via possessing multiple alleles. © 2018 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Walras' Law and nonoptimal equilibria in overlapping generations models

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rao Aiyagari

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a connection between failure of Walras’ Law and nonoptimal equilibria in a quite general overlapping generations model. Consider the following implication of Walras’ Law in finite economies. Suppose that all prices are positive and that all agents are on their budget lines. Then, no matter how the set of goods is partitioned, there cannot be an excess supply (in value terms) for some other set in the partition with excess demand (in value terms) for some other set in t...

  9. Coordination equilibria in the complex formation of guanylurea with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jcsc/120/04/0377-0390. Keywords. CuII; guanylurea; glycinate; mixed-ligand complex; formation constants. Abstract. Combined pH-metric and spectrophotometric investigations on the complex formation equilibria of CuII with guanylurea (H 2 1 NC(=O) 2NH.C(=3NH) 4NH2), hereafter, GuH, ...

  10. Simple Markovian Equilibria in Dynamic Spatial Legislative Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zapal

    2014-01-01

    The paper proves, by construction, the existence of Markovian equilibria in a model of dynamic spatial legislative bargaining. Players bargain over policies in an infinite horizon. In each period, a majority vote takes place between the proposal of a randomly selected player and the status-quo, the policy last enacted. This determines the policy outcome that carries over as the status-quo in the following period; the status-quo is endogenous. Proposer recognition probabilities are constant an...

  11. The Pierce diode with an external circuit. I. Oscillations about nonuniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The nonuniform (nonlinear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described, and the spectrum of oscillations (stable and unstable) about these equilibria are worked out. It is found that only the external capacitance alters the equilibria, though all elements alter the spectrum. In particular, the introduction of an external capacitor destabilizes some equilibria that are marginally stable without the capacitor. Computer simulations are performed to test the theoretical predictions for the case of an external capacitor only. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at Pierce parameters (α=ω/sub pL//v 0 ) that are multiples of 2π are not observed. This appears to be a failure of the simulation method under the rather singular conditions rather than a failure of the theory

  12. Stability of orthodontic treatment outcome in relation to retention status: An 8-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinnes, Jeanett; Johnsen, Gunn; Kerosuo, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the stability of orthodontic treatment outcome and retention status 7 or more years after active treatment in relation to posttreatment or postretention time, type of retention appliance, and duration of retainer use. The subjects were former patients who completed orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances from 2000 to 2007. The pretreatment eligibility criteria were anterior crowding of 4 mm or more in the maxilla or the mandible and Angle Class I or Class II sagittal molar relationship. Acceptable pretreatment and posttreatment dental casts were required. A total of 67 patients participated, 24 men and 43 women, with a mean age of 24.7 years (range, 20.0-50.0 years). All participants had a follow-up clinical examination, which included impressions for follow-up casts, and each completed a questionnaire. Data were obtained from pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up (T2) casts as well as from the patients' dental records. Treatment stability was evaluated with the peer assessment rating (PAR) index and Little's irregularity index. The participation rate was 64%. The average posttreatment time was 8.5 years (range, 7.0-11.0). All participants had received a retainer in the mandible, maxilla, or both after active treatment. At T2, the PAR score showed a mean relapse of 14%. The majority (78%) of participants still had a fixed retainer at T2 (retainer group), and 22% had been out of retention for at least 1 year (postretention group). The relapse according to the PAR did not differ significantly between participants with and without a retainer at T2. From posttreatment to T2, the irregularity of the mandibular incisors increased almost 3 times more in participants with no retainer in the mandible compared with those with an intact retainer at T2 (P = 0.001). In the maxilla, no corresponding difference was found. Our results suggest that occlusal relapse can be expected after active orthodontic treatment irrespective of long

  13. Long-term Nash equilibria in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, David; Contreras, Javier [Department of Applied Mechanics and Project Engineering - Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Caballero, Angel; de Andres, Antonio [Gas Natural Fenosa, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    In competitive electricity markets, companies simultaneously offer their productions to obtain the maximum profits on a daily basis. In the long run, the strategies utilized by the electric companies lead to various long-term equilibria that can be analyzed with the appropriate tools. We present a methodology to find plausible long-term Nash equilibria in pool-based electricity markets. The methodology is based on an iterative market Nash equilibrium model in which the companies can decide upon their offer strategies. An exponential smoothing of the bids submitted by the companies is applied to facilitate the convergence of the iterative procedure. In each iteration of the model the companies face residual demand curves that are accurately modeled by Hermite interpolating polynomials. We introduce the concept of meta-game equilibrium strategies to allow companies to have a range of offer strategies where several pure and mixed meta-game Nash equilibria are possible. With our model it is also possible to model uncertainty or to generate price scenarios for financial models that assess the value of a generating unit by real options analysis. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated with several realistic case studies. (author)

  14. Long-term Nash equilibria in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, David; Contreras, Javier; Caballero, Angel; de Andres, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In competitive electricity markets, companies simultaneously offer their productions to obtain the maximum profits on a daily basis. In the long run, the strategies utilized by the electric companies lead to various long-term equilibria that can be analyzed with the appropriate tools. We present a methodology to find plausible long-term Nash equilibria in pool-based electricity markets. The methodology is based on an iterative market Nash equilibrium model in which the companies can decide upon their offer strategies. An exponential smoothing of the bids submitted by the companies is applied to facilitate the convergence of the iterative procedure. In each iteration of the model the companies face residual demand curves that are accurately modeled by Hermite interpolating polynomials. We introduce the concept of meta-game equilibrium strategies to allow companies to have a range of offer strategies where several pure and mixed meta-game Nash equilibria are possible. With our model it is also possible to model uncertainty or to generate price scenarios for financial models that assess the value of a generating unit by real options analysis. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated with several realistic case studies. (author)

  15. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures of xylene isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L. Rodrigues

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Separation of aromatic C8 compounds by distillation is a difficult task due to the low relative volatilities of the compounds and to the high degree of purity required of the final commercial products. For rigorous simulation and optimization of this separation, the use of a model capable of describing vapor-liquid equilibria accurately is necessary. Nevertheless, experimental data are not available for all binaries at atmospheric pressure. Vapor-liquid equilibria data for binary mixtures were isobarically obtained with a modified Fischer cell at 100.65 kPa. The vapor and liquid phase compositions were analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The methodology was initially tested for cyclo-hexane+n-heptane data; results obtained are similar to other data in the literature. Data for xylene binary mixtures were then obtained, and after testing, were considered to be thermodynamically consistent. Experimental data were regressed with Aspen Plus® 10.1 and binary interaction parameters were reported for the most frequently used activity coefficient models and for the classic mixing rules of two cubic equations of state.

  16. Acquisition and evaluation of thermodynamic data for morenosite-retgersite equilibria at 0.1 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Metal-sulfate salts in mine drainage environments commonly occur as solid solutions containing Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Al, Mn, Ni, Co, Cd, and other elements. Thermodynamic data for some of the end-member salts containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mg have been collected and evaluated previously, and the present study extends to the system containing Ni. Morenosite (NiSO4-7H2O)-retgersite (NiSO4-6H2O) equilibria were determined along five humidity buffer curves at 0.1 MPa and between 5 and 22??C. Reversals along these humidity-buffer curves yield In K = 17.58-6303.35/T, where K is the equilibrium constant, and T is temperature in K. The derived standard Gibbs free energy of reaction is 8.84 kJ/mol, which agrees very well with the values of 8.90, 8.83, and 8.85 kJ/mol based on the vapor pressure measurements of Schumb (1923), Bonnell and Burridge (1935), and Stout et al. (1966). respectively. This value also agrees reasonably well with the values of 8.65 and 9.56 kJ/mol calculated from the data compiled by Wagman et al. (1982) and DeKock (1982), respectively. The temperature-humidity relationships defined by this study for dehydration equilibria between morenosite and retgersite explain the more common occurrence of retgersite relative to morenosite in nature.

  17. Self-esteem stability in relation to narcissism and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zorjan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS, Instability of Selfesteem scale (ISES and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (RSES. The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale was used to measure both self-esteem level and self-esteem stability, which was defined as dispersion of self-esteem level in time. For the purpose of obtaining data on self-esteem stability, the participants were required complete the Rosenberg self-esteem scale for a sequence of 14 days, other measures were completed during the first day of participation in the study. The main effects for self-esteem level emerged for narcissism and psychological well-being, in both cases higher levels of self-esteem was associated to higher levels of narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability additionally explained a significant proportion of variability in narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability was negatively associated with higher levels of narcissism and positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, above and beyond the effect of self-esteem level. When comparing two different measures of self-esteem stability, the results revealed that people with higher level of narcissism tend to overestimate their self-esteem stability. The results were consistent with our hypotheses. The importance of considering both level and stability of self-esteem, limitations of the present study and possibilities for further research are

  18. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO{sub 2} + alkanol) binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.c [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO{sub 2} + C{sub 5} alcohol) binary systems were measured. Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. Correlation results showed relative deviations {<=}8 % (liquid) and {<=}2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO{sub 2} + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO{sub 2} + 2-pentanol), and (CO{sub 2} + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO{sub 2} + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  19. Global stability and persistence in LG–Holling type II diseased predator ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwardi, Sahabuddin; Haque, Mainul; Venturino, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    A Leslie–Gower–Holling type II model is modified to introduce a contagious disease in the predator population, assuming that disease cannot propagate to the prey. All the system’s equilibria are determined and the behaviour of the system near them is investigated. The main mathematical issues are global stability and bifurcations for some of the equilibria, together with sufficient conditions for persistence of the ecosystem. Counterintuitive results on the role played by intraspecific compet...

  20. Relation of wave energy and momentum with the plasma dispersion relation in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Pfirsch, D.

    1988-01-01

    The expressions for wave energy and angular momentum commonly used in homogeneous and near-homogeneous media is generalized to inhomogeneous media governed by a nonlocal conductivity tensor. The expression for wave energy applies to linear excitations in an arbitrary three-dimensional equilibrium, while the expression for angular momentum applies to linear excitations of azimuthally symmetric equilibria. The wave energy E-script/sub wave/ is interpreted as the energy transferred from linear external sources to the plasma if there is no dissipation. With dissipation, such a simple interpretation is lacking as energy is also thermally absorbed. However, for azimuthally symmetric equilibria, the expression for the wave energy in a frame rotating with a frequency ω can be unambiguously separated from thermal energy. This expression is given by E-script/sub wave/ -ωL/sub wave/ l, where L/sub wave/ is the wave angular momentum defined in the text and l the azimuthal wavenumber and it is closely related to the real part of a dispersion relation for marginal stability. The imaginary part of the dispersion is closely related to the energy input into a system. Another useful quantity discussed is the impedance form, which can be used for three-dimensional equilibrium without an ignorable coordinate and the expression is closely related to the wave impedance used in antenna theory. Applications to stability theory are also discussed

  1. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR EMOTIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kalita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an attempt was made to know the relationship between personality factor emotional stability and academic achievement of the high school students of South Kamrup district of Assam, India. Students were randomly selected from different high schools of the selected area. A sample of 400(both boys and girls students was selected and Cattell’s Jr. High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ was administered to them and record of academic achievement was collected from the school record. Subsequently the data were subjected to statistical analysis with the help of percentage analysis and x2. Results indicated a significant relationship between emotional stability and academic achievement of high school students of South kamrup district, Assam, India. The study also depicted that high level of emotional stability leads to high academic achievement and low emotional stability leads to low level of academic achievement.

  2. Self-esteem stability in relation to narcissism and psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Zorjan; Katja Košir

    2013-01-01

    The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female) participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: ...

  3. A method for calculating the acid-base equilibria in aqueous and nonaqueous electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanganov, B. B.; Alekseeva, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    Concentrations of particles in acid-base equilibria in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions of electrolytes are calculated on the basis of logarithmic charts, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants.

  4. Early maladaptive schemas in depressed patients: stability and relation with depressive symptoms over the course of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Peeters, F.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are hypothesized to be stable, trait-like, enduring beliefs underlying chronic and recurrent psychological disorders. We studied the relation of EMSs with depressive symptom severity and tested the stability of EMSs over a course of evidence-based

  5. Relative phase stability of bimanual and visuomanual rhythmic coordination patterns in children with a Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, M.J.M.; Geuze, R.H.

    A dynamic pattern approach is used to examine the relative phase stability of rhythmic coordination in 24 children with a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and 24 matched controls in two functionally different tasks - a within-subject task (bimanual coordination) and a subject-environment

  6. Relative stability of protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy : A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H; Mark, AE

    2003-01-01

    The relative stability of protein structures determined by either X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. Published structures of 34 proteins containing between 50 and 100 residues have been

  7. Rare Tautomers of 1-Methyluracil and 1-Methylthymine: Tuning Relative Stabilities through Coordination to Pt-II Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, Tushar; Guerra, Celia Fonseca; Swart, Marcel; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Lippert, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    We have computationally explored how the relative stabilities of 1-methyluracil (1-MeUH) tautomers can be tuned through coordination of these tautomers to PtII complexes with a particular set of ligands. This has been done using density functional theory at the BP86/TZ2P level. Thus, we have

  8. Global stability analysis and control of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okosun Kazeem Oare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of leptospirosis control measures, preventive vaccination and treatment of infective humans that may curtail the disease transmission. For this, a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of the disease that includes preventive, vaccination, treatment of infective vectors and humans control measures are considered. Firstly, the constant control parameters’ case is analyzed, also calculate the basic reproduction number and investigate the existence and stability of equilibria. The threshold condition for disease-free equilibrium is found to be locally asymptotically stable and can only be achieved when the basic reproduction number is less than unity. The model is found to exhibit the existence of multiple endemic equilibria. Furthermore, to assess the relative impact of each of the constant control parameters measures the sensitivity index of the basic reproductive number to the model’s parameters are calculated. In the time-dependent constant control case, Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle is used to derive necessary conditions for the optimal control of the disease. The cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out by first of all using ANOVA to check on the mean costs. Then followed by Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER for all the possible combinations of the disease control measures. Our results revealed that the most cost-effective strategy for the control of leptospirosis is the combination of the vaccination and treatment of infective livestocks. Though the combinations of all control measures is also effective, however, this strategy is not cost-effective and so too costly. Therefore, more efforts from policy makers on vaccination and treatment of infectives livestocks regime would go a long way to combat the disease epidemic.

  9. Relative performance of three stream bed stability indices as indicators of stream health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnierz, Paul C; Holbrook, Christopher M

    2017-10-16

    Bed stability is an important stream habitat attribute because it affects geomorphology and biotic communities. Natural resource managers desire indices of bed stability that can be used under a wide range of geomorphic conditions, are biologically meaningful, and are easily incorporated into sampling protocols. To eliminate potential bias due to presence of instream wood and increase precision of stability values, we modified a stream bed instability index (ISI) to include measurements of bankfull depth (d bf ) and median particle diameter (D 50 ) only in riffles and increased the pebble count to decrease variability (i.e., increase precision) in D 50 . The new riffle-based instability index (RISI) was compared to two established indices: ISI and the riffle stability index (RSI). RISI and ISI were strongly associated with each other but neither was closely associated with RSI. RISI and ISI were closely associated with both a diatom- and two macrovertebrate-based stream health indices, but RSI was only weakly associated with the macroinvertebrate indices. Unexpectedly, precision of D 50 did not differ between RISI and ISI. Results suggest that RISI is a viable alternative to both ISI and RSI for evaluating bed stability in multiple stream types. With few data requirements and a simple protocol, RISI may also better conform to riffle-based sampling methods used by some water quality practitioners.

  10. Macroscopic stability and β limits in the ELMO Bumpy Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.B.; Hedrick, C.L.

    1977-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic stability limits are determined for the ELMO Bumpy Torus. The relativistic hot electron annuli are considered to be rigid, modifying the magnetic field but not interacting with the instability. A modified energy principle is used, and the stability problem is reduced to determination of the eigenvalues of an ordinary differential equation along each field line. A threshold hot electron current is required for stability; its value agrees with experimental measurements. The calculations show that stable high β equilibria are easily created

  11. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolan, N.S.; Kunhikrishnan, A.; Choppala, G.K.; Thangarajan, R.; Chung, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t 1/2 ) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. - Graphical abstract: Stabilization of compost using clay materials (e.g. allophane) enhances carbon sequestration in soils. Highlights: ► Comparison of decomposition rate

  12. Transmembrane Helix-helix Association: Relative Stabilities at Low pH†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluru, Neelima; Silva, Frances; Dhage, Manmath; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Alloor, Srinivas R.; Renthal, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We have previously studied the unfolding equilibrium of bacterio-opsin in a single phase solvent, using Förster mechanism fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a probe, from tryptophan donors to a dansyl acceptor. We observed an apparent unfolding transition in bacterio-opsin perturbed by increasing ethanol concentrations [Nannepaga et al.(2004) Biochemistry 43, 50–59]. We have further investigated this transition and find the unfolding is pH-dependent. We have now measured the apparent pK of acid-induced unfolding of bacterio-opsin in 90% ethanol. When the acceptor is on helix B (Lys 41), the apparent pK for unfolding is 4.75; on the EF connecting loop (Cys 163), 5.15; and on helix G (Cys 222), 5.75. Five-helix proteolytic fragments are less stable. The apparent unfolding pKs are, for residues 72-248 (Cys 163), 5.46; and 1-166 (Lys 41), 7.36. When interpreted in terms of a simple equilibrium model for unfolding, the apparent pKs give relative free energies of unfolding, in the range of −0.54 to −3.5 kcal/mol. The results suggest that the C-terminal helix of bacterio-opsin is less stably folded than the N-terminal helices. We analyzed the pair-wise helix-helix interaction surfaces of bacteriorhodopsin and three other 7-transmembrane helix proteins, based on crystal structures. The results show that the interaction surfaces are smoother and the helix axis separations are closer in the amino-terminal two-thirds of the proteins compared with the carboxyl terminal one-third. However, the F helix is important in stabilizing the folded structure, as shown by the instability of the 1-166 fragment. Considering the high resolution crystal structure of bacteriorhodopsin, there are no obvious helix-helix interactions involving protein side chains which would be destabilized by protonation at the estimated pH of the unfolding transitions. However, a number of helix-bridging water molecules could become protonated, thereby weakening the helix

  13. Transmembrane helix-helix association: relative stabilities at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluru, Neelima; Silva, Frances; Dhage, Manmath; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Alloor, Srinivas R; Renthal, Robert

    2006-04-11

    We have previously studied the unfolding equilibrium of bacterioopsin in a single phase solvent, using Förster mechanism fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a probe, from tryptophan donors to a dansyl acceptor. We observed an apparent unfolding transition in bacterioopsin perturbed by increasing ethanol concentrations [Nannepaga et al. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 50-59]. We have further investigated this transition and find that the unfolding is pH-dependent. We have now measured the apparent pK of acid-induced unfolding of bacterioopsin in 90% ethanol. When the acceptor is on helix B (Lys 41), the apparent pK for unfolding is 4.75; on the EF connecting loop (Cys 163), 5.15; and on helix G (Cys 222), 5.75. Five-helix proteolytic fragments are less stable. The apparent unfolding pKs are 5.46 for residues 72-248 (Cys 163) and 7.36 for residues 1-166 (Lys 41). When interpreted in terms of a simple equilibrium model for unfolding, the apparent pKs give relative free energies of unfolding in the range of -0.54 to -3.5 kcal/mol. The results suggest that the C-terminal helix of bacterioopsin is less stably folded than the N-terminal helices. We analyzed the pairwise helix-helix interaction surfaces of bacteriorhodopsin and three other seven-transmembrane-helix proteins on the basis of crystal structures. The results show that the interaction surfaces are smoother and the helix axis separations are closer in the amino-terminal two-thirds of the proteins compared with the carboxyl-terminal one-third. However, the F helix is important in stabilizing the folded structure, as shown by the instability of the 1-166 fragment. Considering the high-resolution crystal structure of bacteriorhodopsin, there are no obvious helix-helix interactions involving protein side chains which would be destabilized by protonation at the estimated pH of the unfolding transitions. However, a number of helix-bridging water molecules could become protonated, thereby weakening the helix

  14. Relative Effects of Asymmetry and Wall Slip on the Stability of Plane Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhendu Ghosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wall velocity slip on the stability of a pressure-driven two-dimensional asymmetric channel flow is examined by considering Navier slip condition on the channel walls. The two-parameter families of mean velocity profiles are considered to approximate the underlying asymmetric basic flow. Competing effects of skewness and maximum velocity on the stability of the flow are explored for a range of model parameters. The Orr–Sommerfeld system of the asymmetric flow is solved using a Chebyshev spectral collocation method for both symmetric and non-symmetric type slip boundary conditions. Numerical results indicate that moderate asymmetry in the basic flow has a significant role on the stability of the Poiseuille-kind parallel/nearly parallel flows. Wall slip shows a passive control on the instability of the asymmetric flow by increasing or decreasing the critical Reynolds number and the set of unstable wave numbers. The stabilizing/destabilizing effect of slip velocity on the flow instability is weak or strong depending on the presence of velocity slip at the upper or lower wall. Velocity slip has a profound grip on the flow behaviour by changing the shear rate inside the perturbed flow.

  15. Retrospective assessment of dryland soil stability in relation to grazing and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, Robert A; West, Neil E; Ramsey, R Douglas; Phillips, Debra H; Shugart, Herman H

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is an aspect of dryland degradation that is affected by repeated intense drought events and land management activities such as commercial livestock grazing. A soil stability index (SSI) that detects the erosion status and susceptibility of a landscape at the pixel level, i.e., stable, erosional, or depositional pixels, was derived from the spectral properties of an archived time series (from 1972 to 1997) of Landsat satellite data of a commercial ranch in northeastern Utah. The SSI was retrospectively validated with contemporary field measures of soil organic matter and erosion status that was surveyed by US federal land management agencies. Catastrophe theory provided the conceptual framework for retrospective assessment of the impact of commercial grazing and soil water availability on the SSI. The overall SSI trend was from an eroding landscape in the early drier 1970s towards stable conditions in the wetter mid-1980s and late 1990s. The landscape catastrophically shifted towards an extreme eroding state that was coincident with the "The Great North American Drought of 1988". Periods of landscape stability and trajectories toward stability were coincident with extremely wet El Niño events. Commercial grazing had less correlation with soil stability than drought conditions. However, the landscape became more susceptible to erosion events under multiple droughts and grazing. Land managers now have nearly a year warning of El Niño and La Niña events and can adjust their management decisions according to predicted landscape erosion conditions.

  16. Maternal Verbal Responsiveness and Directiveness: Consistency, Stability, and Relations to Child Early Linguistic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola-Ruotsalainen, Leila; Lehtosaari, Jaana; Palomäki, Josefina; Tervo, Immi

    2018-01-01

    Maternal responsive and directive speech to children at ages 0;10 and 2;0 was investigated by applying a procedure frst introduced by Flynn and Masur (2007) to a new language community (Finnish). The issues examined were consistency and stability over time, and also the role of responsiveness and directiveness in child linguistic development at…

  17. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Excitation equilibria in plasmas: a classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, J.-J.A.M. van der.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a classification of plasmas based on the atomic state distribution function. The study is based on the relation between the distribution function and the underlying processes and starts with the proper understanding of thermodynamic equilibrium (TE). Four types of proper balances are relevant: The 'Maxwell balance' of kinetic energy transfer, the 'Boltzmann balance' of excitation/deexcitation, the 'Saha balance' of ionization/recombination and the 'Planck balance' for interaction of atoms with radiation. Special attention is paid to the distribution function of the ionizing excitation saturation balance. The classification theory of the distribution functions in relation with underlying balances is supported by experimental evidence in an ionizing argon plasma. The AR I system provides a pertinent support of the theory. Experimental facts found in the AR II system can be interpreted in global terms. (Auth.)

  19. Kinetic stability of field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmeier, J.L.; Hsiao, M.-Y.

    1991-01-01

    The internal tilt mode is considered to be the biggest threat to Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) global stability. The tilt stability of the FRC is studied using the MHD, Hall MHD, and the Vlasov-fluid (Vlasov ions, cold massless fluid electrons) models. Nonlinear Hall MHD calculations showed that the FRC was stable to the tilt mode when the s value of the FRC was below a critical value that was dependent on plasma length. The critical s value is larger for longer plasma equilibria. The stability of FRC's with toroidal field was studied with a linear initial value MHD code. The calculations showed an axial perturbation wavelength of the most unstable eigenfunction that was consistent with internal probe measurements made on translated FRC's. Linear Vlasov-fluid eigenvalue calculations showed that kinetic ion effects can change both the growth rate and the structure of the eigenfunctions when compared to the corresponding MHD modes. Calculations on short FRC equilibria indicate that MHD is not the appropriate small gyroradius limit of the Vlasov-fluid model because the axial transit time of a thermal ion is approximately equal to an MHD growth time for the tilt mode. Calculations were done using a small number of unstable MHD eigenfunctions as basis functions in order to reduce the dimensionality of the stability problem. The results indicated that this basis set can produce inaccurate growth rates at large value for s for some equilibria

  20. Nas-Walras equilibria of a large economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, E; Polemarchakis, H M

    2000-05-09

    Individuals exchange contracts for the delivery of commodities in competitive markets and, simultaneously, act strategically; actions affect utilities across individuals directly or through the payoffs of contracts. This encompasses economies with asymmetric information. Nash-Walras equilibria exist for large economies, even if utility functions are not quasi-concave and choice sets are not convex, which is the case in standard settings; the separation of the purchase from the sale of contracts and the pooling of the deliveries on contracts guarantee that the markets for commodities clear.

  1. Nas–Walras equilibria of a large economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, E.; Polemarchakis, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    Individuals exchange contracts for the delivery of commodities in competitive markets and, simultaneously, act strategically; actions affect utilities across individuals directly or through the payoffs of contracts. This encompasses economies with asymmetric information. Nash–Walras equilibria exist for large economies, even if utility functions are not quasi-concave and choice sets are not convex, which is the case in standard settings; the separation of the purchase from the sale of contracts and the pooling of the deliveries on contracts guarantee that the markets for commodities clear. PMID:10805818

  2. Phase Equilibria Relationships of High-Tc Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Ng, Winnie

    2011-01-01

    As an integral part of a R and D program partially supported by the Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Office of DOE, we have determined phase equilibria data and phase diagrams for the three generations of superconductor materials: 1st generation, (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca- Cu-O systems; 2nd generation, Ba-R-Cu-O systems (R=lanthanides and yttrium); and 3rd generation, MgB2 systems. Our studies involved bulk materials, single crystals and thin films. This report gives a summary of our accomplishments, a list of publications, and 15 selected journal publications.

  3. Adsorption Equilibria of Acetic Acid on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyong-Mok; Nam, Hee-Geun; Mun, Sungyong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the adsorption equilibria of acetic acid on activated carbon were investigated at the temperatures of 313.15 K and 323.15 K. The obtained adsorption data were then fitted by Langmuir, Bi-Langmuir, and Freundlich models, in which the relevant model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of deviations between experimental data and calculated values. The comparison results revealed that Bi-Langmuir model could account for the adsorption equilibrium data of acetic acid with the highest accuracy among the three adsorption models considered.

  4. The free energy of Maxwell-Vlasov equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Pfirsch, D.

    1989-10-01

    A previously derived expression for the energy of arbitrary perturbations about arbitrary Vlasov-Maxwell equilibria is transformed into a very compact form. The new form is also obtained by a canonical transformation method for solving Vlasov's equation, which is based on Lie group theory. This method is simpler than the one used before and provides better physical insight. Finally a procedure is presented for determining the existence of negative-energy modes. In this context the question of why there is an accessibility constraint for the particles, but not for the fields, is discussed. 16 refs

  5. Helically symmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and incompressible plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelias, A.; Kuiroukidis, A.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2018-02-01

    We derive a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation governing helically symmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and incompressible flow of arbitrary direction. Through the most general linearizing ansatz for the various free surface functions involved therein, we construct equilibrium solutions and study their properties. It turns out that pressure anisotropy can act either paramegnetically or diamagnetically, the parallel flow has a paramagnetic effect, while the non-parallel component of the flow associated with the electric field has a diamagnetic one. Also, pressure anisotropy and flow affect noticeably the helical current density.

  6. Three year stability of Five-Factor Model personality traits in relation to changes in symptom levels in patients with schizophrenia or related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Nederlof, Jan; Meijer, Carin; de Boer, Froukje; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2015-09-30

    Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits are related to a wide range of clinical outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it is not sufficiently clear whether psychotic illness, particularly fluctuation in negative symptoms and psychotic relapse, affects personality. The current study examined the 3-year temporal stability of FFM traits in 91 patients with non-affective psychotic disorders with a maximum duration of illness of 10 years and 32 control subjects without a (family member with) a diagnosis of psychotic illness. In patients, change in negative symptoms predicted changes in Neuroticism and (inversely) in Extraversion and Openness. However, when correcting for depressive symptoms, negative symptoms no longer predicted change in any FFM trait. Clinical characteristics, such as psychotic relapse, were also not found to be related to change in FFM traits. Patients showed a slight increase in Conscientiousness levels, the other FFM traits showed mean-level stability. Rank-order stability of the FFM traits was moderate to strong, although weaker for Neuroticism in patients. Our findings indicate that psychotic symptoms exert limited effect on the stability of FFM traits in patients with psychotic disorders. Consistent with general population findings, one should guard against state-trait confusion between Neuroticism/Extraversion and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Excitation equilibria in plasmas; a classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, J.A.M. van der

    1990-01-01

    This review gives a classification of the excitation kinetics ruled by electrons in plasmas. It is a study on the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) and its relation with underlying processes, which, for the case of an electron excitation kinetics (EEK) plasma, is merely a competition between free and bound electrons, the same particles in different circumstances. In a quasi steady state the population density of an atomic state results from production-destruction balances in equilibrium. If all balances are proper, i.e., consist of each other's inverse processes, then the ASDF is described by the Boltzmann-Saha relation. In other cases the balance will be denoted as improper, the ASDF will deviate from the equilibrium shape, but reflecting the underlying improper balances, it may give information about the plasma. Four improper balances and their impact on the ASDF are dealt with. An important feature is that improper balances are associated with particle transport. Special attention is paid to the distribution function of the excitation saturation balance in which the overpopulated bound electrons are subjected to frequent interactions with free electrons and the energy distribution of the free electrons is taken over. This distribution, denoted as the bound Maxwell distribution, is experimentally found in several ionizing plasmas. Its recombining counterpart, the deexcitation saturation balance, creates under certain conditions inversion in the ASDF, the basis for the recombination laser. (orig.)

  8. Excitation equilibria in plasmas; a classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mullen, J. A. M.

    1990-07-01

    This review gives a classification of the excitation kinetics ruled by electrons in plasmas. It is a study on the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) and its relation with underlying processes, which, for the case of an electron excitation kinetics (EEK) plasma, is merely a competition between free and bound electrons, the same particles in different circumstances. In a quasi steady state the population density of an atomic state results from production-destruction balances in equilibrium. If all balances are proper, i.e., consist of each other's inverse processes, then the ASDF is described by the Boltzmann-Saha relation. In other cases the balance will be denoted as improper, the ASDF will deviate from the equilibrium shape, but reflecting the underlying improper balances, it may give information about the plasma. Four improper balances and their impact on the ASDF are dealt with. An important feature is that improper balances are associated with particle transport. Special attention is paid to the distribution function of the excitation saturation balance in which the overpopulated bound electrons are subjected to frequent interactions with free electrons and the energy distribution of the free electrons is taken over. This distribution, denoted as the bound Maxwell distribution, is experimentally found in several ionizing plasmas. Its recombining counterpart, the deexcitation saturation balance, creates under certain conditions inversion in the ASDF, the basis for the recombination laser.

  9. Excitation equilibria in plasmas; a classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.A.M. van der (Eindhoven Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands). Physics Dept.)

    1990-07-01

    This review gives a classification of the excitation kinetics ruled by electrons in plasmas. It is a study on the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) and its relation with underlying processes, which, for the case of an electron excitation kinetics (EEK) plasma, is merely a competition between free and bound electrons, the same particles in different circumstances. In a quasi steady state the population density of an atomic state results from production-destruction balances in equilibrium. If all balances are proper, i.e., consist of each other's inverse processes, then the ASDF is described by the Boltzmann-Saha relation. In other cases the balance will be denoted as improper, the ASDF will deviate from the equilibrium shape, but reflecting the underlying improper balances, it may give information about the plasma. Four improper balances and their impact on the ASDF are dealt with. An important feature is that improper balances are associated with particle transport. Special attention is paid to the distribution function of the excitation saturation balance in which the overpopulated bound electrons are subjected to frequent interactions with free electrons and the energy distribution of the free electrons is taken over. This distribution, denoted as the bound Maxwell distribution, is experimentally found in several ionizing plasmas. Its recombining counterpart, the deexcitation saturation balance, creates under certain conditions inversion in the ASDF, the basis for the recombination laser. (orig.).

  10. DETERMINATION OF MIXED STABILITY CONSTANTS OF LEAD(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method involving the use of paper ionophoresis is described for the study of equilibria in mixed – ligand complex systems in solution. The technique is based on the movement of a spot of metal ion under an electric field with the complexants added to the background electrolyte at pH 8.5. The stability constants of the ...

  11. Stability of Dry Probiotic Bacteria in Relation to the Cellular Membrane and Genomic DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise Rittermann W

    powders to infant formula and functional foods, e.g. cereal and chocolate bars. Part of production of the probiotic product often includes freeze-drying of the probiotic bacteria. Drying is necessary in the preparation of dry powders, and to increase shelf life of the product at ambient temperatures......Lactic acid bacteria are used in a wide range of fermented dairy and meat products. Several strains of lactic acid bacteria are associated with health benefits upon digestion, and are known as probiotic bacteria. Probiotic bacteria can be produced for dietary supplements, but are also added as dry....... Freeze-drying and storage of probiotic bacteria can, however, also have a negative effect on cell stability. It is important to understand the processes, which can lead to loss of cell stability during dry storage in order to develop more stable probiotic products. The purpose of the present PhD thesis...

  12. Aggregation equilibria in arsenic doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdour, M.; Furlan, G.; Nobili, D.

    1993-08-01

    Carrier density profile determinations are reported which confirm that a mass action relation holds between the ionized and the inactive mobile As in silicon. Experiments were performed under equilibrium conditions at temperatures in the range 780-885 deg. C. The carrier density n vs. the dopant concentration N T exhibits a very pronounced saturation behaviour which is compared with the one expected in well known cluster models. These results complement the recent finding that the inactive As can exist in equilibrium with the monoclinic SiAs. From this information and previous SAXS, TEM, and EXAFS results one can conclude that a pre-precipitation phenomenon, with its inherent cluster distribution, is responsible for the inactive As. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs

  13. Proceeding of 1999-workshop on MHD computations 'study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2000-06-01

    This is the proceeding of 'study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. There are also various lectures on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. Separate abstracts were presented for 13 of the papers in this report. The remaining 6 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  14. Sleep in Adolescents With Bipolar I Disorder: Stability and Relation to Symptom Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Anda; Singh, Manpreet K

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common features of bipolar disorder (BD), yet little is known about trajectories of sleep disturbances in youth with BD. Using longitudinal data, this study assessed the stability of sleep disturbances and their ability to predict symptom progression in adolescents diagnosed with BD compared to controls. Thirteen- to 19-year-olds meeting diagnostic criteria for BD I (n = 19, 16.2 ± 1.75 years, 57.9 % female, 68.4% Caucasian) and psychiatrically healthy age-comparable controls (n = 21, 15.7 ± 1.48 years. 52.4% female, 57.1% Caucasian) were assessed for sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and wake time, separately for weekdays and weekends using a self-report questionnaire. Sleep indices and symptoms of mania (Young Mania Rating Scale) and depression (Children's Depression Rating Scale) were assessed at two time points, T1 and T2, approximately 12 months apart. Correlations were used to examine stability of sleep indices across time points and regression models to examine the effects of T1 sleep on T2 symptoms. Adolescents with BD showed low stability on most sleep indices, whereas controls showed high stability on all sleep indices. After controlling for T1 depression symptoms, more T1 weekend awakenings and weekend wake time predicted significantly greater T2 depression symptoms in youth with BD but not in controls. No significant associations were found between T1 sleep and T2 mania symptoms. These findings suggest that increased awakenings and wakefulness on weekends may represent an important therapeutic target for reducing depression in adolescents with BD.

  15. Performance and LHC beam stability issue related to Q/Q' diagnostics and feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, Ralph J

    2010-01-01

    The baseline tune (Q) and chromaticity (Q’) diagnostics and associated feedback systems played a crucial role during the LHC commissioning, in establishing circulating beam, the first ramps and their fill-to-fill feed-forward correction. Early on, they also allowed to identify issues such as the residual tune stability, beam spectrum interferences and beam-beam effects – all of which may impact beam lifetimes and thus need to be addressed in view of nominal LHC operation.

  16. Phase equilibria, phases and compounds in the Ti-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations related to the phase equilibria in the titanium-carbon system are generalized. The generalized thermodynamic characteristics of the disordered titanium carbide TiC y are given. The crystal structure of all the discovered and hypothetical compounds of titanium with carbon are considered in detail. The x-ray diffraction patterns which allow one to identify all these compounds are given. The phase diagrams of the Ti-C system constructed with allowance for atomic ordering of non-stoichiometric TiC y carbide and for the existence of the compounds Ti 8 C 12 and Ti 13 C 22 (TiC 2 ) of the molecule cluster type are discussed [ru

  17. Quantum correlations and Nash equilibria of a bi-matrix game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2004-01-01

    Playing a symmetric bi-matrix game is usually physical implemented by sharing pairs of 'objects' between two players. A new setting is proposed that explicitly shows effects of quantum correlations between the pairs on the structure of payoff relations and the 'solutions' of the game. The setting allows a re-expression of the game such that the players play the classical game when their moves are performed on pairs of objects having correlations that satisfy Bell's inequalities. If players receive pairs having quantum correlations the resulting game cannot be considered another classical symmetric bi-matrix game. Also the Nash equilibria of the game are found to be decided by the nature of the correlations. (letter to the editor)

  18. Construction of Subgame-Perfect Mixed-Strategy Equilibria in Repeated Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Berg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how to construct subgame-perfect mixed-strategy equilibria in discounted repeated games with perfect monitoring. We introduce a relatively simple class of strategy profiles that are easy to compute and may give rise to a large set of equilibrium payoffs. These sets are called self-supporting sets, since the set itself provides the continuation payoffs that are required to support the equilibrium strategies. Moreover, the corresponding strategies are simple as the players face the same augmented game on each round but they play different mixed actions after each realized pure-action profile. We find that certain payoffs can be obtained in equilibrium with much lower discount factor values compared to pure strategies. The theory and the concepts are illustrated in 2 × 2 games.

  19. Phase Equilibria Modeling of Coesite Eclogite from the Sulu Belt, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, B.; Brown, M.; Wang, L.; Wang, S.; Piccoli, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of phase equilibria and tectonic processes are essential components to understand controls on P-T paths of UHPM rocks. However, diffusion at higher temperatures (> 700 °C), and issues with determination of Fe3+ in minerals and estimating H2O contents limit our ability to determine prograde, peak P and retrograde P-T data. Also, the lack of an appropriate activity-composition model for melt in basic rocks has limited the application of phase equilibria modeling to understand partial melting associated with exhumation. Here we apply phase equilibria modeling to coesite eclogite from Yangkou to assess the influence of Fe3+ and fluid during metamorphism, monitor reactions and phase relations in eclogite during deep subduction and exhumation and investigate partial melting at HP conditions. The modeling used the THERMOCALC software and the new internally consistent thermodynamic dataset for basic rocks (http://www.metamorph.geo.uni-mainz.de/thermocalc/dataset6/index.html). Here we investigate bimineralic (gt+omp+coe/qz+ru/ilm), phengite-bearing (gt+omp+phen (2 samples, 5 vol%) +coe/qz+ru/ilm) and kyanite-bearing (gt+omp+phen+ky+coe/qz+ru/ilm) eclogites. Coesite in the matrix is the hallmark of the Yangkou eclogite. For each sample, we use an iterative process to estimate the H2O and O content in the bulk composition, and then calculate a P-T pseudosection. The results suggest that some prograde information (670-770 °C, > 3.0 GPa) is retained in large garnet cores in bimineralic and phengite-bearing eclogite. The peak P-T conditions are a challenge because in the field of gt+omp+coe/qz±phen+H2O at T > 750 °C and P > 3.5 GPa mode and compositional changes are small. However, isopleths of Si in phengite suggest that the peak P could have been > 5-6 GPa. Re-equilibration of garnet and omphacite compositions occurred during exhumation, yielding P-T conditions of 700-790 °C at 3.1-2.0 GPa. Amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 630-710 °C, 1.3-1.2 GPa. The

  20. Diffusive Phenomena and the Austenite/Martensite Relative Stability in Cu-Based Shape-Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina, J. L.; Yawny, A.; Sade, M.

    2018-02-01

    The main characteristic of martensitic phase transitions is the coordinate movement of the atoms which takes place athermally, without the contribution of diffusion during its occurrence. However, the impacts of diffusive phenomena on the relative stability between the phases involved and, consequently, on the associated transformation temperatures and functional properties can be significant. This is particularly evident in the case of Cu-based shape-memory alloys where atomic diffusion in both austenite and martensite metastable phases might occur even at room-temperature levels, giving rise to a variety of intensively studied phenomena. In the present study, the progresses made in the understanding of three selected diffusion-related effects of importance in Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Be alloys are reviewed. They are the after-quench retained disorder in the austenitic structure and its subsequent reordering, the stabilization of the martensite, and the effect of applied stress on the austenitic order. It is shown how the experimental results obtained from tests performed on single crystal material can be rationalized under the shed of a model developed to evaluate the variation of the relative stability between the phases in terms of atom pairs interchanges.

  1. Factors effecting carbonate equilibria in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.

    1987-12-01

    This study is related to preliminary stie evaluations to be carried out in 1987-1992 for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. Near surface and shallow groundwaters are characterized by high concentration of calcium and bicarbonate due to dissolution of calcite. The input of carbon dioxide in the upper zone of the bedrock has a strong influence on the pH giving a pH around neutral. In deep groundwaters when the system is no longer open to the input of carbon dioxide the pH rises as the carbonate system is displaced towards the bicarbonate-carbonate site. In still deeper parts of the rock weathering of other minerals such as feldspars affects the chemistry raising the pH and resulting in saturation and precipitation of calcite. The more advanced these reactions become the higher is the pH and the lower is the carbonate content. The equilibrium concentrations of carbonate species are affected both by temperature and ionic strength of the waters, at high ionic strength especially the distribution between bicarbonate and carbonate ions is affected. The total concentration of carbonates in groundwaters is determined through complex interaction between calcite and carbonates in the water. In deep groundwaters which are closed for input of CO 2 the concentration is stated to be regulated by dissolution of calcium carbonate. In deep granitic groundwaters pH is stated to be buffered to 6.5 to 10, where a high pH would correspond to a low total carbonate concentration and often also a low calcium concentration and a low pH would correspond to high carbonae and calcium concentrations

  2. On Pure and (approximate) Strong Equilibria of Facility Location Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Telelis, Orestis A.

    2008-01-01

    We study social cost losses in Facility Location games, where n selfish agents install facilities over a network and connect to them, so as to forward their local demand (expressed by a non-negative weight per agent). Agents using the same facility share fairly its installation cost, but every ag......-approximate (e = 2.718...) strong equilibria and an upper bound of O(ln W) on SPoA (W is the sum of agents’ weights), which becomes tight Θ(ln n) for unweighted agents. Center for Algorithmic Game Theory, funded by the Carlsberg Foundation, Denmark.......We study social cost losses in Facility Location games, where n selfish agents install facilities over a network and connect to them, so as to forward their local demand (expressed by a non-negative weight per agent). Agents using the same facility share fairly its installation cost, but every...... networks we prove upper and lower bounds on PoS, while an O(ln n) upper bound implied by previous work is tight for non-metric networks. We also prove a constant upper bound for the SPoA of metric networks when strong equilibria exist. For the weighted game on general networks we prove existence of e...

  3. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  4. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  5. On the Relative Stability of CERES Reflected Shortwave and MISR and MODIS Visible Radiance Measurements During the Terra Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen years of visible, near-infrared, and broadband shortwave radiance measurements from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on board NASA's Terra satellite are analyzed in order to assess their long-term relative stability for climate purposes. A regression-based approach between CERES, MODIS, and MISR (An camera only) reflectances is used to calculate the bias between the different reflectances relative to a reference year. When compared to the CERES shortwave broadband reflectance, relative drift between the MISR narrowbands is within 1%/decade. Compared to the CERES shortwave reflectance, the MODIS narrowband reflectances show a relative drift of less than -1.33%/decade. When compared to MISR, the MODIS reflectances show a relative drift of between -0.36%/decade and -2.66%/decade. We show that the CERES Terra SW measurements are stable over the time period relative to CERES Aqua. Using this as evidence that CERES Terra may be absolutely stable, we suggest that the CERES, MISR, and MODIS instruments meet the radiometric stability goals for climate applications set out in Ohring et al. (2005).

  6. Structural Stability of Tokamak Equilibrium: Transport Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, E. R.

    2001-07-01

    A generalised theory of structural stability of differential equations is introduced and applied to the Grad-Shafranov equation. It is discussed how the formation and loss of transport barrier could be associated with the appearance/disappearance of equilibria. The equilibrium conjecture is presented: transport barriers are associated with locally diamagnetic regions in the plasma, and affected by the paramagnetism of the bootstrap current. (Author) 18 refs.

  7. Stability of and Factors Related to Medical Student Specialty Choice of Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N; Williams, D Keith; Spollen, John J

    2017-09-01

    Targeted efforts are needed to increase the number of medical students choosing psychiatry, but little is known about when students decide on their specialty or what factors influence their choice. The authors examined the timing and stability of student career choice of psychiatry compared with other specialties and determined what pre- and intra-medical school factors were associated with choosing a career in psychiatry. Using survey data from students who graduated from U.S. allopathic medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (N=29,713), the authors computed rates of psychiatry specialty choice at the beginning and end of medical school and assessed the stability of that choice. A multivariate-adjusted logistic regression and recursive partitioning were used to determine the association of 29 factors with psychiatry specialty choice. Choice of psychiatry increased from 1.6% at the start of medical school to 4.1% at graduation. The stability of psychiatry specialty choice from matriculation to graduation, at just over 50%, was greater than for any other specialty. However, almost 80% of future psychiatrists did not indicate an inclination toward the specialty at matriculation. A rating of "excellent" for the psychiatry clerkship (odds ratio=2.66), a major in psychology in college (odds ratio=2.58), and valuing work-life balance (odds ratio=2.25) were the factors most strongly associated with psychiatry career choice. Students who enter medical school planning to become psychiatrists are likely to do so, but the vast majority of students who choose psychiatry do so during medical school. Increasing the percentage of medical students with undergraduate psychology majors and providing an exemplary psychiatry clerkship are modifiable factors that may increase the rate of psychiatry specialty choice.

  8. Superhydrophobicity of biological and technical surfaces under moisture condensation: stability in relation to surface structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockenhaupt, Bernd; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Spaeth, Manuel; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2008-12-02

    The stability of superhydrophobic properties of eight plants and four technical surfaces in respect to water condensation has been compared. Contact and sliding angles were measured after application of water drops of ambient temperature (20 degrees C) onto cooled surfaces. Water evaporating from the drops condensed, due to the temperature difference between the drops and the surface, on the cooled samples, forming "satellite droplets" in the vicinity of the drops. Surface cooling to 15, 10, and 5 degrees C showed a gradual decrease of superhydrophobicity. The decrease was dependent on the specific surface architecture of the sample. The least decrease was found on hierarchically structured surfaces with a combination of a coarse microstructure and submicrometer-sized structures, similar to that of the Lotus leaf. Control experiments with glycerol droplets, which show no evaporation, and thus no condensation, were carried out to verify that the effects with water were caused by condensation from the drop (secondary condensation). Furthermore, the superhydrophobic properties after condensation on cooled surfaces from a humid environment for 10 min were examined. After this period, the surfaces were covered with spherical water droplets, but most samples retained their superhydrophobicity. Again, the best stability of the water-repellent properties was found on hierarchically structured surfaces similar to that of the Lotus leaf.

  9. Factors related to stability following the surgical correction of skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Goshi; Koh, Myongsun; Fujita, Tadashi; Shirakura, Maya; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tanne, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    If a skeletal anterior open bite malocclusion is treated by orthognathic surgery directed only at the mandible, the lower jaw is repositioned upward in a counter-clockwise rotation. However, this procedure has a high risk of relapse. In the present study, the key factors associated with post-surgical stability of corrected skeletal anterior open bite malocclusions were investigated. Eighteen orthognathic patients were subjected to cephalometric analysis to assess the dental and skeletal changes following mandibular surgery for the correction of an anterior open bite. The patients were divided into two groups, determined by an increase or decrease in nasion-menton (N-Me) distance as a consequence of surgery. Changes in overbite, the displacements of molars and positional changes in Menton were evaluated immediately before and after surgery and after a minimum of one year post-operatively. The group with a decreased N-Me distance exhibited a significantly greater backward positioning of the mandible. The group with an increased N-Me distance experienced significantly greater dentoalveolar extrusion of the lower molars. A sufficient mandibular backward repositioning is an effective technique in the prevention of open bite relapse. In addition, it is important not to induce molar extrusion during post-surgical orthodontic treatment to preserve stability of the surgical open bite correction.

  10. Relative Stabilities of Conserved and Non-Conserved Structures in the OB-Fold Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei T. Alexandrescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The OB-fold is a diverse structure superfamily based on a β-barrel motif that is often supplemented with additional non-conserved secondary structures. Previous deletion mutagenesis and NMR hydrogen exchange studies of three OB-fold proteins showed that the structural stabilities of sites within the conserved β-barrels were larger than sites in non-conserved segments. In this work we examined a database of 80 representative domain structures currently classified as OB-folds, to establish the basis of this effect. Residue-specific values were obtained for the number of Cα-Cα distance contacts, sequence hydrophobicities, crystallographic B-factors, and theoretical B-factors calculated from a Gaussian Network Model. All four parameters point to a larger average flexibility for the non-conserved structures compared to the conserved β-barrels. The theoretical B-factors and contact densities show the highest sensitivity.Our results suggest a model of protein structure evolution in which novel structural features develop at the periphery of conserved motifs. Core residues are more resistant to structural changes during evolution since their substitution would disrupt a larger number of interactions. Similar factors are likely to account for the differences in stability to unfolding between conserved and non-conserved structures.

  11. (Liquid plus liquid) equilibria of binary polymer solutions using a free-volume UNIQUAC-NRF model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.

    2006-01-01

    + liquid) equilibria (LLE) for a number of binary polymer solutions at various temperatures. The values for the binary characteristic energy parameters for the proposed model and the FV-UNIQUAC model along with their average relative deviations from the experimental data were reported. It should be stated...... that the binary polymer solutions studied in this work were considered as monodisperse. The results obtained from the FV-UNIQUAC-NRF model were compared with those obtained from the FV-UNIQUAC model. The results of the proposed model show that the FV-UNIQUAC-NRF model can accurately correlate the experimental...... in predicting the LCST for binary polymer solutions....

  12. Spectroscopic studies on U(VI)-salicylate complex formation with multiple equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, W.; Cho, H.R.; Jung, E.C.; Park, K.K.; Kim, W.H.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Chemistry Research Div.

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates multiple equilibria related to the formation of the U(VI)-salicylate complex in a pH range of 3.0-5.5 using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence measurement techniques. The absorbance changes at the characteristic charge-transfer bands of the complex were monitored, and the results indicated the presence of multiple equilibria and the formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 (U(VI):salicylate) complexes possessing bi-dentate chelate structures. The determined step-wise formation constants (log K{sub 1:1} and log K{sub 1:2}) are as follows: 12.5 {+-} 0.1 and 11.4 {+-} 0.2 for salicylate, 11.2 {+-} 0.1 and 10.1 {+-} 0.2 for 5-sulfosalicylate, and 12.4 {+-} 0.1 and 11.4 {+-} 0.1 for 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, respectively. The molar absorptivities of the complexes are also provided. Furthermore, time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectra of U(VI) species demonstrate the presence of both a dynamic and static quenching process upon the addition of a salicylate ligand. Particularly for the luminescent hydroxouranyl species, a strong static quenching effect is observed. The results suggest that both the UO{sub 2}(HSal){sup +} and the U(VI)-Sal chelate complexes serve as ground-state complexes that induce static quenching. The Stern-Volmer parameters were derived based on the measured luminescent intensity and lifetime data. The static quenching constants (log K{sub S}) obtained are 3.3 {+-} 0.1, 4.9 {+-} 0.1, and 4.4 {+-} 0.1 for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+} and (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup +}, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Spectroscopic studies on U(VI)-salicylate complex formation with multiple equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, W.; Cho, H.R.; Jung, E.C.; Park, K.K.; Kim, W.H.; Song, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates multiple equilibria related to the formation of the U(VI)-salicylate complex in a pH range of 3.0-5.5 using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence measurement techniques. The absorbance changes at the characteristic charge-transfer bands of the complex were monitored, and the results indicated the presence of multiple equilibria and the formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 (U(VI):salicylate) complexes possessing bi-dentate chelate structures. The determined step-wise formation constants (log K 1:1 and log K 1:2 ) are as follows: 12.5 ± 0.1 and 11.4 ± 0.2 for salicylate, 11.2 ± 0.1 and 10.1 ± 0.2 for 5-sulfosalicylate, and 12.4 ± 0.1 and 11.4 ± 0.1 for 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, respectively. The molar absorptivities of the complexes are also provided. Furthermore, time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectra of U(VI) species demonstrate the presence of both a dynamic and static quenching process upon the addition of a salicylate ligand. Particularly for the luminescent hydroxouranyl species, a strong static quenching effect is observed. The results suggest that both the UO 2 (HSal) + and the U(VI)-Sal chelate complexes serve as ground-state complexes that induce static quenching. The Stern-Volmer parameters were derived based on the measured luminescent intensity and lifetime data. The static quenching constants (log K S ) obtained are 3.3 ± 0.1, 4.9 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1 for UO 2 2+ , (UO 2 ) 2 (OH) 2 2+ and (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + , respectively. (orig.)

  14. Computation of solution equilibria: A guide to methods in potentiometry, extraction, and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloun, M.; Havel, J.; Hogfeldt, E.

    1988-01-01

    Although this book contains a very good review of computation methods applicable to equilibrium systems, most of the book is dedicated to the description and evaluation of computer programs available for doing such calculations. As stated in the preface, the authors (two computniks and a user of graphical and computer methods) have joined forces in order to present the reader with the points of view of both the creator and user of modern computer program tools available for the study of solution equilibria. The successful presentation of such a complicated amalgamation of concepts is greatly aided by the structure of the book, which begins with a brief but thorough discussion of equilibrium concepts in general, followed by an equally brief discussion of experimental methods used to study equilibria with potentiometric, extraction, and spectroscopic methods. These sections would not be sufficient to teach these topics to the beginner but offer an informative presentation of concepts in relation to one another to those already familiar with basic equilibrium concepts. The importance of evaluating and analyzing the suitability of data for further analysis is then presented before an in depth (by a chemist's standards) look at the individual parts that make up a detailed equilibrium analysis program. The next one-third of the book is an examination of specific equilibrium problems and the programs available to study them. These are divided into chapters devoted to potentiometric, extraction, and spectroscopic methods. The format is to discuss a variety of programs, one at a time, including the parts of the program, the types of problems to which it has been applied, and the program's limitations. A number of problems are then presented, which are representative of the type of questions that are normally addressed by research projects in the area

  15. Observations of temporal and spatial behaviour of plasmas in relation to the interchange stability boundary scaling in GAMMA 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, R.; Cho, T.; Kohagura, J.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of internal core plasma structural behaviour during the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) destabilization of the central cell plasmas are carried out by the use of our developed semiconductor x-ray detector arrays installed in both central cell and anchor regions of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. In the present paper, it is found from the developed x-ray diagnostics that the bulk plasmas rotate without a change in its shape and structure with an ExB velocity during the destabilization. The onset of the off-axis rotation is identified to be closely related to a scaling of the MHD stability boundary (i.e. the anchor beta requirements for stabilizing central cell hot ion plasmas). These data confirm pressure driven interchange instability in tandem mirror plasmas, and reveal the rigid rotational bulk plasma structure as the first demonstrated interior plasma property during the destabilization. (author)

  16. Antibiotic stability related to temperature variations in elastomeric pumps used for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Rachel; Van Neyghem, Niklas; Cochet, Camille; Gardiol, Céline; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Valliere, Serge

    2017-05-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be used for the continuous administration of antimicrobials in the outpatient setting. A potentially limiting factor in their use is the stability of antimicrobials. To investigate under real-life conditions the temperature variations of antibiotic solutions contained in elastomeric pumps, and to examine under such conditions the stability of five antibiotics. Healthy volunteers carried the elastomeric pumps in carry pouches during their daily activities. A thermologger measured the temperatures every 15 min over 24 h. Antibiotic concentrations were measured by HPLC coupled to tandem MS. During daytime, the temperature of solutions in the pumps increased steadily, warming to >30°C. During the night, when the pumps were kept attached to the waist, the temperatures reached up to 33°C. The use of white carry pouches avoided excessive temperature increases. Over seven experiments, cefazolin, cefepime, piperacillin and tazobactam were found to be stable over 24 h. Flucloxacillin showed a mean decrease in concentration of 11% ( P  = 0.001). Real-life situations can cause significant temperature rises in elastomeric pumps, thereby potentially increasing the risk of antibiotic degradation. Patients should be instructed to avoid situations causing excessive temperature increases. Despite these temperature variations, cefazolin, cefepime, piperacillin and tazobactam were found to be stable over 24 h. A moderate degradation was noticed for flucloxacillin, albeit most probably not to an extent that might impair anti-infective efficacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic functions for Ag-Hg and Cu-Hg binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yajun, E-mail: yajunliu@gatech.edu [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Wang, Guan [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Wang, Jiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Chen, Yang [Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Research Department, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Long, Zhaohui [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic properties of Ag-Hg and Cu-Hg are explored in order to facilitate dental materials design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A self-consistent set of thermodynamic parameters is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimental information can be well reproduced by the optimized thermodynamic data. - Abstract: In order to facilitate the computational design of new amalgams for novel dental alloys, the phase equilibria, phase diagrams and thermodynamic functions for Ag-Hg and Cu-Hg binary systems are explored in this work, based on the CALPHAD framework and experimental characterizations. The Gibbs free energies of the solution phases as well as the stoichiometric phases are calculated, with the aid of enthalpies of mixing, activities, enthalpies of formation, and phase equilibrium data. The thermodynamic descriptions provided in this work enable the stabilities of each phase at various temperatures and compositions to be well described, which contribute to the establishment of a general database to design novel metallic dental materials.

  18. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic functions for Ag–Hg and Cu–Hg binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yajun; Wang, Guan; Wang, Jiang; Chen, Yang; Long, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamic properties of Ag–Hg and Cu–Hg are explored in order to facilitate dental materials design. ► A self-consistent set of thermodynamic parameters is obtained. ► The experimental information can be well reproduced by the optimized thermodynamic data. - Abstract: In order to facilitate the computational design of new amalgams for novel dental alloys, the phase equilibria, phase diagrams and thermodynamic functions for Ag–Hg and Cu–Hg binary systems are explored in this work, based on the CALPHAD framework and experimental characterizations. The Gibbs free energies of the solution phases as well as the stoichiometric phases are calculated, with the aid of enthalpies of mixing, activities, enthalpies of formation, and phase equilibrium data. The thermodynamic descriptions provided in this work enable the stabilities of each phase at various temperatures and compositions to be well described, which contribute to the establishment of a general database to design novel metallic dental materials.

  19. Premelting, solid-fluid equilibria, and thermodynamic properties in the high density region based on the Lennard-Jones potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Andreas; Mausbach, Peter; Vrabec, Jadran

    2017-10-01

    The Lennard-Jones potential is used to study the high density fluid and face centered cubic solid state region, including solid-fluid equilibria. Numerous thermodynamic properties are considered, elucidating the behavior of matter in this poorly studied region. The present molecular simulation results are extensively compared to the latest and most accurate equation of state models for fluid and solid phases. It is shown that current models do not cover the thermodynamics of the system adequately near the solid-fluid phase transition. Furthermore, thermodynamic stability is analyzed, indicating that published solid-fluid coexistence data may not be correct at high temperatures. Particular attention is paid to the premelting zone, a range of states close to the melting line, which is characterized by strong variations of several thermodynamic properties. Because the underlying microscopic mechanisms are not yet fully understood, it is hoped that these data may contribute to the development of a theoretical framework for describing premelting effects.

  20. Microelectrode voltammetry of multi-electron transfers complicated by coupled chemical equilibria: a general theory for the extended square scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Eduardo; Gómez-Gil, José María; Molina, Angela

    2017-06-28

    A very general and simple theoretical solution is presented for the current-potential-time response of reversible multi-electron transfer processes complicated by homogeneous chemical equilibria (the so-called extended square scheme). The expressions presented here are applicable regardless of the number of electrons transferred and coupled chemical processes, and they are particularized for a wide variety of microelectrode geometries. The voltammetric response of very different systems presenting multi-electron transfers is considered for the most widely-used techniques (namely, cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and steady state voltammetry), studying the influence of the microelectrode geometry and the number and thermodynamics of the (electro)chemical steps. Most appropriate techniques and procedures for the determination of the 'interaction' between successive transfers are discussed. Special attention is paid to those situations where homogeneous chemical processes, such as protonation, complexation or ion association, affect the electrochemical behaviour of the system by different stabilization of the oxidation states.

  1. Recent developments in Bayesian inference of tokamak plasma equilibria and high-dimensional stochastic quadratures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Nessi, G T; Hole, M J

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results and technical breakthroughs for the Bayesian inference of tokamak equilibria using force-balance as a prior constraint. Issues surrounding model parameter representation and posterior analysis are discussed and addressed. These points motivate the recent advancements embodied in the Bayesian Equilibrium Analysis and Simulation Tool (BEAST) software being presently utilized to study equilibria on the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) experiment in the UK (von Nessi et al 2012 J. Phys. A 46 185501). State-of-the-art results of using BEAST to study MAST equilibria are reviewed, with recent code advancements being systematically presented though out the manuscript. (paper)

  2. Spectrophotometric study of the complexation equilibria of uranium(VI) with 1,4-bis(4'-methylanilino)anthraquinone and determination of uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, K.A.; Seleim, M.M.; Abu-Bakr, M.S.; Sedaira, H.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction of U(VI) with 1,4-bis(4'-methylanilino)anthraquinone (quinizarin green) in water-dimethylformamide medium was investigated spectrophotometrically. The complexation equilibria in solution were demonstrated. The study of the reaction in presence of equimolar concentrations or in solutions containing metal or ligand excess gave evidence for the formation of complexes with stoichiometric ratios of UO 2 :L = 1:1 and 1:2 in dependence on the pH of the medium. Their thermodynamic stabilities and the values of their molar absorption coefficients were determined. The optimum conditions for spectrophotometric determination of U(VI) with this reagent were found. (author)

  3. Spectrophotometric study of the complexation equilibria of lanthanum(III) with 1,4-bis(4'-methylanilino)anthraquinone and the determination of lanthanum(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, K.A.-R; El-Shahawy, A.S.; Sedaira, H.; Harfoush, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The complexation equilibria of lanthanum(III) with 1,4-bis(4'-methylanilino)anthraquinone (Quinizarin Green) were studied spectrophotometrically in 40% V/V dimethylformamide using graphical analysis of the absorbance curves. The reaction mechanism of lanthanum with the bisarylaminoanthraquinone dye within the pH range 6 to 9.25 was demonstrated. The thermodynamic stabilities and the molar absorptivities of the complexes formed were determined. The optimum conditions for the spectrophotometric determination of La(III) with this reagent were found. (author)

  4. Proceeding of 1999-workshop on MHD computations 'study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kako, T.; Watanabe, T. [eds.

    2000-06-01

    This is the proceeding of 'study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. There are also various lectures on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. Separate abstracts were presented for 13 of the papers in this report. The remaining 6 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  5. Storage and stability of organic carbon in soils as related to depth, occlusion within aggregates, and attachment to minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrumpf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models suggest that stability of organic carbon (OC in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Density fractionation is a useful tool to study the relevance of OC stabilization in aggregates and in association with minerals, but it has rarely been applied to full soil profiles. We aim to determine factors shaping the depth profiles of physically unprotected and mineral associated OC and test their relevance for OC stability across a range of European soils that vary in vegetation, soil types, parent material, and land use. At each of the 12 study sites, 10 soil cores were sampled to 60 cm depth and subjected to density separation. Bulk soil samples and density fractions (free light fractions – fLF, occluded light fractions – oLF, heavy fractions – HF were analysed for OC, total nitrogen (TN, δ14C, and Δ14C. Bulk samples were also incubated to determine CO2 evolution per g OC in the samples (specific mineralization rates as an indicator for OC stability. Depth profiles of OC in the light fraction (LF-OC matched those of roots for undisturbed grassland and forest sites, suggesting that roots are shaping the depth distribution of LF-OC. Organic C in the HF declined less with soil depth than LF-OC and roots, especially at grassland sites. The decrease in Δ14C (increase in age of HF-OC with soil depth was related to soil pH as well as to dissolved OC fluxes. This indicates that dissolved OC translocation contributes to the formation of subsoil HF-OC and shapes the Δ14C profiles. The LF at three sites were rather depleted in 14C, indicating the presence of fossil material such as coal and lignite, probably inherited from the parent material. At the other sites, modern Δ14C signatures and positive correlations between specific mineralization rates and fLF-OC indicate the fLF is a potentially available energy and

  6. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000–250 μm; 250–53 μm; and soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000–250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture. PMID:26423355

  7. Stabilization and relative phase effects in a dichromatically driven diatomic Morse molecule: interpretation based on nonlinear classical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantoudis, Vassilios; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A

    2005-02-22

    The dissociation dynamics of a dichromatically laser-driven diatomic Morse molecule vibrating in the ground state is investigated by applying tools of the nonlinear theory of classical Hamiltonian systems. Emphasis is placed on the role of the relative phase of the two fields, phi. First, it is found that, just like in quantum mechanics, there is dependence of the dissociation probability on phi. Then, it is demonstrated that addition of the second laser leads to suppression of probability (stabilization), when the intensity of the first laser is kept constant just above or below the single laser dissociation threshold. This "chemical bond hardening" diminishes as phi increases. These effects are investigated and interpreted in terms of modifications in phase space topology. Variations of phi as well as of the intensity of the second laser may cause (i) appearance/disappearance of the stability island corresponding to the common resonance with the lowest energy and (ii) deformation and movement of the region of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori that survive from the undriven system. The latter is the main origin in phase space of stabilization and phi dependence. Finally, it is shown that the use of short laser pulses enhances both effects.

  8. Equilibria and instabilities of a Slinky: Discrete model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Douglas P.; Borum, Andy D.; Moore, Billy F., III; Plaut, Raymond H.; Dillard, David A.

    2014-10-01

    The Slinky is a well-known example of a highly flexible helical spring, exhibiting large, geometrically nonlinear deformations from minimal applied forces. By considering it as a system of coils that act to resist axial, shearing, and rotational deformations, we develop a discretized model to predict the equilibrium configurations of a Slinky via the minimization of its potential energy. Careful consideration of the contact between coils enables this procedure to accurately describe the shape and stability of the Slinky under different modes of deformation. In addition, we provide simple geometric and material relations that describe a scaling of the general behavior of flexible, helical springs.

  9. Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens

    -liquid equilibria from data on binary mixtures, composed of structurally simple molecules with a single functional group. More complex is the situation with mixtures composed of structurally more complicated molecules or molecules with more than one functional group. The UNIFAC method is extended to handle...... on ideas applied to modelling of pure component properties. Chapter 2 describes the conceptual background of the approach. Three extensions of the present first-order UNIFAC model are formulated in chapter 3. These obey the Gibbs-Duhem restriction, and satisfy other traditional consistency requirements....... In chapter 4 parameters are estimated for the first-order UNIFAC model, based on which parameters are estimated for one of the second-order models described in chapter 3. The parameter estimation is based on measured binary data on around 4000 systems, covering 11 C-, H- and O-containing functional groups...

  10. Fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yanqiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Yemin; Xiang, Nong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The fixed boundary toroidal plasma equilibria with toroidal flows are investigated by solving the modified Grad-Shafranov equation numerically in the cylindrical coordinate system. For normal equilibrium configurations with geometry and profiles similar to usual tokamaks with no flow, it is found that the effect of flow is to lead to an outward shift of the magnetic flux surfaces, together with the profiles of pressure, and mass and current densities. The shifts could become significant when the toroidal flow Mach number exceeds 0.5. For non-conventional current profiles, even for the usual tokamak geometry, novel current reversal equilibrium configurations may result, sometimes with changed topology in the poloidal flux function. This change in the topology of plasma equilibrium can be attributed to the large toroidal flow. The computed results may correspond to situations of intense tangential injection during the low toroidal current phase in expected experimental situations.

  11. Rotational equilibria by Lagrangian variational principle: towards multidimensional stellar evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Fujisawa, Kotaro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a new formulation to obtain self-gravitating, axisymmetric configurations in permanent rotation. The formulation is based on the Lagrangian variational principle with a triangulated mesh. It treats not only barotropic but also baroclinic equations of state. We compare the various stellar equilibria obtained by our new scheme with those by Hachisu's self-consistent field scheme for the barotropic case, and those by Fujisawa's self-consistent field scheme for the baroclinic case. Included in these rotational configurations are those with shellular-type rotations, which are commonly assumed in the evolution calculation of rotating stars. Although radiation processes, convections and meridional flows have not been taken into account in this study, we have in mind the application of this method to the two-dimensional evolution calculations of rotating stars, for which the Lagrangian formulation is best suited.

  12. A new transiently chaotic flow with ellipsoid equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Aram, Zainab; Jafari, Sajad; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Volos, Christos; Rajagopal, Karthikeyan

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a simple autonomous transiently chaotic flow with cubic nonlinearities is proposed. This system represents some unusual features such as having a surface of equilibria. We shall describe some dynamical properties and behaviours of this system in terms of eigenvalue structures, bifurcation diagrams, time series, and phase portraits. Various behaviours of this system such as periodic and transiently chaotic dynamics can be shown by setting special parameters in proper values. Our system belongs to a newly introduced category of transiently chaotic systems: systems with hidden attractors. Transiently chaotic behaviour of our proposed system has been implemented and tested by the OrCAD-PSpise software. We have found a proper qualitative similarity between circuit and simulation results.

  13. Tautomeric equilibria in solutions of 1-methyl-2-phenacylbenzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicka, Agnieszka; Czeleń, Przemysław; Gawinecki, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Until now the susceptibility of 1-methyl-2-phenacylbenzimidazoles to the proton transfer has not been carefully examined. There only have been selective trials to recognize tautomeric equilibrium of substituted compounds. Unfortunately, conclusions of these studies are often conflicting. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the influence of the factors affecting the tautomeric processes of substituted 1-methyl-2-phenacylbenzimidazoles in solutions of chloroform by spectroscopic technique of 1H and 13C NMR. Complex equilibria may only take place when molecules of tautomeric species contain multiple basic and/or acidic centres. Analysis of NMR spectra show unequivocally that 1-methyl-2-phenacylbenzimidazoles (ketimine tautomeric form) are in equilibrium with (Z)-2-(1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2yl)-1-phenylethenols (enolimine).

  14. Phase equilibria and molecular interaction studies on (naphthols + vanillin) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Preeti; Agrawal, Tanvi; Das, Shiva Saran; Singh, Nakshatra Bahadur

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibria of (naphthol + vanillin) systems have been studied for the first time. ► Eutectic type phase diagrams are obtained. ► Eutectic mixtures show nonideal behaviour. ► There is a weak molecular interaction between the components in the eutectic mixtures. ► α-Naphthol–vanillin eutectic is more stable as compared to β-naphthol–vanillin. - Abstract: Phase equilibria between (α-naphthol + vanillin) and (β-naphthol + vanillin) systems have been studied by thaw-melt method and the results show the formation of simple eutectic mixtures. Crystallization velocities of components and eutectic mixtures were determined at different stages under cooling. With the help of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), the enthalpy of fusion of components and eutectic mixtures was determined and from the values excess thermodynamic functions viz., excess Gibbs free energy (G E ), excess entropy (S E ), excess enthalpy (H E ) of hypo-, hyper- and eutectic mixtures were calculated. Flexural strength measurements were made in order to understand the non-ideal nature of eutectics. FT-IR spectral studies indicate the formation of hydrogen bond in the eutectic mixture. Anisotropic and isotropic microstructural studies of components, hypo-, hyper- and eutectic mixtures were made. Jackson’s roughness parameter was calculated and found to be greater than 2 suggesting the faceted morphology with irregular structures. The overall results have shown that there is a weak molecular interaction between the components in the eutectic mixtures and the (α-naphthol + vanillin) eutectic is more stable as compared to the (β-naphthol + vanillin) eutectic system.

  15. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project ''Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)'' for the eighteen month period of January 1, 1987 to June 10, 1988. This final report was preceded by the final report for the initial six month period, July 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986 (submitted on January 25, 1987, and revised in June 1987.) Quaternary Tectonics, Geochemical, Mineral Deposits, Vulcanic Geology, Seismology, Tectonics, Neotectonics, Remote Sensing, Geotechnical Assessments, Geotechnical Rock Mass Assessments, Basinal Studies, and Strong Ground Motion

  16. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain Area Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project open-quotes Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).close quotes A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1993 to 30 September 1994. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks which are listed below. Task 1: Quaternary Tectonics Task 3: Mineral Deposits, Volcanic Geology Task 4: Seismology Task 5: Tectonics Task 8: Basinal Studies

  17. Theoretical study on the adsorption and relative stability of conformers of L-ascorbic acid on γ - alumina (100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari Majd, M.; Dabbagh, H. A.; Farrokhpour, H.; Najafi Chermahini, A.

    2017-11-01

    The adsorption energies (Eads) and relative stabilities of selected conformers of the most stable tautomer of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on the dehydroxylated γ-alumina (100) surface were calculated in both gas phase and solvent (water) using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The selected conformers were related to the different rotational angles of OH groups of L-ascorbic acid. The conformational analysis of bare tautomer in both gas and water showed that the conformer No.20 (conf. 20) and 13 (conf. 13) with the dihedral angles of H15sbnd O10sbnd C11sbnd C9 (-73°) and H20sbnd O19sbnd C9sbnd C11 (-135°) were the most stable and unstable conformers, respectively. The performed calculations in the presence of surface showed that the interaction of the conformers with the surface changes their relative stabilities and structures in both gas phase and water. The Ead of each conformer was calculated and it was determined that conf. 8 and conf. 16 have the highest value of Ead in the gas phase (-62.56 kcal/mol) and water (-54.44 kcal/mol), respectively. The optimized structure of each conformer on the surface and the number of hydrogen bonds between it and surface along with their bond lengths were determined.

  18. Sonochemical Effects on 14 Flavonoids Common in Citrus: Relation to Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liping; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Rongrong; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Xin; Chen, Jianchu; Shen, Yan; Ye, Xingqian

    2014-01-01

    The sonochemical effects of ultrasound (US) treatment on 14 flavonoids representing the main flavonoids in citrus fruit were investigated in a standard mixture by stability evaluation of a model system. Degradation products were further tentatively identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet detection–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Thirteen flavonoids (i.e., eriocitrin, narirutin, neohesperidin, quercitrin, eridictyol, didymin, naringenin, luteolin, sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin, and hesperidin) were fairly stable whereas quercetin was degraded significantly by US treatment. The types of solvent and temperature used were important factors that determined the resulting degradation reactions. The degradation rate of quercetin was highest in 80% ethanol aqueous solution and decreased with increasing temperature. Longer US durations caused increases in the extent of quercetin degradation. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity, pulse length, and duty cycle of US affected degradation rates but did not change the nature of degradation of the flavonoids. Four types of reactions occurred simultaneously for quercetin under US treatment: oxidation, addition, polymerization, and decomposition. Eight degradation products were tentatively identified as dimer, alcohol addition, oxidation, and decomposition products. PMID:24516562

  19. Fixed Points and Fuzzy Stability of Functional Equations Related to Inner Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Azadi Kenary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In , Th.M. Rassias introduced the following equality sum_{i,j=1}^m |x_i - x_j |^2 = 2m sum_{i=1}^m|x_i|^2, qquad sum_{i=1}^m x_i =0 for a fixed integer $m ge 3$. Let $V, W$ be real vector spaces. It is shown that if a mapping $f : V ightarrow W$ satisfies sum_{i,j=1}^m f(x_i - x_j = 2m sum_{i=1}^m f(x_i for all $x_1, ldots, x_{m} in V$ with $sum_{i=1}^m x_i =0$, then the mapping $f : V ightarrow W$ is realized as the sum of an additive mapping and a quadratic mapping. From the above equality we can define the functional equation f(x-y +f(2x+y + f(x+2y= 3f(x+ 3f(y + 3f(x+y , which is called a {it quadratic functional equation}. Every solution of the quadratic functional equation is said to be a {it quadratic mapping}. Using fixed point theorem we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the functional equation ( in fuzzy Banach spaces.

  20. A study of facilities relative to stabilization of uranium mill tailings at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The total project capital cost of facilities to stabilize uranium mill tailings at Elliot Lake while producing 350,000 short tons per year of sulphuric acid and 266,000 short tons per year of triple superphosphate is approximately 153 million dollars. This includes pyrite flotation, roasting, acid and phosphate production, site preparation, utilities and project overhead. A new operating credit of 20.43 dollars per short ton of acid is estimated, achieved from the sale of steam and fertilizer. Two alternatives to the above were also examined, as follows: a) Production of 596,000 short tons per year of acid, and the sale of 246,000 short tons which are in excess of the Elliot Lake mill's requirement. The capital cost of this scheme is approximately 89 million dollars, with a net operating credit of 14.97 dollars per short ton of acid. b) Production of only 350,000 short tons per year of acid. This would entail disposal of the excess pyrite floated from the Rio Algom mills. The capital cost of this scheme is approximately 75 million dollars, with an operating cost of 10.47 dollars per short ton of acid

  1. Sonochemical effects on 14 flavonoids common in citrus: relation to stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Qiao

    Full Text Available The sonochemical effects of ultrasound (US treatment on 14 flavonoids representing the main flavonoids in citrus fruit were investigated in a standard mixture by stability evaluation of a model system. Degradation products were further tentatively identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Thirteen flavonoids (i.e., eriocitrin, narirutin, neohesperidin, quercitrin, eridictyol, didymin, naringenin, luteolin, sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, naringin, and hesperidin were fairly stable whereas quercetin was degraded significantly by US treatment. The types of solvent and temperature used were important factors that determined the resulting degradation reactions. The degradation rate of quercetin was highest in 80% ethanol aqueous solution and decreased with increasing temperature. Longer US durations caused increases in the extent of quercetin degradation. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity, pulse length, and duty cycle of US affected degradation rates but did not change the nature of degradation of the flavonoids. Four types of reactions occurred simultaneously for quercetin under US treatment: oxidation, addition, polymerization, and decomposition. Eight degradation products were tentatively identified as dimer, alcohol addition, oxidation, and decomposition products.

  2. Extensions of the stability theorem of the Minkowski space in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bieri, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    A famous result of Christodoulou and Klainerman is the global nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime. In this book, Bieri and Zipser provide two extensions to this result. In the first part, Bieri solves the Cauchy problem for the Einstein vacuum equations with more general, asymptotically flat initial data, and describes precisely the asymptotic behavior. In particular, she assumes less decay in the power of r and one less derivative than in the Christodoulou-Klainerman result. She proves that in this case, too, the initial data, being globally close to the trivial data, yields a solution which is a complete spacetime, tending to the Minkowski spacetime at infinity along any geodesic. In contrast to the original situation, certain estimates in this proof are borderline in view of decay, indicating that the conditions in the main theorem on the decay at infinity on the initial data are sharp. In the second part, Zipser proves the existence of smooth, global solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations. A n...

  3. Development and validation of a stability-indicating UPLC method for rosuvastatin and its related impurities in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosula Venkat Ram Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a novel stability-indicating reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography method for the separation and quantification of rosuvastatin (RSV and its related impurities in the pharmaceutical dosage forms under forced degradation conditions. An unknown degradation impurity detected in the acid degradation was identified by using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was carried out on C-18 column (100 x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm using isocratic elution with methanol and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (50:50. The total run time was 12 min within which RSV as well as all related impurities and degradation products were separated. The developed method was validated for RSV and related impurities in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  4. Closeness discrepancies in romantic relationships: implications for relational well-being, stability, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Forrester, Cat

    2013-04-01

    Experiences of closeness in romantic relationships are associated with heightened levels of relational well-being and mental health. However, individuals differ in the degree of closeness they desire in their relationships. This study used the construct of inclusion of other in self (IOS) to analyze discrepancies between individuals' actual and ideal levels of closeness in their relationships and the implications of these discrepancies for relational well-being and mental health. A longitudinal survey of partnered individuals demonstrated that optimal levels of relational well-being and mental health existed when individuals had minimal discrepancies between actual and ideal IOS, regardless of their actual levels of IOS. Individuals whose actual levels of IOS moved closer to their ideal levels over a 2-year period reported improved relational well-being and mental health. Individuals with little to no discrepancies between actual and ideal IOS were also less likely to break-up with their partners over time.

  5. Relative stability and significance of dawsonite and aluminum minerals in geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William

    2011-04-01

    Computer simulations predict dawsonite, NaAlCO3(OH)2, will provide long-term mineral sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 whereas dawsonite rarely occurs in nature or in laboratory experiments that emulate a carbon repository. Resolving this discrepancy is important to determining the significance of dawsonite mineralization to the long-term security of geologic carbon sequestration. This study is an equilibrium-based experimental and modeling evaluation of underlying causes for inconsistencies between predicted and observed dawsonite stability. Using established hydrothermal methods, 0.05 molal NaHCO3 aqueous solution and synthetic dawsonite were reacted for 18.7 days (449.2 hours) at 50°C, 20 MPa. Temperature was increased to 75°C and the experiment continued for an additional 12.3 days (295.1 hours). Incongruent dissolution yielded a dawsonite-gibbsite-nordstrandite assemblage. Geochemical simulations using Geochemist's Workbench and the resident database thermo.com.V8.R6+ incorrectly predicted a dawsonite-diaspore assemblage and underestimated dissolved aluminum by roughly 100 times. Higher aqueous aluminum concentrations in the experiment suggest that dawsonite or diaspore is less stable than predicted. Simulations employing an alternate database, thermo.dat, correctly predict dawsonite and dawsonite-gibbsite assemblages at 50 and 75°C, respectively, although dissolved aluminum concentrations are still two to three times lower than experimentally measured values. Correctly reproducing dawsonite solubility in standard geochemical simulations requires an as yet undeveloped internally consistent thermodynamic database among dawsonite, gibbsite, boehmite, diaspore, aqueous aluminum complexes and other Al-phases such as albite and kaolinite. These discrepancies question the ability of performance assessment models to correctly predict dawsonite mineralization in a sequestration site.

  6. Multi-Equilibria Regulation Agent-Based Model of Opinion Dynamics in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Koulouris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the Multiple Equilibria Regulation (MER model, i.e., an agent-based simulation model, to represent opinion dynamics in social networks. It relies on a small set of micro-prerequisites (intra-individual balance and confidence bound, leading to emergence of (nonstationary macro-outcomes. These outcomes may refer to consensus, polarization or fragmentation of opinions about taxation (e.g., congestion pricing or other policy measures, according to the way communication is structured. In contrast with other models of opinion dynamics, it allows for the impact of both the regulation of intra-personal discrepancy and the interpersonal variability of opinions on social learning and network dynamics. Several simulation experiments are presented to demonstrate, through the MER model, the role of different network structures (complete, star, cellular automata, small-world and random graphs on opinion formation dynamics and the overall evolution of the system. The findings can help to identify specific topological characteristics, such as density, number of neighbourhoods and critical nodes-agents, that affect the stability and system dynamics. This knowledge can be used to better organize the information diffusion and learning in the community, enhance the predictability of outcomes and manage possible conflicts. It is shown that a small-world organization, which depicts more realistic aspects of real-life and virtual social systems, provides increased predictability and stability towards a less fragmented and more manageable grouping of opinions, compared to random networks. Such macro-level organizations may be enhanced with use of web-based technologies to increase the density of communication and public acceptability of policy measures.

  7. A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Chatelier's Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a process that can be used to illustrate a number of chemical principles including Le Chatelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species. (JRH)

  8. Calculation for liquid-liquid equilibria of quaternary alkane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water systems used in counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Zhao, Mengqiang; Yu, Yanmei; Li, Zongcheng

    2007-06-01

    The calculation of liquid-liquid equilibrium compositions of solvent systems is very important for the work on counter-current chromatography (CCC), especially the phase composition and volume ratio obtained from liquid-liquid equilibrium calculation. In this work, liquid-liquid equilibria of quaternary Arizona solvent systems, alkane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water, and related ternary systems are correlated and predicted using the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). Hexane, heptane and isooctane are the used alkanes. The parameters in the model are regressed only with the special systems considered. Detailed comparison with experimental data shows that liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems can be predicted with greatly improved accuracy as compared to the group contribution method (UNIFAC).

  9. Stability of age-related deficits in the mnemonic similarity task across task variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Shauna M; Stevenson, Rebecca; Wu, Claudia; Rutledge, Samantha; Stark, Craig E L

    2015-06-01

    Several studies in our lab and others have demonstrated age-related declines in mnemonic discrimination during a recognition memory paradigm using repeated items, similar lures, and novel foils. In particular, older adults exhibit a shift in lure discriminability, identifying similar lures as old items at a greater rate than young adults. This shift likely reflects deficits in pattern separation processing as a result of underlying changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Here, we explored whether alterations in the task design could rescue the age-related impairment or whether it was ubiquitous as one might expect if the neurobiological mechanisms were truly disturbed by typical aging. Despite overt instructions to study item details during encoding, we replicated the age-related deficit in mnemonic discrimination. We established reliable effects with short lists of stimuli and with repeated testing. Altering the task design from a study/test to a continuous recognition paradigm replicated the age-related shift in lure discrimination as well. Modifying the task to an old/new response (rather than old/similar/new) showed the same effect and a d' analysis showed that lure items were more akin to target items in older adults. Finally, we varied the test instructions in order to promote gist or veridical responses in the old/new task. Even these overt veridical test instructions did not ameliorate older adults' lure discrimination problems. Together, these findings demonstrate the robust nature of this age-related deficit and support the hypothesis that typical aging results in neurobiological changes that underlie this impairment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A validated stability indicating DAD–HPLC method for determination of pentoxifylline in presence of its pharmacopeial related substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Korany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A validated, simple and sensitive stability-indicating HPLC method was introduced for the analysis of Pentoxifylline in the presence of its pharmacopeial related substances, Caffeine anhydrous and Theophylline anhydrous, in the presence of its forced degradation products. This was achieved using a gradient DAD–HPLC method in order to achieve a good separation between the related substance peaks, complying with the pharmacopeial requirement, and an adequate retention time for the Pentoxifylline peak. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and different HPLC parameters were optimized for the determination of Pentoxifylline in its dosage form (sustained release tablets. Furthermore, the study of forced degradation of Pentoxifylline was done under various conditions including; hydrolysis (acid, alkaline and neutral, oxidation, dry heat and photo-decomposition. The proposed method could separate Pentoxifylline peak from those of the different forced degradation product peaks and the purity of the Pentoxifylline peak was confirmed using the photo-diode array detector.

  11. Impact of xanthohumol (a prenylated flavonoid from hops) on DNA stability and other health-related biochemical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferk, Franziska; Mišík, Miroslav; Nersesyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    in single cell gel electrophoresis assays in lymphocytes and of several health-related biomarkers. A decrease of oxidatively damaged purines and protection toward reactive oxygen species induced DNA damage was found after the consumption of the beverage; also the excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2......SCOPE: Xanthohumol (XN) is a hop flavonoid found in beers and refreshment drinks. Results of in vitro and animal studies indicate that it causes beneficial health effects due to DNA protective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and phytoestrogenic properties. Aim of the present study was to find out...... if XN causes alterations of health-related parameters in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of the flavonoid were investigated in a randomized crossover intervention trial (n = 22) in which the participants consumed a XN drink (12 mg XN/P/day). We monitored alterations of the DNA stability...

  12. Cyanoform and Its Isomers. Relative Stabilities, Spectroscopic Features, and Rearrangements by Coupled Cluster and MCSCF-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Marek; Moc, Jerzy

    2017-02-16

    Although an isolation of elusive tricyanomethane HC(CN) 3 was recently reported, the existence of other HC 4 N 3 species has yet to be confirmed. In this work, the relative stabilities, spectroscopic features, and rearrangements of tricyanomethane and its four isomers are examined using single- (CCSD(T), CCSD(T)-F12) and multireference (MCSCF, MRPT2) methods. Tricyanomethane and dicyanoketenimine (NC) 2 CCNH, which are found to be the two most stable HC 4 N 3 isomers lying within 9 kcal/mol, can be discriminated by their spectroscopic parameters. The predicted stepwise interconversion path relating HC(CN) 3 and (NC) 2 CCNH features the HC 4 N 3 species comprising the C-C-N ring moiety, with the largest barrier being associated with the initial H migration to one of the CN carbons. Adding a water molecule reduces the H migration barrier strongly and makes it possible to interconvert tricyanomethane to dicyanoketenimine in a "concerted" way.

  13. Tensor pressure tokamak equilibrium and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.A.

    1981-03-01

    We investigate the equilibrium and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamaks with tensor pressure and examine, in particular, the effects of anisotropies induced by neutral beam injection. Perpendicular and parallel beam pressure components are evaluated by taking moments of a distribution function obtained from the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation that models the injection of high-energy neutral beams into a tokamak. We numerically generate D-shaped beam-induced tensor pressure equilibria. A double adiabatic energy principle is derived from a modified version of the guiding center plasma energy principle. Finally, we apply the tensor pressure ballooning mode equation to computed equilibria that model experimentally determined ISX-B discharge profiles with high-power neutral beam injection. We predict that the plasma is unstable to flutelike modes in the central core of the discharge as a result of the pressure profile peakedness induced by the beams.

  14. Relations between transfer matrices and numerical stability analysis to avoid the $\\Omega d$ problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Pernas-Salomón, R.; Velasco, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is usually employed to study problems described by $N$ equations of matrix Sturm-Liouville (MSL) kind. In some cases a numerical degradation (the so called $\\Omega d$ problem) appears thus impairing the performance of the method. We present here a procedure that can overcome this problem in the case of multilayer systems having piecewise constant coefficients. This is performed by studying the relations between the associated transfer matrix and other transfer matri...

  15. Gas Hydrate Stability and Sampling: The Future as Related to the Phase Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dendy Sloan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The phase diagram for methane + water is explained, in relation to hydrate applications, such as in flow assurance and in nature. For natural applications, the phase diagram determines the regions for hydrate formation for two- and three-phase conditions. Impacts are presented for sample preparation and recovery. We discuss an international study for “Round Robin” hydrate sample preparation protocols and testing.

  16. Gas hydrate stability and sampling: the future as related to the phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, E. D.; Koh, C. A.; Sum, A. K. [Center for Hydrate Research, Chemical Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The phase diagram for methane plus water is explained, in relation to hydrate applications, such as in flow assurance and in nature. For natural applications, the phase diagram determines the regions for hydrate formation for two- and three-phase conditions. Impacts are presented for sample preparation and recovery. We discuss an international study for 'Round Robin' hydrate sample preparation protocols and testing. (authors)

  17. Stability of stationary-axisymmetric black holes in vacuum general relativity to axisymmetric electromagnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider arbitrary stationary and axisymmetric black holes in general relativity in (d +1) dimensions (with d ≥slant 3 ) that satisfy the vacuum Einstein equation and have a non-degenerate horizon. We prove that the canonical energy of axisymmetric electromagnetic perturbations is positive definite. This establishes that all vacuum black holes are stable to axisymmetric electromagnetic perturbations. Our results also hold for asymptotically de Sitter black holes that satisfy the vacuum Einstein equation with a positive cosmological constant. Our results also apply to extremal black holes provided that the initial perturbation vanishes in a neighborhood of the horizon.

  18. Adsorption equilibria and kinetics for phenol and cresol onto polymeric adsorbents: effects of adsorbents/adsorbates structure and interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Qiang; Xia, Ming-Fang; Yao, San-Li; Li, Ai-Min; Wu, Hai-Suo; Chen, Jin-Long

    2008-04-01

    Phenol and cresol (o-, m-, and p-) were selected as the adsorbates with different dipole moment (cresol>phenol, methyl being electron-drawing group) and solubility (phenol>cresol, methyl being hydrophobic group). Macropore polymers (NDA-1800 and XAD-4), hypercrosslinked polymers (NDA-100), and chemically modified adsorbents (NDA-150 and NDA-99), were comparatively used to investigate the adsorption properties including equilibria, thermodynamics and kinetics. First, all of the results about equilibria show that the adsorption data fit well to the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacity of NDA-99 and NDA-150 especially for phenol is larger in a certain extent than other three types of polymers. The hydrophobic interaction from large specific surface was mainly occurred, while the polar groups containing oxygen and amine markedly enhance the adsorption process via hydrogen interaction. Furthermore, the adsorption amount for NDA-99 and XAD-4 decrease linearly with the solubility of solutes tested. Then, the negative values of enthalpy demonstrate the predominantly exothermic and physical solid-extraction processes. Finally, the relatively more rapid adsorption process could be found onto NDA-150 than NDA-99, with the reason of the double larger pore size of the former. In conclusion, solubility of solute, together with surface area, pore size and modified groups, extremely exerts influences to the adsorption performances.

  19. Developmental success, stability, and plasticity in closely related parthenogenetic and sexual lizards (Heteronotia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The developmental trajectory of an organism is influenced by the interaction between its genes and the environment in which it develops. For example, the phenotypic traits of a hatchling reptile can be influenced by the organism's genotype, by incubation temperature, and by genetically coded norms of reaction for thermally labile traits. The evolution of parthenogenesis provides a unique opportunity to explore such effects: a hybrid origin of this trait in vertebrates modifies important aspects of the genotype (e.g., heterozygosity, polyploidy) and may thus impact not only on the phenotype generally, but also on the ways in which incubation temperature affects expression of the phenotype. The scarcity of vertebrate parthenogenesis has been attributed to developmental disruptions, but previous work has rarely considered reaction norms of embryogenesis in this respect. We used closely related sexual and asexual races of the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, which include those with multiple origins of parthenogenesis, to explore the ways in which reproductive modes (sexual, asexual), incubation temperatures (24, 27, and 30 degrees C), and the interaction between these factors affected hatchling phenotypes. The hatchling traits we considered included incubation period, incidence of deformities, hatchling survivorship, body size and shape, scalation (including fluctuating asymmetry), locomotor performance, and growth rate. Developmental success was slightly reduced (higher proportion of abnormal offspring) in parthenogenetic lineages although there was no major difference in hatching success. Incubation temperature affected a suite of traits including incubation period, tail length, body mass relative to egg mass, labial scale counts, running speed, growth rate, and hatchling survival. Our data also reveal an interaction between reproductive modes and thermal regimes, with the phenotypic traits of parthenogenetic lizards less sensitive to incubation temperature than

  20. Aluminum deoxidation equilibria and inclusion modification mechanism by calcium treatment of stainless steel melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Sang Beom

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic equilibrium between aluminum and oxygen along with the inclusion morphology in Fe-16%Cr stainless steel was investigated to understand the fundamentals of aluminum deoxidation technology for ferritic stainless steels. Further, the effects of calcium addition on the changes in chemistry and morphology of inclusions were discussed. The measured results for aluminum-oxygen equilibria exhibit relatively good agreement with the calculated values, indicating that the introduction of the first- and second-order interaction parameters, recently reported, is reasonable to numerically express aluminum deoxidation equilibrium in a ferritic stainless steel. In the composition of dissolved aluminum content greater than about 60 ppm, pure alumina particles were observed, while the alumino-manganese silicates containing Cr 2 O 3 were appeared at less than 20 mass ppm of dissolved aluminum. The formation of calcium aluminate inclusions after Ca treatment could be discussed based on the thermodynamic equilibrium with calcium, aluminum, and oxygen in the steel melts. In the composition of steel melt with relatively high content of calcium and low aluminum, the log(X CaO /X Al 2 O 3 ) of inclusions linearly increases with increasing the log [a Ca /a Al 2 ·a O 2 ] with the slope close to unity. However, the slope of the line is significantly lower than the expected value in the composition of steel melt with relatively low calcium and high aluminum contents

  1. Stability of a power law relation between characteristics of earthquakes and electric precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dologlou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available New data were used to test the credibility of a previously reported power law relation between the stress drop of earthquakes and the lead time of precursory SES. Here, we found that the critical exponent of this power law is very sensitive and remains stable around 0.33 only for appropriate sets of data. This value is in full agreement with the reported one in literature for critical phenomena. That means this power law is not an artifact, but probably implies that real physical dynamic processes evolving to criticality are present in the pre-focal area when the SES is emitted. An attempt to advance the underlying physics of the interconnection of the stress drop and the lead time of the precursory SES is still in progress.

  2. Relative Sea-Level Stability in Natuna Island, Indonesia, since 6400 yr BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J. X. W.; Meltzner, A. J.; Switzer, A.; Horton, B.; Ke, L.; Wang, X.; Bradley, S.; Natawidjaja, D.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the regional variability of relative sea level (RSL) due to glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) and other natural influences, high-precision records of Holocene RSL on the Sunda Shelf are required. Accurate estimates of past RSL at a variety of locations allow us to validate geophysical and climate models, and provide context for understanding modern RSL change in the face of global climate change. For the aforementioned purposes, we surveyed and dated coral microatoll colonies, which are precise RSL proxy archives, from Natuna Island in Indonesia. Our analysis of 11 coral microatoll elevations from a total of four sites on Natuna Island is constrained in time by a minimum of one radiocarbon date and one U-Th age on each microatoll. The distribution of ages and elevations indicates that RSL was relatively stable from 6400 to 1400 yr BP at 0.3-0.6 m higher than present, before a more recent fall to current levels. The radiocarbon and U-Th ages are consistent with one another, with preliminary estimates of ΔR ≈ 0 for our entire data set. Our data are roughly compatible with predictions of a recently developed GIA model for the Southeast Asia region (Bradley et al., 2016, Quat. Sci. Rev.). This new dataset is part of larger project with more than 25 sites in Malaysia and Indonesia. Our new constraints on past RSL on the Sunda Shelf will allow for validation and calibration of GIA models in the tropics, where RSL data are presently insufficient.

  3. Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2012-08-01

    Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. Risk perception of MPBS was strongly associated with concerns about various other risks like side effects of medications, air pollution or electric power lines. Persons showing more anxiety, depression, or stress were more often concerned about MPBS and also more often attributed health complaints to MPBS. 46.7% of those concerned about MPBS in 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time.

  4. Relative stability of conventional and locked plating fixation in a model of the osteoporotic femoral diaphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel C; Doornink, Josef; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the stiffness and strength of bridge plating with uni-cortical and bi-cortical locking plate constructs relative to a conventional, non-locked construct in the osteoporotic femoral diaphysis. Four bridge plating configurations were applied to a validated model of the osteoporotic femoral diaphysis. A non-locked conventional configuration served as baseline. Locked configurations included bi-cortical locked plating, uni-cortical locked plating and mix-mode locked plating, which combined uni and bi-cortical locking screws. For all configurations, an 11-hole plate was applied with 4.5-mm screws placed in the 1st, 3rd, and 5th plate hole. Five specimens of each configuration were dynamically loaded until failure in torsion, axial compression, and bending to determine construct stiffness, strength and failure modes. In torsion and bending, locked plating constructs provided a significantly lower stiffness and strength than the conventional construct. The uni-cortical locked construct was 69% weaker (Ptorsion than the conventional construct, but its torsional strength improved 73% (Pbending and torsion compared to conventional plating. Adding one bi-cortical locked screw to an otherwise uni-cortical construct is recommended to improve torsional strength.

  5. Stability Analysis of a Rigid Body with a Flexible Attachment Using the Energy-Casimir Method

    OpenAIRE

    Posbergh, T. A.; Krishnaprasad, Perinkulam S.; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    1987-01-01

    We consider a system consisting of a rigid body to which a linear extensible shear beam is attached. For such a system the Energy-Casimir method can be used to investigate the stability of the equilibria. In the case we consider, it can be shown that a test for (formal) stability reduces to checking the positive definiteness of two matrices which depend on the parameters of the system and the particular equilibrium about which the stability is to be ascertained.

  6. The influence of Ni additions on the relative stability of η and η′ Cu6Sn5

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2010-02-09

    We investigate how 5 at. % Ni influences the relative stability of η and η′ Cu6Sn5. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction shows that, while Cu6Sn5 exists as η′ at 25 and 150 °C and transforms to η on heating to 200 °C, Cu5.5Ni0.5Sn5 is best fit to η throughout 25–200 °C. Our first principles calculations predict that η′ is stable at T=0 K in both Cu6Sn5 and Cu5.5Ni0.5Sn5, but that the energy difference is substantially reduced from 1.21 to 0.90 eV per 22 atom cell by the Ni addition. This effect is attributed to Ni developing distinct bonding to both Cu and Sn in the η phase.

  7. Data Requirements and Modeling for Gas Hydrate-Related Mixtures and a Comparison of Two Association Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Aloupis, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2017-01-01

    the performance of the CPA and sPC-SAFT EOS for modeling the fluid-phase equilibria of gas hydrate-related systems and will try to explore how the models can help in suggesting experimental measurements. These systems contain water, hydrocarbon (alkane or aromatic), and either methanol or monoethylene glycol...... parameter sets have been chosen for the sPC-SAFT EOS for a fair comparison. The comparisons are made for pure fluid properties, vapor liquid-equilibria, and liquid liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures as well as vapor liquid liquid equilibria of quaternary mixtures. The results show, from...

  8. Relative stability of transgene DNA fragments from GM rapeseed in mixed ruminal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjana; Alexander, Trevor W; John, S Jacob; Forster, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A

    2004-05-01

    The use of transgenic crops as feeds for ruminant animals has prompted study of the possible uptake of transgene fragments by ruminal micro-organisms and/or intestinal absorption of fragments surviving passage through the rumen. The persistence in buffered ruminal contents of seven different recombinant DNA fragments from GM rapeseed expressing the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) transgene was tracked using PCR. Parental and transgenic (i.e. glyphosphate-tolerant; Roundup Ready, Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO, USA) rapeseed were incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h as whole seeds, cracked seeds, rapeseed meal, and as pelleted, barley-based diets containing 65 g rapeseed meal/kg. The seven transgene fragments ranged from 179 to 527 bp and spanned the entire 1363 bp EPSPS transgene. A 180 bp ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit fragment and a 466 bp 16S rDNA fragment were used as controls for endogenous rapeseed DNA and bacterial DNA respectively. The limit of detection of the PCR assay, established using negative controls spiked with known quantities of DNA, was 12.5 pg. Production of gas and NH3 was monitored throughout the incubation and confirmed active in vitro fermentation. Bacterial DNA was detected in all sample types at all time points. Persistence patterns of endogenous (Rubisco) and recombinant (EPSPS) rapeseed DNA were inversely related to substrate digestibility (amplifiable for 48, 8 and 4 h in whole or cracked seeds, meal and diets respectively), but did not differ between parental and GM rapeseed, nor among fragments. Detection of fragments was representative of persistence of the whole transgene. No EPSPS fragments were amplifiable in microbial DNA, suggesting that transformation had not occurred during the 48 h incubation. Uptake of transgenic DNA fragments by ruminal bacteria is probably precluded or time-limited by rapid degradation of plant DNA upon plant cell lysis.

  9. Development of a Program to Calculate Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria in Multicomponent Systems Consist of Organic Substances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mironenko, M

    1992-01-01

    .... The model applies the Gibbs energy minimization method for phase equilibria computation combined with the UNIFAC routine and thermodynamic database for calculating activity coefficients of organic...

  10. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  11. Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2011-01-01

    Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

  12. Spectrum Allocation for Decentralized Transmission Strategies: Properties of Nash Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Wrycza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two transmit-receive pairs coexisting in the same area and communicating using the same portion of the spectrum is analyzed from a game theoretic perspective. Each pair utilizes a decentralized iterative water-filling scheme to greedily maximize the individual rate. We study the dynamics of such a game and find properties of the resulting Nash equilibria. The region of achievable operating points is characterized for both low- and high-interference systems, and the dependence on the various system parameters is explicitly shown. We derive the region of possible signal space partitioning for the iterative water-filling scheme and show how the individual utility functions can be modified to alter its range. Utilizing global system knowledge, we design a modified game encouraging better operating points in terms of sum rate compared to those obtained using the iterative water-filling algorithm and show how such a game can be imitated in a decentralized noncooperative setting. Although we restrict the analysis to a two player game, analogous concepts can be used to design decentralized algorithms for scenarios with more players. The performance of the modified decentralized game is evaluated and compared to the iterative water-filling algorithm by numerical simulations.

  13. A molecular-thermodynamic framework for asphaltene-oil equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; Firoozabadi, A. [Reservoir Engineering Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Asphaltene precipitation is a perennial problem in production and refinery of crude oils. To avoid precipitation, it is useful to predict the solubility of asphaltenes in petroleum liquids as a function of temperature, pressure and liquid-phase composition. In the molecular-thermodynamic model presented here, both asphaltenes and resins are represented by pseudo-pure components, and all other components in the solution are represented by a continuous medium which affects interactions among asphaltene and resin particles. The effect of the medium on asphaltene-asphaltene, resin-asphaltene, resin-resin pair interactions is taken into account through its density and molecular-dispersion properties. To obtain expressions for the chemical potential of asphaltene and for the osmotic pressure of an asphaltene-containing solution, the authors use the integral theory of fluids coupled with the SAFT model to allow for asphaltene aggregation and for adsorption of resin on asphaltene particles. With these expressions, a variety of experimental observations can be explained including the effects of temperature, pressure and composition on the phase behavior of asphaltene-containing fluids. For engineering application, the molecular parameters in this model must be correlated to some macroproperties of oil such as density and molecular weight. When such correlations are established, it will be possible to calculate asphaltene-precipitation equilibria at a variety of conditions for realistic systems.

  14. Design of snowflake-diverted equilibria of CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, LI; Xiang, GAO; Guoqiang, LI; Zhengping, LUO; Damao, YAO; Yong, GUO

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) represents the next generation of full superconducting fusion reactors in China. Recently, CFETR was redesigned with a larger size and will be operated in two phases. To reduce the heat flux on the target plate, a snowflake (SF) divertor configuration is proposed. In this paper we show that by adding two dedicated poloidal field (PF) coils, the SF configuration can be achieved in both phases. The equilibria were calculated by TEQ code for a range of self-inductances l i3. The coil currents were calculated at some fiducial points in the flattop phase. The results indicate that the PF coil system has the ability to maintain a long flattop phase in 7.5 and 10 MA inductive scenarios for the single null divertor (SND) and SF divertor configurations. The properties of the SF configuration were also analyzed. The connection length and flux expansion of the SF divertor were both increased significantly over the SND.

  15. Transitions of Spherical Thermohaline Circulation to Multiple Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Saadet; Şengül, Taylan

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of the paper is to investigate the transitions of the thermohaline circulation in a spherical shell in a parameter regime which only allows transitions to multiple equilibria. We find that the first transition is either continuous (Type-I) or drastic (Type-II) depending on the sign of the transition number. The transition number depends on the system parameters and l_c , which is the common degree of spherical harmonics of the first critical eigenmodes, and it can be written as a sum of terms describing the nonlinear interactions of various modes with the critical modes. We obtain the exact formulas of this transition number for l_c=1 and l_c=2 cases. Numerically, we find that the main contribution to the transition number is due to nonlinear interactions with modes having zero wave number and the contribution from the nonlinear interactions with higher frequency modes is negligible. In our numerical experiments we encountered both types of transition for Le1 . In the continuous transition scenario, we rigorously prove that an attractor in the phase space bifurcates which is homeomorphic to the 2l_c dimensional sphere and consists entirely of degenerate steady state solutions.

  16. A thermodynamic solution model for calcium carbonate: Towards an understanding of multi-equilibria precipitation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Marcel; Bowen, Paul; Lemaître, Jacques

    2009-12-15

    Thermodynamic solubility calculations are normally only related to thermodynamic equilibria in solution. In this paper, we extend the use of such solubility calculations to help elucidate possible precipitation reaction pathways during the entire reaction. We also estimate the interfacial energy of particles using only solubility data by a modification of Mersmann's approach. We have carried this out by considering precipitation reactions as a succession of small quasi-equilibrium states. Thus possible equilibrium precipitation pathways can be evaluated by calculating the evolution of surface charge, particle size and/or interfacial energy during the ongoing reaction. The approach includes the use of the Kelvin's law to express the influence of particle size on the solubility constant of precipitates, the use of Nernst's law to calculate surface potentials from solubility calculations and relate this to experimentally measured zeta potentials. Calcium carbonate precipitation and zeta potential measurements of well characterised high purity calcite have been used as a model system to validate the calculated values. The clarification of the change in zeta potential on titration illustrates the power of this approach as a tool for reaction pathway prediction and hence knowledge based tailoring of precipitation reactions.

  17. Surface Rheology and Adsorption Kinetics Reveal the Relative Amphiphilicity, Interfacial Activity, and Stability of Human Exchangeable Apolipoproteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor Martin; Renault, Anne; Beaufils, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    Exchangeable apolipoproteins are located in the surface of lipoprotein particles and regulate lipid metabolism through direct protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. These proteins are characterized by the presence of tandem repeats of amphiphatic α-helix segments and a high surface activity in monolayers and lipoprotein surfaces. A noteworthy aspect in the description of the function of exchangeable apolipoproteins is the requirement of a quantitative account of the relation between their physicochemical and structural characteristics and changes in the mesoscopic system parameters such as the maximum surface pressure and relative stability at interfaces. To comply with this demand, we set out to establish the relations among α-helix amphiphilicity, surface concentration, and surface rheology of apolipoproteins ApoA-I, ApoA-II, ApoC-I, ApoC-II, and ApoC-III adsorbed at the air-water interface. Our studies render further insights into the interfacial properties of exchangeable apolipoproteins, including the kinetics of their adsorption and the physical properties of the interfacial layer. PMID:17993480

  18. Stability and attraction domains of traffic equilibria in a day-to-day dynamical system formulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, Jing; Lo, Hong K.

    2010-01-01

    We formulate the traffic assignment problem from a dynamical system approach. All exogenous factors are considered to be constant over time and user equilibrium is being pursued through a day-to-day adjustment process. The traffic dynamics is represented by a recurrence function, which governs the

  19. A Note on "Stability of Tâtonnement Processes of Short Period Equilibria with Rational Expectations"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.

    1997-01-01

    In Hens (1997), a new adjustment process is proposed for a setting with reopening spot and asset markets. He argues by means of an intemporal variant of Scarf's example that this process is more stable than the other processes, although in general it might be more stable or less stable. This note

  20. Protolitic Equilibria and Stability Constants of Mn (II) and Ni (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v4i1.11 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  1. Better Usability and Technical Stability Could Lead to Better Work-Related Well-Being among Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainiomäki, Suvi; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Lääveri, Tinja; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Hyppönen, Hannele

    2017-10-01

    Background and Objective Finnish physicians have been increasingly dissatisfied with poor usability of the electronic patient record (EPR) systems, which they have identified as an overload factor in their work. Our aim is to specify which factors in EPRs are associated with work-related well-being of physicians. Methods A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish physicians younger than 65 years; the responses (n = 3,781) represent one-fourth of these. This was a repetition of a survey in 2010, where this questionnaire was used for the first time. In addition to statements assessing usability, there were questions measuring time pressure and job control. The relation between usability and work well-being was investigated with hierarchical multivariate regression analyses: With time pressure and job control as dependent variables, EPR usability assessments and physicians' background information were used as independent variables. Results In the multivariate analyses, technical problems that are often experienced in the EPR were related to higher time pressure and lower job control. Active participation in the development of the EPR system was related to stronger time pressure and stronger job control. In addition, use of several systems daily and the experience of time-consuming documentation of patient information for statistical purposes (billing, national registries, and reporting) were related to higher time pressure, while those with longer experience with the EPR system and those experiencing easy-to-read nursing records reported higher job control. Conclusion To relieve time pressure and increase sense of job control experienced by physicians, usability, integrations, and stability of the EPR systems should be improved: fewer login procedures, easier readability of nursing records, and decreased need for separate documentation for statistical purposes. Physician participation in the EPR development would increase the feeling of job control, but

  2. Active frequency stabilization of a 1.062-micron, Nd:GGG, diode-laser-pumped nonplanar ring oscillator to less than 3 Hz of relative linewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, T.; Gustafson, E. K.; Byer, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the frequency stabilization of two diode-laser-pumped ring lasers that are independently locked to the same high-finesse interferometer. The relative frequency stability is measured by locking the lasers one free spectral range apart and observing the heterodyne beat note. The resultant beat note width of 2.9 Hz is consistent with the theoretical system noise-limited linewidth and is approximately 20 times that expected for shot-noise-limited performance.

  3. Age-related Differences in Dystrophin: Impact on Force Transfer Proteins, Membrane Integrity, and Neuromuscular Junction Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David C; Marcotte, George R; Marshall, Andrea G; West, Daniel W D; Baehr, Leslie M; Wallace, Marita A; Saleh, Perrie M; Bodine, Sue C; Baar, Keith

    2017-05-01

    The loss of muscle strength with age has been studied from the perspective of a decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability. A third potential factor is force transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the force transfer apparatus within aging muscle and the impact on membrane integrity and NMJ stability. We measured an age-related loss of dystrophin protein that was greatest in the flexor muscles. The loss of dystrophin protein occurred despite a twofold increase in dystrophin mRNA. Importantly, this disparity could be explained by the four- to fivefold upregulation of the dystromir miR-31. To compensate for the loss of dystrophin protein, aged muscle contained increased α-sarcoglycan, syntrophin, sarcospan, laminin, β1-integrin, desmuslin, and the Z-line proteins α-actinin and desmin. In spite of the adaptive increase in other force transfer proteins, over the 48 hours following lengthening contractions, the old muscles showed more signs of impaired membrane integrity (fourfold increase in immunoglobulin G-positive fibers and 70% greater dysferlin mRNA) and NMJ instability (14- to 96-fold increases in Runx1, AchRδ, and myogenin mRNA). Overall, these data suggest that age-dependent alterations in dystrophin leave the muscle membrane and NMJ more susceptible to contraction-induced damage even before changes in muscle mass are obvious. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Nonlinear relative-proportion-based route adjustment process for day-to-day traffic dynamics: modeling, equilibrium and stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Ma, Shoufeng; Tian, Junfang; Li, Geng

    2016-11-01

    Travelers' route adjustment behaviors in a congested road traffic network are acknowledged as a dynamic game process between them. Existing Proportional-Switch Adjustment Process (PSAP) models have been extensively investigated to characterize travelers' route choice behaviors; PSAP has concise structure and intuitive behavior rule. Unfortunately most of which have some limitations, i.e., the flow over adjustment problem for the discrete PSAP model, the absolute cost differences route adjustment problem, etc. This paper proposes a relative-Proportion-based Route Adjustment Process (rePRAP) maintains the advantages of PSAP and overcomes these limitations. The rePRAP describes the situation that travelers on higher cost route switch to those with lower cost at the rate that is unilaterally depended on the relative cost differences between higher cost route and its alternatives. It is verified to be consistent with the principle of the rational behavior adjustment process. The equivalence among user equilibrium, stationary path flow pattern and stationary link flow pattern is established, which can be applied to judge whether a given network traffic flow has reached UE or not by detecting the stationary or non-stationary state of link flow pattern. The stability theorem is proved by the Lyapunov function approach. A simple example is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the rePRAP model.

  5. Effect of the relative shift between the electron density and temperature pedestal position on the pedestal stability in JET-ILW and comparison with JET-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanikova, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Saarelma, S.; Loarte, A.; Nunes, I.; Garzotti, L.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Drewelow, P.; Kruezi, U.; Lomanowski, B.; de la Luna, E.; Meneses, L.; Peterka, M.; Viola, B.; Giroud, C.; Maggi, C.; contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The electron temperature and density pedestals tend to vary in their relative radial positions, as observed in DIII-D (Beurskens et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056120) and ASDEX Upgrade (Dunne et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 14017). This so-called relative shift has an impact on the pedestal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and hence on the pedestal height (Osborne et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 063018). The present work studies the effect of the relative shift on pedestal stability of JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) baseline low triangularity (δ) unseeded plasmas, and similar JET-C discharges. As shown in this paper, the increase of the pedestal relative shift is correlated with the reduction of the normalized pressure gradient, therefore playing a strong role in pedestal stability. Furthermore, JET-ILW tends to have a larger relative shift compared to JET carbon wall (JET-C), suggesting a possible role of the plasma facing materials in affecting the density profile location. Experimental results are then compared with stability analysis performed in terms of the peeling-ballooning model and with pedestal predictive model EUROPED (Saarelma et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion). Stability analysis is consistent with the experimental findings, showing an improvement of the pedestal stability, when the relative shift is reduced. This has been ascribed mainly to the increase of the edge bootstrap current, and to minor effects related to the increase of the pedestal pressure gradient and narrowing of the pedestal pressure width. Pedestal predictive model EUROPED shows a qualitative agreement with experiment, especially for low values of the relative shift.

  6. Protein oligomerization equilibria and kinetics investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: a mathematical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, David M; Levitus, Marcia

    2014-10-30

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a technique that is increasingly being used to investigate protein oligomerization equilibria and dynamics. Each individual FCS decay is characterized by its amplitude and a characteristic diffusion time, both of which are sensitive to the degree of dissociation of the protein. Here, we provide a mathematical treatment that relates these observables with the parameters of interest: the equilibrium constants of the different protein dissociation steps and their corresponding dissociation and association kinetic rate constants. We focused on the two most common types of protein homooligomers (dimers and tetramers) and on the experimental variables relevant for the design of the experiment (protein concentration, fractional concentration of labeled protein). The analysis of the theoretical expectations for proteins with different dissociation constants is a key aspect of experiment design and data analysis and cannot be performed without a physically accurate treatment of the system. In particular, we show that the analysis of FCS data using some commonly used empirical models may result in a serious misinterpretation of the experimental results.

  7. Correlation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Commonly Used Binary Systems in Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Atashrouz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model is developed based on the Feed-ForwardBack Propagation Artificial Neural Network (FFBP-ANN. The model is employed for thecalculation of Vapor Liquid Equilibria (VLE of four CO2-containing binary mixtures. Themixtures include CO2 - Tertpentanol was investigated at the temperature range from 313.14 to343.15 K. The following mixtures including CO2 - Isobutanol at 313.2 to 353.2 K, CO2 - methylacetate at 308.15 to 328.15 K and CO2 - diisopropyl ether at 265.15 to 333.15 K wereinvestigated as well. The related experimental data of open literature have been used to constructthe model. The results confirm that there is a reasonable conformity between the predicted valuesand the experimental data. Additionally, the ability of the ANN model is examined by comparison with the conventional thermodynamic models and ANN model predicted VLE datawith more accuracy.

  8. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. XXVIII: Liquid-liquid equilibria for 2-phenoxyethanol + selected alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Victor; Garcia, Mario; Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Garcia De La Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LLE coexistence curves were determined for mixtures of 2PhEE with alkanes. → UCST values are higher for n-alkane systems than for solutions with cyclic alkanes. → For the latter mixtures, UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached. → Alkoxyethanol-alkoxyethanol interactions are enhanced by aromatic group in cellosolve. - Abstract: The coexistence curves of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for systems of 2-phenoxyethanol (2PhEE) with heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane or ethylcyclohexane have been determined by the method of the critical opalescence using a laser scattering technique. All the curves show an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), have a rather horizontal top and their symmetry depends on the relative size of the mixture compounds. UCST values are higher for systems with linear alkanes than for solutions including cyclic alkanes. For these mixtures, the UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached to the cyclic part of the molecule. It is shown that interactions between alkoxyethanol molecules are stronger when the hydroxyether contains an aromatic group. Data are used to determine the critical exponent for the order parameter mole fraction. Values obtained are consistent with those provided by the Ising model or by the renormalization group theory.

  9. Carter constant induced mechanism for generation of anisotropic kinetic equilibria in collisionless N-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    A new intrinsically-relativistic kinetic mechanism for generation of nonisotropic relativistic kinetic equilibria in collisionless N-body systems is pointed out. The theory is developed in the framework of the covariant Vlasov statistical description. The new effect is based on the constraints placed by the conservation laws of neutral single-particle dynamics in prescribed background curved-spacetimes demonstrating existence of Killing tensors. As an illustration, the particular case of the Kerr spacetime admitting the so-called Carter constant for the particle geodesic motion is considered. The general functional form of the equilibrium kinetic distribution function (KDF) is determined and an explicit realization in terms of Gaussian-like distributions is provided. It is shown that, due to the Carter constant, these equilibrium KDFs exhibit an anisotropic phase-space functional dependence in terms of the single-particle 4-velocity components, giving rise to corresponding nonisotropic continuum fluid fields. The qualitative properties of the equilibrium stress-energy tensor associated with these systems are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the related occurrence of temperature anisotropy effects. The theory is susceptible of astrophysical applications, including in particular the statistical properties of dark matter (DM) halos around stellar-mass or galactic-center black holes.

  10. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. XXVIII: Liquid-liquid equilibria for 2-phenoxyethanol + selected alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Victor; Garcia, Mario [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia De La Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} LLE coexistence curves were determined for mixtures of 2PhEE with alkanes. {yields} UCST values are higher for n-alkane systems than for solutions with cyclic alkanes. {yields} For the latter mixtures, UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached. {yields} Alkoxyethanol-alkoxyethanol interactions are enhanced by aromatic group in cellosolve. - Abstract: The coexistence curves of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for systems of 2-phenoxyethanol (2PhEE) with heptane, octane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane or ethylcyclohexane have been determined by the method of the critical opalescence using a laser scattering technique. All the curves show an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), have a rather horizontal top and their symmetry depends on the relative size of the mixture compounds. UCST values are higher for systems with linear alkanes than for solutions including cyclic alkanes. For these mixtures, the UCST increases with the size of the alkyl group attached to the cyclic part of the molecule. It is shown that interactions between alkoxyethanol molecules are stronger when the hydroxyether contains an aromatic group. Data are used to determine the critical exponent for the order parameter mole fraction. Values obtained are consistent with those provided by the Ising model or by the renormalization group theory.

  11. stability results of a mathematical model for the control of hiv/aids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Subthreshold Domain of Bistable Equilibria for a Model of. HIV Epidemiology. International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, 58, 3679-3698. David R. M., 1997. Introduction to Theory of Stability. Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc. USA. Family Health International, 2007. How the Female Condom Affects Male ...

  12. Isotopic equilibria in aqueous clusters at low temperatures: Insights from the MB-pol many-body potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videla, Pablo E.; Rossky, Peter J.; Laria, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    By combining path-integrals molecular dynamics simulations with the accurate MB-pol potential energy surface, we investigate the role of alternative potential models on isotopic fractionation ratios between H and D atoms at dangling positions in water clusters at low temperatures. Our results show clear stabilizations of the lighter isotope at dangling sites, characterized by free energy differences ΔG that become comparable to or larger than kBT for temperatures below ˜75 K. The comparison between these results to those previously reported using the empirical q-TIP4P/F water model [P. E. Videla et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2375 (2014)] reveals that the latter Hamiltonian overestimates the H stabilization by ˜25%. Moreover, predictions from the MB-pol model are in much better agreement with measured results reported for similar isotope equilibria at ice surfaces. The dissection of the quantum kinetic energies into orthogonal directions shows that the dominant differences between the two models are to be found in the anharmonic characteristics of the potential energy surfaces along OH bond directions involved in hydrogen bonds.

  13. Relative drifts and stability of satellite and ground-based stratospheric ozone profiles at NDACC lidar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term evolution of stratospheric ozone at different stations in the low and mid-latitudes is investigated. The analysis is performed by comparing the collocated profiles of ozone lidars, at the northern mid-latitudes (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeißenberg, Haute-Provence Observatory, Tsukuba and Table Mountain Facility, tropics (Mauna Loa Observatory and southern mid-latitudes (Lauder, with ozonesondes and space-borne sensors (SBUV(/2, SAGE II, HALOE, UARS MLS and Aura MLS, extracted around the stations. Relative differences are calculated to find biases and temporal drifts in the measurements. All measurement techniques show their best agreement with respect to the lidar at 20–40 km, where the differences and drifts are generally within ±5% and ±0.5% yr−1, respectively, at most stations. In addition, the stability of the long-term ozone observations (lidar, SBUV(/2, SAGE II and HALOE is evaluated by the cross-comparison of each data set. In general, all lidars and SBUV(/2 exhibit near-zero drifts and the comparison between SAGE II and HALOE shows larger, but insignificant drifts. The RMS of the drifts of lidar and SBUV(/2 is 0.22 and 0.27% yr−1, respectively at 20–40 km. The average drifts of the long-term data sets, derived from various comparisons, are less than ±0.3% yr−1 in the 20–40 km altitude at all stations. A combined time series of the relative differences between SAGE II, HALOE and Aura MLS with respect to lidar data at six sites is constructed, to obtain long-term data sets lasting up to 27 years. The relative drifts derived from these combined data are very small, within ±0.2% yr−1.

  14. MHD equilibrium and stability of the spheromak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1979-08-01

    The MHD stability of spheromak type equilibria from the classical spheromak configuration to the diffuse pinch limit are analyzed numerically. It is found that oblate configurations of ellipticity 0.5 have the optimum stability properties with regard to internal MHD modes and can be stabilized up to an engineering ..beta.. of 15% (defined with respect to the applied external field strength for equilibrium). Stability to global modes requires that a conducting shell surround the plasma. The location of the shell is dependent on geometry and the current profile, but realistic configurations that are stable to all ideal MHD modes have been found with the shell located at approx. 1.2 minor radii.

  15. Vapor-Liquid and Chemical Equilibria in the Ethanol + Acetic Acid System at 348.15 K.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernatová, Svatoslava; Aim, Karel; Wichterle, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, 1 (2007) , s. 20-23 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1588 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : phase equilibria * chemical equilibria * esterification Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2007

  16. A Continuous Family of Equilibria in Ferromagnetic Media are Ground States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xifeng; de la Llave, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    We show that a foliation of equilibria (a continuous family of equilibria whose graph covers all the configuration space) in ferromagnetic transitive models are ground states. The result we prove is very general, and it applies to models with long range and many-body interactions. As an application, we consider several models of networks of interacting particles including models of Frenkel-Kontorova type on Z^d and one-dimensional quasi-periodic media. The result above is an analogue of several results in the calculus of variations (fields of extremals) and in PDE's. Since the models we consider are discrete and long range, new proofs need to be given. We also note that the main hypothesis of our result (the existence of foliations of equilibria) is the conclusion (using KAM theory) of several recent papers. Hence, we obtain that the KAM solutions recently established are minimizers when the interaction is ferromagnetic and transitive (these concepts are defined later).

  17. Some axisymmetric equilibria for certain ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics with incompressible flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Moawad

    Full Text Available In this paper, the equilibrium properties of some ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are investigated. The governing equations are taken in the steady state for parallel and non-parallel flow to magnetic filed. The governing equations are reduced to Bernoulli-Grad-Shafranov system. The problem of finding exact equilibria to the governing equations in the presence of incompressible mass flows is studied. Several nonlinear equilibria of the governing equations are obtained with aid of constructed constraints. The obtained results cover several previously configurations and include new considerations about the nonlinearity of magnetic flux stream variables. The possibility of applying the obtained results to magnetic confinement devices are discussed. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamics, Axisymmetric plasma, Resistivity, Incompressible flows, Exact equilibria, Magnetic confinement devices

  18. Axisymmetric stability of vertically asymmetric tokamaks at large beta poloidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Fishman, H.; Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of high-β vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria to rigid displacements is investigated analytically. It is found that vertical stability at large beta poloidal is mainly determined by a coupling between the shape of the plasma surface and the Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. To the lowest order, symmetric components of the plasma surface shape are found to be the critical destabilizing elements. Asymmetric components have little effect. The inclusion of higher order terms in the high β tokamak expansion leads to further destabilization. Qualitative agreement between these analytic results and numerical stability calculations using the PEST code is demonstrated

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamak plasmas with poloidal mode coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigueoka, H.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    The stability behavior with respect to internal modes is examined for a class of tokamak equilibria with non-circular cross sections. The surfaces of the constant poloidal magnetic flux ψ (R,Z) are obtained numerically by solving the Grad-Shafranov's equation with a specified shape for the outmost plasma surface. The equation of motion for ideal MHD stability is written in a ortogonal coordinate system (ψ, χ, φ). Th e stability analysis is performance numerically in a truncated set of coupled m (poloidal wave number) equations. The calculations involve no approximations, and so all parameters of the equilibrium solution can be arbitrarily varied. (author) [pt

  20. Effect of Fluorine on Near-Liquidus Phase Equilibria of Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiberto, Justin; Wood, Justin; Loan, Le; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Treiman, Allan H.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile species such as H2O, CO2, F, and Cl have significant impact in generation and differentiation of basaltic melts. Thus far experimental work has primarily focused on the effect of water and carbon dioxide on basalt crystallization, liquid-line of descent, and mantle melting [e.g., 1, 2] and the effects of halogens have received far less attention [3-4]. However, melts in the planetary interiors can have non-negligible chlorine and fluorine concentrations. Here, we explore the effects of fluorine on near-liquidus phase equilibria of basalt. We have conducted nominally anhydrous piston cylinder experiments using graphite capsules at 0.6 - 1.5 GPa on an Fe-rich model basalt composition. 1.75 wt% fluorine was added to the starting mix in the form of AgF2. Fluorine in the experimental glass was measured by SIMS and major elements of glass and minerals were analyzed by EPMA. Nominally volatile free experiments yield a liquidus temperature from 1330 C at 0.8GPa to 1400 at 1.6GPa and an olivine(Fo72)-pyroxene(En68)-liquid multiple saturation point at 1.25 GPa and 1375 C. The F-bearing experiments yield a liquiudus temperature from 1260 C at 0.6GPa to 1305 at 1.5GPa and an ol(Fo66)-pyx(En64)-MSP at 1 GPa and 1260 C. This shows that F depresses the basalt liquidus, extends the pyroxene stability field to lower pressure, and forces the liquidus phases to be more Fe-rich. KD(Fe-Mg/mineral-melt) calculated for both pyroxenes and olivines show an increase with increasing F content of the melt. Therefore, we infer that F complexes with Mg in the melt and thus increases the melt s silica activity, depressing the liquidus and changing the composition of the crystallizing minerals. Our study demonstrates that on a weight percent basis, the effect of fluorine is similar to the effect of H2O [1] and Cl [3] on freezing point depression of basalts. But on an atomic fraction basis, the effect of F on liquidus depression of basalts is xxxx compared to the effect of H. Future

  1. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project ''Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)'' for the eighteen month period of January 1, 1987 to June 10, 1988. This final report was preceded by the final report for the initial six month period, July 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986 (submitted on January 25, 1987, and revised in June 1987). The general Task continued to coordinate project activities to meet general deadlines and responsibilities. The central office provided general secretarial support. The activities that were started during the first project period included expansion of the central copying facilities, growth of the central reprint, map, aerial and photograph collections, and some expansion of personal computer capabilities. The research and review accomplishments are mainly under the following tasks: quaternary tectonics, geochemical, mineral deposits, volcanic geology, seismology, tectonics, neotectonics, remote sensing, geotechnical assessments, geotechnical rock mass assessment, basinal studies, and strong ground motion

  2. The critical relation between chemical stability of cations and water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.; Willdorf, Sapir; Ash, Uri; Amar, Michal; Pusara, Srdjan; Dhara, Shubhendu; Srebnik, Simcha; Diesendruck, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells can potentially revolutionize energy storage and delivery; however, their commercial development is hampered by a significant technological impedance: the chemical decomposition of the anion exchange membranes during operation. The hydroxide anions, while transported from the cathode to the anode, attack the positively charged functional groups in the polymer membrane, neutralizing it and suppressing its anion-conducting capability. In recent years, several new quaternary ammonium salts have been proposed to address this challenge, but while they perform well in ex-situ chemical studies, their performance is very limited in real fuel cell studies. Here, we use experimental work, corroborated by molecular dynamics modeling to show that water concentration in the environment of the hydroxide anion, as well as temperature, significantly impact its reactivity. We compare different quaternary ammonium salts that have been previously studied and test their stabilities in the presence of relatively low hydroxide concentration in the presence of different amounts of solvating water molecules, as well as different temperatures. Remarkably, with the right amount of water and at low enough temperatures, even quaternary ammonium salts which are considered "unstable", present significantly improved lifetime.

  3. Pilocarpine-induced seizures trigger differential regulation of microRNA-stability related genes in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Erika R; Higa, Guilherme S V; Santos, Bianca A; de Sousa, Erica; Damico, Marcio V; Walter, Lais T; Morya, Edgard; Valle, Angela C; Britto, Luiz R G; Kihara, Alexandre H

    2016-02-12

    Epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe elicits regulation of gene expression and protein translation, leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. In this process, miRNAs were described as being regulated in a cell-specific manner, although mechanistics of miRNAs activity are poorly understood. The specificity of miRNAs on their target genes depends on their intracellular concentration, reflecting the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Herein, we confirmed that pilocarpine application promptly (PAPD4 gene expression in the hippocampus, two genes related to miRNA degradation and stability, respectively. Moreover, SE decreased the number of XRN2-positive cells in the hilus, while reduced the number of PAPD4-positive cells in CA1. XRN2 and PAPD4 levels did not change in calretinin- and CamKII-positive cells, although it was possible to determine that PAPD4, but not XRN2, was upregulated in parvalbumin-positive cells, revealing that SE induction unbalances the accumulation of these functional-opposed proteins in inhibitory interneurons that directly innervate distinct domains of pyramidal cells. Therefore, we were able to disclose a possible mechanism underlying the differential regulation of miRNAs in specific neurons during epileptogenesis.

  4. Nash equilibria in quantum games with generalized two-parameter strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitney, Adrian P.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C.L.

    2007-01-01

    In the Eisert protocol for 2x2 quantum games [J. Eisert, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3077], a number of authors have investigated the features arising from making the strategic space a two-parameter subset of single qubit unitary operators. We argue that the new Nash equilibria and the classical-quantum transitions that occur are simply an artifact of the particular strategy space chosen. By choosing a different, but equally plausible, two-parameter strategic space we show that different Nash equilibria with different classical-quantum transitions can arise. We generalize the two-parameter strategies and also consider these strategies in a multiplayer setting

  5. Phase equilibria for ternary liquid systems of (water + levulinic acid + cyclic solvent) at T = 298.2 K: Thermodynamic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, Aynur [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: senol@istanbul.edu.tr

    2005-10-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility curves and tie-line end compositions are presented for mixtures of {l_brace}water (1) + levulinic acid (2) + methylcyclohexanol, or cyclohexanone, or cyclohexyl acetate (3){r_brace} at T = 298.2 K and P = (101.3 {+-} 0.7) kPa. Among the studied C6 ring-containing cyclic solvents, methylcyclohexanol and cyclohexyl acetate give the largest distribution ratio and separation factors for extraction of levulinic acid. A solvation energy relation (SERLAS) has been used to estimate the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of associated systems containing components capable of a physical interaction through hydrogen bonding. The tie-lines were also predicted using the UNIFAC-original model. The reliability of both models has been analyzed against the LLE data with respect to the distribution ratio and separation factor. SERLAS matches LLE data quite accurately, yielding a mean error of 3.6% for all the systems considered.

  6. Phase equilibria for ternary liquid systems of (water + tetrahydrofuran + nonprotic aromatic solvent) at T = 298.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, Aynur [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: senol@istanbul.edu.tr; Sevgili, Lutfullah [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility curves and tie-line end compositions are presented for mixtures of {l_brace}water (1) + tetrahydrofuran (2) + xylene or chlorobenzene or benzyl ether (3){r_brace} at T = 298.2 K and P = (101.3 {+-} 0.7) kPa. Among the studied C6 ring-containing aromatic solvents, xylene gives the largest distribution ratio and separation factors for extraction of tetrahydrofuran. A solvation energy relation (SERLAS) has been used to estimate the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of associated systems containing a nonprotic solvent. The tie-lines were also predicted using the UNIFAC-original model. The reliability of both models has been analyzed against the LLE data with respect to the distribution ratio and separation factor. SERLAS matches LLE data accurately, yielding a mean error of 9.9% for all the systems considered.

  7. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  8. Identification, synthesis and characterization of process related impurities of benidipine hydrochloride, stress-testing/stability studies and HPLC/UPLC method validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Bellur Atici

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benidipine hydrochloride, used as an antihypertensive agent and long-acting calcium antagonist, is synthesized for commercial use as a drug substance in highly pure form. During the synthetic process development studies of benidipine, process related impurities were detected. These impurities were identified, synthesized and characterized and mechanisms of their formation were discussed in detail. After all standardization procedures, they were used as reference standards for analytical studies. In addition, a separate HPLC method was developed and validated for detection of residual 1-benzylpiperidin-3-ol (Ben-2, which is used during benidipine synthesis and controlled as a potential process related impurity. As complementary of this work, stress-testing studies of benidipine were carried out under specified conditions and a stability-indicating UPLC assay method was developed, validated and used during stability studies of benidipine. Keywords: Benidipine, Impurities, Synthesis, Characterization, Validation, Stability

  9. Evaluating the Stability of RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiles and Drug-Induced Immune-Related Expression Changes in Whole Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bowyer

    Full Text Available Methods were developed to evaluate the stability of rat whole blood expression obtained from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and assess changes in whole blood transcriptome profiles in experiments replicated over time. Expression was measured in globin-depleted RNA extracted from the whole blood of Sprague-Dawley rats, given either saline (control or neurotoxic doses of amphetamine (AMPH. The experiment was repeated four times (paired control and AMPH groups over a 2-year span. The transcriptome of the control and AMPH-treated groups was evaluated on: 1 transcript levels for ribosomal protein subunits; 2 relative expression of immune-related genes; 3 stability of the control transcriptome over 2 years; and 4 stability of the effects of AMPH on immune-related genes over 2 years. All, except one, of the 70 genes that encode the 80s ribosome had levels that ranked in the top 5% of all mean expression levels. Deviations in sequencing performance led to significant changes in the ribosomal transcripts. The overall expression profile of immune-related genes and genes specific to monocytes, T-cells or B-cells were well represented and consistent within treatment groups. There were no differences between the levels of ribosomal transcripts in time-matched control and AMPH groups but significant differences in the expression of immune-related genes between control and AMPH groups. AMPH significantly increased expression of some genes related to monocytes but down-regulated those specific to T-cells. These changes were partially due to changes in the two types of leukocytes present in blood, which indicate an activation of the innate immune system by AMPH. Thus, the stability of RNA-seq whole blood transcriptome can be verified by assessing ribosomal protein subunits and immune-related gene expression. Such stability enables the pooling of samples from replicate experiments to carry out differential expression analysis with acceptable power.

  10. Mica-feldspar equilibria in supercritical alkali chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, W. D.; Eugster, H. P.

    1981-09-01

    The equilibrium position of the reaction 410_2005_Article_BF01166763_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} 1.5 KAlSi_3 O_8 + HCl = 0.5 KAl_3 Si_3 O_{10} (OH)_2 \\ + 3SiO_2 + KCl \\ has been located at 1 and 2 kb pressure and temperatures between 600° and 670° C using the Ag-AgCl buffer. These data can be combined with information on the dissociation of KC1, HC1 and H2O to determine species abundances in supercritical aqueous fluids in equilibrium with muscovite — K-feldspar — quartz assemblages. Chloride species become increasingly associated with increasing T, increasing total molality, ( m tot orm_{Cl_{tot} } ), and decreasingP_{H_2 O} . Master variable diagrams indicate that the pH of the solutions may vary from near neutral to quite acid. Published data on the paragonite-albite-quartz reaction and exchange reactions involving feldspars and micas were included to calculate speciation in mica-feldspar-NaCl-KCl-HCl-H2O fluids at 2kb pressure and temperatures between 300° and 600° C. The data are not accurate enough to distinguish different feldspar structural states. Concentration gradients were calculated for individual species between K-feldspar+quartz, muscovite+quartz and andalusite+quartz assemblages at 500° C, 2 kb. Assuming that the proton diffuses most rapidly and that there are no [H+] gradients, the molality of the solution must vary 30-fold, with feldspar+quartz at the more concentrated side. The data on mica-feldspar-chloride equilibria are used to interpret the spacial distribution of micas, feldspar and quartz in microfolds. This distribution can be accounted for by pressure solution, due to the fact that non-hydrostatic pressure affects congruently dissolving minerals, auch as quartz, differently from minerals which dissolve incongruently, such as micas and feldspars. We postulate, that during folding at constantP_{H_2 O} , T andm_{Cl - } , gradients in KC1 and SiO2 are created by stress differences between hinge and limb of a microfold, such that

  11. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durato, M V; Nawang, S A; Albano, A M; Rapp, P E

    2015-01-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. (paper)

  12. One Year Developmental Stability and Covariance among Oddball, Novelty, Go/Nogo, and Flanker Event-Related Potentials in Adolescence: a Monozygotic Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Scott J.; Malone, Stephen M.; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) measures may index genetic risk for psychopathology before disorder-onset in adolescence, but little is known about their developmental rank-order stability during this period of significant brain maturation. We studied ERP stability in 48 pairs of identical twins (age 14 – 16 years) tested one year apart. Trial-averaged voltage waveforms were extracted from electroencephalographic recordings from Oddball/Novelty, Go/Nogo, and Flanker tasks, and 16 amplitude measures were examined. Members of twin pairs were highly similar, whether based on ERP amplitude measures (intraclass correlation [ICC] median = .64, range = .44 – .86) or 3 factor scores (all ICCs ≥ .69) derived from them. Stability was high overall, with 69% of the 16 individual measures generating stability coefficients exceeding .70 and all factor scores showing stability above .75. Measures from 10 difference waveforms calculated from paired conditions within tasks were also examined, and were associated with lower twin similarity (ICC median = .52, .38 – .64) and developmental stability (only 30% exceeding .70). In a supplemental analysis, we found significant developmental stability for error-related negativity (range = .45 – .55) and positivity (.56 – .70) measures when average waveforms were based on 1 or more trials, and that these values were equivalent to those derived from averages using the current field recommendation which requires 6 or more trials. Overall, we conclude that the studied brain measures are largely stable over one year of mid- to late-adolescence, likely reflecting familial etiologic influences on brain functions pertaining to cognitive control and salience recognition. PMID:26997525

  13. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Shyness from Infancy to Adolescence: Stability, Age-Related Changes, and Prediction of Socio-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karevold, Evalill; Ystrom, Eivind; Coplan, Robert J.; Sanson, Ann V.; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal, population-based and prospective study investigated the stability, age-related changes, and socio-emotional outcomes of shyness from infancy to early adolescence. A sample of 921 children was followed from ages 1.5 to 12.5 years. Parent-reported shyness was assessed at five time points and maternal- and self-reported social…

  14. Stability constants of mixed ligand complexes of lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) with complexone and substituted salicylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhe, Vishnu; Dwivedi, K.

    1996-01-01

    Salicylic acid and substituted salicylic acids are potential antimicrobial agents. Binary complexes of salicylic acid and its substituted derivatives with lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) metal ions have been reported. There are reports on the ternary metal complexing equilibria with some lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) metal ions involving aminopolycarboxylic acid as one ligand and salicylic acid (SA) and other related compounds as the second ligands. Ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethylether)- N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) is an important member of aminopolycarboxylic acid and finds many applications in medicine and biology. Recently, few ternary complexes have been reported using EGTA as ligand. In view of biological importance of simple and mixed ligand complexes EGTA, SA and DNSA (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid), a systematic study has been undertaken for the determination of stability constant and the results are reported. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. How does postural stability following a single leg drop jump landing task relate to postural stability during a single leg stance balance task?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransz, Duncan P.; Huurnink, Arnold; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify whether the static phase after a single leg drop jump (DJ) landing on a force plate may serve as a proxy for a single leg stance (SLS) balance task, as this would increase the application possibilities of landing tasks in the evaluation of sensorimotor function in relation to

  16. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of toluene + n-heptane + an ionic liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Podt, J.G.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research has been focused on a study of sulfolane and four ionic liquids as solvents in liquid–liquid extraction. Liquid–liquid equilibria data were obtained for mixtures of (sulfolane or 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([mebupy]BF4) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate

  17. Random Matching Models and Money : The Global Structure and Approximation of Stationary Equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiya, K.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Random matching models with different states are an important class of dynamic games; for example, money search models, job search models, and some games in biology are special cases.In this paper, we investigate the basic structure of the models: the existence of equilibria, the global structure of

  18. Modelling of phase equilibria of glycol ethers mixtures using an association model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Nuno M.; Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of glycol ethers (surfactant) mixtures with hydrocarbons, polar compounds and water are calculated using an association model, the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. Parameters are estimated for several non-ionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene...

  19. Helical equilibria and criteria for the kink instability of cylindrical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Yoshikawa, Shoichi.

    1974-10-01

    Helical equilibria and criteria for the kink instability have been obtained numerically for various current distribution, including camel hump distribution. It is found that the unstable region expressed by q(a) is the largest in the case of uniform current. (auth.)

  20. Calculation of Liquid Water-Hydrate-Methane Vapor Phase Equilibria from Molecular Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining fluid- and crystal-phase chemical potentials are used for the first time to calculate liquid water-methane hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from knowledge of atomistic interaction potentials alone. The water and methane molecules are modeled us...

  1. Existential-R-Complete Decision Problems about Symmetric Nash Equilibria in Symmetric Multi-Player Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bilò, Vittorio; Mavronicolas, Marios

    2017-01-01

    We study the complexity of decision problems about symmetric Nash equilibria for symmetric multi-player games. These decision problems concern the existence of a symmetric Nash equilibrium with certain natural properties. We show that a handful of such decision problems are Existential-R-complete; that is, they are exactly as hard as deciding the Existential Theory of the Reals.

  2. Equilibria and kinetics for pH-dependent axial ligation of alkyl (aquo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 1. Equilibria and kinetics for H-dependent axial ligation of alkyl(aquo) cobaloximes with aromatic and aliphatic N-donor ligands. V Sridhar D Sudarshan Reddy N Ravikumar Reddy S Satyanarayana. Inorganic and Analytical Volume 114 Issue 1 February ...

  3. The SX Solver: A New Computer Program for Analyzing Solvent-Extraction Equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.K.; Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    A new computer program, the SX Solver, has been developed to analyze solvent-extraction equilibria. The program operates out of Microsoft Excel and uses the built-in ''Solver'' function to minimize the sum of the square of the residuals between measured and calculated distribution coefficients. The extraction of nitric acid by tributylphosphate has been modeled to illustrate the program's use

  4. Adsorption of halogenated hydrocarbons from gaseous streams by amberlite XAD-4 resin and activated carbon: equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, Glenn; Rexwinkel, G.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1999-01-01

    Single-solute adsorption equilibria have been measured for the adsorption of the gaseous solutes chloroform, chlorobenzene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane onto Amberlite XAD-4 resin. For 1,1,1-trichloroethane the adsorption equilibrium has also been measured with activated carbon Norit ROW 0.8 SUPRA as a

  5. Effect of temperature on acid–base equilibria in separation techniques. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G.; Tascon, Marcos; Castells, Cecilia B., E-mail: castells@isis.unlp.edu.ar

    2015-08-19

    Studies on the theoretical principles of acid–base equilibria are reviewed and the influence of temperature on secondary chemical equilibria within the context of separation techniques, in water and also in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures, is discussed. In order to define the relationships between the retention in liquid chromatography or the migration velocity in capillary electrophoresis and temperature, the main properties of acid–base equilibria have to be taken into account for both, the analytes and the conjugate pairs chosen to control the solution pH. The focus of this review is based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with emphasis on the use of temperature as a useful variable to modify selectivity on a predictable basis. Simplified models were evaluated to achieve practical optimizations involving pH and temperature (in LLE and CE) as well as solvent composition in reversed-phase LC. - Highlights: • The study of theoretical principles of acid–base equilibrium has been reviewed. • The proton transfer process is often present in the analytical separation practice. • The influence of temperature on secondary chemical equilibria is examined. • The focus is laid on liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. • Temperature can be a useful variable to modify selectivity under predictable basis.

  6. Raman spectroscopy, ab-initio model calculations, and conformational, equilibria in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2009-01-01

    .........318 12.7 Other studies on [CnC1Im]+ liquids ... 329 12.8 Conformations equilibria in liquids versus temperature .... 332 12.9 Local structures in ionic liquids .....335 12.10 Other systems .................338 12.11 Other applications of Raman spectroscopy .................346 12.12 Conclusions...

  7. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using the Gibbs Energy and the Common Tangent Plane Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Maria del Mar; Reyes-Labarta, Juan A.; Serrano, Maria Dolores; Marcilla, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Phase thermodynamics is often perceived as a difficult subject with which many students never become fully comfortable. The Gibbsian geometrical framework can help students to gain a better understanding of phase equilibria. An exercise to interpret the vapor-liquid equilibrium of a binary azeotropic mixture, using the equilibrium condition based…

  8. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2001-12-18

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibria, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  9. More on maximum likelihood equilibria for games with random payoffs and participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Maximum likelihood Nash equilibria were introduced by Borm et al. (1995) for games with nitely many players and random payos. In Voorneveld (1999) random participation was added to the model. These existence results were extended by Balder (2000c) to continuum games with random payos and

  10. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida 2–) in ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4. Fac-mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida2-) in ternary CuII(ida)(H-1B)- complex formation (B = imidazole, benzimidazole) in aqueous solution. Susmita Bandyopadhyay G N Mukherjee. Inorganic and Analytical Volume 115 Issue 4 August ...

  11. Equilibria and kinetics for pH-dependent axial ligation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 2. Equilibria and kinetics for pH-dependent axial ligation of bromomethyl(aquo)cobaloxime by aliphatic amine ligands. M Bhoopal N Ravi Kumar Reddy S Satyanarayana. Inorganic and Analytical Volume 115 Issue 2 April 2003 pp 83-90 ...

  12. Coenzyme B12 model studies: An HSAB approach to the equilibria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 6. Coenzyme B12 model studies: An HSAB approach to the equilibria and kinetics of axial ligation of alkyl(aquo)-cobaloximes by imidazole and cyanide. Vaddeboina Sridhar S Satyanarayana. Inorganic and Analytical Volume 112 Issue 6 December 2000 ...

  13. On pure-strategy Nash equilibria in price-quantity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.; Vermeulen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the existence and characteristics of pure-strategy Nash equilibria in oligopoly models in which firms set both prices and quantities. Existence is proved for a broad and natural class of price-quantity games. With differentiated products, the equilibrium outcome is similar to

  14. The effects of risk preferences in mixed-strategy equilibria of 2x2 games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, D.; Steiner, Jakub

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2007), s. 381-388 ISSN 0899-8256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : risk preferences * mixed strategy equilibria Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2007

  15. Electrostatic contributions to residue-specific protonation equilibria and proton binding capacitance for a small protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindman, Stina; Linse, Sara; Mulder, Frans A. A.; Andre, Ingemar

    2006-01-01

    Charge-charge interactions in proteins are important in a host of biological processes. Here we use C-13 NMR chemical shift data for individual aspartate and glutamate side chain carboxylate groups to accurately detect site-specific protonation equilibria in a variant of the B1 domain of protein G

  16. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, AF; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, Damien; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P; Boshoven, JG; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D

    2017-01-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2–ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the

  17. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional...

  18. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional ...... that the influence of the coexisting aqueous phase is not negligible....

  19. Truth-telling and Nash equilibria in minimum cost spanning tree models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2012-01-01

    to the rules of the game. We characterize ways of allocating costs such that true announcements constitute Nash equilibria both in case of full and incomplete information. In particular, we find that the Shapley rule based on the irreducible cost matrix is consistent with truthful announcements while a series...

  20. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    , such as acetic acid in fermentations [2, 3]. Thus, from a biotechnological perspective, it is highly interesting to research on the system CO2—H2O with different concentrations of acetic acid (HAc). Based on previous studies [4, 5], this project aims to investigate the vapour/liquid equilibria (VLE...

  1. Magnetic surface breaking in 3D MHD equilibria of 1=2 Heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Takei, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic surface breaking due to the finite pressure effect is analyzed for three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of 1=2 Heliotron configuration. Characteristics of magnetic island formation are extensively surveyed. It is found that the well-hill criterion which has been predicted by the local analysis is not always applicable for all cases. (author)

  2. Synthetic methods in phase equilibria: A new apparatus and error analysis of the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    A new apparatus for the study of high-pressure phase equilibria using a synthetic method is described. The apparatus was especially developed for the study of solubilities of gases in condensed phases, at temperatures ranging from 243 K to 353 K and pressures up to 20 MPa. The quality of the equi...

  3. Prediction of Pure Component Adsorption Equilibria Using an Adsorption Isotherm Equation Based on Vacancy Solution Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Krøll, Annette Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    An adsorption isotherm equation for nonideal pure component adsorption based on vacancy solution theory and the Non-Random-Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation is found to be useful for predicting pure component adsorption equilibria at a variety of conditions. The isotherm equation is evaluated successfully...... adsorption systems, spreading pressure and isosteric heat of adsorption are also calculated....

  4. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria in Al–Ga–P–As system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A generalized thermodynamic expression of the liquid Al–Ga–P–As alloys is used in conjunction with the solid solution model in determining the solid–liquid equilibria at 1173 K and 1273 K. The liquid solution model contains thirtyseven parameters. Twentyfour of them pertain to those of the six constituent binaries, twelve ...

  5. New investigation of phase equilibria in the system Al-Cu-Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponweiser, Norbert; Richter, Klaus W

    2012-01-25

    The phase equilibria and invariant reactions in the system Al-Cu-Si were investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). Isothermal phase equilibria were investigated within two isothermal sections. The isothermal section at 500 °C covers the whole ternary composition range and largely confirms the findings of previous phase diagram investigations. The isothermal section at 700 °C describes phase equilibria only in the complex Cu-rich part of the phase diagram. A new ternary compound τ was found in the region between (Al,Cu)-γ(1) and (Cu,Si)-γ and its solubility range was determined. The solubility of Al in κ-CuSi was found to be extremely high at 700 °C. In contrast, no ternary solubility in the β-phase of Cu-Al was found, although this phase is supposed to form a complete solid solution according to previous phase diagram assessments. Two isopleths, at 10 and 40 at.% Si, were investigated by means of DTA and a partial ternary reaction scheme (Scheil diagram) was constructed, based on the current work and the latest findings in the binary systems Al-Cu and Cu-Si. The current study shows that the high temperature equilibria in the Cu-rich corner are still poorly understood and additional studies in this area would be favorable.

  6. Equilibria and kinetics for pH-dependent axial ligation of ethylester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Equilibria and kinetics for pH-dependent axial ligation of ethylester and methylester(aquo)cobaloximes with aromatic and aliphatic. N-donor ligands and a molecular mechanistic study of the Co–C bond. J V MADHURI, V MALATHI and S SATYANARAYANA*. Department of Chemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 ...

  7. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  8. Mixed-ligand complex formation equilibria of Cu with biguanide in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Indian Academy of Sciences. 411. *For correspondence. Mixed-ligand complex formation equilibria of Cu. II with biguanide in presence of glycine as the auxiliary ligand. TANNISTHA ROY BARMAN and G N MUKHERJEE*. Department of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla.

  9. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida ) in ternary Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Indian Academy of Sciences. 249. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida. 2–. ) in ternary Cu. II. (ida)(H–1B). – complex formation (B = imidazole, benzimidazole) in aqueous solution. SUSMITA BANDYOPADHYAY and G N MUKHERJEE*. Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, University College of.

  10. The Relation Between the Position of Center of Gravity on Postural Stability and the Muscular Strength of the Lower Limbs in the Human

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 賢

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relation between the position of center of gravity on postural stability and the muscular strength of the lower limbs. The indexes of the strength were Leg extension and Leg curl. One Repetition Maximum of muscular strength was calculated using by repetition maximum method. The center of gravity on postural stability was measured using FPS(Foot Pressure System). The result were as follows, To train both of the extension and the curl, it was a primary factor t...

  11. Effects of pressure on aqueous chemical equilibria at subzero temperatures with applications to Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Catling, D.C.; Jakubowski, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure plays a critical role in controlling aqueous geochemical processes in deep oceans and deep ice. The putative ocean of Europa could have pressures of 1200 bars or higher on the seafloor, a pressure not dissimilar to the deepest ocean basin on Earth (the Mariana Trench at 1100 bars of pressure). At such high pressures, chemical thermodynamic relations need to explicitly consider pressure. A number of papers have addressed the role of pressure on equilibrium constants, activity coefficients, and the activity of water. None of these models deal, however, with processes at subzero temperatures, which may be important in cold environments on Earth and other planetary bodies. The objectives of this work were to (1) incorporate a pressure dependence into an existing geochemical model parameterized for subzero temperatures (FREZCHEM), (2) validate the model, and (3) simulate pressure-dependent processes on Europa. As part of objective 1, we examined two models for quantifying the volumetric properties of liquid water at subzero temperatures: one model is based on the measured properties of supercooled water, and the other model is based on the properties of liquid water in equilibrium with ice. The relative effect of pressure on solution properties falls in the order: equilibrium constants(K) > activity coefficients (??) > activity of water (aw). The errors (%) in our model associated with these properties, however, fall in the order: ?? > K > aw. The transposition between K and ?? is due to a more accurate model for estimating K than for estimating ??. Only activity coefficients are likely to be significantly in error. However, even in this case, the errors are likely to be only in the range of 2 to 5% up to 1000 bars of pressure. Evidence based on the pressure/temperature melting of ice and salt solution densities argue in favor of the equilibrium water model, which depends on extrapolations, for characterizing the properties of liquid water in electrolyte

  12. Evolutionary stability concepts in a stochastic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Li, Cong; Lessard, Sabin; Tao, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, evolutionary game theory and the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy have been not only extensively developed and successfully applied to explain the evolution of animal behaviors, but also widely used in economics and social sciences. Nonetheless, the stochastic dynamical properties of evolutionary games in randomly fluctuating environments are still unclear. In this study, we investigate conditions for stochastic local stability of fixation states and constant interior equilibria in a two-phenotype model with random payoffs following pairwise interactions. Based on this model, we develop the concepts of stochastic evolutionary stability (SES) and stochastic convergence stability (SCS). We show that the condition for a pure strategy to be SES and SCS is more stringent than in a constant environment, while the condition for a constant mixed strategy to be SES is less stringent than the condition to be SCS, which is less stringent than the condition in a constant environment.

  13. High-Temperature Phase Equilibria of Duplex Stainless Steels Assessed with a Novel In-Situ Neutron Scattering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Niklas; Wessman, Sten; Hertzman, Staffan; Studer, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Duplex stainless steels are designed to solidify with ferrite as the parent phase, with subsequent austenite formation occurring in the solid state, implying that, thermodynamically, a fully ferritic range should exist at high temperatures. However, computational thermodynamic tools appear currently to overestimate the austenite stability of these systems, and contradictory data exist in the literature. In the present work, the high-temperature phase equilibria of four commercial duplex stainless steel grades, denoted 2304, 2101, 2507, and 3207, with varying alloying levels were assessed by measurements of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation at temperatures approaching 1673 K (1400 °C) using a novel in-situ neutron scattering approach. All grades became fully ferritic at some point during progressive heating. Higher austenite dissolution temperatures were measured for the higher alloyed grades, and for 3207, the temperature range for a single-phase ferritic structure approached zero. The influence of temperatures in the region of austenite dissolution was further evaluated by microstructural characterization using electron backscattered diffraction of isothermally heat-treated and quenched samples. The new experimental data are compared to thermodynamic calculations, and the precision of databases is discussed.

  14. Phase equilibria in the Ni–Al–Ga system at 700 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyavina, N.; Markiv, V.; Nakonechna, O.; Lozovyi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We study phase equilibria in ternary Ni–Al–Ga in the whole concentration range. • Ni(Al,Ga), Ni 2 (Al,Ga) 3 , Ni 5 (Al,Ga) 3 extended solid solutions exist in this system. • Isothermal section (700 °C) of the Ni–Al–Ga system has been constructed. • Small additions of Ga increase compressive strength of Ni 3 (Al,Ga) solid solution. - Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary Ni–Al–Ga system at 700 °C have been established by the X-ray powder diffraction methods. In addition to already known Ni 3 (Al,Ga) continuous solid solution, Ni(Al,Ga) continuous solid solution as well as Ni 2 (Al,Ga) 3 and Ni 5 (Al,Ga) 3 extended solid solutions were found to exist in this system. It was shown that the ternary Ni 2 (Al,Ga) 3 and Ni 5 (Al,Ga) 3 compounds do not belong to the continuous solid solutions because of two-phase gaps on the Ni 2 Al 3 –Ni 2 Ga 3 (∼30–50 at.% Ga) and Ni 5 Al 3 –Ni 5 Ga 3 (∼12–25 at.% Ga) isolines at 700 °C. Some crystal structure peculiarities such as atomic ordering–disordering and presence of structural vacancies have been revealed for all solid solutions existing in the Ni–Al–Ga system. It was found that the compressive strength of the Ni 3 (Al,Ga) solid solution increases with small additions of gallium (about 2.5 at.%). The isothermal section (700 °C) of the ternary Ni–Al–Ga system including four extended solid solutions (Ni 3 (Al,Ga), Ni 5 (Al,Ga) 3 , Ni(Al,Ga) and Ni 2 (Al,Ga) 3 ) has been constructed and plotted

  15. Phase Equilibria and Magnetic Phases in the Ce-Fe-Co-B System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce-Fe-Co-B is a promising system for permanent magnets. A high-throughput screening method combining diffusion couples, key alloys, Scanning Electron Microscope/Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (SEM/WDS, and Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM is used in this research to understand the phase equilibria and to explore promising magnetic phases in this system. Three magnetic phases were detected and their homogeneity ranges were determined at 900 °C, which were presented by the formulae: Ce2Fe14−xCoxB (0 ≤ x ≤ 4.76, CeCo4−xFexB (0 ≤ x ≤ 3.18, and Ce3Co11−x FexB4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 6.66. The phase relations among the magnetic phases in this system have been studied. Ce2(Fe, Co14B appears to have stronger magnetization than Ce(Co, Fe4B and Ce3(Co, Fe11B4 from MFM analysis when comparing the magnetic interactions of selected key alloys. Also, a non-magnetic CeCo12−xFexB6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 8.74 phase was detected in this system. A boron-rich solid solution with Ce13FexCoyB45 (32 ≤ x ≤ 39, 3 ≤ y ≤ 10 chemical composition was also observed. However, the crystal structure of this phase could not be found in the literature. Moreover, ternary solid solutions ε1 (Ce2Fe17−xCox (0 ≤ x ≤ 12.35 and ε2 (Ce2Co17−xFex (0 ≤ x ≤ 3.57 were found to form between Ce2Fe17 and Ce2Co17 in the Ce-Fe-Co ternary system at 900 °C.

  16. One-electron transfer equilibria and redox potentials of radicals studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Czapski, G.

    1975-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique is utilized for measurements of the equilibrium constants for electron transfer between the durosemiquinone radical anion and oxygen, menadione, and indigodisulfonate. These equilibrium constants are in turn used for calculations of one-electron redox potentials for these systems. Each of these equilibrium constants was determined experimentally and independently and found to be self-consistent. Only for the reactions of the semiquinone radical ions with oxygen could the electron transfer reaction be followed directly. For the reactions between the various quinone-semiquinone systems substantial indirect evidence is presented that these equilibria are achieved rapidly. In those cases equilibrium constants were determined from studies of the effect of quinone concentrations on the relative yields of the semiquinones. A method for distinguishing between kinetic competition and equilibrium is outlined and its usefulness is emphasized. The DQ parallel DQ - (DQ = duroquinone) and IDS parallel IDS - (IDS = indigodisulfonate) systems were employed as reference couples as the redox potentials for those systems are either available in the literature (IDS parallel IDS - ) or may be calculated from available data (DQ parallel DQ - ). Taking E 7 1 , the redox potential for the first one-electron reduction step at pH 7, of DQ parallel DQ - as -0.235 V or of IDS parallelIDS - as -0.247 V both yield E 7 1 = -0.325 V for the O 2 parallel O 2 - system (1 atm of O 2 ) and E 2 1 = -0.20 V for the menadione system. (U.S.)

  17. An investigation of tautomeric equilibria by means of mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamir, Lolita; Jensen, Bror Skytte; Larsen, Elfinn

    1969-01-01

    (stabilized by the hydrogen bond) one sees that the direction of the intensity variation of these peaks with temperature is in accord with the expected change of keto-enol tautomerism with temperature. A quantitative correlation on the basis of the above assumptions is also approached. Recording of the mass...

  18. A validated stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of process-related impurities in pantoprazole bulk drug and formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Pandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method was developed with short run time and validated for the assay of process related impurities of pantoprazole in bulk form. Resolution of drug, its potential impurities and degradation products were achieved on a Hypersil ODS column utilizing a gradient with 0.01 M phosphate buffer of pH 7 and acetonitrile as eluent, at the detection wavelength of 290 nm. Flow rate was set at 1 mL min-1. The procedure was found to be specific, linear (r=0.999, recovery (97.9-103%, LOD (0.043-0.047 µgmL-1, LOQ (0.13-0.14 µgmL-1 and robust. Acceptable robustness indicates that the assay method remains unaffected by small but deliberate variations. Pantoprazole was found to degrade in acidic, oxidative and under photolytic stress conditions. The drug was stable to alkaline and dry heat conditions. This method has been successively applied to pharmaceutical formulation and no interference from the excipients was found.Desenvolveu-se método indicador de estabilidade por Cromatografia a Líquido de Alta Eficiência (CLAE com pequeno tempo de corrida e validado para o ensaio de impurezas relacionadas ao processo de produção de pantoprazol em batelada. A determinação do fármaco, de suas impurezas potenciais e dos produtos de degradação foi realizada com coluna de ODS Hypersil, utilizando gradiente com tampão de fosfato 0,01 M pH 7 e acetonitrila como eluente, no comprimento de onda de detecção de 290 nm. A velocidade de fluxo foi fixada em 1 mLmin-1. O procedimento se mostrou específico, linear (r=0,999, com recuperação (97,9-103%, LOD (0,043-0,047 µgmL-1, LOQ (0,13-0,14 µg mL-1 e robusto. Robustez aceitável indica que o método de ensaio não é afetado por variações pequenas, exceto as planejadas. O pantoprazole degradou em condições ácidas, oxidativas e sob condições de estresse fotolítico. O fármaco foi estável em condições alcalinas e de calor seco. Este m

  19. The relation between geometry, hydrology and stability of complex hillslopes examined using low-dimensional hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talebi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Hillslope geometry, Hillslope hydrology, Hillslope stability, Complex hillslopes, Modeling shallow landslides, HSB model, HSB-SM model.

    The hydrologic response of a hillslope to rainfall involves a complex, transient saturated-unsaturated interaction that usually leads to a

  20. 75 FR 65366 - Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability... availability. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of the final Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and... eligibility of emergency work to protect eligible facilities threatened by landslides or slope failures; as...

  1. Explaining unexpected data via competitive equilibria and processes in radical reactions with reversible deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolewicz, Dominik; Krys, Pawel; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2014-10-21

    In the game rock-paper-scissors, each of the three options, or pathways, has an equal chance of dominating, that is, rock beats scissors, scissors beats paper, and paper beats rock. In the classical form of the game, there is no one dominant pathway to follow, but they are all balanced in likelihood. However, in chemical reactions with several competing reagents, the question must be asked, are all competing reactions and pathways accessible? A related question is, if there are two, or more reversible processes that compete for the same reagent, will both processes equilibrate simultaneously, or will one process dominate system? Can these competing processes shed light on otherwise puzzling data? Several unexpected and counterintuitive experiments have been reported in radical reactions with reversible deactivation. These unexpected observations can be illustrated by the near absence of the products of conventional bimolecular radical coupling in the radical transformation of methylcobaltamine to acetylcobaltamine. Another counterintuitive observation is a difference in the copolymer composition in some copolymerizations proceeding via reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) vs conventional radical polymerization (RP), for example, nitroxide mediated polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate. A similarly puzzling phenomenon is the reduction in the branching fraction in poly(acrylates) polymerized by RDRP vs conventional RP. In the three previously mentioned cases, the radicals formed in reversible deactivation radical reactions are identical to those formed in the corresponding conventional radical process; therefore an explanation for the discrepancy in the outcomes of the reaction is needed. Other unexpected observations include the presence of initial periods of slower monomer consumption in RDRP reactions initiated by a conventional radical initiator with certain chain transfer agents, while changing the nature of chain transfer agent can

  2. Low temperature geothermal systems in carbonate-evaporitic rocks: Mineral equilibria assumptions and geothermometrical calculations. Insights from the Arnedillo thermal waters (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Mónica; Gimeno, María J; Auqué, Luis F

    2018-02-15

    Geothermometrical calculations in low-medium temperature geothermal systems hosted in carbonate-evaporitic rocks are complicated because 1) some of the classical chemical geothermometers are, usually, inadequate (since they were developed for higher temperature systems with different mineral-water equilibria at depth) and 2) the chemical geothermometers calibrated for these systems (based on the Ca and Mg or SO 4 and F contents) are not free of problems either. The case study of the Arnedillo thermal system, a carbonate-evaporitic system of low temperature, will be used to deal with these problems through the combination of several geothermometrical techniques (chemical and isotopic geothermometers and geochemical modelling). The reservoir temperature of the Arnedillo geothermal system has been established to be in the range of 87±13°C being the waters in equilibrium with respect to calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, quartz, albite, K-feldspar and other aluminosilicates. Anhydrite and quartz equilibria are highly reliable to stablish the reservoir temperature. Additionally, the anhydrite equilibrium explains the coherent results obtained with the δ 18 O anhydrite - water geothermometer. The equilibrium with respect to feldspars and other aluminosilicates is unusual in carbonate-evaporitic systems and it is probably related to the presence of detrital material in the aquifer. The identification of the expected equilibria with calcite and dolomite presents an interesting problem associated to dolomite. Variable order degrees of dolomite can be found in natural systems and this fact affects the associated equilibrium temperature in the geothermometrical modelling and also the results from the Ca-Mg geothermometer. To avoid this uncertainty, the order degree of the dolomite present in the Arnedillo reservoir has been determined and the results indicate 18.4% of ordered dolomite and 81.6% of disordered dolomite. Overall, the results suggest that this multi

  3. An island of stability: art images and natural scenes—but not natural faces—show consistent aesthetic response in Alzheimer’s-related dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eGraham

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of aesthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in aesthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved aesthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar aesthetic stability in early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs—which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings—was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with aesthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face processing in healthy and diseased ageing. Our work also gives insights into general theories of aesthetics, since people with Alzheimer’s disease are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color aesthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with Alzheimer’s disease, basic aesthetic judgment of artistic images represents an island of stability in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, aesthetic response could be a promising route to

  4. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes - but Not Natural Faces - Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer's-Related Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer's-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs - which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings - was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an "island of stability" in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies.

  5. Global robust stability of delayed recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Huang Deshuang; Qu Yuzhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global robust stability of a class of delayed interval recurrent neural networks which contain time-invariant uncertain parameters whose values are unknown but bounded in given compact sets. A new sufficient condition is presented for the existence, uniqueness, and global robust stability of equilibria for interval neural networks with time delays by constructing Lyapunov functional and using matrix-norm inequality. An error is corrected in an earlier publication, and an example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results

  6. A periodic point-based method for the analysis of Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 symmetric quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, David

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method of looking at Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 quantum games. Our method is based on a mathematical connection between the problem of identifying Nash equilibria in game theory, and the topological problem of the periodic points in nonlinear maps. To adapt our method to the original protocol designed by Eisert et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3077-80) to study quantum games, we are forced to extend the space of strategies from the initial proposal. We apply our method to the extended strategy space version of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and find that a new set of Nash equilibria emerge in a natural way. Nash equilibria in this set are optimal as Eisert's solution of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and include this solution as a limit case.

  7. Variational inequalities and time-dependent traffic equilibria; Inequations variationnelles et equilibres du trafic dependant du temps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniele, P.; Maugeri, A. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Matematica; Oettli, W. [Mannheim Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fur Mathemaik und Informatik

    1998-05-01

    We consider existence, characterization, and calculation of equilibria in transportation networks, when the route capacities and demand requirements depend on time. The problem is expressed in terms of a variational inequality and is situated in a Banach space setting. (authors)

  8. Relative Lyapunov Center Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relative equilibria (REs) and relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and rigid body motion. REs are equilibria, and RPOs are periodic orbits of the symmetry reduced system. Relative Lyapunov...... center bifurcations are bifurcations of RPOs from REs corresponding to Lyapunov center bifurcations of the symmetry reduced dynamics. In this paper we first prove a relative Lyapunov center theorem by combining recent results on the persistence of RPOs in Hamiltonian systems with a symmetric Lyapunov...... center theorem of Montaldi, Roberts, and Stewart. We then develop numerical methods for the detection of relative Lyapunov center bifurcations along branches of RPOs and for their computation. We apply our methods to Lagrangian REs of the N-body problem....

  9. Stability of twisted rods, helices and buckling solutions in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Apala; Raisch, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study stability problems for equilibria of a naturally straight, inextensible, unshearable Kirchhoff rod allowed to deform in three dimensions (3D), subject to terminal loads. We investigate the stability of the twisted, straight state in 3D for three different boundary-value problems, cast in terms of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for the Euler angles, with and without isoperimetric constraints. In all cases, we obtain explicit stability estimates in terms of the twist, external load and elastic constants and in the Dirichlet case, we compute bifurcation diagrams for the Euler angles as a function of the external load. In the same vein, we obtain explicit stability estimates for a family of prototypical helical equilibria in 3D and demonstrate that they are stable for a range of tensile and compressive forces. We propose a numerical L 2 -gradient flow model to study the stability and dynamical evolution (in viscous model situations) of Kirchhoff rod equilibria. In Nizette and Goriely 1999 J. Math. Phys. 40 2830–66, the authors construct a family of localized buckling solutions. We apply our L 2 -gradient flow model to these localized buckling solutions, demonstrate that they are unstable, study their evolution and the simulations demonstrate rich spatio-temporal patterns that strongly depend on the boundary conditions and imposed isoperimetric constraints. (paper)

  10. Stability of twisted rods, helices and buckling solutions in three dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2014-11-03

    © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society. We study stability problems for equilibria of a naturally straight, inextensible, unshearable Kirchhoff rod allowed to deform in three dimensions (3D), subject to terminal loads. We investigate the stability of the twisted, straight state in 3D for three different boundary-value problems, cast in terms of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for the Euler angles, with and without isoperimetric constraints. In all cases, we obtain explicit stability estimates in terms of the twist, external load and elastic constants and in the Dirichlet case, we compute bifurcation diagrams for the Euler angles as a function of the external load. In the same vein, we obtain explicit stability estimates for a family of prototypical helical equilibria in 3D and demonstrate that they are stable for a range of tensile and compressive forces. We propose a numerical L2-gradient flow model to study the stability and dynamical evolution (in viscous model situations) of Kirchhoff rod equilibria. In Nizette and Goriely 1999 J. Math. Phys. 40 2830-66, the authors construct a family of localized buckling solutions. We apply our L2-gradient flow model to these localized buckling solutions, demonstrate that they are unstable, study their evolution and the simulations demonstrate rich spatio oral patterns that strongly depend on the boundary conditions and imposed isoperimetric constraints.

  11. A validated stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method for determination of process related impurities and degradation behavior of Irbesartan in solid oral dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the estimation of degradation and process related impurities of Irbesartan, namely Impurity-1, Impurity-2, Impurity-3 and Impurity-4. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, limit of detection and quantification, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypersil Octadecylsilyl (4.6 mm Χ 150 mm, 3 ΅m column by using mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A (0.55% v/v ortho-phosphoric acid, pH adjusted to 3.2 with triethyl amine and B (95:5 v/v mixture of acetonitrile and solvent A at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The detection was carried out at a wavelength of 220 nm. During method validation parameter such as precision, linearity, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and quantification were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. HPLC analytical method is linear, accurate, precise, robust and specific, being able to separate the main drug from its degradation products. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and its impurities, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The method is stability-indicating in nature and can be used for routine analysis of production samples and to check the stability of the Irbesartan HCl tablets.

  12. On Cournot-Nash-Walras Equilibria and Their Computation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Ferris, M.C.; Červinka, Michal; Outrata, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 387-402 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA15-00735S Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SFG 2567; Australian Research Council(AU) DP-110102011 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Cournot-Nash-Walras equilibrium * Existence * Stationarity conditions * Stability * MOPEC Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/outrata-0460895.pdf

  13. Stability of Finite-n Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modes Using the GATO Stability Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M. S.; Wong, S. K.; Lao, L. L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Chance, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    This work extends the capability of the GATO stability code(L.C.Bernard et al.), Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 377 (1981). to analyze realistic numerical tokamak equilibria for their stability to higher n ( ~5--10) MHD modes. This is motivated by the experimental evidence of these modes being relevant for both plasma termination and the behavior of ELMs. The ballooning angle transformation(R. Gruber et al.), Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 363 (1981). is applied to the displacement variables in the GATO representation. The potential energy matrix is constructed with the inclusion of extra mapping quantities. The vacuum energy computed from the Green's function is also modified to couple to the transformed displacement at the plasma boundary. The resultant eigenvalue problem is solved with the modified boundary condition in the poloidal direction suitable for these transformed variables. The dependence of the plasma stability as a function of toroidal mode number and plasma equilibrium properties will be presented.

  14. Analytic axisymmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and non-parallel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiroukidis, A.; Evangelias, A.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    We extend previous work by two of the authors [Evangelias and Throumoulopoulos 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 045022] and find analytic solutions to a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation (GGSE) with pressure anisotropy, hollow toroidal current density and incompressible flow of arbitrary direction. By specifying the surface-function terms involved in the GGSE as quadratic functions of the poloidal magnetic flux function, we derive analytic tokamak pertinent equilibria. It turns out that, irrespective of the shape of the toroidal current density profile, which is noticeably affected by the pressure anisotropy, this anisotropy has a paramagnetic effect for {p}\\parallel > {p}\\perp and a diamagnetic one for {p}\\parallel < {p}\\perp . In addition, the parallel flow induces paramagnetism, while the residual toroidal flow associated with the electric field induces diamagnetism. The analytic results obtained here contribute to the physics understanding of axisymmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and flow, and can be employed for validating equilibrium codes.

  15. Protonation Equilibria of L-Aspartic, Citric and Succinic Acids in Anionic Micellar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srinivasa Rao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS on the protonation equilibria of L-aspartic acid, citric acid and succinic acid has been studied in various concentrations (0.5-2.5% w/v of SLS solution maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 mol dm-3 at 303 K. The protonation constants have been calculated with the computer program MINIQUAD75 and the best fit models have been calculated based on statistical parameters. The trend of log values of step-wise protonation constants with mole fraction of the medium has been explained based on electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces operating on the protonation equilibria. The effects of errors on the protonation constants have also been presented.

  16. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  17. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Ni-Nb-V ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome; Zhang, Xianjie; Jiang, Hengxing; Shi, Zhan [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-09-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system at 1000 C and 1200 C were established using electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the investigation revealed that: (1) The Nb solubility in (Ni) and σ{sup '} phases was less than 10 at.%; (2) A ternary compound τ (NiNbV) was confirmed, in which V had a large solubility; (3) A new liquid region was evident at 1200 C, but was absent at 1000 C; (4) The lattice constants of Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7} phase decreased with increase in V content in the Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7}. The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system will contribute to its thermodynamic assessment.

  18. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr 7 Ni 10 , ZrNi, ZrNi 5 , Zr 14 Cu 51 , and Zr 2 Cu 9 , show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ 3 (Zr 31.1-30.7 . Cu 28.5-40.3 Ni 40.4-29.0 ) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  19. A nonvariational code for calculating three-dimensional MHD [magnetohydrodynamic] equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenside, H.S.; Reiman, A.H.; Salas, A.

    1987-09-01

    Details are presented of the PIES code, which uses a nonvariational algorithm for calculating fully three-dimensional MHD equilibria. The MHD equilibrium equations are directly iterated in special coordinates to find self-consistent currents and magnetic fields for given pressure and current profiles and for a given outermost magnetic surface. Three important advantages of this approach over previous methods are the ease with which net current profiles can be imposed, the explicit treatment of resonances, and the ability to handle magnetic islands and stochastic field lines. The convergence properties of the code are studied for several axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric finite-β equilibria that have magnetic surfaces. 36 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alcohol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Bejarano, Arturo; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at 2 + 1-propanol), (CO 2 + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO 2 + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO 2 + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively.

  1. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. Surface Adsorption of Oppositely Charged SDS:C(12)TAB Mixtures and the Relation to Foam Film Formation and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, Heiko; Uhlig, Martin; Miller, Reinhard; von Klitzing, Regine

    2015-10-08

    The complexation, surface adsorption, and foam film stabiliztation of the oppositely charged surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB), is analyzed. The SDS:C12TAB mixing ratio is systematically varied to investigate whether the adsorption of equimolar or irregular catanionic surfactant complexes, and thus a variation in surface charge (i.e., surface excess of either SDS or C12TAB), governs foam film properties. Surface tension measurements indicate that SDS and C12TAB interact electrostatically in order to form stoichometric catanionic surfactant complexes and enhance surface adsorption. On the other hand it can be demonstrated that the SDS:C12TAB mixing ratio and, thus, a change in surface charge and composition plays a decisive role in foam film stabilization. The present study demonstrates that varying the mixing ratio between SDS and C12TAB offers a tool for tailoring surface composition and foam film properties, which are therefore not exclusively mediated by the presence of equimolar catanionic surfactant complexes. The SDS:C12TAB net amount and mixing ratio determine the type, stability, and thinning behavior of the corresponding foam film. These observations indicate the formation of a mixed surface layer, composed of the catanionic surfactant species surrounded by either free SDS or C12TAB molecules in excess. Furthermore, a systematic variation in CBF-NBF transition kinetics is rationalized on the basis of a microscopic phase transition within the foam films. Fundamental knowlegde gained from this research gives insight into the surface adsorption and foam film formation of catanionic surfactant mixtures. The study helps researchers to understand basic mechanisms of foam film stabilization and to use resources more efficiently.

  3. Existence of pure strategy equilibria in Bertrand-Edgeworth games with imperfect divisibility of money

    OpenAIRE

    De Francesco, Massimo A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper incorporates imperfect divisibility of money in a price game where a given number of identical firms produce a homogeneous product at constant unit cost up to capacity. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a pure strategy equilibrium. Unlike in the continuous action space case, under discrete pricing there may be a range of symmetric pure strategy equilibria - which we fully characterize - a range which may or may not include the competitive price. Also,...

  4. Solid-liquid Phase Equilibria of the Aqueous Systems Containing Lithium, Magnesium and Borate Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Dong; Du, Xuemin; Wang, Shiqiang; Guo, Yafei; Deng, Tianlong

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the phase chemistry is of great importance in the fields of chemistry, chemical engineering, and the separation and purification of minerals from brine. To effectively employ the resources containing lithium, magnesium and borate, the study on phase equilibrium is essential to the comprehensive utilization of the Salt Lake resources. In this paper, progresses on phase equilibria of salt-water systems containing lithium, magnesium and borate were presented.

  5. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine 336 in MIBK: equilibria and kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) system used. Equilibria for lactic acid extraction by alamine 336 in methyl-iso-butyl-ketone (MIBK) as a diluent have been determined. The extent to which the organic phase (amine +MIBK) may be loade...

  6. Alpha spectrometry of thick sources. II. Application to the study of radioactive equilibria in uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena Barrenechea, M.L.; Tormo Ferrero, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining nuclide activities in 4n + 2 uranium series using alpha spectrometry of thick sources is described. This method has been applied to several uranium ores, showing different states of radioactive equilibria. The spectra from samples prepared by cold compression show some anomalies, due to the evolution and later decay of 219 Rn and daughters. This phenomenon must be taken in consideration when computing spectra line intensities. (author) [es

  7. Solid-Liquid Equilibria in Systems [Cxmim][Tf2N] with Diethylamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotrekl, Jan; Vrbka, P.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Wagner, Zdeněk; Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2015), s. 453-460 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Symposium on Solubility Phenomena 2014. Karlsruhe, 20.07.2014-24.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094; GA MŠk LG13060 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * solid-liquid equilibria * COSMO-RS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  8. The effect of chemical and organic amendments on sodium exchange equilibria in a calcareous sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Faranak; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the reclamation of a calcareous sodic soil with the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) value of 26.6% was investigated using the cheap and readily available chemical and organic materials including natural bentonite and zeolite saturated with calcium (Ca2+), waste calcite, three metal oxide nanoparticles functionalized with an acidic extract of potato residues, and potato residues. Chemical amendments were added to the soil at a rate of 2%, while potato residues were applied at the rates of 2 and 4% by weight. The ESP in the amended soils was reduced in the range of 0.9-4.9% compared to the control soil, and the smallest and the largest decline was respectively observed in treatments containing waste calcite and 4% of potato residues. Despite the reduction in ESP, the values of this parameter were not below 15% at the end of a 40-day incubation period. So, the effect of solutions of varying sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 on sodium (Na+) exchange equilibria was evaluated in batch systems. The empirical models (simple linear, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) fitted well to experimental data. The relations of quantity to intensity (Q/I) revealed that the potential buffering capacity for Na+ (PBCNa) varied from 0.275 to 0.337 ((cmolc kg(-1)) (mmol L(-1))(-1/2)) in the control soil and amended soils. The relationship between exchangeable sodium ratio (ESR) and SAR was individually determined for the control soil and amended soils. The values of Gapon selectivity coefficient (KG) of Na+ differed from the value suggested by U.S. Salinity Laboratory (USSL). The PHREEQC, a geochemical computer program, was applied to simulate Na+ exchange isotherms by using the mechanistic cation exchange model (CEM) along with Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficients. The simulation results indicated that Na+ exchange isotherms and Q/I and ESR-SAR relations were influenced by the type of counter anions. The values of K G increased in

  9. Asperger syndrome in males over two decades: Quality of life in relation to diagnostic stability and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helles, Adam; Gillberg, I Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-05-01

    This study examined objective quality of life (work, academic success, living situation, relationships, support system) and subjective quality of life (Sense of Coherence and Short-Form Health Survey-36) in an adult sample of males ( n = 50, mean age: 30 years) with Asperger syndrome diagnosed in childhood and followed prospectively over two decades. The association between long-term diagnostic stability of an autism spectrum disorder and/or comorbid psychiatric disorders with quality of life was also examined. The results showed great variability as regards quality of life. The subsample that no longer fulfilled an autism spectrum disorder had full-time jobs or studies (10/11), independent living (100%), and reported having two or more friends (100%). In the stable autism spectrum disorder group, 41% had full-time job or studies, 51% lived independently, and 33% reported two or more friends, and a significant minority had specialized employments, lived with support from the government, or had no friends. Academic success was positively correlated with IQ. A majority of the total group scored average Sense of Coherence scores, and the mean for Short-Form Health Survey-36 was above average regarding psychical health and below average regarding mental health. Stability of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was associated with objective but not subjective quality of life, while psychiatric comorbidity was associated with subjective but not objective quality of life.

  10. Guangzhou’s African Migrants: Implications for China’s Social Stability and China-Africa Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Elochukwu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently migration was treated like a footnote in the Africa-China discourse. Previously researchers and the media had focused attention on the “cost-benefit analysis” of China‘ s economic penetration of the continent. However, since 2008 when over a hundred African migrants blocked a major street in Guangzhou protesting the death of a Nigerian in an immigration raid, researchers and the media have been falling over themselves to unpack the phenomenon of migrant exchange in the relationship. There are now about one million Chinese migrants in Africa as against about two hundred and fifty thousand African migrants in China. Migration is a two-edged sword. On the credit side, migration can be a bridge between peoples as well as a major contributor to economic development. On the debit side, it can be a source of dispute between peoples and a threat to the hosts’ social stability. This paper discusses the implications of Guangzhou’s African migrants for China’s social stability and China’s relationship with Africa.

  11. Principles and equations for measuring and interpreting protein stability: From monomer to tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouelle, Hugues

    2016-02-01

    The ability to measure the thermodynamic stability of proteins with precision is important for both academic and applied research. Such measurements rely on mathematical models of the protein denaturation profile, i.e. the relation between a global protein signal, corresponding to the folding states in equilibrium, and the variable value of a denaturing agent, either heat or a chemical molecule, e.g. urea or guanidinium hydrochloride. In turn, such models rely on a handful of physical laws: the laws of mass action and conservation, the law that relates the protein signal and concentration, and the one that relates stability and denaturant value. So far, equations have been derived mainly for the denaturation profiles of homomeric proteins. Here, we review the underlying basic physical laws and show in detail how to derive model equations for the unfolding equilibria of homomeric or heteromeric proteins up to trimers and potentially tetramers, with or without folding intermediates, and give full demonstrations. We show that such equations cannot be derived for pentamers or higher oligomers except in special degenerate cases. We expand the method to signals that do not correspond to extensive protein properties. We review and expand methods for uncovering hidden intermediates of unfolding. Finally, we review methods for comparing and interpreting the thermodynamic parameters that derive from stability measurements for cognate wild-type and mutant proteins. This work should provide a robust theoretical basis for measuring the stability of complex proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of vapour-liquid equilibria for the kinetic study of processes based on synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Serio, M.; Tesser, R.; Cozzolino, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Naples Univ., Napoli (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    Syngas is normally used in the production of a broad range of chemicals and fuels. In many of these processes multiphase reactors, gas-liquid or gas-liquid-solid are used. Kinetic studies in multiphase systems are often complicated by the non-ideal behaviour of reagents and/or products that are consistently partitioned between the liquid and the vapour phase. Moreover, as often kinetic data are collected in batch conditions for the liquid phase, activity coefficients of the partitioned components can consistently change during the time as a consequence of changing the composition of the reaction mixture. Therefore, it is necessary, in these cases, to known the vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) in order to collect and to interpret correctly the kinetic data. The description of phase equilibria, at high pressures, is usually performed by means of an EOS (Equation of State) allowing the calculation of fugacity coefficients, for each component, in both phases and determining the partition coefficients but the EOS approach involves the experimental determination of the interaction parameters for all the possible binary system of the mixture. For multicomponent mixtures a complete experimental determination of vapourliquid equilibria is very hard, also considering the high pressure and temperatures used. Some predictive group contribution methods have been recently developed. In this paper, we will describe in detail the application of these methods to the methanol homologation, as an example, with the scope of determining more reliable kinetic parameters for this reaction. (orig.)

  13. Phase equilibria in carbon dioxide expanded solvents: Experiments and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houndonougbo, Yao; Jin, Hong; Rajagopalan, Bhuma; Wong, Kean; Kuczera, Krzysztof; Subramaniam, Bala; Laird, Brian

    2006-07-06

    We present complementary molecular simulations and experimental results of phase equilibria for carbon dioxide expanded acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid, toluene, and 1-octene. The volume expansion measurements were done using a high-pressure Jerguson view cell. Molecular simulations were performed using the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo method. Calculations in the canonical ensemble (NVT) were performed to determine the coexistence curve of the pure solvent systems. Binary mixtures were simulated in the isobaric-isothermal distribution (NPT). Predictions of vapor-liquid equilibria of the pure components agree well with experimental data. The simulations accurately reproduced experimental data on saturated liquid and vapor densities for carbon dioxide, methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid, toluene, and 1-octene. In all carbon dioxide expanded liquids (CXL's) studied, the molecular simulation results for the volume expansion of these binary mixtures were found to be as good as, and in many cases superior to, predictions based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state, demonstrating the utility of molecular simulation in the prediction of CXL phase equilibria.

  14. Effect of temperature on acid-base equilibria in separation techniques. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Tascon, Marcos; Castells, Cecilia B

    2015-08-19

    Studies on the theoretical principles of acid-base equilibria are reviewed and the influence of temperature on secondary chemical equilibria within the context of separation techniques, in water and also in aqueous-organic solvent mixtures, is discussed. In order to define the relationships between the retention in liquid chromatography or the migration velocity in capillary electrophoresis and temperature, the main properties of acid-base equilibria have to be taken into account for both, the analytes and the conjugate pairs chosen to control the solution pH. The focus of this review is based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), with emphasis on the use of temperature as a useful variable to modify selectivity on a predictable basis. Simplified models were evaluated to achieve practical optimizations involving pH and temperature (in LLE and CE) as well as solvent composition in reversed-phase LC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling Complex Equilibria in ITC Experiments: Thermodynamic Parameters Estimation for a Three Binding Site Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vu H.; Buscaglia, Robert; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Lewis, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, ITC, is a powerful technique that can be used to estimate a complete set of thermodynamic parameters (e.g. Keq (or ΔG), ΔH, ΔS, and n) for a ligand binding interaction described by a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamic models are constructed by combination of equilibrium constant, mass balance, and charge balance equations for the system under study. Commercial ITC instruments are supplied with software that includes a number of simple interaction models, for example one binding site, two binding sites, sequential sites, and n-independent binding sites. More complex models for example, three or more binding sites, one site with multiple binding mechanisms, linked equilibria, or equilibria involving macromolecular conformational selection through ligand binding need to be developed on a case by case basis by the ITC user. In this paper we provide an algorithm (and a link to our MATLAB program) for the non-linear regression analysis of a multiple binding site model with up to four overlapping binding equilibria. Error analysis demonstrates that fitting ITC data for multiple parameters (e.g. up to nine parameters in the three binding site model) yields thermodynamic parameters with acceptable accuracy. PMID:23262283

  16. Fixation stability and implication for multifocal electroretinography in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration after anti-VEGF treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karen Bjerg; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify fixation stability in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) at baseline, 3 and 6 months after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment and furthermore asses the implications of an unsteady fixation for multifocal...... electroretinography (mfERG) measurements. Methods: Fifty eyes of 50 nAMD patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment with either bevacizumab or ranibizumab and eight eyes of eight control subjects were included. Fixation stability measurements were performed with the Eye-Link eyetracking system...... and the retinal area in degrees2 (deg2) containing the 68 % most frequently used fixation points (RAF68) was calculated. MfERG P1 amplitude and implicit time were analyzed in six concentric rings and as a summed response. Patients were examined at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Four different mfERG recordings were...

  17. An investigation of tautomeric equilibria by means of mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamir, Lolita; Jensen, Bror Skytte; Larsen, Elfinn

    1969-01-01

    Changes in the mass spectra with inlet temperature were used in this work to demonstrate the dependence of keto-enol tautomerism of acetylacetone, 3-methyl acetylacetone and 3-allyl acetylacetone on temperature. The largest dependence of temperature were shown by the ion [M 42]+. arising from a Mc......Lafferty type rearrangement and by the ion [M Me]+ resulting from simple -cleavage. The ion [M 42]+. peak increases with the temperature of the inlet system while the ion [M Me]+ peak decreases. By assuming that the ion [M 42]+. represents the keto form and that the ion [M Me]+ represents the cis-enol form...... (stabilized by the hydrogen bond) one sees that the direction of the intensity variation of these peaks with temperature is in accord with the expected change of keto-enol tautomerism with temperature. A quantitative correlation on the basis of the above assumptions is also approached. Recording of the mass...

  18. Evaluation of Nintendo Wii Balance Board as a Tool for Measuring Postural Stability After Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Janigro, Mattia; Wasserman, Erin B; Clark, Ross A; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2017-03-01

    Recent changes to postconcussion guidelines indicate that postural-stability assessment may augment traditional neurocognitive testing when making return-to-participation decisions. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) has been proposed as 1 measure of balance assessment. A new, freely available software program to accompany the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) system has recently been developed but has not been tested in concussed patients. To evaluate the feasibility of using the WBB to assess postural stability across 3 time points (baseline and postconcussion days 3 and 7) and to assess concurrent and convergent validity of the WBB with other traditional measures (BESS and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT] battery) of assessing concussion recovery. Cohort study. Athletic training room and collegiate sports arena. We collected preseason baseline data from 403 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III student-athletes participating in contact sports and studied 19 participants (age = 19.2 ± 1.2 years, height = 177.7 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 75.3 ± 16.6 kg, time from baseline to day 3 postconcussion = 27.1 ± 36.6 weeks) who sustained concussions. We assessed balance using single-legged and double-legged stances for both the BESS and WBB, focusing on the double-legged, eyes-closed stance for the WBB, and used ImPACT to assess neurocognition at 3 time points. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Mean differences and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to determine differences within and between metrics over the 3 time points. Individual-level changes over time were also assessed graphically. The WBB demonstrated mean changes between baseline and day 3 postconcussion and between days 3 and 7 postconcussion. It was correlated with the BESS and ImPACT for several measures and identified 2 cases of abnormal balance postconcussion that would not have been identified via the BESS. When

  19. Thermodynamic analysis and phase equilibria investigation in Pb−Zn−Ag system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical processes that take place during the refining process in the extractive metallurgy of lead, are connected with ternary Pb−Zn−Ag system, which is necessary to study from the theoretical practical and aspects. Such investigation is important from production point of view, because of the phenomena that occur during desilvering of lead which is one of the important stages during lead refining process. Process of lead desilvering binds to ternary system Pb−Zn−Ag, which was the reason for numerous investigations, both from thermodynamic point of view and in terms of testing and determining the phase diagram, bearing in mind the theoretical, and practical importance of knowledge about the processes which are going in investigated system. The paper presents the results of thermodynamic analysis and investigation of phase equilibria of the Pb−Zn−Ag ternary system using the method of thermodynamic predictions and phase diagrams calculations, respectively, and the experimental results of metalography obtained by optical microscopy. Phase diagram of the vertical section Pb−Zn80Ag20 is presented, obtained by CALPHAD calculation methodology, and using PANDAT thermodynamic software, compared to experimental results obtained by DTA analysis. The results show a pronounced break in solubility, which is characteristic for the whole ternary Pb−Zn−Ag system. Also, it can be noticed that the thermodynamic properties follow the behavior of this system, which is expressed through positive deviation of Raoult’s law, pointing to the lack of lead affinity compared to the other two components in the system. The optical microscopy results of the investigated system show the following: - Sample L1 (weight% Pb = 98: the structure of the observed section shows double eutectic (Pbsol+Zn−Agsol which lies in the base of the primary crystals of lead (Pbsol - Samples L2−L5: the structure consists of a dual eutectic (Pbsol+Zn−Agsol and

  20. Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    The liquid-vapor equilibrium data for nitric acid and nitric acid-plutnonium nitrate-water solutions were examined to develop correlations covering the range of conditions encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing. The scanty available data for plutonium nitrate solutions are of poor quality but allow an order of magnitude estimate to be made. A formal thermodynamic analysis was attempted initially but was not successful due to the poor quality of the data as well as the complex chemical equilibria involved in the nitric acid and in the plutonium nitrate solutions. Thus, while there was no difficulty in correlating activity coefficients for nitric acid solutions over relatively narrow temperature ranges, attempts to extend the correlations over the range 25 0 C to the boiling point were not successful. The available data were then analyzed using empirical correlations from which normal boiling points and relative volatilities can be obtained over the concentration ranges 0 to 700 g/l Pu, 0 to 13 M nitric acid. Activity coefficients are required, however, if estimates of individual component vapor pressures are needed. The required ternary activity coefficients can be approximated from the correlations