Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale
Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.
Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.
The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.
Full Text Available Phosphorylation under plausible prebiotic conditions continues to be one of the defining issues for the role of phosphorus in the origins of life processes. In this review, we cover the reactions of alternative forms of phosphate, specifically the nitrogenous versions of phosphate (and other forms of reduced phosphorus species from a prebiotic, synthetic organic and biochemistry perspective. The ease with which such amidophosphates or phosphoramidate derivatives phosphorylate a wide variety of substrates suggests that alternative forms of phosphate could have played a role in overcoming the “phosphorylation in water problem”. We submit that serious consideration should be given to the search for primordial sources of nitrogenous versions of phosphate and other versions of phosphorus.
Prebiotic stability tests on laminaran oligosaccharide under food processing conditions were urgently performed to determine the ability of prebiotics deal with processing. Laminaran, oligosaccharide is produced from enzymatic hydrolysis. To further apply this prebiotic, it is necessary to test its performance on food processing. Single prebiotic or in combination with probiotic can improve human digestive health. The effectiveness evaluation of prebiotic should be taken into account in regards its chemical and functional stabilities. This study aims to investigate the stability of laminaran, oligosaccharide under food processing condition.
Kaur, Sarabjeet; Sharma, Purshotam; Wetmore, Stacey D
The RNA world hypothesis assumes that RNA was the first informational polymer that originated from prebiotic chemical soup. However, since the reaction of d-ribose with canonical nucleobases (A, C, G and U) fails to yield ribonucleosides (rNs) in substantial amounts, the spontaneous origin of rNs and the subsequent synthesis of RNA remains an unsolved mystery. To this end, it has been suggested that RNA may have evolved from primitive genetic material (preRNA) composed of simpler prebiotic heterocycles that spontaneously form glycosidic bonds with ribose. As an effort toward evaluating this hypothesis, the present study uses density functional theory (DFT) to assess the suitability of barbituric acid (BA) and melamine (MM) to act as prebiotic nucleobases, both of which have recently been shown to spontaneously form a glycosidic bond with ribose and organize into supramolecular assemblies in solution. The significant strength of hydrogen bonds involving BA and MM indicates that such interactions may have played a crucial role in their preferential selection over competing heterocycles that interact solely through stacking interactions from the primordial soup during the early phase of evolution. However, the greater stability of stacked dimers involving BA or MM and the canonical nucleobases compared to those consisting solely of BA and/or MM points towards the possible evolution of intermediate informational polymers consisting of prebiotic and canonical nucleobases, which could have eventually evolved into RNA. Analysis of the associated rNs reveals an anti conformational preference for the biologically-relevant β-anomer of both BA and MM rNs, which will allow complementary WC-like hydrogen bonding that can stabilize preRNA polymers. Large calculated deglycosylation barriers suggest BA rNs containing C-C glycosidic bonds are relevant in challenging prebiotic environments such as volcanic geotherms, while lower barriers indicate the MM rNs containing C
Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry
This paper presents a novel search algorithm using time-domain simulations to identify plausible N − k contingencies endangering voltage stability. Starting from an initial list of disturbances, progressively more severe contingencies are investigated. After simulation of a N − k contingency......, the simulation results are assessed. If the system response is unstable, a plausible harmful contingency sequence has been found. Otherwise, components affected by the contingencies are considered as candidate next event leading to N − (k + 1) contingencies. This implicitly takes into account hidden failures...
Szilágyi, András; Zachar, István; Scheuring, István
billion years ago. The many different incarnations of nucleotide sequence (string) replicator models proposed recently are all attempts to explain on this basis how the genetic information transfer and the functional diversity of prebiotic replicator systems may have emerged, persisted and evolved...... into the first living cell. We have postulated three necessary conditions for an RNA World model system to be a dynamically feasible representation of prebiotic chemical evolution: (1) it must maintain and transfer a sufficient diversity of information reliably and indefinitely, (2) it must be ecologically...... stable and (3) it must be evolutionarily stable. In this review, we discuss the best-known prebiotic scenarios and the corresponding models of string-replicator dynamics and assess them against these criteria. We suggest that the most popular of prebiotic replicator systems, the hypercycle, is probably...
Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Könnyű, Balázs; Czárán, Tamás
As of today, the most credible scientific paradigm pertaining to the origin of life on Earth is undoubtedly the RNA World scenario. It is built on the assumption that catalytically active replicators (most probably RNA-like macromolecules) may have been responsible for booting up life almost four billion years ago. The many different incarnations of nucleotide sequence (string) replicator models proposed recently are all attempts to explain on this basis how the genetic information transfer and the functional diversity of prebiotic replicator systems may have emerged, persisted and evolved into the first living cell. We have postulated three necessary conditions for an RNA World model system to be a dynamically feasible representation of prebiotic chemical evolution: (1) it must maintain and transfer a sufficient diversity of information reliably and indefinitely, (2) it must be ecologically stable and (3) it must be evolutionarily stable. In this review, we discuss the best-known prebiotic scenarios and the corresponding models of string-replicator dynamics and assess them against these criteria. We suggest that the most popular of prebiotic replicator systems, the hypercycle, is probably the worst performer in almost all of these respects, whereas a few other model concepts (parabolic replicator, open chaotic flows, stochastic corrector, metabolically coupled replicator system) are promising candidates for development into coherent models that may become experimentally accessible in the future. PMID:29186916
Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.
Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi
Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the performance of two types of prebiotic sausages formulated with resistant starch (RS and β-glucan (BG extract (in ratios of 2.22:1.33 and 2.75:1.88 during frying and chilled storage. The oxidative stability indices and microbial counts were determined. The incorporation of two types of prebiotic dietary fibre increased frying loss and oil absorption. However, the moisture content of prebiotic sausages after production was higher than of conventional sausages and it decreased significantly during storage. The use of sausage sample containing 2.22 % RS and 1.33 % BG as a recommended formulation can decrease fat oxidation of sausages during storage due to antioxidant properties of BG extract, but higher levels of RS and BG could not be used due to further increase in fat oxidation. Total viable count increased up to day 45 and decreased afterwards. The addition of BG extract improved the antioxidant properties of sausages. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of BG and moisture reduction could inhibit microbial growth. Moreover, the addition of RS caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid and peroxide values.
Summary This study aims to evaluate the performance of two types of prebiotic sausages formulated with resistant starch (RS) and β-glucan (BG) extract (in ratios of 2.22:1.33 and 2.75:1.88) during frying and chilled storage. The oxidative stability indices and microbial counts were determined. The incorporation of two types of prebiotic dietary fibre increased frying loss and oil absorption. However, the moisture content of prebiotic sausages after production was higher than of conventional sausages and it decreased significantly during storage. The use of sausage sample containing 2.22% RS and 1.33% BG as a recommended formulation can decrease fat oxidation of sausages during storage due to antioxidant properties of BG extract, but higher levels of RS and BG could not be used due to further increase in fat oxidation. Total viable count increased up to day 45 and decreased afterwards. The addition of BG extract improved the antioxidant properties of sausages. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of BG and moisture reduction could inhibit microbial growth. Moreover, the addition of RS caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid and peroxide values. PMID:29540982
J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; C. Doc Richardson; Andrew G. Conly; Jill R. Scott
Recently, the prebiotic amino acid glycine has been found associated with natural jarosite samples from various locations around the world. Since the discovery of jarosite on Mars, extensive research focuses on linking this mineral group with possible detection of biosignatures in the geologic record on Earth and Mars. Multiple analytical methods, including extraction and mass spectrometry techniques have identified glycine and other biomolecules in jarosite samples. The jarosite end members jarosite (sensu stricto-potassium jarosite), natrojarosite (sodium jarosite), and ammoniojarosite (ammonium jarosite) have different thermodynamic stabilities, decompose at different rates, and have potentially different susceptibilities to substitution. Planetary protection issues have led to the suggestion that samples returned from Mars would need to be heat-treated before they could be analyzed on Earth. Although heat treatment of the samples would in theory destroy any potential biosignatures, valuable information can be obtained during thermal treatment by employing gravimetric techniques. The relationship between the thermodynamic stability of the jarosite end members and the effect that glycine has on the thermal decomposition behavior of each end member was investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis. Thermal gravimetric analysis has been suggested as a method capable of providing the heat treatment necessary to provide planetary protection while still providing useful information about the original state and composition of the potentially returned materials. Introducing glycine into the synthesis procedure of the potassium, sodium and ammonium jarosite end-member has elucidated the effects that glycine has on the thermal stability of the mineral group. Potassium jarosite appears to be the least susceptible to the effects of glycine, with the sodium and ammonium end members showing marked changes in thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition rates. In
Wieczorek, Rafal; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Monnard, Pierre-Alain
toward more peptide synthesis. In the present work we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which the SerHis dipeptide acts as catalyst for the formation of RNA oligomers from imidazole derivatives of mononucleotides. The thermodynamic shift towards condensation was achieved using water...... be an important factor from an origin-of-life point of view. Short peptides are plausible products of prebiotic chemistry2. Consequently, they could have influenced chemical evolution on an early stage. An enzyme catalysing hydrolytic reactions can in principle be used as catalyst for condensation: the reverse......-concentrated in the remaining liquid microinclusions, thus creating an environment with low water activity in which condensation reactions can occur. Successful oligomerization of RNA monomers catalysed by the SerHis dipeptide was observed in a broad range of pH, and with all four natural nucleobases. The isomeric dipeptide...
Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen
The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716
Singla, Vinti; Chakkaravarthi, S
Benefits of prebiotics for stimulating a healthy intestinal tract are well known. From suppression of pathogens to proliferation of indigenous bacteria of intestines, prebiotics have it all. Since the research on the scope of prebiotics is expanding, new applications are coming up every day thus upgrading the choices consumer has for a healthy living. Incorporation of prebiotics in a wide range of products that food industry offers on shelf is an innovative way to replace fat and sugars along with enhancing the mouthfeel by providing better tongue lubrication. In some cases, the thermal stability of the product is improved along with other sensory, textural and physiological benefits. This paper gives an overview of the various prebiotics available from different sources and their applications in various segments of food industry, notably dairy, beverage, processed fruit-vegetable, bakery, confectionary, extruded snack, sweetener, infant formula, pet food and livestock industry. The effects observed on addition of various prebiotics are also elaborated.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use a factorial design approach for developing a palatable and stable soy-based dessert with the addition of Soy Protein (SP, oligofructose, and Passion Fruit Juice (PFJ. Panelists (n = 50 used a seven-point hedonic scale to assess the overall liking, degree of liking of creaminess, taste, and color of the desserts. In addition, the samples were submitted to a preference ranking test in order to evaluate the products' preference. Water Holding Capacity (WHC and backscattering (BS measures were also determined to assess the physical stability of the trials. Sample F3 (35% PFJ and 2% SP was the only one that presented a WHC index of 94.8%; moreover, none of the developed samples had synerisis after 72 hours of storage indicating adequate physical stability of the emulsion process. Samples F2 (25% PFJ, and 3.0% SP, F4 (35% PFJ, and 3.0% SP, and F5 (30% PFJ, and 2.5% SP presented mean hedonic scores above 'slightly liked' for all sensory attributes. The acceptance index of samples varied from 62.50 to 88% showing the great sensory potential of such products.
Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999
Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.
The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.
Full Text Available This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the “Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA” conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5–6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1. Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7 produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl− > Br− > I−. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.
Whisner, Corrie M; Weaver, Connie M
Recent advancements in food science have resulted in the extraction and synthesis of novel dietary fibers or prebiotics. Subsequently, great interest has emerged in developing strategies to improve metabolic conditions like osteoporosis by modulating the intestinal microbiome with fiber. Prebiotics have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower gut of both animals and humans as well as improve measures of bone mineral density and strength in rodent models. Fewer data are available in humans, but data from growing children and postmenopausal women suggest that prebiotics have both short- and long-term effects that beneficially affect bone turnover and mineral accretion in the skeleton. Currently, the exact mechanism by which these products elicit their effects on bone is poorly understood, but emerging data suggest that the gut microbiota may be involved in one or more direct and indirect pathways. The most well-accepted mechanism is through microbial fermentation of prebiotics which results in the production of short-chain fatty acids and a concomitant decrease in pH which increases the bioavailability of calcium in the colon. While other mechanisms may be eliciting a prebiotic effect on bone, the current data suggest that novel dietary fibers may be an affordable and effective method of maximizing mineral accretion in growing children and preventing bone loss in later years when osteoporosis is a greater risk. This chapter will discuss the dynamic role of prebiotics in bone health by discussing the current state of the art, addressing gaps in knowledge and their role in public health.
Full Text Available Nutraceuticals and functional foods have become an important tool for consumers to manage their health and wellness.Pre-, pro-, and synbiotics are a part of this group of products shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinalproblems and improve general health and well being. Prebiotics are polysaccharides that can withstand acidic and enzymaticdigestion in the small intestine and can be utilized by probiotics, and gut microflora, in the large intestine for their growth andactivities that benefit the host’s health, e.g., by enhancing the immunity and mineral absorption, preventing colon cancer andother gastrointestinal diseases, and lowering cholesterol. Prebiotics, e.g., inulin, oligofructose, oligolactose, and lactulose, occur naturally in many plants, or may be synthesized from starch or other carbohydrates using appropriate enzymes.A number of plants from southern Thailand, e.g., palm fruit (Borrassus flabellifer L., jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllusLam., young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn., rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., jampadah (Artocarpus integer Merr., and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. contain a considerable amount of polysaccharides that have been shown to have prebiotic properties. Prebiotics may be used as ingredients in functional foods, or may be presented as nutraceuticals in the form of capsules, tablets or powder, sometimes together with probiotic cultures.
food supplements) and prebiotics (i.e., non-digestible ..... the improved microbiota metabolically active for a prolonged period of time .... hibit the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a bio- .... Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition. G.A..
Dudczak, Craig A.
At least some of the reasoning processes involved in argumentation rely on inferences which do not fit within the traditional categories of inductive or deductive reasoning. The reasoning processes involved in plausibility judgments have neither the formal certainty of deduction nor the imputed statistical probability of induction. When utilizing…
In Chapter 2 it is shown that the marginal distribution of plausible values is a consistent estimator of the true latent variable distribution, and, furthermore, that convergence is monotone in an embedding in which the number of items tends to infinity. This result is used to clarify some of the
Full Text Available Prebiotics play significant role in life support of microorganisms of human gastrointestinal tract, and normal functional state of intestinal biocenosis is sufficient condition for human health. Intestinal microbiocenosis is a component of regulation of proteins and lipids metabolism, vitamins synthesis, detoxication process in intestine, etc. prebiotics include a number of disaccharides (lactulose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (inulin, cellulose, etc.. Fructose polymer — inulin — provides growth of bifido- and lactobacteria, improves metabolism and has immunomodulating activity. Formation of intestinal micro biocenosis in infant is provided by prebiotics of breast milk. Further state of micro biocenosis, which is necessary for growth and development of child, is determined by adequate intake of prebiotics from fruits, vegetables and cereals. It is reasonable to use special baby foods fortified with prebiotics (for example, inulin.Key words: prebiotics, intestinal microflora, inulin.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:121-125
Ritson, Dougal J; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ley, Steven V; Sutherland, John D
When considering life's aetiology, the first questions that must be addressed are "how?" and "where?" were ostensibly complex molecules, considered necessary for life's beginning, constructed from simpler, more abundant feedstock molecules on primitive Earth. Previously, we have used multiple clues from the prebiotic synthetic requirements of (proto)biomolecules to pinpoint a set of closely related geochemical scenarios that are suggestive of flow and semi-batch chemistries. We now wish to report a multistep, uninterrupted synthesis of a key heterocycle (2-aminooxazole) en route to activated nucleotides starting from highly plausible, prebiotic feedstock molecules under conditions which mimic this scenario. Further consideration of the scenario has uncovered additional pertinent and novel aspects of prebiotic chemistry, which greatly enhance the efficiency and plausibility of the synthesis.
The emergence of RNA chains from prebiotic soup is considered a stumbling block in the RNA world theory (Orgel 2004). Both the activation of RNA monomers and their subsequent oligomerization is hard to achieve in accepted early Earth conditions, thus putting doubt on the prebiotic plausibility....... As an environment medium we have used water/ice eutectic phase – conditions believed to be present on the early Earth and many icy moons. In this work we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which L-dipeptides containing a histidine residue, primarily the SerHis dipeptide act as catalyst for the formation...... able to succesfully demonstratate formation of short oligomers of RNA. During the oligomerization, an active intermediate (dipeptide-mononucleotide) is produced, which is the reactive species. Details of the mechanism and kinetics, which could be elucidated with a set of control experiments, further...
Wieczorek, Rafal; Luisi, Pier Luigi; Monnard, Pierre-Alain
A short peptide composed of only two amino acid residues, serine and histidine, is here reported to enable oligomerization of RNA monomers. SerHis dipeptide was previously reported to catalyse formation of peptide bonds (Gorlero et al. 2009) as well as possessing broad hydrolytic activities...... – in such environment hydrolysis is thermodynamically favoured over condensation. However, the thermodynamic equilibrium towards condensation can be shifted even in this environment. In this poster we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which the SerHis dipeptide acts as catalyst for the formation of RNA...... oligomers from imidazole derivatives of mononucleotides. The thermodynamic shift towards condensation was achieved using water/ice eutectic phase environment (Monnard and Ziock 2008). To obtain such an environment, a reaction solution is cooled below its freezing point, but above the eutectic point. Under...
The nucleic acids and proteins are at the basis of all life. The energy source on the primitive earth acting on the earth's early atmosphere are believed to have produced all the molecules necessary for life. Laboratory experiments over the last four decades have clearly established the prebiotic synthesis of these components, amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates. The mechanisms of polymerization have also been outlined. We thus have a sequence from atoms to small molecules to the large molecules which are necessary for the emergence of life. The analysis of meteorites has given us fresh evidence that these reactions which we have presumed to have taken place on the primitive earth may have also occurred in the early solar system. The analysis of carbonaceous chondrites has given us unmistakable evidence for the presence of these molecules in outer space. Recent observational and theoretical studies have also pointed out that comets may be the location for prebiotic reactions and may also have contributed to organic matter on the primitive earth. The radio astronomers studying interstellar media have also provided us with ample evidence that there are a large number of organic molecules in interstellar space. Organic chemistry appears to be commonplace in the universe. (author)
Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Yim, Elizabeth; Keri, Jonette E
The rapid increase in the medical use of probiotics and prebiotics in recent years has confirmed their excellent safety profile. As immune modulators, they have been used in inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. We review the literature regarding the use of probiotics and prebiotics in dermatology. Probiotics and prebiotics appear to be effective in reducing the incidence of atopic dermatitis in infants, but their role in atopic dermatitis treatment is controversial. Their role in acne, wound healing, and photoprotection is promising, but larger trials are needed before a final recommendation can be made. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valcheva, Rosica; Dieleman, Levinus A
The increase in chronic metabolic and immunologic disorders in the modern society is linked to major changes in the dietary patterns. These chronic conditions are associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis where important groups of carbohydrate fermenting, short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria are reduced. Dietary prebiotics are defined as a selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health. Application of prebiotics may then restore the gut microbiota diversity and activity. Unlike the previously accepted prebiotics definition, where a limited number of bacterial species are involved in the prebiotic activity, new data from community-wide microbiome analysis demonstrated a broader affect of the prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota. These new findings require a revision of the current definition. In addition, prebiotics may exert immunomodulatory effects through microbiota-independent mechanisms that will require future investigations involving germ-free animal disease models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Licht, Tine Rask; Ebersbach, Tine; Frøkiær, Hanne
It is our postulate that the field of prebiotic research has until now been characterized by a one-view-fits-all approach, implicating that if a putatively prebiotic compound is good for something, it is good for everything. One area where this implication has been proved insufficient regards...... the putative preventive effect of prebiotics against intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Although indeed most evidence on effects of prebiotics against infections is positive, some studies indicate that prebiotic carbohydrates cause increased susceptibility to specific gastrointestinal infections. Here, we review...... existing knowledge about the impact of prebiotics on infective agents in vitro and in vivo....
Szabla, Rafal; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiří; Sobolewski, A. L.; Gora, R.W.
Roč. 16, č. 33 (2014), s. 17617-17626 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : PROTON-TRANSFER PROCESSES * INDOLE-WATER CLUSTERS * CHEMICAL EVOLUTION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.493, year: 2014
Bassez, Marie-Paule; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei
Micro- and sub-micrometer spheres, tubules and fiber-filament soft structures have been synthesized in our experiments conducted with 3 MeV proton irradiations of a mixture of simple inorganic constituents, CO, N(2) and H(2)O. We analysed the irradiation products, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These laboratory organic structures produced a wide variety of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous amino acids after HCl hydrolysis. The enantiomer analysis for D,L-alanine confirmed that the amino acids were abiotically synthesized during the laboratory experiment. We discuss the presence of CO(2) and the production of H(2) during exothermic processes of serpentinization and consequently we discuss the production of hydrothermal CO in a ferromagnesian silicate mineral environment. We also discuss the low intensity of the Earth's magnetic field during the Paleoarchaean Era and consequently we conclude that excitation sources arising from cosmic radiation were much more abundant during this Era. We then show that our laboratory prebiotic microstructures might be synthesized during the Archaean Eon, as a product of the serpentinization process of the rocks and of their mineral contents.
Blatchford, P.; Ansell, J.; Godoy, M.R.C. de; Fahey, G.; Garcia-Mazcorro, J.F.; Gibson, G.R.; Goh, Y.J.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; Hutkins, R.; LaCroix, C.; Rastall, R.A.; Reimer, R.A.; Schoterman, M.; Van Sinderen, D.; Venema, K.; Whelan, K.
In October 2012, a group of scientists met at the 10th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in Cork, Ireland to discuss issues surrounding prebiotics and their development. This article summarises outputs from the meeting. Various prebiotic
In November 2008, a group of scientists met at the 6th Meeting of the International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) in London, Ontario. The aim was to discuss the functionality of prebiotics. As a result of this, it was decided that the prebiotic field as it stands is dom...
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF and high-stability fucoxanthin (HS-Fucox in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory Caco-2 cell line co-culture with B. lactis. Methods: We used various methods such as transepithelial resistance (TER assay, cytokine secretion assay, and tight junction protein mRNA expression assay to examine LMF and HS-Fucox anti-inflammatory properties. Results: LMF and HS-Fucox activated probiotic growth and reduced the inflammation of the intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the combination of LMFHS-Fucox dramatically enhanced the intestinal epithelial barrier and immune function against the lipopolysaccharide effect by inhibiting IL-1β and TNF-α and promoting IL-10 and IFN-γ. Conclusion: These findings suggested that LMF and HS-Fucox, alone or in combination, could be the potential natural compounds to enhance the immune system and have an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal cells.
Padma Ishwarya, S; Prabhasankar, P
The concept of functional foods has markedly moved toward gastrointestinal health. The prebiotic approach aims at achieving favorable milieu in the human gut by stimulating beneficial bacteria. Several food products act as substrates for the application of prebiotic substances and bakery products are one such category. The trend of increasing consumption of bakery products justifies the choice of using them as vehicles for delivering the prebiotic compounds. Apart from the health benefits, the prebiotic compounds also have nutritional and technological effects in the food matrix. In addition to increasing the fiber content, the candidate prebiotics also affect the rheology and final quality of bakery products. The prebiotic compounds are selected accordingly to confer desirable properties in the final product. The health advantages of prebiotics being well established, the technological advantages in bakery products such as bread and biscuits and extruded product such as pasta are discussed elaborately.
Sarao, Loveleen Kaur; Arora, M
The development of a suitable technology for the production of probiotics is a key research for industrial production, which should take into account the viability and the stability of the organisms involved. Microbial criteria, stress tolerance during processing, and storage of the product constitute the basis for the production of probiotics. Generally, the bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been used as probiotics. Based on their positive qualities, probiotic bacteria are widely used in the production of food. Interest in the incorporation of the probiotic bacteria into other products apart from dairy products has been increasing and represents a great challenge. The recognition of dose delivery systems for probiotic bacteria has also resulted in research efforts aimed at developing probiotic food outside the dairy sector. Producing probiotic juices has been considered more in the recent years, due to an increased concern in personal health of consumers. This review focuses on probiotics, prebiotics, and the microencapsulation of living cells.
Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.
define a proper notion of bisimulation, and prove that bisimulation corresponds to logical equivalence on image-finite models. We relate our results to other epistemic notions, such as safe belief and degrees of belief. Our results imply that there are only finitely many non-bisimilar single......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....
Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.
Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.
Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.
Hydrogen cyanide is the starting material for a diverse array of prebiotic syntheses, including those of amino acids and purines. Hydrogen cyanide also reacts with ferrous ions to give ferrocyanide, and so it is possible that ferrocyanide was common in the early ocean. This can only be true if the hydrogen cyanide concentration was high enough and the rate of reaction of cyanide with ferrous ions was fast enough. We show experimentally that the rate of formation of ferrocyanide is rapid even at low concentrations of hydrogen cyanide in the pH range 6-8, and therefore an equilibrium calculation is valid. The equilibrium concentrations of ferrocyanide are calculated as a function of hydrogen cyanide concentration, pH and temperature. The steady state concentration of hydrogen cyanide depends on the rate of synthesis by electric discharges and ultraviolet light and the rate of hydrolysis, which depends on pH and temperature. Our conclusions show that ferrocyanide was a major species in the prebiotic ocean only at the highest production rates of hydrogen cyanide in a strongly reducing atmosphere and at temperatures of 0 C or less, although small amounts would have been present at lower hydrogen cyanide production rates. The prebiotic application of ferrocyanide as a source of hydrated electrons, as a photochemical replication process, and in semi-permeable membranes is discussed.
Full Text Available An RNA-lipid origin of life scenario provides a plausible route for compartmentalized replication of an informational polymer and subsequent division of the container. However, a full narrative to form such RNA protocells implies that catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes, can operate in the presence of self-assembled vesicles composed of prebiotically relevant constituents, such as fatty acids. Hereby, we subjected a newly engineered truncated variant of the L1 ligase ribozyme, named tL1, to various environmental conditions that may have prevailed on the early Earth with the objective to find a set of control parameters enabling both tL1-catalyzed ligation and formation of stable myristoleic acid (MA vesicles. The separate and concurrent effects of temperature, concentrations of Mg2+, MA, polyethylene glycol and various solutes were investigated. The most favorable condition tested consists of 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM Mg2+, 5 mM MA, and 4 °C temperature, whereas the addition of Mg2+-chelating solutes, such as citrate, tRNAs, aspartic acid, and nucleoside triphosphates severely inhibits the reaction. These results further solidify the RNA-lipid world hypothesis and stress the importance of using a systems chemistry approach whereby a wide range of prebiotic factors interfacing with ribozymes are considered.
Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus
With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...
Michael R. Levot
Full Text Available The Minimalist Program in generative syntax has been the subject of much rancour, a good proportion of it stoked by Noam Chomsky’s suggestion that language may represent “a ‘perfect solution’ to minimal design specifications.” A particular flash point has been the application of Minimalist principles to speculations about how language evolved in the human species. This paper argues that Minimalism is well supported as a plausible approach to language evolution. It is claimed that an assumption of minimal design specifications like that employed in MP syntax satisfies three key desiderata of evolutionary and general scientific plausibility: Physical Optimism, Rational Optimism, and Darwin’s Problem. In support of this claim, the methodologies employed in MP to maximise parsimony are characterised through an analysis of recent theories in Minimalist syntax, and those methodologies are defended with reference to practices and arguments from evolutionary biology and other natural sciences.
Full Text Available Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour. Data derived from both in vitro experiments and in vivo clinical trials have supported some of these new health implications. While recent molecular advancement has provided strong indications to support and justify the role of the gut microbiota on the gut–brain axis, it is still not clear whether manipulations through probiotics and prebiotics administration could be beneficial in the treatment of neurological problems. The understanding of the gut microbiota and its activities is essential for the generation of future personalized healthcare strategies. Here, we explore and summarize the potential beneficial effects of probiotics and prebiotics in the neurodevelopmental process and in the prevention and treatment of certain neurological human diseases, highlighting current and future perspectives in this topic.
Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin
Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Močić Pavić A
Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation
Dwivedi,Sangam; Sahrawat,Kanwar; Puppala,Naveen; Ortiz,Rodomiro
Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates 19 that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of 20 Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the pre...
Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.
In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.
Dass, A. V.; Georgelin, T.; Kee, T. P.; Brack, A.; Westall, F.
We introduce a new class of material that could be interesting in prebiotic chemistry: The silica hydrogel. Inorganic cells could have provided an alternative mode of compatmentalisation on early earth.
Song, Seong Kyu; Beck, Bo Ram; Kim, Daniel; Park, John; Kim, Jungjoon; Kim, Hyun Duk; Ringø, Einar
Prebiotics are indigestible fibers that increase beneficial gut commensal bacteria resulting in improvements of the host's health. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to the byproducts generated from their fermentation by gut commensal bacteria. In this review, the direct effects of prebiotics on the innate immune system of fish are discussed. Prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharide, mannanoligosaccharide, inulin, or β-glucan, are called immunosaccharides. They directly enhance innate immune responses including: phagocytic activation, neutrophil activation, activation of the alternative complement system, increased lysozyme activity, and more. Immunosaccharides directly activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRR) expressed on innate immune cells. They can also associate with microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate innate immune cells. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in innate immune cell activation need to be further explored. Many studies have indicated that immunosaccharides are beneficial to both finfish and shellfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh
Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yeo, Siok-Koon; Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Lim, Ting-Jin; Liong, Min-Tze
Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although various drugs for its treatment have been synthesized, the occurring side effects have generated the need for natural interventions for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. Dietary intervention such as the administration of prebiotics has been seen as a highly acceptable approach. Prebiotics are indigestible food ingredients that bypass digestion and reach the lower gut as substrates for indigenous microflora. Most of the prebiotics used as food adjuncts, such as inulin, fructooligosaccharides, dietary fiber and gums, are derived from plants. Experimental evidence from recent studies has suggested that prebiotics are capable of reducing and preventing hypertension. This paper will discuss some of the mechanisms involved, the evidence generated from both in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials and some controversial findings that are raised. PMID:20111692
Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Yuhao; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Rong'e.; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng
Although prebiotic activities of alginate and agar oligosaccharides isolated from seaweeds have been reported, it remains unknown whether seaweed polysaccharides have prebiotic activity. In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from four species of seaweeds, such as Grateloupia filicina (GFP), Eucheuma spinosum (ESP), Ulva pertusa (UPP), and Ascophyllum nodosum (ANP), and characterized their structures and prebiotic effects in vitro. The results showed that these polysaccharides were different in total sugar and sulfate contents as well as monosaccharide composition. GFP and ESP significantly promoted bifidobacterium proliferation and 0.1% ESP and 0.4% GFP resulted in the highest proliferation rates of beneficial bacteria, whereas UPP and ANP inhibited the growth of beneficial bacteria at all tested concentrations (0.1%-0.5%). The different behaviors of the four seaweed-originated polysaccharides might be reflected by differences in monosaccharide composition and structure. Therefore, polysaccharides isolated from GFP and ESP could be utilized as prebiotics. However, more studies must be carried out in vivo.
Full Text Available Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke. A few major quantitative trait loci and gene-based markers associated with high fructan are known in wheat. More targeted search in genebanks using reduced subsets (representing diversity in germplasm is needed to identify accessions with prebiotic carbohydrates. Transgenic maize, potato and sugarcane with high fructan, with no adverse effects on plant development, have been bred, which suggests that it is feasible to introduce fructan biosynthesis pathways in crops to produce health-imparting prebiotics. Developing prebiotic-rich and super nutritious crops will alleviate the widespread malnutrition and promote human health. A paradigm shift in breeding program is needed to achieve this goal and to ensure that newly-bred crop cultivars are nutritious, safe and health promoting.
Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution. Key Words: Methane-Interstellar environments-Submarine hydrothermal systems-Titan-Origin of life. Astrobiology 17, 786-812.
Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D.; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G.; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J. Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M.
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution.
Forsythe, Jay G; Yu, Sheng-Sheng; Mamajanov, Irena; Grover, Martha A; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Fernández, Facundo M; Hud, Nicholas V
Although it is generally accepted that amino acids were present on the prebiotic Earth, the mechanism by which α-amino acids were condensed into polypeptides before the emergence of enzymes remains unsolved. Here, we demonstrate a prebiotically plausible mechanism for peptide (amide) bond formation that is enabled by α-hydroxy acids, which were likely present along with amino acids on the early Earth. Together, α-hydroxy acids and α-amino acids form depsipeptides-oligomers with a combination of ester and amide linkages-in model prebiotic reactions that are driven by wet-cool/dry-hot cycles. Through a combination of ester-amide bond exchange and ester bond hydrolysis, depsipeptides are enriched with amino acids over time. These results support a long-standing hypothesis that peptides might have arisen from ester-based precursors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Figueroa-González, Ivonne; Quijano, Guillermo; Ramírez, Gerardo; Cruz-Guerrero, Alma
Owing to their health benefits, probiotics and prebiotics are nowadays widely used in yogurts and fermented milks, which are leader products of functional foods worldwide. The world market for functional foods has grown rapidly in the last three decades, with an estimated size in 2003 of ca US$ 33 billion, while the European market estimation exceeded US$ 2 billion in the same year. However, the production of probiotics and prebiotics at industrial scale faces several challenges, including the search for economical and abundant raw materials for prebiotic production, the low-cost production of probiotics and the improvement of probiotic viability after storage or during the manufacturing process of the functional food. In this review, functional foods based on probiotics and prebiotics are introduced as a key biotechnological field with tremendous potential for innovation. A concise state of the art addressing the fundamentals and challenges for the development of new probiotic- and prebiotic-based foods is presented, the niches for future research being clearly identified and discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rutten, Lex; Mathie, Robert T; Fisher, Peter; Goossens, Maria; van Wassenhoven, Michel
Homeopathy is controversial and hotly debated. The conclusions of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy vary from 'comparable to conventional medicine' to 'no evidence of effects beyond placebo'. It is claimed that homeopathy conflicts with scientific laws and that homoeopaths reject the naturalistic outlook, but no evidence has been cited. We are homeopathic physicians and researchers who do not reject the scientific outlook; we believe that examination of the prior beliefs underlying this enduring stand-off can advance the debate. We show that interpretations of the same set of evidence--for homeopathy and for conventional medicine--can diverge. Prior disbelief in homeopathy is rooted in the perceived implausibility of any conceivable mechanism of action. Using the 'crossword analogy', we demonstrate that plausibility bias impedes assessment of the clinical evidence. Sweeping statements about the scientific impossibility of homeopathy are themselves unscientific: scientific statements must be precise and testable. There is growing evidence that homeopathic preparations can exert biological effects; due consideration of such research would reduce the influence of prior beliefs on the assessment of systematic review evidence.
Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank
The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Lactose in dairy products is maldigested by up to 70% to 75% of the world's population and many people may therefore suffer symptoms reminiscent of irritable bowel syndrome. As a result, most research to date has concentrated on ways of improving lactose tolerance to enhance dairy as a source of nutrition. However, research on other possible benefits of lactose and its maldigestion has lagged. In view of an exponential growth in the understanding of intestinal microfloral host interactions and the expanding therapeutical potential of probiotics, a reassessment of the role of lactose as a potential prebiotic in lactase nonpersistent subjects is required. Gibson and Roberfroid introduced the concept of prebiotics and outlined definitive requirements for such a compound. The present article examines scientific and clinical knowledge about the properties of lactose and argues that in lactase nonpersistent subjects, lactose qualifies as a prebiotic.
Asdrubal Viana Santos
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of the prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS 0.2%, probiotic (Bacillus subtilis 30g/ton and antibiotic (Bacitracin zinc 125g/ton to piglets’ feed in the post-weaning phase. Eighty (Danbread x Agroceres pigs were used, that is, 40 males and 40 females, with initial weight of 7.1 ± 0.0175 kg. A randomized block design was used with four treatments and five replicates: 1 - Control; 2 - Prebiotic; 3 - Probiotic; 4 - Antibiotic. The variables evaluated were average daily gain (ADG, daily feed intake (DFI, feed conversion (FC fecal consistency and leukocyte count. At 43 days of age, the animals presented the same weight gain (P> 0.05; however, there was increased intake of the diet containing prebiotic (P> 0.05, and feed conversion was better for control diet (P 0.05, daily feed intake (P> 0.05 and feed conversion (P> 0.05, and also no differences in fecal consistency (P> 0.05. The number of leukocytes increased at 32 days of age when the diets containing prebiotics and probiotics were used (P> 0.05. The diet containing prebiotics increased the number of monocytes (P 0.05, the diets promoted no changes in the immunoglobulins IgA, IgM and IgG (P> 0.05. The use of prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics did not influence the animals’ performance from 22 to 54 days of age. Keywords: additives; fecal consistency; immunoglobulins; pigs.
Full Text Available The RNA world hypothesis views modern organisms as descendants of RNA molecules. The earliest RNA molecules must have been random sequences, from which the first genomes that coded for polymerase ribozymes emerged. The quasispecies theory by Eigen predicts the existence of an error threshold limiting genomic stability during such transitions, but does not address the spontaneity of changes. Following a recent theoretical approach, we applied the quasispecies theory combined with kinetic/thermodynamic descriptions of RNA replication to analyze the collective behavior of RNA replicators based on known experimental kinetics data. We find that, with increasing fidelity (relative rate of base-extension for Watson-Crick versus mismatched base pairs, replications without enzymes, with ribozymes, and with protein-based polymerases are above, near, and below a critical point, respectively. The prebiotic evolution therefore must have crossed this critical region. Over large regions of the phase diagram, fitness increases with increasing fidelity, biasing random drifts in sequence space toward 'crystallization.' This region encloses the experimental nonenzymatic fidelity value, favoring evolutions toward polymerase sequences with ever higher fidelity, despite error rates above the error catastrophe threshold. Our work shows that experimentally characterized kinetics and thermodynamics of RNA replication allow us to determine the physicochemical conditions required for the spontaneous crystallization of biological information. Our findings also suggest that among many potential oligomers capable of templated replication, RNAs may have evolved to form prebiotic genomes due to the value of their nonenzymatic fidelity.
Full Text Available During competition for resources in primitive networks increased fitness of an information variant does not necessarily equate with successful elimination of its competitors. If variability is added fast to a system, speedy replacement of pre-existing and less-efficient forms of order is required as novel information variants arrive. Otherwise, the information capacity of the system fills up with information variants (an effect referred as “error catastrophe”. As the cost for managing the system’s exceeding complexity increases, the correlation between performance capabilities of information variants and their competitive success decreases, and evolution of such systems toward increased efficiency slows down. This impasse impedes the understanding of evolution in prebiotic networks. We used the simulation platform Biotic Abstract Dual Automata (BiADA to analyze how information variants compete in a resource-limited space. We analyzed the effect of energy-related features (differences in autocatalytic efficiency, energy cost of order, energy availability, transformation rates and stability of order on this competition. We discuss circumstances and controllers allowing primitive networks acquire novel information with minimal “error catastrophe” risks. We present a primitive mechanism for maximization of energy flux in dynamic networks. This work helps evaluate controllers of evolution in prebiotic networks and other systems where information variants compete.
Meurman, J. H.
The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.
Full Text Available The relevance of diet in both the pathogenesis and the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease is an evolving science. Disturbance of intestinal microflora (dysbiosis is putatively a key element in the environmental component causing inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics are among the dietary components used in an attempt to counteract dysbiosis. Such predominantly carbohydrate dietary components exert effects on the luminal environment by physicochemical changes through pH alteration, by production of short chain fatty acids and by selectively promoting putatively 'health-beneficial' bacteria. The present review elaborates on some of the background rationale and mechanisms on the use of prebiotics. Additionally, published animal and human trials are discussed.
Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune
Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modelled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sérsic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasising that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential. We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sérsic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modelled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses
Campelo, Pedro Henrique; Figueiredo, Jayne de Abreu; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela
The aim of this work was to study the use of different prebiotic biopolymers in lime essential oil microencapsulation. Whey protein isolate, inulin and oligofructose biopolymers were used. The addition of prebiotic biopolymers reduced emulsion viscosity, although it produced larger droplet sizes (0.31-0.32 µm). Moisture values (2.94-3.13 g/100 g dry solids) and water activity (0.152-0.185) were satisfactory, being within the appropriate range for powdered food quality. Total oil content, limonene retention values and antioxidant activity of the microparticles containing essential oil decreased in the presence of the carbohydrates. The addition of prebiotic biopolymers reduced the microparticle thermal stability. X-ray diffraction confirmed the amorphous characteristic of the microparticles and the interaction of the essential oil with the wall material. The presence of prebiotic biopolymers can be a good alternative for lime essential oil microparticles, mainly using fibre that has a functional food appeal and can improve consumer health.
Derikx, L.A.A.P.; Dieleman, L.A.; Hoentjen, F.
The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of
de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa
In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS) or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.
Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo
Full Text Available In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.
Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.
It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.
Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia
Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laurell, Axel; Sjöberg, Klas
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre". In total 17 studies on humans examining the effect of prebiotics in UC were found. Five major groups could be distinguished. Fructo-oligosaccharides were tried in six studies (mean 35 patients included, range 9-121). One study found a clinical response while two demonstrated indirect evidence of an effect. Germinated barley foodstuff was used in 8 studies (mean 38 patients, range 10-63). One study found an endoscopic response, while four noted a clinical response and two some indirect effects. Galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose and resveratrol were used in one study each (mean 48 patients, range 41-52). One study found an endoscopic response and one a clinical response. There is yet inadequate evidence - especially in humans - to support any particular prebiotic in the clinical management of UC. However, due to the bulk of evidence supporting the effect of the microbiota on colonic inflammation, there is enough potential to justify further high-quality clinical trials investigating this subject.
Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos
Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.
Barge, Laura M.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Russell, Michael J.; VanderVelde, David; White, Lauren M.; Stucky, Galen D.; Baum, Marc M.; Zeytounian, John; Kidd, Richard; Kanik, Isik
Cells use three main ways of generating energy currency to drive metabolism: (i) conversion of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the proton motive force through the rotor-stator ATP synthase; (ii) the synthesis of inorganic phosphate˜phosphate bonds via proton (or sodium) pyrophosphate synthase; or (iii) substrate-level phosphorylation through the direct donation from an active phosphoryl donor. A mechanism to produce a pyrophosphate bond as “energy currency” in prebiotic systems is one of the most important considerations for origin of life research. Baltscheffsky (1996) suggests that inorganic pyrophosphate (PO74-; PPi) may have preceded ATP/ADP as an energy storage molecule in earliest life, produced by an H+ pyrophosphatase. Here we test the hypothesis that PPi could be synthesized in inorganic precipitates simulating hydrothermal chimney structures transected by thermal and/or ionic gradients. Appreciable yields of PPi were obtained via substrate phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate within the iron sulfide/silicate precipitates at temperatures expected for an alkaline hydrothermal system. The formation of PPi only occurred in the solid phase, i.e. when both Pi and the phosphoryl donor were precipitated with Fe-sulfides or Fe-silicates. The amount of Ac-Pi incorporated into the precipitate was a significant factor in the amount of PPi that could form, and phosphate species were more effectively incorporated into the precipitate at higher temperatures (⩾50 to >85 °C). Thus, we expect that the hydrothermal precipitate would be more enriched in phosphate (and especially, Ac-Pi) near the inner margins of a hydrothermal mound where PPi formation would be at a maximum. Iron sulfide and iron silicate precipitates effectively stabilized Ac-Pi and PPi against hydrolysis (relative to hydrolysis in aqueous solution). Thus it is plausible that PPi could accumulate as an energy currency up to useful concentrations for early life in a
Rebbeca M. Duar
Full Text Available Prebiotic carbohydrates are added as functional ingredients to a variety of processed foods. Data on the stability of prebiotics during food processing in complex matrices remain limited. The objective of this project was to determine the stability of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, galactooligosaccharides (GOS, and resistant starch (RS2, when added as ingredients (1% w/w to an extruded cereal and a low pH drink. The cereal was prepared using different screw speeds and barrel temperatures. GOS was not affected by any of the extrusion conditions, whereas inulin decreased significantly at 140 and 170°C. FOS levels decreased in all extrusion conditions, while resistant starch (RS unexpectedly increased for each of the parameters. The low pH drink was prepared with different sucrose to corn syrup solids (S:CSS ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 at pH 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The 1:1 S:CSS drink at pH 3.0, negatively impacted FOS and inulin. Moreover, FOS levels decreased when exposed to 1:2 S:CSS (pH 3.5 and 4.0 and 1:1 S:CSS (pH 3.0. GOS and RS were unaffected by any drink formulations. As different conditions impact the stability of prebiotics differently, this study addresses the importance of developing product specific processes for each prebiotic when supplemented into a processed food.
Full Text Available The article presents new data on positive effect of prebiotical complex on immune system. The decrease of mortality with as intestinal infections, as infections of upper airways was shown on the basis of nutrition with milk compound, fortified with prebiotics.Key words: infants, adapted milk compounds, prebiotics, immunity, infections.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:117-122
The relevance of diet in both the pathogenesis and the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease is an evolving science. Disturbance of intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) is putatively a key element in the environmental component causing inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics are among the dietary components used in an attempt to counteract dysbiosis. Such predominantly carbohydrate dietary components exert effects on the luminal environment by physicochemical changes through pH alteration, by pro...
Kolb, Vera M.; Bajagic, Milica; Zhu, William; Cody, George D.
The Maillard reaction was studied from a prebiotic point of view. We have shown that the Maillard reaction between ribose and common amino acids occurs readily in the solid state at 65°C. The C-13 NMR spectra of the solid insoluble Maillard products of ribose and serine, or alanine or isoleucine were compared to the spectrum of the insoluble organic carbon on Murchison.
The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.
Dec 2, 2017 ... ... Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, ... permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ... Keywords: antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic, broilers, performance, nutrient digestibility.
Steinert, R E; Sadaghian Sadabad, M; Harmsen, H J M; Weber, P
Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a critical role in both the maintenance of human health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Modifying the colonic microbiota using functional foods has attracted significant research effort and product development. The pioneering concept of prebiotics, as introduced by Gibson and Roberfroid in the 1990s, emphasized the importance of diet in the modulation of the gut microbiota and its relationships to human health. Increasing knowledge of the intestinal microbiota now suggests a more comprehensive definition. This paper briefly reviews the basics of the prebiotic concept with a discussion of recent attempts to refine the concept to open the door for novel prebiotic food ingredients, such as polyphenols, minerals and vitamins.
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In today's well-resistant pathogens and excessive use of antibiotics which weake and undermine the immune system the importance of pre- and probiotics is more desired. Probiotics - lactic acid bacteria - our intestinal symbiotes, has significant affect on our intestinal tract and brings us to number of positive physiological effects – inhibit the development of pathogenic microflora and serious stimulate the immune system, which subsequently leads to secondary health benefits - efficient use of energy from food, better resorption of minerals and vitamins by intestinal epithelium, suppression of diseases and inflammatory processes in the human intestine and many others. This article discusses the impact of prebiotics (essential substrate for probiotic bacteria, but also natural occurrence and important of prebiotics. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS as prebiotic are the most suitable and therefore their commercial application is discussed.doi:10.5219/251
Rekha Rani Koduganti
Full Text Available There has been a paradigm shift toward ecological and microbial community-based approach in understanding oral diseases. A marked improvement in gastrointestinal health has been reported after using probiotic bacteria and/or prebiotic supplements,which has prompted much interest in the use of this approach for oral applications. Treatment of periodontal disease in recent years has moved toward an antibiotic/antimicrobial model of disease management. With increase in the incidence of resistance to antibiotics, probiotics may be a promising area of research in periodontal therapy. This paper reviews the evidences for the use of probiotics or prebiotics for the prevention of dental caries or periodontal diseases, and also adresses the risk associated with their prolonged use. Many questions have been raised pertaining to the benefits of probiotic administration, as the role of probiotics in periodontics is still in infancy, and a complete understanding of the broad ecological changes induced in the mouth by probiotics or prebiotics is essential to assess their long-term consequences for oral health and disease.
Collins, Stephanie; Reid, Gregor
The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion – they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.
Full Text Available The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.
Research into understanding the origins -and evolution- of life has long been dominated by the concept of taking clues from extant biology and extrapolating its molecules and pathways backwards in time. This approach has also guided the search for solutions to the problem of how contemporary biomolecules would have arisen directly from prebiotic chemistry on early earth. However, the continuing difficulties in finding universally convincing solutions in connecting prebiotic chemistry to biological chemistry should give us pause, and prompt us to rethink this concept of treating extant life's chemical processes as the sole end goal and, therefore, focusing only -and implicitly- on the respective extant chemical building blocks. Rather, it may be worthwhile "to set aside the goal" and begin with what would have been plausible prebiotic reaction mixtures (which may have no obvious or direct connection to life's chemical building blocks and processes) - and allow their chemistries and interactions, under different geochemical constraints, to guide and illuminate as to what processes and systems can emerge. Such a conceptual approach gives rise to the prospect that chemistry of life-as-we-know-it is not the only result (not a "destiny"), but one that has emerged among many potential possibilities (a "destination"). This postulate, in turn, could impact the way we think about chemical signatures and criteria used in the search for alternative and extraterrestrial "life". As a bonus, we may discover the chemistries and pathways naturally that led to the emergence of life as we know it. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Berenji, Hamid; Lum, Henry, Jr.
Some current approaches to plausible reasoning in artificial intelligence are reviewed and discussed. Some of the most significant recent advances in plausible and approximate reasoning are examined. A synergism among the techniques of uncertainty management is advocated, and brief discussions on the certainty factor approach, probabilistic approach, Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, possibility theory, linguistic variables, and fuzzy control are presented. Some extensions to these methods are described, and the applications of the methods are considered.
Cleaves, H. James
It has been suggested that life began with a self-replicating RNA molecule. However, after much research into the prebiotic synthesis of RNA, the difficulties encountered have lead some to hypothesize that RNA was preceded by a simpler molecule, one more easily synthesized prebiotically. Many of the proposed alternative molecules are based on acrolein, since it reacts readily with nucleophiles, such as the nucleobases, via Michael addition and is readily synthesized from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Reports regarding the reactions of nucleobases with concentrated acrolein solutions suggest that this is a plausible reaction mechanism, though there are also reports that the "incorrect" isomers are obtained. The scope and kinetics of the reaction of acrolein with various nitrogen heterocycles are reported here. Reactions of pyrimidines often give N1 adducts as the major products. Reactions of purines often give N9 adducts in good yield. The reactions are rapid under neutral to slightly alkaline conditions, and proceed at low temperatures and dilutions. The implications of these findings for the origin of life are discussed.
Dinesh K. Dahiya
Full Text Available In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota causes disequilibrium in energy homeostasis that ultimately leads to obesity. Numerous mechanisms have been reported by which gut microbiota induces obesity in experimental models. However, which microbial community is directly linked to obesity is still unknown due to the complex nature of gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are the safer and effective dietary substances available, which can therapeutically alter the gut microbiota of the host. In this review, an effort was made to discuss the current mechanisms through which gut microbiota interacts with host energy metabolism in the context of obesity. Further, the therapeutic approaches (prebiotics/probiotics that helped in positively altering the gut microbiota were discussed by taking experimental evidence from animal and human studies. In the closing statement, the challenges and future tasks within the field were discussed.
Dahiya, Dinesh K; Renuka; Puniya, Monica; Shandilya, Umesh K; Dhewa, Tejpal; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Puniya, Anil K; Shukla, Pratyoosh
In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions. Dysbiosis in gut microbiota causes disequilibrium in energy homeostasis that ultimately leads to obesity. Numerous mechanisms have been reported by which gut microbiota induces obesity in experimental models. However, which microbial community is directly linked to obesity is still unknown due to the complex nature of gut microbiota. Prebiotics and probiotics are the safer and effective dietary substances available, which can therapeutically alter the gut microbiota of the host. In this review, an effort was made to discuss the current mechanisms through which gut microbiota interacts with host energy metabolism in the context of obesity. Further, the therapeutic approaches (prebiotics/probiotics) that helped in positively altering the gut microbiota were discussed by taking experimental evidence from animal and human studies. In the closing statement, the challenges and future tasks within the field were discussed.
Hinze, Scott R; Slaten, Daniel G; Horton, William S; Jenkins, Ryan; Rapp, David N
People rely on information they read even when it is inaccurate (Marsh, Meade, & Roediger, Journal of Memory and Language 49:519-536, 2003), but how ubiquitous is this phenomenon? In two experiments, we investigated whether this tendency to encode and rely on inaccuracies from text might be influenced by the plausibility of misinformation. In Experiment 1, we presented stories containing inaccurate plausible statements (e.g., "The Pilgrims' ship was the Godspeed"), inaccurate implausible statements (e.g., . . . the Titanic), or accurate statements (e.g., . . . the Mayflower). On a subsequent test of general knowledge, participants relied significantly less on implausible than on plausible inaccuracies from the texts but continued to rely on accurate information. In Experiment 2, we replicated these results with the addition of a think-aloud procedure to elicit information about readers' noticing and evaluative processes for plausible and implausible misinformation. Participants indicated more skepticism and less acceptance of implausible than of plausible inaccuracies. In contrast, they often failed to notice, completely ignored, and at times even explicitly accepted the misinformation provided by plausible lures. These results offer insight into the conditions under which reliance on inaccurate information occurs and suggest potential mechanisms that may underlie reported misinformation effects.
E.V. Komarova; O.S. Gundobina
The article is devoted to the functional disorders of the large bowel motility among children. The authors examine the reasons for the given pathology and opportunities for the lactulose application as a prebiotic within the comprehensive therapy.Key words: constipation, treatment, prebiotics, children.
Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia
Full Text Available In the present paper, a historical view from Oparin-Haldane hypothesis to prebiotic chemistry is discussed. Several aspects of prebiotic chemistry are also discussed such as: environments where the abiotic synthesis of biomolecules and biopolymers could be occurred, primitive metabolism and genetic code, selection of L-amino acids and panspermia.
Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Navidshad, Bahman; Liang, Juan Boo
Nowadays, use of prebiotics as feed and food additives has received increasing interest because of the beneficial effects of prebiotics on the health of animals and humans. One of the beneficial effects of prebiotics is stimulation of immune system, which can be direct or indirect through increasing population of beneficial microbes or probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, in the gut. An important mechanism of action of probiotics and prebiotics, by which they can affect the immune system, is changing the expression of cytokines. The present review tried to summarize the findings of studies that investigated the effects of prebiotics on immune system with focusing on their effects on cytokine expression. Generally, most of reviewed studies indicated beneficial effects for prebiotics in terms of improving immune system, by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while reducing the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. However, most of studies mainly considered the indirect effects of prebiotics on the immune system (through changing the composition and population of gut microbiota), and their direct effects still need to be further studied using prebiotics with different degree of polymerization in different hosts.
Klaenhammer, T.R.; Kleerebezem, M.; Kopp, M.V.; Rescigno, M.
Probiotics and prebiotics are increasingly being added to foodstuffs with claims of health benefits. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are thought to have beneficial effects on the host, whereas prebiotics are ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal
Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.
Full Text Available Background: Glucosylglycerol (GG, an organic compound constitutes a structurally diverse group of small organic molecules, which has a glycosidic chemical structure, where is a powerful osmolyte which catalyzed by sucrose phosphorylase in the presence of sucrose and glycerol as the donor and acceptor substrate. Context and purpose of this study: This research aims to study the potential of prebiotic properties from GG compared with three commercial oligosaccharides (FOS, inulin and lactulose which have the prebiotic properties. Results: The cultures with GG and FOS showed statistically significant difference (P<0.05 capacity to stimulated both probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum and presented high ability to inhibit four intestinal pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Samonella paratyphi and Staphyloccous aureus as displayed from wider inhibition zone compared with the culture without oligosaccharide. The tolerance ability of different gastrointestinal conditions (alpha-amylase, bile extract and HCl in the culture medium with GG presented the highest percentage of survival (6.50% after incubated with HCl for 3 hours (significant difference as P<0.05. The culture of L. acidophilus with GG in the medium displayed maximum lactic acid concentration (1.46 mg/mL after 48 incubation hours. Conclusions: GG has high potential of prebiotic properties for probiotic growth stimulation, pathogenic inhibition and gastrointestinal tolerance. In addition, GG can introduce probiotic for high production of lactic acid concentration in the culture media. From these results, GG is promising for application and development to become an efficiency of functional food in the coming future.
Bernstein, Charles N
The dysbiosis theory of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) posits that there is an alteration in the gut microbiome as an important underpinning of disease etiology. It stands to reason then, that administering agents that could impact on the balance of microbes on the gut could be impactful on the course of IBD. Herein is a review of the controlled trials undertaken to assess the use of antibiotics that would kill or suppress potentially injurious microbes, probiotics that would overpopulate the gut with potentially beneficial microbes or prebiotics that provide a metabolic substrate that enhances the growth of potentially beneficial microbes. With regard to antibiotics, the best data are for the use of nitroimadoles postoperatively in Crohn's disease (CD) to prevent disease recurrence. Otherwise, the data are limited with the regard to any lasting benefit of antibiotics sustaining remission in either CD or ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent meta-analysis concluded that antibiotics are superior to placebo at inducing remission in CD or UC, although the meta-analysis grouped a variety of antibiotics with different spectra of activity. Despite the absence of robust clinical trial data, antibiotics are widely used to treat perineal fistulizing CD and acute and chronic pouchitis. Probiotics have not been shown to have a beneficial role in CD. However, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 has comparable effects to low doses of mesalamine in maintaining remission in UC. VSL#3, a combination of 8 microbes, has been shown to have an effect in inducing remission in UC and preventing pouchitis. Prebiotics have yet to be shown to have an effect in any form of IBD, but to date controlled trials have been small. The use of antibiotics should be balanced against the risks they pose. Even probiotics may pose some risk and should not be assumed to be innocuous especially when ingested by persons with a compromised epithelial barrier. Prebiotics may not be harmful but may cause
Full Text Available Background In this study, in vitro prebiotic effects of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans on the survivability and activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Escherichia coli were investigated and compared with HP-Inulin (a high molecular-weight fraction of chicory-derived inulin. Objectives The prebiotic potential of poly-fructans extracted from native Jerusalem artichoke tubers on the survivability of B. bifidum and E. coli was evaluated in this study. Methods In this experimental study, 24 treatments divided to 2 groups (Extracted poly-fructose from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and standard inulin randomly. The turbidity and pH variations during 48 hours incubation were determined using final concentrations of each group (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v. The data were analyzed by MINITAB 14 and MSTATC statistical software, one way ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Results This study suggests that Jerusalem artichoke tuber fructooligosaccharides (JA-Fr had the potential to be used as a prebiotic component. The growth of B. bifidum improved significantly in the presence of Jerusalem artichoke fructans compared to the control. There was no significant differences (P < 0.05 in Bifidobacterium population in different concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans, but the population was significantly higher than the count in the presence of HP-inulin. The pH decreased in both media during 48 hours incubation time. Specific rate of growth and doubling time determined for E. coli demonstrated that the efficacy of various carbon sources in stimulating bacterial growth were influenced by the concentration and DP (degree of polymerization of fructan chains in the media. Conclusions Jerusalem artichoke fructooligosaccharides can provide the greater stability of probiotics and acid production, so it can be considered as a potential source of high-yielding oligosaccharide for commercial prebiotic production to develop food industry and improve host health.
The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775
Full Text Available The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF, lactulose, and resistant starch (RS meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS, transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.
Nicolucci, A C; Reimer, R A
This review highlights our current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity and the potential role for dietary manipulation of the gut microbiota with prebiotics in managing paediatric obesity. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial and is now known to include microbial dysbiosis in the gut. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which selectively modulate the number and/or composition of gut microbes. The goal of prebiotic consumption is to restore symbiosis and thereby confer health benefits to the host. There is convincing evidence that prebiotics can reduce adiposity and improve metabolic health in preclinical rodent models. Furthermore, there are several clinical trials in adult humans highlighting metabolic and appetite-regulating benefits of prebiotics. In paediatric obesity, however, there are very limited data regarding the potential role of prebiotics as a dietary intervention for obesity management. As the prevalence of paediatric obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities increases globally, interventions that target the progression of obesity from an early age are essential in slowing the obesity epidemic. This review emphasizes the need for further research assessing the role of prebiotics, particularly as an intervention in effectively managing paediatric obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M
This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.
Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E
This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.
Muhammad H. Al-Malack
Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.
Dass, Avinash Vicholous; Jaber, Maguy; Brack, André; Foucher, Frédéric; Kee, Terence P; Georgelin, Thomas; Westall, Frances
A concise outlook on the potential role of confinement in phosphorylation and phosphate condensation pertaining to prebiotic chemistry is presented. Inorganic confinement is a relatively uncharted domain in studies concerning prebiotic chemistry, and even more so in terms of experimentation. However, molecular crowding within confined dimensions is central to the functioning of contemporary biology. There are numerous advantages to confined environments and an attempt to highlight this fact, within this article, has been undertaken, keeping in context the limitations of aqueous phase chemistry in phosphorylation and, to a certain extent, traditional approaches in prebiotic chemistry.
Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Jers, Carsten
A group of prebiotic oligosaccharides known as human milk oligo-saccharides (HMOs) are currently receiving a lot of attention due to the prospect of their addition to infant formula. Whereas prebiotics in general are used as mediators for modulating the gut microbiome in human individuals, HMOs...... play an important role in development of this organ, where it contributes to the selective growth stimulation of the beneficial microorganism Bifidobacterium infantis. The effects of HMOs are not only prebiotic and a range of beneficial effects have been postulated, with varying amounts of scientific...
from the model parameters that are inputs to the computer model ( mathematical model) but whose exact values are unknown to experimentalists and...Environments Jeremy R. Millar Follow this and additional works at: https://scholar.afit.edu/etd Part of the Computer Sciences Commons This Dissertation...25 3.3 Computing Plausibility Exceedance Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 IV
The plausibility of research results on DDT and reproductive health ... cals in the environment and that human health is inextri- cably linked to the health of .... periods of folliculo-genesis or embryo-genesis that increases risk for adverse effects.
Ranjan, Sukrit; Wordsworth, Robin; Sasselov, Dimitar D.
Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.
Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wordsworth, Robin, E-mail: email@example.com [Harvard Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States)
Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.
Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Wordsworth, Robin
Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.
The costs of developing a probiotic or prebiotic ingredient have always been substantial. Ingredient characterization, evaluation of technological and physiological properties, and demonstrations of safety and clinical efficacy require expensive research. The demanding regulatory requirements imposed by EFSA raise the bar even higher so that the costs of acquiring the necessary clinical evidence to support labeling of these food ingredients is approaching that of pharmaceuticals. In order to justify investment in such expensive clinical development, companies require certainty that they can gain a return on investment. Patenting can provide some protection but is not always possible to patent ingredients, and the period of protection is limited. All ingredients eventually face the prospect of commoditization once patents expire. Branding strategies offer one means of maintaining adequate product differentiation to protect market share and margins over the long term.
Sitanggang, Azis Boing; Drews, Anja; Kraume, Matthias
Lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide, has received increasing interest due to its role as a prebiotic. The production of lactulose is important in the dairy industry, as it is regarded as a high value-added derivative of whey or lactose. The industrial production of lactulose is still mainly done by chemical isomerization. Due to concerns on the environmental and tedious separation processes, the enzymatic-based lactulose synthesis has been regarded as an interesting alternative. This work aims at comparing chemical and enzyme-catalyzed lactulose synthesis. With an emphasis on the latter one, this review discusses the influences of the critical operating conditions and the suited operation mode on the transgalactosylation of lactulose using microbial enzymes. As an update and supplement to other previous reviews, this work also summarizes the recent reports that highlighted the enzymatic isomerization of lactose using cellobiose 2-epimerase to produce lactulose at elevated yields.
Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin
Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Primalac), prebiotic (Fermacto) and butyric acid glycerides (Baby C4) on broiler performance and serum composition. Seven hundred and four day-old broilers were randomly distributed in a 222 factorial arrangement with two levels of probiotic ...
Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J; Gibson, Glenn R; Petschow, Bryon W; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J; Cifelli, Christopher J; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno
Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner consistent with the strength of the evidence. More progress has been made with clinical recommendations. Conclusions include that beneficial cultures, including probiotics and live cultures in fermented foods, can contribute towards the health of the general population; prebiotics, in part due to their function as a special type of soluble fiber, can contribute to the health of the general population; and a number of challenges must be addressed in order to fully realize probiotic and prebiotic benefits, including the need for greater awareness of the accumulated evidence on probiotics and prebiotics among policy makers, strategies to cope with regulatory roadblocks to research, and high-quality human trials that address outstanding research questions in the field. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Pan, Mingfang; Kumaree, Kishore K; Shah, Nagendra P
Synbiotics are always considered to be beneficial in healthy manipulation of gut environment; however, the purpose of this research was to investigate the dominance of synbiotic over the individual potential of probiotics and prebiotics. Four different types of prebiotics, fructo-oligosaccharides, raffinose, inulin, and cellobiose, were evaluated based on their varying degree of polymerization, combined each with 2 different Lactobacilli strains, including Lactobacillus paracasei 276 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The effects of synbiotics combination on the surface structure were evaluated by analyzing auto-aggregation, membrane hydrophobicity, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that both Lactobacilli exhibited significantly greater degree of attachment to Caco-2 cells (23.31% and 16.85%, respectively) when using cellobiose as a substrate than with other prebiotics (P prebiotics. These behavioral changes in terms of attachment and auto-aggregation were further supported with the changes noticed from infrared spectra (FT-IR). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.
The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423
Sanders, Mary Ellen; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Salminen, Seppo; Merenstein, Daniel J.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Petschow, Bryon W.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Jacques, Paul; Pot, Bruno
Probiotics and prebiotics are useful interventions for improving human health through direct or indirect effects on the colonizing microbiota. However, translation of these research findings into nutritional recommendations and public health policy endorsements has not been achieved in a manner
Watson, Ronald R; Preedy, Victor R
"Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion: Probiotics and Prebiotics brings together experts working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and bacterial preparations, in health promotion and disease prevention, to provide...
Full Text Available The ban against using antibiotics has led to increase the use of alternative additive substances as antibiotic. The alternative additives that can be used as antibiotic are probiotic and prebiotic. Both components can be used separately or together as synbiotic. Probiotic and prebiotic can modulate the ecosytem of intestinal microflora that is potential to affect the health and performance of host. Probiotic and prebiotic have been widely used abroad because of their positive effects, but the research and the use of these components in Indonesia are limited, eventhough abundance of raw material that can be used are available. The research dealing with probiotic and prebiotic as additive is necessary to be improved to obtain the efficient and practical production method, which can be implemented to give an economic impact on livestock industry.
Ferus, Martin; Knížek, Antonín; Civiš, Svatopluk
Roč. 112, č. 23 (2015), s. 7109-7110 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : meteorite-catalzzed synthesis * nucleosides * prebiotic compounds Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015
Im, Ezeonu; Ae, Asuquo; Bn, Ukwah; Po, Ukoha
Vernonia amygdalina , commonly called bitter-leaf, is widely consumed in many parts of Africa, and Nigeria, in particular. The leaf extract has been reported to have antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, anti-helminthic, as well as prebiotic properties, but its immuno-modulatory effects have not been well-studied, neither have the prebiotics been identified. This study evaluated the immuno-modulatory properties of the aqueous leaf extract and identified the prebiotic components. The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus , while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the extract. Consumption of the extract caused significant increases in CD4+-, white blood cell-, total lymphocyte- and high density lipid (HDL) counts; decreases in low density lipid (LDL) and triglycerides and no significant effect on haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in the blood of test animals. The water-soluble fraction of the extract contained most of the phyto-constituents of the extract and Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of the fraction revealed the presence of fructo-oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotics. The results from this study have shown that the aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina has positive immune-modulatory and haematologic effects and contains some important prebiotic compounds.
Akhter, Najeeb; Wu, Bin; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Mohsin, Muhammad
There is a rapidly growing literature, indicating success of probiotics and prebiotics in immunomodulation, namely the stimulation of innate, cellular and humoral immune response. Probiotics are considered to be living microorganisms administered orally and lead to health benefits. These Probiotics are microorganisms in sufficient amount to alter the microflora (by implantation or colonization) in specific host's compartment exerting beneficial health effects at this host. Nevertheless, Prebiotics are indigestible fiber which enhances beneficial commensally gut bacteria resulting in improved health of the host. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to by-products derived from the fermentation of intestinal commensal bacteria. Among the many health benefits attributed to probiotics and prebiotics, the modulation of the immune system is one of the most anticipated benefits and their ability to stimulate systemic and local immunity, deserves attention. They directly enhance the innate immune response, including the activation of phagocytosis, activation of neutrophils, activation of the alternative complement system, an increase in lysozyme activity, and so on. Prebiotics acting as immunosaccharides directly impact on the innate immune system of fish and shellfish. Therefore, both probiotics and prebiotics influence the immunomodulatory activity boosting up the health benefits in aquatic animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems is a complete and accessible account of the theoretical foundations and computational methods that underlie plausible reasoning under uncertainty. The author provides a coherent explication of probability as a language for reasoning with partial belief and offers a unifying perspective on other AI approaches to uncertainty, such as the Dempster-Shafer formalism, truth maintenance systems, and nonmonotonic logic. The author distinguishes syntactic and semantic approaches to uncertainty--and offers techniques, based on belief networks, that provid
product kernel. KDE with a beta kernel gene- rates maximum sustained winds, and linear regression simulates minimum central pressure. Maximum significant...the Storm level models the number of waypoints M , birth and death locations w1 and wM , and total number of steps L. The Stage level models the...MATLAB and leverages HURDAT2 to construct data-driven statistical models that can generate plausible yet never-before-seen storm behaviors. For a
Nahari, Galit; Glicksohn, Joseph; Nachson, Israel
Two experiments were conducted in order to find out whether textual features of narratives differentially affect credibility judgments made by judges having different levels of absorption (a disposition associated with rich visual imagination). Participants in both experiments were exposed to a textual narrative and requested to judge whether the narrator actually experienced the event he described in his story. In Experiment 1, the narrative varied in terms of language (literal, figurative) and plausibility (ordinary, anomalous). In Experiment 2, the narrative varied in terms of language only. The participants' perceptions of the plausibility of the story described and the extent to which they were absorbed in reading were measured. The data from both experiments together suggest that the groups applied entirely different criteria in credibility judgments. For high-absorption individuals, their credibility judgment depends on the degree to which the text can be assimilated into their own vivid imagination, whereas for low-absorption individuals it depends mainly on plausibility. That is, high-absorption individuals applied an experiential mental set while judging the credibility of the narrator, whereas low-absorption individuals applied an instrumental mental set. Possible cognitive mechanisms and implications for credibility judgments are discussed.
Chen, Po-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Kuo, Tai-Chen; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Li, Zhe-Wei
Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural iron-binding protein and it has been suggested to be a prebiotic agent, but this finding remains inconclusive. This study explores the prebiotic potential of bLf in 14 probiotics. Initially, bLf (1-32 mg/mL) treatment showed occasional and slight prebiotic activity in several probiotics only during the late experimental period (48, 78 h) at 37 °C. We subsequently supposed that bLf exerts stronger prebiotic effects when probiotic growth has been temperately retarded. Therefore, we incubated the probiotics at different temperatures, namely 37 °C, 28 °C, room temperature (approximately 22-24 °C), and 22 °C, to retard or inhibit their growth. As expected, bLf showed more favorable prebiotic activity in several probiotics when their growth was partially retarded at room temperature. Furthermore, at 22 °C, the growth of Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. delbrueckii, L. acidophilus, B. angulatum, B. catenulatum, and L. paraplantarum were completely blocked. Notably, these probiotics started regrowing in the presence of bLf (1-32 mg/mL) in a significant and dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, bLf significantly increased the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. rhamnosus, and L. paracasei (BCRC 17483; a locally isolated strain) when their growth was retarded by incubation at 22 °C. In conclusion, bLf showed inconsistent prebiotic activity in the 14 probiotics at 37 °C, but revealed strong prebiotic activity in 10 probiotic strains at 22 °C. Therefore, this study enables determining additional roles of Lf in probiotic strains, which can facilitate developing novel combinational approaches by simultaneously using Lf and specific probiotics.
Full Text Available The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management.
Full Text Available Fat reduction in meat products is demanded by consumers concerninghealth issues but represents a serious challenge for meat industry as fatty tissue plays an important role for the products properties. Because of that, a special attention is paid to the substances that could replace fatty tissue in meat products. Inulin represents a non digestible fructooligosaccharide that on the one hand represents a good prebiotic substance and from the other hand posses such technological propeties that make it a good fat replacer. In aqueous systems inulin forms a gel having a structure similar to fats, it has neutral taste and smell and have no impact on the aroma of meat products. Inulin could be added to meat products in form of powder as well as a water suspension. Low fat fermented sausages with good sensory quality could be produced with the addition of inulin as a fat replacer, and such products have abit lower pH- and aw-value and contain a higher number of lactic acid bacteria then conventional products. In heat treated sausages, inulin improves water holding capacity and stability of the low fat meat batter, which reduces cooking loss and shows no adverse effect on the sensory properties of the low fat product. But, there are also certain limitations because it should be paid attention to the degree of polymerization as well as the amount of inulin added the product. Otherwise, on the one hand there could be some adverse effectson sensory properties of the product and from the other hand an excessive amount of inulin could lead to digestive problems by consumers.
Fares, Mohammad M; Salem, Mu'taz Sheikh
Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via prebiotic inulin designed to orally deliver poorly water-soluble curcumin at duodenum low acidity (pH 5.5) was investigated. Different prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol-water binary system at different pre-adjusted pH values. Characterization via FTIR, XRD and TGA revealed the formation of curcumin-inulin conjugates, whereas surface morphology via SEM and TEM techniques implied the formation of nanoparticle beads and nanoclusters. Prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles prepared at pH 7.0 demonstrated a maximum curcumin dissolution enhancement of ≈90% with respect to 30% for curcumin alone at pH 5.5. Power law constant values were in accordance with dissolution enhancement investigations. All samples show Fickian diffusion mechanism. XRD investigations confirm that inulin maintain its crystalline structure in curcumin-inulin conjugate structure, which confirms that it can exert successfully its prebiotic role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, the use of curcumin-inulin nanoparticles can perform dual-mission in the GI tract at the duodenum environment; release of 90% of curcumin followed by prebiotic activity of inulin, which will probably play a significant role in cancer therapeutics for the coming generations.
Krumbeck, Janina A; Maldonado-Gomez, Maria X; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Hutkins, Robert W
A wide range of dietary carbohydrates, including prebiotic food ingredients, fermentable fibers, and milk oligosaccharides, are able to produce significant changes in the intestinal microbiota. These shifts in the microbial community are often characterized by increased levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. More recent studies have revealed that species of Faecalibacterium, Akkermansia, and other less well studied members may also be enriched. We review the implications of these recent studies on future design of prebiotics and synbiotics to promote gastrointestinal health. Investigations assessing the clinical outcomes associated with dietary modification of the gut microbiota have shown systemic as well as specific health benefits. Both prebiotic oligosaccharides comprised of a linear arrangement of simple sugars, as well as fiber-rich foods containing complex carbohydrates, have been used in these trials. However, individual variability and nonresponding study participants can make the outcome of dietary interventions less predictable. In contrast, synergistic synbiotics containing prebiotics that specifically stimulate a cognate probiotic provide additional options for personalized gut therapies. This review describes recent research on how prebiotics and fermentable fibers can influence the gut microbiota and result in improvements to human health.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prebiotic activity based on the change in cell biomass of the probiotic strain after 24-h growth in the presence of Laminaran from Sargassum crassifolium with the methods of laminaran acid extract (LAE and laminaran modified extract (LME, inulin, or glucose-relative against the change in cell biomass of Escherichia coli FNCC 0091 grown under the same condition. Prebiotic activity was calculated for L. plantarum FNCC 0051 and Bifidobacterium longum FNCC 1081. The results showed that the increasing cell number of L. plantarum was higher in both substrates LAE and LME (0,58 and 2,03log cycle, whereas that of B. longum was lower. The higher prebiotic activity score obtained for L. plantarum and B. longum grown on LME were positive (0,26 and 0,96 log cycle, whereas the lowest score was for L. plantarum and B. longum grown on LAE, which were negative (-0,35 and -0,31 log cycle, but the higher prebiotic activity score was obtained for inulin (4,08 and 4,78 log cycle. It could be concluded that Laminaran Modified Extract (LME has potential as prebiotic source, but its potential was lower than inulin.
Kao, A C C; Harty, S; Burnet, P W J
Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions. There are also compelling data showing the robust and favorable effects of prebiotics on several behavioral paradigms including, anxiety, learning, and memory. At present, studies in humans are limited, though there is strong evidence for prebiotics modulating emotional processes and the neuroendocrine stress response that may underlie the pathophysiology of anxiety. While the mechanistic details linking the enteric microbiota to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated, there are a number of considerations that can guide future studies. These include the modulation of intestinal endocrine systems and inflammatory cascades, as well as direct interaction with the enteric nervous system and gut mucosa. Our knowledge of gut microbiome-brain communication is steadily progressing, and thorough investigations validating the use of prebiotics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders would be highly valued and are encouraged. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A mixture experiment was used to optimize prebiotic mixtures in soybean milk formulation. Inulin (I, galactooligosaccharides(GOS, and isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO were the prebiotic ingredients added (4% w/v to soybean milk. Thirteen formulations of soybean milk were compared using the general descriptive analysis and the growth of probiotics(Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456, Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 875, and Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1034. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in all sensory attributes (color, thickness, beany flavor, sweetness, viscosity, sweetness aftertaste among the samples. Various mixtures of the prebiotics had only a slight effect on the soybean milk color and viscosity (p0.05. The soybean milk supplemented with the optimized prebiotic mixture had higher (p<0.05carbohydrates, total soluble solid, total solid content, and viscosity than the control (without prebiotic. However, it had a lower L* value (lightness and a higher a* value (redness than the control (p<0.05.
Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Verhagen, Hans; Rowland, Ian; Heimbach, Jim; Bañares, Silvia; Young, Tony; Nomoto, Koji; Lalonde, Mélanie
Novel probiotics and prebiotics designed to manipulate the gut microbiota for improving health outcomes are in demand as the importance of the gut microbiota in human health is revealed. The regulations governing introduction of novel probiotics and prebiotics vary by geographical region. Novel foods and foods with health claims fall under specific regulations in several countries. The paper reviews the main requirements of the regulations in the EU, USA, Canada and Japan. We propose a number of areas that need to be addressed in any safety assessment of novel probiotics and prebiotics. These include publication of the genomic sequence, antibiotic resistance profiling, selection of appropriate in vivo model, toxicological studies (including toxin production) and definition of target population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: In the food industries, several oligosaccharides have received increasing attention as key components for functional foods and nutraceutical products. Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides which have been shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinal problems and improve gut health and well-being. Recent researches much pay attention to find alternative sources, improve specific properties and proof on health benefits of these prebiotics. Methods: This is the summary of research works have been done by our research group on prebiotics and gut health in Thailand. These works aimed to study sources of prebiotics from fruits and vegetables in Thailand, production by enzymatic synthesis of prebiotics, purification by microbial fermentation and membrane technology and applications of the prebiotics in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Results: Among the 30 parts of 14 plants, six appear to have the highest potential for commercialization based on extract yield and the amount and type of indigestible oligosaccharides. These include dragon fruit, palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okra pod. At least three of them, dragon fruit, jackfruit flesh and seed, were confirmed on their prebiotic property by selectively in vitro colonic microflora fermentation in an artificial colon system. Among 52 LAB isolates for production of GOS, BFP32 showed highest intracellular β-galactosidase activity and GOS yield. It was identified as Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum by 16S rDNA sequencing. Composition of GOS consisted of oligosaccharides with having DP of 3, 4 and 5. A mixture of GOS was purified successful by sequential bacterial and yeast fermentation whereas nanofiltration could be used for partial purification. Prebiotic index (PI of the GOS produced was1.19 in batch culture. A crude extract from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. had transfructosylating activity for
Armanian, Amir Mohammad; Barekatain, Behzad; Hoseinzadeh, Maryam; Salehimehr, Nima
We evaluated if prebiotics have benefits for the management of hyperbilirubinemia in preterm neonates. Preterm neonates were entered into the study when enteral feeding volume met 30 mL/kg/day. They randomly received a mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosacarids/long-chain fructo-oligosacarids or distilled water (placebo) for 1 week. Total serum bilirubin level was measured by transcutaneous bilirubinometry. Stool frequency and meeting full enteral feeding during the study period were considered as secondary outcomes. Twenty-five neonates in each group completed the trial. Bilirubin level was decreased with the prebiotic (-1.3 ± 1.8 mg/dL, p = 0.004), but not placebo (-0.1 ± 3.3 mg/dL, p = 0.416). Peak bilirubin level was lower with the prebiotic than placebo (8.3 ± 1.7 versus 10.1 ± 2.2 mg/dL, p = 0.003). Stool frequency was increased with the prebiotic (0.7 ± 1.9 defecation/day, p = 0.014), but not with placebo (0.6 ± 1.5 defecation/day, p = 0.133). Average stool frequency (2.4 ± 0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 defecation/day, p = 0.003) and frequently of meeting full enteral feeding (60% versus 16%, p = 0.002) were higher with the prebiotic than placebo. Prebiotic oligosaccharides increase stool frequency, improve feeding tolerance and reduce bilirubin level in preterm neonates and therefore can be efficacious for the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
Tewari, Shweta; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Singhal, Rekha S
Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes. The combined enzymatic extraction amplified total extractives up to 76% in GTE and 72% in BTE. Total polyphenol was found to be enhanced to 24% in GTE and 19% in BTE. GTE was further selected for development of RTD in two different formats; synbiotic RTD and prebiotic RTD premix and analyzed for sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, and acceptability). Synbiotic RTD was also evaluated for stability over a period of 28 days at 4 °C. Synbiotic RTD developed an unpleasant flavor and aroma during the shelf life. Premix format of RTD developed using spray drying was reconstituted and found to be functionally and sensorially acceptable.
Quartz, S R
Recent interest in PDP (parallel distributed processing) models is due in part to the widely held belief that they challenge many of the assumptions of classical cognitive science. In the domain of language acquisition, for example, there has been much interest in the claim that PDP models might undermine nativism. Related arguments based on PDP learning have also been given against Fodor's anti-constructivist position--a position that has contributed to the widespread dismissal of constructivism. A limitation of many of the claims regarding PDP learning, however, is that the principles underlying this learning have not been rigorously characterized. In this paper, I examine PDP models from within the framework of Valiant's PAC (probably approximately correct) model of learning, now the dominant model in machine learning, and which applies naturally to neural network learning. From this perspective, I evaluate the implications of PDP models for nativism and Fodor's influential anti-constructivist position. In particular, I demonstrate that, contrary to a number of claims, PDP models are nativist in a robust sense. I also demonstrate that PDP models actually serve as a good illustration of Fodor's anti-constructivist position. While these results may at first suggest that neural network models in general are incapable of the sort of concept acquisition that is required to refute Fodor's anti-constructivist position, I suggest that there is an alternative form of neural network learning that demonstrates the plausibility of constructivism. This alternative form of learning is a natural interpretation of the constructivist position in terms of neural network learning, as it employs learning algorithms that incorporate the addition of structure in addition to weight modification schemes. By demonstrating that there is a natural and plausible interpretation of constructivism in terms of neural network learning, the position that nativism is the only plausible model of
Trainer, Melissa G.
Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of pre biotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.
Carrieri, D; Peccatori, F A; Boniolo, G
'Right To Try' (RTT) laws originated in the USA to allow terminally ill patients to request access to early stage experimental medical products directly from the producer, removing the oversight and approval of the Food and Drug Administration. These laws have received significant media attention and almost equally unanimous criticism by the bioethics, clinical and scientific communities. They touch indeed on complex issues such as the conflict between individual and public interest, and the public understanding of medical research and its regulation. The increased awareness around RTT laws means that healthcare providers directly involved in the management of patients with life-threatening conditions such as cancer, infective, or neurologic conditions will deal more frequently with patients' requests of access to experimental medical products. This paper aims to assess the ethical plausibility of the RTT laws, and to suggest some possible ethical tools and considerations to address the main issues they touch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harrison, Robert V
An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation.
Björkman, B.; Fridell, K.; Tavakol Olofsson, P.
Introduction: Radiography is a healthcare speciality with many technical challenges. Advances in engineering and information technology applications may continue to drive and be driven by radiographers. The world of diagnostic imaging is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. To ensure sustainable development, organisations have to identify future opportunities and threats in a timely manner and incorporate them into their strategic planning. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse and describe plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in 2025. Method: The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach based on focus group interviews. The interviews were inspired by the Scenario-Planning method. Results: Of the seven trends identified in a previous study, the radiographers considered two as the most uncertain scenarios that would have the greatest impact on the profession should they occur. These trends, labelled “Access to career advancement” and “A sufficient number of radiographers”, were inserted into the scenario cross. The resulting four plausible future scenarios were: The happy radiographer, the specialist radiographer, the dying profession and the assembly line. Conclusion: It is suggested that “The dying profession” scenario could probably be turned in the opposite direction by facilitating career development opportunities for radiographers within the profession. Changing the direction would probably lead to a profession composed of “happy radiographers” who are specialists, proud of their profession and competent to carry out advanced tasks, in contrast to being solely occupied by “the assembly line”. - Highlights: • The world of radiography is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. • Future opportunities and threats should be identified and incorporated into the strategic planning. • Appropriate actions can probably change the
Gibson, Glenn R; Hutkins, Robert; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Prescott, Susan L; Reimer, Raylene A; Salminen, Seppo J; Scott, Karen; Stanton, Catherine; Swanson, Kelly S; Cani, Patrice D; Verbeke, Kristin; Reid, Gregor
In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition and clinical research was convened by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics to review the definition and scope of prebiotics. Consistent with the original embodiment of prebiotics, but aware of the latest scientific and clinical developments, the panel updated the definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. This definition expands the concept of prebiotics to possibly include non-carbohydrate substances, applications to body sites other than the gastrointestinal tract, and diverse categories other than food. The requirement for selective microbiota-mediated mechanisms was retained. Beneficial health effects must be documented for a substance to be considered a prebiotic. The consensus definition applies also to prebiotics for use by animals, in which microbiota-focused strategies to maintain health and prevent disease is as relevant as for humans. Ultimately, the goal of this Consensus Statement is to engender appropriate use of the term 'prebiotic' by relevant stakeholders so that consistency and clarity can be achieved in research reports, product marketing and regulatory oversight of the category. To this end, we have reviewed several aspects of prebiotic science including its development, health benefits and legislation.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation on growth performance and serum IgG concentrations in broilers. One thousand two hundred one-day old Ross-308 broiler chicks of mixed sex were randomly divided into four treatment groups of 300 birds each. The treatments ...
Methods: The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus, while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the ...
Full Text Available Prebiotic oligosaccharides are used to modulate enteric pathogens and reduce pathogen shedding. The interactions with prebiotics that alter Listeria monocytogenes infection are not yet clearly delineated. L. monocytogenes cellular invasion requires a concerted manipulation of host epithelial cell membrane receptors to initiate internalization and infection often via receptor glycosylation. Bacterial interactions with host glycans are intimately involved in modulating cellular responses through signaling cascades at the membrane and in intracellular compartments. Characterizing the mechanisms underpinning these modulations is essential for predictive use of dietary prebiotics to diminish pathogen association. We demonstrated that human milk oligosaccharide (HMO pretreatment of colonic epithelial cells (Caco-2 led to a 50% decrease in Listeria association, while Biomos pretreatment increased host association by 150%. L. monocytogenes-induced gene expression changes due to oligosaccharide pretreatment revealed global alterations in host signaling pathways that resulted in differential subcellular localization of L. monocytogenes during early infection. Ultimately, HMO pretreatment led to bacterial clearance in Caco-2 cells via induction of the unfolded protein response and eIF2 signaling, while Biomos pretreatment resulted in the induction of host autophagy and L. monocytogenes vacuolar escape earlier in the infection progression. This study demonstrates the capacity of prebiotic oligosaccharides to minimize infection through induction of host-intrinsic protective responses.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of Neoxyval (antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP)), TechnoMos (prebiotic), GalliPro (probiotic) and a mixture of TechnoMos and GalliPro (symbiotic) on growth performance, carcass yield, histomorphology and intestinal bacterial counts in broilers (0 d to 42 d). Two hundred ...
Tanaka, H; Medina, A; Mendes, L A V; Prudente, F V; Marinho, R R T; Homem, M G P
In this work we report absolute cross section studies of prebiotic molecules measured in the VUV range using the double ion chamber technique and synchrotron radiation. Absorption, ionization and neutral decay cross sections will be presented, together with the absolute ionization quantum yield. Additionally, partial ion yield spectra were measured by a TOF mass spectrometer.
There is extensive evidence in experimental animals that prebiotics, such as inulin-type fructans, can increase the absorption of a variety of minerals, including calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc, and that they may act through several possible mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss t...
Uyeno, Yutaka; Shigemori, Suguru; Shimosato, Takeshi
Probiotics/prebiotics have the ability to modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, and are, thus, considered beneficial to the host animal and have been used as functional foods. Numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, have been shown to markedly affect the structure and activities of gut microbial communities in livestock animals. Previous studies reported the potential of probiotics and prebiotics in animal nutrition; however, their efficacies often vary and are inconsistent, possibly, in part, because the dynamics of the GI community have not been taken into consideration. Under stressed conditions, direct-fed microbials may be used to reduce the risk or severity of scours caused by disruption of the normal intestinal environment. The observable benefits of prebiotics may also be minimal in generally healthy calves, in which the microbial community is relatively stable. However, probiotic yeast strains have been administered with the aim of improving rumen fermentation efficiency by modulating microbial fermentation pathways. This review mainly focused on the benefits of probiotics/prebiotics on the GI microbial ecosystem in ruminants, which is deeply involved in nutrition and health for the animal.
This work aimed to develop a fermented drink by diversifying the quantities of Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculum and prebiotic fiber in the form of inulin and using the total dry extract of whey and sucrose. After fermentation, the following measurements were made after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 6°C: titratable ...
Sheridan, Paul O; Bindels, Laure B; Saulnier, Delphine M; Reid, Gregor; Nova, Esther; Holmgren, Kerstin; O'Toole, Paul W; Bunn, James; Delzenne, Nathalie; Scott, Karen P
It has become clear in recent years that the human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining health and thus is an attractive target for clinical interventions. Scientists and clinicians have become increasingly interested in assessing the ability of probiotics and prebiotics to enhance the nutritional status of malnourished children, pregnant women, the elderly, and individuals with non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. A workshop was held by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), drawing on the knowledge of experts from industry, medicine, and academia, with the objective to assess the status of our understanding of the link between the microbiome and under-nutrition, specifically in relation to probiotic and prebiotic treatments for under-nourished individuals. These discussions led to four recommendations: (1) The categories of malnourished individuals need to be differentiated To improve treatment outcomes, subjects should first be categorized based on the cause of malnutrition, additional health-concerns, differences in the gut microbiota, and sociological considerations. (2) Define a baseline "healthy" gut microbiota for each category Altered nutrient requirement (for example, in pregnancy and old age) and individual variation may change what constitutes a healthy gut microbiota for the individual. (3) Perform studies using model systems to test the effectiveness of potential probiotics and prebiotics against these specific categories These should illustrate how certain microbiota profiles can be altered, as members of different categories may respond differently to the same treatment. (4) Perform robust well-designed human studies with probiotics and/or prebiotics, with appropriate, defined primary outcomes and sample size These are critical to show efficacy and understand responder and non-responder outcomes. It is hoped that these recommendations will lead to new approaches that
Kumar, Vaijayanti A
This article reviews the different possibilities towards progression of the formation of DNA/RNA in the chemical world, before life, in enzyme-free conditions. The advent of deoxyribo- and ribopentose-sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides and oligonucleotides in the prebiotic soup is briefly discussed. Further, the formation of early single stranded oligomers, base-pairing possibilities and information transfer based on the stability parameters of the derived duplexes is reviewed. Each theory has its own merits and demerits which we have elaborated upon. Lastly, using clues from this literature, a possible explanation for the specific 3'-5'-linkages in RNA is proposed.
Johnson-Henry, Kathene C; Abrahamsson, Thomas R; Wu, Richard You; Sherman, Philip M
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds. Current research is evaluating the benefits and potential pitfalls of adding probiotics and prebiotics to pasteurized milk so as to improve the functionality of the milk and thereby reduce the burden of illness caused by NEC. Probiotics (live micro-organisms that confer health to the host) and prebiotics (nondigestible oligosaccharides that stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria) are functional foods known to mediate immune responses and modulate microbial populations in the gut. Clinical research shows strain- and compound-specific responses when probiotics or prebiotics are administered in conjunction with donor breast milk for the prevention of NEC. Despite ongoing controversy surrounding optimal treatment strategies, randomized controlled studies are now investigating the use of synbiotics to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to enhance beneficial health effects in the intestinal tract more than either agent administered alone. This review considers the implications of using probiotic-, prebiotic-, and synbiotic-supplemented breast milk as a strategy to prevent NEC and issues that could be encountered with the preparations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Shanker, Uma; Singh, Gurinder; Kamaluddin
The interaction of aromatic amines (aniline, p-chloroaniline, p-toludine and p-anisidine) with iron oxides (goethite, akaganeite and hematite) has been studied. Maximum uptake of amines was observed around pH 7. The adsorption data obtained at neutral pH were found to follow Langmuir adsorption. Anisidine was found to be a better adsorbate probably due to its higher basicity. In alkaline medium (pH > 8), amines reacted on goethite and akaganeite to give colored products. Analysis of the products by GC-MS showed benzoquinone and azobenzene as the reaction products of aniline while p-anisidine afforded a dimer. IR analysis of the amine-iron oxide hydroxide adduct suggests that the surface acidity of iron oxide hydroxides is responsible for the interaction. The present study suggests that iron oxide hydroxides might have played a role in the stabilization of organic molecules through their surface activity and in prebiotic condensation reactions.
A new logic is developed which permits continuously variable strength of belief in the truth of assertions. Four inference rules result, with formal logic as a limiting case. Quantification of belief is defined. Propagation of belief to linked assertions results from dependency-based techniques of truth maintenance so that local consistency is achieved or contradiction discovered in problem solving. Rules for combining, confirming, or disconfirming beliefs are given, and several heuristics are suggested that apply to revising already formed beliefs in the light of new evidence. The strength of belief that results in such revisions based on conflicting evidence are a highly subjective phenomenon. Certain quantification rules appear to reflect an orderliness in the subjectivity. Several examples of reasoning by plausible inference are given, including a legal example and one from robot learning. Propagation of belief takes place in directions forbidden in formal logic and this results in conclusions becoming possible for a given set of assertions that are not reachable by formal logic.
Alejandro Rodríguez Rodríguez
Full Text Available El desarrollo del liderazgo, en el ámbito educativo superior, busca soluciones de aplicación inmediata a contextos en que todo líder se desenvuelve, pero se diluye el sustento teórico-práctico en la formación del líder que posibilite entender los procesos intelectivos durante la toma de decisiones. El paradigma de convergencia entre el método antropológico lonerganiano, la comunidad de aprendizaje vygotskiana y una relectura del sistema preventivo salesiano se presentan como propuesta plausible de formación al liderazgo preventivo entre los diversos actores de una comunidad universitaria. Un estudio de caso de la Universidad Salesiana en México empleando un método mixto de investigación, facilita una relectura del liderazgo desde una óptica preventiva como posibilidad de convergencia en un diálogo interdisciplinar. Los resultados teórico-práctico propuestos y examinados se muestran como herramienta útil para evaluar, enriquecer y renovar la teoría sobre el líder y el desarrollo de liderazgo en las universidades frente a una sociedad globalizada.
Full Text Available Climate risks pose a threat to the function of the global food system and therefore also a hazard to the global financial sector, the stability of governments, and the food security and health of the world’s population. This paper presents a method to assess plausible impacts of an agricultural production shock and potential materiality for global insurers. A hypothetical, near-term, plausible, extreme scenario was developed based upon modules of historical agricultural production shocks, linked under a warm phase El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO meteorological framework. The scenario included teleconnected floods and droughts in disparate agricultural production regions around the world, as well as plausible, extreme biotic shocks. In this scenario, global crop yield declines of 10% for maize, 11% for soy, 7% for wheat and 7% for rice result in quadrupled commodity prices and commodity stock fluctuations, civil unrest, significant negative humanitarian consequences and major financial losses worldwide. This work illustrates a need for the scientific community to partner across sectors and industries towards better-integrated global data, modeling and analytical capacities, to better respond to and prepare for concurrent agricultural failure. Governments, humanitarian organizations and the private sector collectively may recognize significant benefits from more systematic assessment of exposure to agricultural climate risk.
Kizach, Johannes; Nyvad, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj
Natural language processing is a fast and automatized process. A crucial part of this process is parsing, the online incremental construction of a syntactic structure. The aim of this study was to test whether a wh-filler extracted from an embedded clause is initially attached as the object of the matrix verb with subsequent reanalysis, and if so, whether the plausibility of such an attachment has an effect on reaction time. Finally, we wanted to examine whether subcategorization plays a role. We used a method called G-Maze to measure response time in a self-paced reading design. The experiments confirmed that there is early attachment of fillers to the matrix verb. When this attachment is implausible, the off-line acceptability of the whole sentence is significantly reduced. The on-line results showed that G-Maze was highly suited for this type of experiment. In accordance with our predictions, the results suggest that the parser ignores (or has no access to information about) implausibility and attaches fillers as soon as possible to the matrix verb. However, the results also show that the parser uses the subcategorization frame of the matrix verb. In short, the parser ignores semantic information and allows implausible attachments but adheres to information about which type of object a verb can take, ensuring that the parser does not make impossible attachments. We argue that the evidence supports a syntactic parser informed by syntactic cues, rather than one guided by semantic cues or one that is blind, or completely autonomous.
Full Text Available Natural language processing is a fast and automatized process. A crucial part of this process is parsing, the online incremental construction of a syntactic structure. The aim of this study was to test whether a wh-filler extracted from an embedded clause is initially attached as the object of the matrix verb with subsequent reanalysis, and if so, whether the plausibility of such an attachment has an effect on reaction time. Finally, we wanted to examine whether subcategorization plays a role. We used a method called G-Maze to measure response time in a self-paced reading design. The experiments confirmed that there is early attachment of fillers to the matrix verb. When this attachment is implausible, the off-line acceptability of the whole sentence is significantly reduced. The on-line results showed that G-Maze was highly suited for this type of experiment. In accordance with our predictions, the results suggest that the parser ignores (or has no access to information about implausibility and attaches fillers as soon as possible to the matrix verb. However, the results also show that the parser uses the subcategorization frame of the matrix verb. In short, the parser ignores semantic information and allows implausible attachments but adheres to information about which type of object a verb can take, ensuring that the parser does not make impossible attachments. We argue that the evidence supports a syntactic parser informed by syntactic cues, rather than one guided by semantic cues or one that is blind, or completely autonomous.
Sara Sohrabvandi; Seyed Amir Mohgammad Mortazavian; Hamed Jahani; Mohammad Javad Eivani; Ameneh Nematollahhi; Rozita Komeili
Background and objectives: Fortification of beverages with new functional ingredients such as prebiotics is one of the recent progresses in the field of juice production. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of adding some prebiotics such as Inulin and Tagatose on physicochemical and sensory properties of orange juice. Methods: The prebiotic compounds (Inulin and Tagatose) along with sucrose were added to orange juice in specific proportions and then p...
Reid, G; Abrahamsson, T; Bailey, M; Bindels, L B; Bubnov, R; Ganguli, K; Martoni, C; O'Neill, C; Savignac, H M; Stanton, C; Ship, N; Surette, M; Tuohy, K; van Hemert, S
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism. The growing levels of scientific and clinical evidence showing how microbes influence the physiology of many body sites, leads us to call for more funding to advance a potentially exciting avenue for novel therapies for many chronic diseases.
Fiocchi, Alessandro; Pecora, Valentina; Dahdah, Lamia
there are accruing evidences on the role of the intestinal microbiota in the development of allergic diseases among infants. Elaborating on this theoretical basis, studies did assess the possibilities to prevent allergic diseases in infancy through manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. We review here such studies. interventional studies led to conflicting conclusions on the possible role of probiotics and prebiotics in allergy prevention. Two metanalyses published in 2015 did reconcile all data. Guidelines have been predicated on such studies using the GRADE methodology. the guidelines for allergy prevention suggest for the first time the use of probiotics and prebiotics. The existing evidences stand for a use of such supplementation in particular for the prevention of eczema. As there is no evidence so far of superiority of one probiotic strand over the others, they should be considered as class and not as individual products.
Sara Imari Walker
Full Text Available Many models for the origin of life have focused on understanding how evolution can drive the refinement of a preexisting enzyme, such as the evolution of efficient replicase activity. Here we present a model for what was, arguably, an even earlier stage of chemical evolution, when polymer sequence diversity was generated and sustained before, and during, the onset of functional selection. The model includes regular environmental cycles (e.g. hydration-dehydration cycles that drive polymers between times of replication and functional activity, which coincide with times of different monomer and polymer diffusivity. Template-directed replication of informational polymers, which takes place during the dehydration stage of each cycle, is considered to be sequence-independent. New sequences are generated by spontaneous polymer formation, and all sequences compete for a finite monomer resource that is recycled via reversible polymerization. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that this proposed prebiotic scenario provides a robust mechanism for the exploration of sequence space. Introduction of a polymer sequence with monomer synthetase activity illustrates that functional sequences can become established in a preexisting pool of otherwise non-functional sequences. Functional selection does not dominate system dynamics and sequence diversity remains high, permitting the emergence and spread of more than one functional sequence. It is also observed that polymers spontaneously form clusters in simulations where polymers diffuse more slowly than monomers, a feature that is reminiscent of a previous proposal that the earliest stages of life could have been defined by the collective evolution of a system-wide cooperation of polymer aggregates. Overall, the results presented demonstrate the merits of considering plausible prebiotic polymer chemistries and environments that would have allowed for the rapid turnover of monomer resources and for
I propose and discuss a fitness function for one-dimensional binary monomer sequences of macromolecules for prebiotic evolution. The fitness function is defined by the free energy of polymers in the high temperature random coil phase. With repulsive interactions among the same kind of monomers, the free energy in the high temperature limit becomes the energy function of the one-dimensional long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model, which is shown to have a dynamical phase transition and glassy states
Yu, Ting; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Tan, Jia-Cheng; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Wang, Yun; Lin, Lin
The objective was to determine the effects of prebiotics and synbiotics on adults with functional constipation (FC). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature published up to February 2015. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported administration of prebiotics or synbiotics to adults with FC. The end points included stool frequency, stool consistency and other symptoms related to constipation. Mean differences (MD) or standard mean differences (SMD) were used for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for discontinuous outcomes using a random-effects model. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to determine the quality of the trials. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to analyze for publication bias. We included 5 RCTs involving 199 patients who were administered prebiotics and 8 RCTs involving 825 patients who were administered synbiotics. Prebiotics increased weekly stool frequency (MD: 1.01bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.04-1.99) and improved stool consistency (SMD: -0.59, 95% CI: -1.16 to -0.02). Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for galacto-oligosaccharides on stool frequency, consistency, ease of defecation and abdominal pain. Synbiotics significantly improved stool frequency (MD: 1.15bowel movements/week, 95% CI: 0.58-1.71), consistency (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-0.92) and reduced whole-gut transit time (MD: 13.52, 95% CI: -26.56 to -0.49) in patients with FC. Subgroup analysis showed specific effects for fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic combinations on stool frequency, consistency, straining defecation and bloating. Galacto-oligosaccharides and synbiotics made up of fructo-oligosaccharides with probiotic combinations may improve stool frequency, consistency and some other symptoms related to constipation. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Qing‐Yi; Summanen, Paula H.; Lee, Ru‐Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M.; Li, Zhaoping
Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP‐HPLC‐DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects o...
Foolad, N; Armstrong, A W
The purpose of this review was to identify whether supplementation with prebiotics and/or probiotics help prevent the development or reduce the severity of atopic dermatitis in children less than three years of age. Since 1997, immunostimulatory supplements, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been investigated. Various supplementations include probiotics (single strain or mix), probiotics with formula, probiotics mix with prebiotics, and prebiotics. In this narrative review, we examined 13 key articles on prebiotics and/or probiotics, and their effects on infant atopic dermatitis. Among the selected studies, a total of 3,023 participants received supplements or placebo. Eight out of the 13 (61.5%) studies reported a significant effect on the prevention of atopic dermatitis after supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics. Five out of the 13 (38.5%) studies indicated significant reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis after supplementation. Based on the available studies, supplementation with certain probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) appears to be an effective approach for the prevention and reduction in severity of atopic dermatitis. A mix of specific probiotic strains prevented atopic dermatitis among infants. Based on studies with prebiotics, there was a long-term reduction in the incidence of atopic dermatitis. Supplementation with prebiotics and probiotics appears useful for the reduction in the severity of atopic dermatitis. Additional interventional studies exploring prebiotics and probiotics are imperative before recommendations can be made.
A. I. Safronova
Full Text Available Since the moment of its formulation, the concept of prebiotics was supported and developed by many researches across the world. The usage of prebiotics for the optimization of the intestinal microflora composition and, therefore, the strengthening of infants health has an increased interest both of scientists and pediatricians. In this article the authors give briefly account on the classification and characteristics of the most common prebiotics, making an emphasis on inulin-type fructans, and show literature and their own data on clinical assessment of different prebiotic products.
Saladino, Raffaele; Botta, Lorenzo; Di Mauro, Ernesto
Meteorites are consensually considered to be involved in the origin of life on this Planet for several functions and at different levels: (i) as providers of impact energy during their passage through the atmosphere; (ii) as agents of geodynamics, intended both as starters of the Earth's tectonics and as activators of local hydrothermal systems upon their fall; (iii) as sources of organic materials, at varying levels of limited complexity; and (iv) as catalysts. The consensus about the relevance of these functions differs. We focus on the catalytic activities of the various types of meteorites in reactions relevant for prebiotic chemistry. Formamide was selected as the chemical precursor and various sources of energy were analyzed. The results show that all the meteorites and all the different energy sources tested actively afford complex mixtures of biologically-relevant compounds, indicating the robustness of the formamide-based prebiotic chemistry involved. Although in some cases the yields of products are quite small, the diversity of the detected compounds of biochemical significance underlines the prebiotic importance of meteorite-catalyzed condensation of formamide.
Full Text Available Meteorites are consensually considered to be involved in the origin of life on this Planet for several functions and at different levels: (i as providers of impact energy during their passage through the atmosphere; (ii as agents of geodynamics, intended both as starters of the Earth’s tectonics and as activators of local hydrothermal systems upon their fall; (iii as sources of organic materials, at varying levels of limited complexity; and (iv as catalysts. The consensus about the relevance of these functions differs. We focus on the catalytic activities of the various types of meteorites in reactions relevant for prebiotic chemistry. Formamide was selected as the chemical precursor and various sources of energy were analyzed. The results show that all the meteorites and all the different energy sources tested actively afford complex mixtures of biologically-relevant compounds, indicating the robustness of the formamide-based prebiotic chemistry involved. Although in some cases the yields of products are quite small, the diversity of the detected compounds of biochemical significance underlines the prebiotic importance of meteorite-catalyzed condensation of formamide.
Petschow, Bryon; Doré, Joël; Hibberd, Patricia; Dinan, Timothy; Reid, Gregor; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Degnan, Fred H; Foster, Jane; Gibson, Glenn; Hutton, John; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ley, Ruth; Nieuwdorp, Max; Pot, Bruno; Relman, David; Serazin, Andrew; Sanders, Mary Ellen
Recent advances in our understanding of the community structure and function of the human microbiome have implications for the potential role of probiotics and prebiotics in promoting human health. A group of experts recently met to review the latest advances in microbiota/microbiome research and discuss the implications for development of probiotics and prebiotics, primarily as they relate to effects mediated via the intestine. The goals of the meeting were to share recent advances in research on the microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, and to discuss these findings in the contexts of regulatory barriers, evolving healthcare environments, and potential effects on a variety of health topics, including the development of obesity and diabetes; the long-term consequences of exposure to antibiotics early in life to the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota; lactose intolerance; and the relationship between the GI microbiota and the central nervous system, with implications for depression, cognition, satiety, and mental health for people living in developed and developing countries. This report provides an overview of these discussions. © 2013 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.
Orel, Rok; Kamhi Trop, Tina
It has been presumed that aberrant immune response to intestinal microorganisms in genetically predisposed individuals may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease, and there is a good deal of evidence supporting this hypothesis. Commensal enteric bacteria probably play a central role in pathogenesis, providing continuous antigenic stimulation that causes chronic intestinal injury. A strong biologic rationale supports the use of probiotics and prebiotics for inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Many probiotic strains exhibit anti-inflammatory properties through their effects on different immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion depression, and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. There is very strong evidence supporting the use of multispecies probiotic VSL#3 for the prevention or recurrence of postoperative pouchitis in patients. For treatment of active ulcerative colitis, as well as for maintenance therapy, the clinical evidence of efficacy is strongest for VSL#3 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Moreover, some prebiotics, such as germinated barley foodstuff, Psyllium or oligofructose-enriched inulin, might provide some benefit in patients with active ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis in remission. The results of clinical trials in the treatment of active Crohn’s disease or the maintenance of its remission with probiotics and prebiotics are disappointing and do not support their use in this disease. The only exception is weak evidence of advantageous use of Saccharomyces boulardii concomitantly with medical therapy in maintenance treatment. PMID:25206258
Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep
There is growing evidence for the role of several natural products as either useful agents or adjuncts in the management of functional GI disorders (FGIDs). In this review, we examine the medical evidence for three such compounds: chili, a culinary spice; curcumin, another spice and active derivative of a root bark; and prebiotics, which are nondigestible food products. Chili may affect the pathogenesis of abdominal pain especially in functional dyspepsia and cause other symptoms. It may have a therapeutic role in FGIDs through desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric rhizome, has been shown in several preclinical studies and uncontrolled clinical trials as having effects on gut inflammation, gut permeability and the brain-gut axis, especially in FGIDs. Prebiotics, the non-digestible food ingredients in dietary fiber, may serve as nutrients and selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of certain colonic bacteria. The net effect of this change on colonic microbiota may lead to the production of acidic metabolites and other compounds that help to reduce the production of toxins and suppress the growth of harmful or disease-causing enteric pathogens. Although some clinical benefit in IBS has been shown, high dose intake of prebiotics may cause more bloating from bacterial fermentation.
Rashmi H Mallappa
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies and many people are interested in learning the facts behind these health claims. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone. Hence, the above "Pharmaco-nutritional" approach has been selected and extensively reviewed to gain thorough knowledge on putative mechanisms of probiotic and prebiotic action in order to develop dietary strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and compare in vitro prebiotic effects of Jerusalem artichoke polyfructans on the survivability and activity of Bifiobacterium bifium and Escherichia coli with high performance-inulin (a high molecular weight fraction of chicory-derived inulin. Methods: Extracted polyfructose from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and standard inulin were added to the appropriated culture to achieve final concentrations [0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/v] to determine the turbidity and pH variations during 48 h incubation. Results: This study suggested that Jerusalem artichoke tuber fructooligosaccharides had the potential to be used as a prebiotic component. The growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum improved significantly in the presence of Jerusalem artichoke fructans compared to the control. There was no significant differences (P < 0.05 in Bifidobacterium population in different concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans, but the population was significantly higher than the count in the presence of high performance-inulin. The pH decreased in both media during 48 h incubation time. The specific rate of growth and doubling time determined for Escherichia coli demonstrated that the efficacy of various carbon sources in stimulating bacterial growth was influenced by the concentration and degree of polymerization of fructan chains in the media. Conclusions: Jerusalem artichoke fructooligosaccharides can provide the greater stability of probiotics and acid production, so it can be considered as a potential source of high yielding oligosaccharide for commercial prebiotic production to develop food industry and improve host health.
Fuloria, Pratibha [Kumaun University, Physics Dept., Almora (India); Pant, Neeraj [N.D.A., Maths Dept., Khadakwasla, Pune (India)
In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9. The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models. (orig.)
Fuloria, Pratibha; Pant, Neeraj
In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9. The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models. (orig.)
Fuloria, Pratibha; Pant, Neeraj
In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9 . The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models.
La Fata, Giorgio; Rastall, Robert A; Lacroix, Christophe; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Weber, Peter; Steinert, Robert E
A dietary prebiotic is defined as 'a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit'. Although this definition evolved concomitantly with the knowledge and technological developments that accrued in the last twenty years, what qualifies as prebiotic
May 3, 2012 ... prebiotics (yeast culture concentrate derived from the outer cell wall of Saccharomyces cervisiae) on ... Generally, the result of this study suggested the use of prebiotic for improved health, production yield ... physico-chemical parameters of water were tested weekly and were .... aquaculture ponds.
These results suggest that prebiotics AXOS decrease PCS and prevented CKD-induced insulin resistance, the loss of adipose tissue and prevented accumulation of ectopic lipids in muscle and liver.. Because insulin resistance is an important cardiovascular risk factor, novel therapeutic approaches like prebiotics which could decrease PCS and cardio vascular mortality.
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Boehm, G.; Klaassen, D.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Nuijten, M. J. C.
The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the use of prebiotics for the primary prevention of atopic dermatitis in The Netherlands. A model was constructed using decision analytical techniques. The model was developed to estimate the health economic impact of prebiotic
Plongbunjong, Vijitra; Graidist, Potchanapond; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach
(P prebiotic index (PI) was found in Vessel 1 (0.13). Butyric acid was found at the highest concentration on day 11 (75.1 mm), and it was decreased at day 21 (63.4 mm) in Vessel 1. In conclusion, the ISYRP mixture of IMO was showed a good preference in prebiotic properties....
Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.
The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.
Bhoir, S.A.; Chawla, S.P.
Alginate oligomers formed by alginate lyase have been reported to possess antioxidant activity as well as prebiotic activity. Hence, utility of gamma radiation to depolymerise alginate in its aqueous solution was investigated and its antioxidant and prebiotic activities were screened. 1% aqueous solution of sodium alginate was subjected to gamma irradiation and it's reducing power and ability to scavenge DPPH". and O_2"."."-, chelate iron and prevent heat induced β-carotene bleaching was determined. Prebiotic activity was determined by using alginate oligomers to promote prebiotic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum against E coli. Gamma radiation induced depolymerisation of alginate resulted in formation of oligomers with antioxidant and prebiotic activity. These polymers are potential candidates for utilization as natural preservatives and functional foods
David S. Ross
Full Text Available The endoergic nature of protein and nucleic acid assembly in aqueous media presents two questions that are fundamental to the understanding of life’s origins: (i how did the polymers arise in an aqueous prebiotic world; and (ii once formed in some manner, how were they sufficiently persistent to engage in further chemistry. We propose here a quantitative resolution of these issues that evolved from recent accounts in which RNA-like polymers were produced in evaporation/rehydration cycles. The equilibrium Nm + Nn ↔ Nm+n + H2O is endoergic by about 3.3 kcal/mol for polynucleotide formation, and the system thus lies far to the left in the starting solutions. Kinetic simulations of the evaporation showed that simple Le Châtelier’s principle shifts were insufficient, but the introduction of oligomer-stabilizing factors of 5–10 kcal/mol both moved the process to the right and respectively boosted and retarded the elongation and hydrolysis rates. Molecular crowding and excluded volume effects in present-day cells yield stabilizing factors of that order, and we argue here that the crowded conditions in the evaporites generate similar effects. Oligomer formation is thus energetically preferred in those settings, but the process is thwarted in each evaporation step as diffusion becomes rate limiting. Rehydration dissipates disordered oligomer clusters in the evaporites, however, and subsequent dry/wet cycling accordingly “ratchets up” the system to an ultimate population of kinetically trappedthermodynamically preferred biopolymers.
Heredia, Alejandro; Colín-García, María; Puig, Teresa Pi I; Alba-Aldave, Leticia; Meléndez, Adriana; Cruz-Castañeda, Jorge A; Basiuk, Vladimir A; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio; Mendoza, Alicia Negrón
Ionizing radiation may have played a relevant role in chemical reactions for prebiotic biomolecule formation on ancient Earth. Environmental conditions such as the presence of water and magnetic fields were possibly relevant in the formation of organic compounds such as amino acids. ATR-FTIR, Raman, EPR and X-ray spectroscopies provide valuable information about molecular organization of different glycine polymorphs under static magnetic fields. γ-glycine polymorph formation increases in irradiated samples interacting with static magnetic fields. The increase in γ-glycine polymorph agrees with the computer simulations. The AM1 semi-empirical simulations show a change in the catalyst behavior and dipole moment values in α and γ-glycine interaction with the static magnetic field. The simulated crystal lattice energy in α-glycine is also affected by the free radicals under the magnetic field, which decreases its stability. Therefore, solid α and γ-glycine containing free radicals under static magnetic fields might have affected the prebiotic scenario on ancient Earth by causing the oligomerization of glycine in prebiotic reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Connor, Sarah; Chouinard-Castonguay, Sarah; Gagnon, Claudia; Rudkowska, Iwona
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers. Increased SCFA in the gut is associated with improved satiety and weight loss, reduced systemic inflammation by increasing the gut barrier function, and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. The objective of this review is to examine the recent literature in order to determine the types and doses of prebiotics that could be recommended for the management of MetS. A review of the literature was executed using the MEDLINE database and clinical trials from 2013 to 2017 were selected for analysis. In conclusion, a daily supplementation of 10g of inulin, resistant starches or fructo-oligosaccharide-enriched inulin could have beneficial effects on MetS components in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In healthy subjects or in individuals with the MetS, the results are too heterogeneous and scarce to be able to set any specific recommendations. More clinical studies are needed to better understand the role of prebiotics in the management of MetS components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Angelica Thomaz Vieira
Full Text Available The gut immune system is influenced by many factors, including dietary components and commensal bacteria. Nutrients that affect gut immunity and strategies that restore a healthy gut microbial community by affecting the microbial composition are being developed as new therapeutic approaches to treat several inflammatory diseases. Although probiotics (live microorganisms and prebiotics (food components have shown promise as treatments for several diseases in both clinical and animal studies, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the direct and indirect effects on the gut immune response will facilitate better and possibly more efficient therapy for diseases. In this review, we will first describe the concept of prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics and cover the most recently well-established scientific findings regarding the direct and indirect mechanisms by which these dietary approaches can influence gut immunity. Emphasis will be placed on the relationship of diet, the microbiota and the gut immune system. Second, we will highlight recent results from our group, which suggest a new dietary manipulation that includes the use of nutrient products (organic selenium and Lithothamnium muelleri and probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii UFMG 905 and Bifidobacterium sp. that can stimulate and manipulate the gut immune response, inducing intestinal homeostasis. Furthermore, the purpose of this review is to discuss and translate all of this knowledge into therapeutic strategies and into treatment for extra-intestinal compartment pathologies. We will conclude by discussing perspectives and molecular advances regarding the use of prebiotics or probiotics as new therapeutic strategies that manipulate the microbial composition and the gut immune responses of the host.
Wickramasinghe, N.C.; Hoyle, F.; Brooks, J.; Shaw, G.
It is stated that infrared absorption features characteristic of molecular dust clouds in the Galaxy may be assigned to complex organic polymers or prebiotic polymers. It could be argued that such highly stable, complex polymers evolve due to radiation processing of molecular mantles on interstellar grains - essentially by a type of natural selection which operates in the interstellar medium. A large fraction of all C, N, O elements in the interstellar medium could be condensed in the form of these stable polymers. Such interstellar material may also account for a significant fraction of the 'insoluble organic matter' which is found in carbonaceous chondrites. (author)
Fatima, Naz; Akhtar, Tasleem; Sheikh, Nadeem
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the fatal malignancies and is considered as the third leading cause of death. Mutations, genetic modifications, dietary aflatoxins, or impairments in the regulation of oncogenic pathways may bring about liver cancer. An effective barrier against hepatotoxins is offered by gut-liver axis as a change in gut permeability and expanded translocation of lipopolysaccharides triggers the activation of Toll-like receptors which stimulate the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Prebiotics, nondigestible oligosaccharides, have a pivotal role to play when it comes to inducing an antitumor effect. A healthy gut flora balance is imperative to downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and reducing lipopolysaccharides induced endotoxemia, thus inducing the antitumor effect.
Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Botta, Lorenzo; Pérez-Valverde, Maritza Iveth; Saladino, Raffaele; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel
It has recently been demonstrated that mineral self-assembled structures catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions may form in natural waters derived from serpentinization, a geological process widespread in the early stages of Earth-like planets. We have synthesized self-assembled membranes by mixing microdrops of metal solutions with alkaline silicate solutions in the presence of formamide (NH2CHO), a single carbon molecule, at 80ºC. We found that these bilayer membranes, made of amorphous silica and metal oxide-hydroxide nanocrystals, catalyze the condensation of formamide, yielding the four nucleobases of RNA, three aminoacids and several carboxylic acids in a single pot experiment. Besides manganese, iron and magnesium, two abundant elements in the earliest Earth crust that are key in serpentinization reactions, are enough to produce all these biochemical compounds. These results suggest that the transition from inorganic geochemistry to prebiotic organic chemistry is common on a universal scale and, most probably, earlier than ever thought for our planet. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir
Guar galactomannan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain partially hydrolyzed guar gum which can be utilized as prebiotic source. In present study, growth of probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains) were studied with glucose, partially hydrolyzed guar gum and native guar gum. All the six strains were galactose &/or mannose positive using the API CHl 50 test. Almost all these strains showed an ability to assimilate partially hydrolyzed guar gum with respect to increase in optical density and viable cell count with concomitant decrease in the pH of the growth medium. Streptococcus thermophilus MD2 exhibited higher growth (7.78 log cfu/ml) while P. parvulus AI1 showed comparatively less growth (7.24 log cfu/ml) as compared to used lactobacillus and Weissella strains. Outcomes of the current study suggest that partially hydrolyzed guar can be considered as potential prebiotic compound that may further stimulate the growth of potentially probiotic bacteria or native gut microflora. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila. These effects were countered in all but one [total wheat bran (twb] fermentation experiments. Growth of Bifidobacterium species was stimulated after fermentation using ultrafine, soluble, and twb, in the latter two as part of a general increase in bacterial load. Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila, as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota. Aleurone selectively stimulated growth of Dorea and butyrate-producing Roseburia. All fermentation experiments induced enhanced gas production; increased butyrate concentrations were only observed following soluble bran incubation. Our results open perspectives for the development of aleurone as a complementary prebiotic selectively targeting colon butyrate producers.
Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; da Silva, Juliana Bueno; Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Pessoa, Marina Gabriel; Pastore, Gláucia Maria
Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12.7% in the next 8 years, so manufacturers are developing new alternatives to obtain sustainable and efficient processes for application on a large scale. Most studied examples of biotechnological processes involve the development of new strategies for fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharide, and mannanooligosaccharide synthesis. Among these, the use of whole cells in fermentation, synthesis of microbial enzymes (β-fructofuranosidases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, and β-mannanases), and enzymatic process development (permeabilization, immobilization, gene expression) can be highlighted, especially if the production costs are reduced by the use of agro-industrial residues or by-products such as molasses, milk whey, cotton stalks, corncobs, wheat straw, poplar wood, sugarcane bagasse, and copra meal. This review comprises recent studies to demonstrate the potential for biotechnological production of oligosaccharides, and also aspects that need more investigation for future applications in a large scale.
D’hoe, Kevin; Conterno, Lorenza; Fava, Francesca; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Vermeiren, Joan; Tuohy, Kieran; Raes, Jeroen
Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb) as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila. These effects were countered in all but one [total wheat bran (twb)] fermentation experiments. Growth of Bifidobacterium species was stimulated after fermentation using ultrafine, soluble, and twb, in the latter two as part of a general increase in bacterial load. Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila, as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota. Aleurone selectively stimulated growth of Dorea and butyrate-producing Roseburia. All fermentation experiments induced enhanced gas production; increased butyrate concentrations were only observed following soluble bran incubation. Our results open perspectives for the development of aleurone as a complementary prebiotic selectively targeting colon butyrate producers. PMID:29416529
Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented. PMID:28914794
Full Text Available A large amount of jackfruit seeds can be extracted for possible prebiotics and phenolics (gallic acid and purified by crystallization and solid phase extraction (SPE, respectively. The studied parameters for crystallization were mixing speed, crystallizing temperature and cooling rate while the studied parameters for SPE were feed concentration, feed flow rate and length to diameter ratio (L/D of the extraction column. The optimal condition for the crystallization provided the crystal yield of 0.028 g crystal /g dry extract at 100 rpm mixing speed, 58°C crystallizing temperature and 1°C /min cooling rate. Molecular weight analysis of the crystals indicated that the crystals can be fructo-oligosaccharide or raffinose. The optimal condition for SPE obtaining gallic acid 92 percent yield was at 4% w/v feed concentration with 3 mL/min flow rate and L/D of 15.3. Finally a high temperature can degrade both possible prebiotic and gallic acid.
Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented.
Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir
We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials
Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials.
Scheuring, István; Czárán, Tamás; Szabó, Péter; Károlyi, György; Toroczkai, Zoltán
The problem of information integration and resistance to the invasion of parasitic mutants in prebiotic replicator systems is a notorious issue of research on the origin of life. Almost all theoretical studies published so far have demonstrated that some kind of spatial structure is indispensable for the persistence and/or the parasite resistance of any feasible replicator system. Based on a detailed critical survey of spatial models on prebiotic information integration, we suggest a possible scenario for replicator system evolution leading to the emergence of the first protocells capable of independent life. We show that even the spatial versions of the hypercycle model are vulnerable to selfish parasites in heterogeneous habitats. Contrary, the metabolic system remains persistent and coexistent with its parasites both on heterogeneous surfaces and in chaotically mixing flowing media. Persistent metabolic parasites can be converted to metabolic cooperators, or they can gradually obtain replicase activity. Our simulations show that, once replicase activity emerged, a gradual and simultaneous evolutionary improvement of replicase functionality (speed and fidelity) and template efficiency is possible only on a surface that constrains the mobility of macromolecule replicators. Based on the results of the models reviewed, we suggest that open chaotic flows (`soup') and surface dynamics (`pizza') both played key roles in the sequence of evolutionary events ultimately concluding in the appearance of the first living cell on Earth.
Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Danger, G.
We present in this paper a general perspective about the evolution of molecular complexity, as observed from an astrophysicist point of view and its possible relation to the problem of the origin of life on Earth. Based on the cosmic abundances of the elements and the molecular composition of our life, we propose that life cannot really be based on other elements. We discuss where the necessary molecular complexity is built-up in astrophysical environments, actually within inter/circumstellar solid state materials known as ``grains''. Considerations based on non-directed laboratory experiments, that must be further extended in the prebiotic domain, lead to the hypothesis that if the chemistry at the origin of life may indeed be a rather universal and deterministic phenomenon, once molecular complexity is installed, the chemical evolution that generated the first prebiotic reactions that involve autoreplication must be treated in a systemic approach because of the strong contingency imposed by the complex local environment(s) and associated processes in which these chemical systems have evolved.
D'hoe, Kevin; Conterno, Lorenza; Fava, Francesca; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Vermeiren, Joan; Tuohy, Kieran; Raes, Jeroen
Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb) as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila . These effects were countered in all but one [total wheat bran (twb)] fermentation experiments. Growth of Bifidobacterium species was stimulated after fermentation using ultrafine, soluble, and twb, in the latter two as part of a general increase in bacterial load. Both ultrafine and swb fermentation resulted in a trade-off between Bifidobacterium and Bilophila , as previously observed in human dietary supplementation studies looking at the effect of inulin-type fructans on the human gut microbiota. Aleurone selectively stimulated growth of Dorea and butyrate-producing Roseburia . All fermentation experiments induced enhanced gas production; increased butyrate concentrations were only observed following soluble bran incubation. Our results open perspectives for the development of aleurone as a complementary prebiotic selectively targeting colon butyrate producers.
Full Text Available Plants continuously generate new organs through the activity of populations of stem cells called meristems. The shoot apical meristem initiates leaves, flowers, and lateral meristems in highly ordered, spiralled, or whorled patterns via a process called phyllotaxis. It is commonly accepted that the active transport of the plant hormone auxin plays a major role in this process. Current hypotheses propose that cellular hormone transporters of the PIN family would create local auxin maxima at precise positions, which in turn would lead to organ initiation. To explain how auxin transporters could create hormone fluxes to distinct regions within the plant, different concepts have been proposed. A major hypothesis, canalization, proposes that the auxin transporters act by amplifying and stabilizing existing fluxes, which could be initiated, for example, by local diffusion. This convincingly explains the organised auxin fluxes during vein formation, but for the shoot apical meristem a second hypothesis was proposed, where the hormone would be systematically transported towards the areas with the highest concentrations. This implies the coexistence of two radically different mechanisms for PIN allocation in the membrane, one based on flux sensing and the other on local concentration sensing. Because these patterning processes require the interaction of hundreds of cells, it is impossible to estimate on a purely intuitive basis if a particular scenario is plausible or not. Therefore, computational modelling provides a powerful means to test this type of complex hypothesis. Here, using a dedicated computer simulation tool, we show that a flux-based polarization hypothesis is able to explain auxin transport at the shoot meristem as well, thus providing a unifying concept for the control of auxin distribution in the plant. Further experiments are now required to distinguish between flux-based polarization and other hypotheses.
Giorgio La Fata
Full Text Available A dietary prebiotic is defined as ‘a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit’. Although this definition evolved concomitantly with the knowledge and technological developments that accrued in the last twenty years, what qualifies as prebiotic continues to be a matter of debate. In this statement, we report the outcome of a workshop where academic experts working in the field of prebiotic research met with scientists from industry. The workshop covered three main topics: (i evolution of the prebiotic concept/definition; (ii the gut modeling in vitro technology PolyFermS to study prebiotic effects; and (iii the potential novel microbiome-modulating effects associated with vitamins. The future of prebiotic research is very promising. Indeed, the technological developments observed in recent years provide scientists with powerful tools to investigate the complex ecosystem of gut microbiota. Combining multiple in vitro approaches with in vivo studies is key to understanding the mechanisms of action of prebiotics consumption and their potential beneficial effects on the host.
Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of prebiotic as alternative feed additive to an antibiotic growth promoter (bacitracin methylene disalicyate on the growth performance and morphometrical parameters of the small intestine of broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 6 wk and each treatment contained four replicates (12 birds each. Dietary treatments were as follow: 1- Control (basal diet, 2- basal diet + antibiotic growth promoter and 3- basal diet + prebiotic. During the feeding experimental period, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of the experiment, small intestine segments were sampled and routine histological laboratory methods containing fixation, dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding were used. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin for light microscopy evaluation and the height and width of villi and depth of crypts were measured. The results showed that body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments. Prebiotic and antibiotic had significant (P < 0.05 effect on improvement of feed intake in 22 - 42 days and total period compared with the control. The addition of prebiotic or antibiotic increased the villus height in duodenum (P < 0.05 and prebiotic increased villus width of duodenum and ileum compared with other treatments. The duodenal crypt depth was increased by antibiotic compared with the prebiotic and control group. In conclusion, prebiotic can be used as a suitable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter.
Weinborn, Valerie; Valenzuela, Carolina; Olivares, Manuel; Arredondo, Miguel; Weill, Ricardo; Pizarro, Fernando
The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a prebiotic mix on heme and non-heme iron (Fe) bioavailability in humans. To this purpose, twenty-four healthy women were randomized into one of two study groups. One group ate one yogurt per day for 12 days with a prebiotic mix (prebiotic group) and the other group received the same yogurt but without the prebiotic mix (control group). Before and after the intake period, the subjects participated in Fe absorption studies. These studies used 55 Fe and 59 Fe radioactive isotopes as markers of heme Fe and non-heme Fe, respectively, and Fe absorption was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The results showed that there were no significant differences in heme and non-heme Fe bioavailability in the control group. Heme Fe bioavailability of the prebiotic group increased significantly by 56% post-prebiotic intake. There were no significant differences in non-heme Fe bioavailability in this group. We concluded that daily consumption of a prebiotic mix increases heme Fe bioavailability and does not affect non-heme iron bioavailability.
Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa
The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available The article deals with the data about opportunity to enrich the modern infant foodstuffs with pro and prebiotics. The authors name the contents of the foodstuffs with pro and prebiotic properties, findings of the multicentric research according to the estimate of their clinical efficiency among healthy and ill infants. They show the safety and high efficiency of the use of the given healthful and dietary foodstuffs.Key words: infant food, foodstuffs, probiotics, prebiotics, bifidus bacteria, lactic acid bacilli, oligosaccharides, lactulose, inulin.
Weber, Arthur L.
Our research resulted in several discoveries which contributed to understanding the origin and operation of life. (1) Most importantly, we discovered a new pathway of prebiotic amino acid synthesis in which formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (formose reaction substrates) react with ammonia to give alanine and homoserine in the presence of thiol catalysts. The thiol-dependent synthesis of amino acids undoubtedly occurs via amino acid thioester intermediates capable of forming peptides. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modern amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to amino acids by energy-yielding redox disproportionation. Preliminary evidence suggests that this type of process can be "evolved" by a serial transfer methods that lead to enrichment of autocatalytic molecules. (2) We established that prebiotic peptide polymers can be made by condensation of amino acid thioesters (homocysteine thiolactone and S-(N-beta-orotidyl- diaminopropionic acid) ethanethiol), and that prebiotic polydisulfide polymers can be generated by oxidation of dithiols with iron(III) in minerals. (3) In our analysis of metabolism we discovered the primary energy source of biosynthesis -- chemical energy made available by the redox disproportionation of substrate carbon groups. We concluded that the energy and reactivity of sugars make them the optimal substrate for the origin and operation of terrestrial (or extraterrestrial) life. (4) Since it is likely that the use of optimal sugar substrates in biosynthesis sets the average oxidation number of functional biocarbon throughout the Universe near 0.0 (the reduction level of formaldehyde), we proposed that a line(s) in the microwave spectrum of formaldehyde could be rationally selected as a frequency for interstellar communication that symbolizes life. (5) Finally, in preparation for the analysis of Martian meteorite samples, we upgraded our HPLC system to one femtomole
Full Text Available The costs of developing a probiotic or prebiotic ingredient have always been substantial. Ingredient characterization, evaluation of technological and physiological properties, and demonstrations of safety and clinical efficacy require expensive research. The demanding regulatory requirements imposed by EFSA raise the bar even higher so that the costs of acquiring the necessary clinical evidence to support labeling of these food ingredients is approaching that of pharmaceuticals. In order to justify investment in such expensive clinical development, companies require certainty that they can gain a return on investment. Patenting can provide some protection but is not always possible to patent ingredients, and the period of protection is limited. All ingredients eventually face the prospect of commoditization once patents expire. Branding strategies offer one means of maintaining adequate product differentiation to protect market share and margins over the long term.
Olveira, Gabriel; González-Molero, Inmaculada
The concept of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics and their use in different situations of daily clinical practice related to clinical nutrition is reviewed, as well as their role in the treatment/prevention of diarrhea (acute, induced by antibiotics, secondary to radiotherapy), inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and pouchitis), in colonic health (constipation, irritable bowel), in liver disease (steatosis and minimum encephalopathy), and in intensive care, surgical, and liver transplantation. While their effectiveness for preventing antibiotic-induced diarrhea and pouchitis in ulcerative colitis appears to be shown, additional studies are needed to establish recommendations in most clinical settings. The risk of infection associated to use of probiotics is relatively low; however, there are selected groups of patients in whom they should be used with caution (as jejunum infusion). Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin
Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010
Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the fatal malignancies and is considered as the third leading cause of death. Mutations, genetic modifications, dietary aflatoxins, or impairments in the regulation of oncogenic pathways may bring about liver cancer. An effective barrier against hepatotoxins is offered by gut-liver axis as a change in gut permeability and expanded translocation of lipopolysaccharides triggers the activation of Toll-like receptors which stimulate the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Prebiotics, nondigestible oligosaccharides, have a pivotal role to play when it comes to inducing an antitumor effect. A healthy gut flora balance is imperative to downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and reducing lipopolysaccharides induced endotoxemia, thus inducing the antitumor effect.
The costs of developing a probiotic or prebiotic ingredient have always been substantial. Ingredient characterization, evaluation of technological and physiological properties, and demonstrations of safety and clinical efficacy require expensive research. The demanding regulatory requirements imposed by EFSA raise the bar even higher so that the costs of acquiring the necessary clinical evidence to support labeling of these food ingredients is approaching that of pharmaceuticals. In order to justify investment in such expensive clinical development, companies require certainty that they can gain a return on investment. Patenting can provide some protection but is not always possible to patent ingredients, and the period of protection is limited. All ingredients eventually face the prospect of commoditization once patents expire. Branding strategies offer one means of maintaining adequate product differentiation to protect market share and margins over the long term. PMID:23990815
Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C
Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.
Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz
Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frei, Remo; Akdis, Mübeccel; O'Mahony, Liam
The intestinal immune system is constantly exposed to foreign antigens, which for the most part should be tolerated. Certain probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are able to influence immune responses. In this review, we highlight the recent publications (within the last 2 years) that have substantially progressed this field. The immunological mechanisms underpinning probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics effects continue to be better defined with novel mechanisms being described for dendritic cells, epithelial cells, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, natural killer T cells, and B cells. Many of the mechanisms being described are bacterial strain or metabolite specific, and should not be extrapolated to other probiotics or prebiotics. In addition, the timing of intervention seems to be important, with potentially the greatest effects being observed early in life. In this review, we discuss the recent findings relating to probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, specifically their effects on immunological functions.
Prebiotic oligosaccharides exert activity against pathogens partly by stimulating the growth and/or activity of commensal bacteria that provide health benefits (lower pH, bacteriocin production, immune system modulation, competitive exclusion). This review describes alternative mechanisms of action...
Coulier, L.; Timmermans, J.; Richard, B.; Dool, R. van den; Haaksman, I.; Klarenbeek, B.; Slaghek, T.; Dongen, W. van
A commercial prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide mixture (Vivinal GOS) was extensively characterized using a combination of analytical techniques. The different techniques were integrated to give complementary information on specific characteristics of the oligosaccharide mixture, ranging from global
Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G
In the present study, participants administered painful electric shocks to an unseen male opponent who was either explicitly labeled as gay or stereotypically implied to be gay. Identifying the opponent with a gay-stereotypic attribute produced a situation in which the target's group status was privately inferred but plausibly deniable to others. To test the plausible deniability hypothesis, we examined aggression levels as a function of internal (personal) and external (social) motivation to respond without prejudice. Whether plausible deniability was present or absent, participants high in internal motivation aggressed at low levels, and participants low in both internal and external motivation aggressed at high levels. The behavior of participants low in internal and high in external motivation, however, depended on experimental condition. They aggressed at low levels when observers could plausibly attribute their behavior to prejudice and aggressed at high levels when the situation granted plausible deniability. This work has implications for both obstacles to and potential avenues for prejudice-reduction efforts.
Lage, C.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Suárez, O.; Bendjoya, P.; Gadotti, D. A.
It is well known that the main components of important biomolecules are quite common not only in the Solar System, but also in other planetary systems and in the Galactic ISM. The ubiquitous presence of C in the Universe and the unique carbon chemical properties and carbon bonding thermodynamics supports the spontaneous self-replication of monomers into larger polymers, yielding the formation of large molecules. The detection of an ever increasing number of organic molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM) by radio-telescopes and chemical analysis of meteorites boosted astrochemical theories on radiation-induced chemistry, supported by laboratory experiments. In this scenario of exogenous origin of carbon compounds, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may represent a resilient way of accumulating carbon as a robust cosmic reservoir. Consisting of a family of compounds with fused aromatic rings, the abundances of its larger members (50-100 carbon atoms) were estimated to be on top scores just after H2 and CO. PAHs have been detected in the ISM, in star-forming regions, ~14% of low-mass premainsequence stars, and, remarkably, in some 54% of intermediate mass stars. They have also been detected by SPITZER in distant galaxies up to z = 3. PAHs were promptly photolysed into a family of radicals if exposed to UV and oxygen-bearing molecules in laboratory. The presence of oxygenbearing molecules was shown in the laboratory to bring aromatic rings into an unstable chemistry leading to the production of e.g. alcohols, ketones and ether radicals. It has already been observed that carbon-and oxygen-rich stellar envelopes give rise to richer carbon chemistry. It appears very tempting to think that key prebiotic fragments should appear along planetary formation as C-O reaction byproducts such as methanol (CH3OH), formaldehyde (H2CO) and also simpler hydrocarbons as methyl acetylene (CH3CCH). Under an Astrobiology perspective it is plausible to map PAHs and oxygen compounds
Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M; Li, Zhaoping
The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP-HPLC-DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic-like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice-specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice-induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial and yeast origin on the performance, development of the digestive system, carcass yield and meat quality of free-range broiler chickens. Five hundred and sixty male chicks of the strain ISA S757-N were reared from one to 84 days old. The birds were distributed in four treatments according to a completely randomized block design: T1 = Control, T2 = Probiotics and Prebiotics of bacterial origin, T3 = Probiotics and prebiotics of yeast origin, T4 = Probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin + probiotics and prebiotics of yeast origin. There were four repetitions with 35 birds per repetition, and the birds had access to a pasture area after 35 days of age. Characteristics evaluated were performance, development of the digestive system, carcass and parts yield, abdominal fat, breast meat physical measurements (length, width and height and meat quality parameters (pH from breast and leg meat, cooking loss and shearing force from breast meat. Lower mortality (p<0.05 and higher weight gain from 64 to 77 and 64 to 84 days of age were seen in birds supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin compared to the non-supplemented birds (control. There were significant differences (p<0.05 among treatments for carcass yield. Birds supplemented with both probiotics and prebiotics of microbial and yeast origin (T4 showed higher carcass yield than control birds. Supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics of bacterial origin (T2 or the supplementation of these together with those of yeast origin (T4 reduced mortality and increased the carcass yield in free-range broiler chickens.
Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman-Wauters, Genevieve; De Greef, Elisabeth; Peeters, Stefaan; Casteels, Ann; Mahler, Tania; Devreker, Thierry; Hauser, Bruno
To evaluate the impact of probiotics and prebiotics on the health of children. MEDLINE and LILACS were searched for relevant English and French-language articles. Human milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and may contain some probiotics. No data suggest that addition of probiotics to infant formula may be harmful, but evidence of its efficacy is insufficient for its recommendation. Since data suggest that addition of specific prebiotic oligosaccharides may reduce infections and atopy in healthy infants, their addition to infant formula seems reasonable. Long-term health benefits of pro- and prebiotics on the developing immune system remain to be proven. Selected probiotics reduce the duration of infectious diarrhea by 1 day, but evidence in prevention is lacking, except in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Some specific probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis, and other microorganisms may be beneficial in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and in infantile colic. Evidence is insufficient to recommend probiotics in prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis. The use of probiotics in constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and extra-intestinal infections requires more studies. Duration of administration, microbial dosage, and species used need further validation for both pro- and prebiotics. Unjustified health claims are a major threat for the pro- and prebiotic concept.
Today, prebiotics are often added to food. This compound is a food substance which could not be digested, yet benefiting the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or more bacteria in the colon to improve the health of the host. One of the foodstuffs derived from algae, which could not be digested is laminaran (β-Glucan). The relationship between microflora with the added prebiotics was tested by measuring their prebiotic index, which is supported by total sugars and laminaran levels. The results showed that total sugar content of Laminaran Acid Extract (LAE) (9.075 %) was higher than that of Laminaran Modified Extract (LME) (7.355 %), while the laminaran level of LME (42.23 %) was higher than that of LAE (30.92 %). HPLC test result confirmed the presence of laminaran. The obtained prebiotic index values of LAE and LME were 1.29 and 2.10, respectively, with a negative index score for LAE prebiotic, yet positive one for LME in terms of probiotic from Lactobacillus group. Laminaran extract, especially LME, deserves to be regarded as a prebiotic candidate.
Notay, Manisha; Foolad, Negar; Vaughn, Alexandra R; Sivamani, Raja K
Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation is becoming more prevalent nowadays. Clinical studies have demonstrated some of the medical benefits of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics within dermatology but an evidence-based review of their effects in adults is needed. The aim of this study was to identify evidence for the use of supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics for the prevention and treatment of dermatological diseases in adults. We conducted a search of the Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials and EMBASE electronic databases from 1 January 1946 to 11 January 2017. Trials examining supplementation in the treatment of dermatological diseases using oral or topical probiotics, synbiotics, and prebiotics in adults over the age of 18 years were selected. Of 315 articles, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Nutritional supplementation with probiotics and prebiotics was shown to improve atopic dermatitis (AD) symptomatology, quality of life, or clinical severity in six of nine studies. One study in psoriasis was shown to improve inflammatory markers, and one study suggested that probiotics could be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of acne. Preliminary studies are optimistic for the use of some strains of probiotics for symptomatic and clinical improvement in AD, and as adjunctive treatment with antibiotics for acne. Further research is necessary to better assess how probiotics and prebiotics may be used within dermatology.
Full Text Available Probiotics is a feed additive in the form of life microorganisms that balance microorganism population in the digestive tract. While prebiotics is a feed substance which is not digested, and selectively improves growth and activity of useful microbes in large intestine. The objectives of this research were to study the carcass percentage and carcass quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks of broiler Arbor Acres strain were divided into four dietary treatments and three replications (40 birds / replicate. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration + 0.01% antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, R2 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus spp, R3 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics + 0.5% prebiotics and R4 = basal ration + 0.5% prebiotics (katuk leaves. The variables observed were: carcass percentage, fat content in the abdomen, liver and carcass, cholesterol content in the liver, carcass and blood serum. The results showed that the carcass quality of broiler received probiotics and prebiotics either independently or the combination was significantly (P<0.05 different. The fat content of liver and thigh, and breast cholesterol of R3 was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of the control (R1. It is concluded that combination of probiotics and prebiotics were able to decrease the carcass fat and cholesterol content at six week of age.
Sawas, Tarek; Al Halabi, Shadi; Hernaez, Ruben; Carey, William D; Cho, Won Kyoo
Among patients who have received liver transplants, infections increase morbidity and mortality and prolong hospital stays. Administration of antibiotics and surgical trauma create intestinal barrier dysfunction and microbial imbalances that allow enteric bacteria to translocate to the blood. Probiotics are believed to prevent bacterial translocation by stabilizing the intestinal barrier and stimulating proliferation of the intestinal epithelium, mucus secretion, and motility. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the effects of probiotics on infections in patients receiving liver transplants. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of prebiotics and probiotics on infections in patients who underwent liver transplantation. Heterogeneity was analyzed by the Cochran Q statistic. Pooled Mantel-Haenszel relative risks were calculated with a fixed-effects model. We identified 4 controlled studies, comprising 246 participants (123 received probiotics, 123 served as controls), for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In these studies, the intervention groups received enteric nutrition and fiber (prebiotics) with probiotics, and the control groups received only enteric nutrition and fiber without probiotics. The infection rate was 7% in groups that received probiotics vs 35% in control groups (relative risk [RR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.41; P = .001). The number needed to treat to prevent 1 infection was 3.6. In subgroup analyses, only 2% of subjects in the probiotic groups developed urinary tract infections, compared with 16% of controls (RR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.47; P probiotic groups developed intra-abdominal infections, compared with 11% of controls (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.78; P = .02). Subjects receiving probiotics also had shorter stays in the hospital than controls (mean difference, 1.41 d; P probiotics and prebiotics before, or on the day of, liver transplantation reduces the rate of infection after
Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Liong, Min-Tze
Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised. PMID:20640165
Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probioticmediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.
Mugambi Mary N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011 on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475, 10 probiotics studies (N = 933 and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563 were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal
Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé
Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was
Sensory acceptability and physical stability evaluation of a prebiotic soy-based dessert developed with passion fruit juice Aceitação sensorial e avaliação da estabilidade física de uma sobremesa prebiótica à base de soja desenvolvida com suco de maracujá
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use a factorial design approach for developing a palatable and stable soy-based dessert with the addition of Soy Protein (SP, oligofructose, and Passion Fruit Juice (PFJ. Panelists (n = 50 used a seven-point hedonic scale to assess the overall liking, degree of liking of creaminess, taste, and color of the desserts. In addition, the samples were submitted to a preference ranking test in order to evaluate the products' preference. Water Holding Capacity (WHC and backscattering (BS measures were also determined to assess the physical stability of the trials. Sample F3 (35% PFJ and 2% SP was the only one that presented a WHC index of 94.8%; moreover, none of the developed samples had synerisis after 72 hours of storage indicating adequate physical stability of the emulsion process. Samples F2 (25% PFJ, and 3.0% SP, F4 (35% PFJ, and 3.0% SP, and F5 (30% PFJ, and 2.5% SP presented mean hedonic scores above 'slightly liked' for all sensory attributes. The acceptance index of samples varied from 62.50 to 88% showing the great sensory potential of such products.Este trabalho objetivou desenvolver uma sobremesa com adição de Suco de Maracujá (SM, Proteína de Soja (PS e oligofrutose que fosse estável e com sabor agradável, usando delineamento experimental. Provadores (n = 50 usaram uma escala hedônica de sete pontos para avaliar aceitação geral, cremosidade, sabor, e cor das amostras. Além disso, as sobremesas também foram avaliadas usando o teste de ordenação de preferência. Os índices de Capacidade de Retenção de Água (CRA e sinérese (SN foram determinados para avaliação da estabilidade física das amostras. A amostra F3 (35% SM e 2% PS foi a única que apresentou índice de CRA de 94,8%; não obstante, nenhuma amostra teve sinérese após 72 horas de estocagem refrigerada, mostrando um comportamento estável das amostras. As sobremesas F2 (25% SM e 3,0% PS, F4 (35% SM e 3,0% PS, e F5 (30% SM e 2,5% PS
Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa
The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…
Lombardi, Doug; Bickel, Elliot S.; Bailey, Janelle M.; Burrell, Shondricka
Evaluation is an important aspect of science and is receiving increasing attention in science education. The present study investigated (1) changes to plausibility judgments and knowledge as a result of a series of instructional scaffolds, called model-evidence link activities, that facilitated evaluation of scientific and alternative models in…
The current paper examined the role of plausibility information in the parafovea for Chinese readers by using two-character transposed words (in which the order of the component characters is reversed but are still words). In two eye-tracking experiments, readers received a preview of a target word that was (1) identical to the target word, (2) a…
Education reform movements often promise more than they deliver. Why are such promises plausible in light of seemingly perpetual education reform? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork based in a nonprofit education reform organization, this article explores the appeal of popular notions about "using data to close the racial achievement…
Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D
Ultraviolet radiation is common to most planetary environments and could play a key role in the chemistry of molecules relevant to abiogenesis (prebiotic chemistry). In this work, we explore the impact of UV light on prebiotic chemistry that might occur in liquid water on the surface of a planet with an atmosphere. We consider effects including atmospheric absorption, attenuation by water, and stellar variability to constrain the UV input as a function of wavelength. We conclude that the UV environment would be characterized by broadband input, and wavelengths below 204 nm and 168 nm would be shielded out by atmospheric CO2 and water, respectively. We compare this broadband prebiotic UV input to the narrowband UV sources (e.g., mercury lamps) often used in laboratory studies of prebiotic chemistry and explore the implications for the conclusions drawn from these experiments. We consider as case studies the ribonucleotide synthesis pathway of Powner et al. (2009) and the sugar synthesis pathway of Ritson and Sutherland (2012). Irradiation by narrowband UV light from a mercury lamp formed an integral component of these studies; we quantitatively explore the impact of more realistic UV input on the conclusions that can be drawn from these experiments. Finally, we explore the constraints solar UV input places on the buildup of prebiotically important feedstock gasses like CH4 and HCN. Our results demonstrate the importance of characterizing the wavelength dependence (action spectra) of prebiotic synthesis pathways to determine how pathways derived under laboratory irradiation conditions will function under planetary prebiotic conditions.
Full Text Available Gut microbiota influences the central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The prebiotics and probiotics can improve the host cognition. A previous study demonstrated that fructooligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis (OMO exert effective memory improvements in AD-like animals, thereby considered as potential prebiotics; however, the underlying mechanism still remains enigma. Thus, the present study investigated whether OMO is effective in alleviating AD by targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis. OMO was administered in rats with AD-like symptoms (D-galactose- and Aβ1-42-induced deficient rats. Significant and systematic deterioration in AD-like animals were identified, including learning and memory abilities, histological changes, production of cytokines, and microbial community shifts. Behavioral experiments demonstrated that OMO administration can ameliorate the learning and memory abilities in both AD-like animals significantly. AD parameters showed that OMO administration cannot only improve oxidative stress and inflammation disorder, but also regulate the synthesis and secretion of neurotransmitter. Histological changes indicated that OMO administration ameliorates the swelling of brain tissues, neuronal apoptosis, and down-regulation of the expression of AD intracellular markers (Tau and Aβ1-42. 16S rRNA sequencing of gut microbiota indicated that OMO administration maintains the diversity and stability of the microbial community. In addition, OMO regulated the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD mice model treated by overdosed antibiotics and thus showed the prebiotic potential. Moreover, gut microbiota plays a major role in neurodevelopment, leading to alterations in gene expression in critical brain and intestinal regions, thereby resulting in perturbation to the programming of normal cognitive behaviors. Taken together, our findings suggest that the therapeutic
Flores, Adriana C; Morlett, Jesús A; Rodríguez, Raúl
Oligosaccharides have been marketed since the 80s as low-calorie agents and recently have gained interest in the pharmaceutical and food industry as functional sweeteners and prebiotic enriching population of Bifidobacteria. Currently, they have an approximated value of $200 per kg and recently, inulin has been proposed as a feedstock for production of oligosaccharides through selective hydrolysis by action of endoinulinase. High optimum temperature (60°C) and thermostability are two important criteria that determine suitability of this enzyme for industrial applications as well as enzyme cost, a major limiting factor. Significant reduction in cost can be achieved by employing low-value and abundant inulin-rich plants as Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia, yacon, garlic, and onion, among others. In general, the early harvested tubers of these plants contain a greater amount of highly polymerized sugar fractions, which offer more industrial value than late-harvested tubers or those after storage. Also, development of recombinant microorganisms could be useful to reduce the cost of enzyme technology for large-scale production of oligosaccharides. In the case of fungal inulinases, several studies of cloning and modification have been made to achieve greater efficiency. The present paper reviews inulin from vegetable sources as feedstock for oligosaccharides production through the action of inulinases, the impact of polymerization degree of inulin and its availability, and some strategies to increase oligosaccharide production.
Silvestre, Daniel A M M; Fontanari, José F
The coexistence between different types of templates has been the choice solution to the information crisis of prebiotic evolution, triggered by the finding that a single RNA-like template cannot carry enough information to code for any useful replicase. In principle, confining d distinct templates of length L in a package or protocell, whose survival depends on the coexistence of the templates it holds in, could resolve this crisis provided that d is made sufficiently large. Here we review the prototypical package model of Niesert et al. [1981. Origin of life between Scylla and Charybdis. J. Mol. Evol. 17, 348-353] which guarantees the greatest possible region of viability of the protocell population, and show that this model, and hence the entire package approach, does not resolve the information crisis. In particular, we show that the total information stored in a viable protocell (Ld) tends to a constant value that depends only on the spontaneous error rate per nucleotide of the template replication mechanism. As a result, an increase of d must be followed by a decrease of L, so that the net information gain is null.
Hume, M E
Applications of antimicrobials in food production and human health have found favor throughout human history. Antibiotic applications in agricultural and human medical arenas have resulted in tremendous increases in food animal production and historically unprecedented gains in human health protection. Successes attributed to widespread antibiotic use have been accompanied by the inadvertent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A major problem associated with this emerging resistance is the crossover use of some antibiotics in agricultural settings as well as in the prevention and treatment of human disease. This outcome led to calls to restrict the use of human health-related antibiotics in food animal production. Calls for restricted antibiotic use have heightened existing searches for alternatives to antibiotics that give similar or enhanced production qualities as highly reliable as the antibiotics currently provided to food animals. Agricultural and scientific advances, mainly within the last 100 yr, have given us insights into sources, structures, and actions of materials that have found widespread application in our modern world. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a historic perspective on the search for what are generally known as antibiotics and alternative antimicrobials, probiotics, prebiotics, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, and phytotherapeutics.
Full Text Available Carbonaceous Chondrite (CC meteorites are fragments of asteroids, solar planetesimals that never became large enough to separate matter by their density, like terrestrial planets. CC contains various amounts of organic carbon and carry a record of chemical evolution as it came to be in the Solar System, at the time the Earth was formed and before the origins of life. We review this record as it pertains to the chiral asymmetry determined for several organic compounds in CC, which reaches a broad molecular distribution and enantiomeric excesses of up to 50%–60%. Because homochirality is an indispensable attribute of extant polymers and these meteoritic enantiomeric excesses are still, to date, the only case of chiral asymmetry in organic molecules measured outside the biosphere, the possibility of an exogenous delivery of primed prebiotic compounds to early Earth from meteorites is often proposed. Whether this exogenous delivery held a chiral advantage in molecular evolution remains an open question, as many others regarding the origins of life are.
Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0
Buigues, Cristina; Fernández-Garrido, Julio; Pruimboom, Leo; Hoogland, Aldert J; Navarro-Martínez, Rut; Martínez-Martínez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Mascarós, Mari Carmen; Peris, Carlos; Cauli, Omar
Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre(®) (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV), Numansdorp, The Netherlands) to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin). Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks' duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre(®) or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9-10 a.m.) dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis). The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre(®) administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota-muscle-brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome.
Alligier, Maud; Dewulf, Evelyne M; Salazar, Nuria; Mairal, Aline; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Cani, Patrice D; Langin, Dominique; Delzenne, Nathalie M
To investigate whether inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics could counteract the thiazolidinedione (TZD, PPARγ activator) induced-fat mass gain, without affecting its beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis, in high-fat (HF) diet fed mice. Male C57bl6/J mice were fed a HF diet alone or supplemented with ITF prebiotics (0.2 g/day × mouse) or TZD (30 mg pioglitazone (PIO)/kg body weight × day) or both during 4 weeks. An insulin tolerance test was performed after 3 weeks of treatment. As expected, PIO improved glucose homeostasis and increased adiponectinaemia. Furthermore, it induced an over-expression of several PPARγ target genes in white adipose tissues. ITF prebiotics modulated the PIO-induced PPARγ activation in a tissue-dependent manner. The co-treatment with ITF prebiotics and PIO maintained the beneficial impact of TZD on glucose homeostasis and adiponectinaemia. Moreover, the combination of both treatments reduced fat mass accumulation, circulating lipids and hepatic triglyceride content, suggesting an overall improvement of metabolism. Finally, the co-treatment favored induction of white-to-brown fat conversion in subcutaneous adipose tissue, thereby leading to the development of brite adipocytes that could increase the oxidative capacity of the tissue. ITF prebiotics decrease adiposity and improve the metabolic response in HF fed mice treated with TZD. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Ricke, S C
Fructooligosaccharide and inulin prebiotics are carbohydrate-based polymers derived from natural sources that can be utilized by certain gastrointestinal tract bacteria but not by the host animal. They are attractive as feed additives for nonconventional poultry production systems because they select for beneficial microorganisms that are thought to promote nutritional benefits to the bird and potentially limit foodborne pathogen establishment. There have been numerous studies conducted with prebiotic supplements to assess their impact in humans, animals, and conventionally raised poultry but only limited research has been conducted with birds grown under nonconventional production conditions. Much remains unknown about the specific mechanism(s) associated with their impact on the host as well as the gastrointestinal tract microflora. Utilization of several recently developed approaches such as microbiome and metabolomic analyses should offer more insight on how dietary prebiotic additives influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and these subsequent changes correspond with alterations in a bird's physiology as it matures. As more detailed and precise studies are done with nonconventional poultry, it is likely that structurally distinct prebiotics will influence not only the gastrointestinal tract microbiota differently, but potentially interact directly and/or indirectly with the bird host in distinguishable patterns as well. These functions will be important to delineate if further applications are to be developed for specific prebiotics in nonconventional poultry production systems. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Yuan Fan Deng
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects and role of prebiotics, such as inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS and galactooligosaccharides (GAS, to mitigate sulfur-containing odour gases, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH using pigs as in vitro study model. Inocula obtained from pigs were incubated at 39°C for 24 h using 550 mg sterilised substrate (caecal contents supplemented with or without 50 mg prebiotics. Production of total gas, H2S and CH3SH were determined. The results showed that total gas production for the caecal content of pigs was 57.3 mL, and that for H2S and CH3SH was 220.2 and 15.2 μL, respectively. The total gas production increased (P<0.05, whereas concentrations of H2S and CH3SH decreased (P<0.05 with supplementation of prebiotics. Among the prebiotics, inulin was the most effective in mitigating H2S and CH3SH productions, reducing the two malodorous gases by 14.7 and 19.8%, respectively. The reduction of the above two sulfur- containing gases was supported by lower sulfate-reducing bacteria population and higher sulfate radical concentrations in the prebiotics, particularly that of inulin supplementation group.
van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Knudsen, Anne; Bandsholm, O.
Prebiotics have been shown to support the growth of probiotic bacteria thereby having a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected and structurally different carbohydrate prebiotic candidate by measuring their capability to stimulate the growth of the two...
Niepold, F.; Sinatra, G. M.; Lombardi, D.
Climate change education programs in the United States seek to promote a deeper understanding of the science of climate change, behavior change and stewardship, and support informed decision making by individuals, organizations, and institutions--all of which are summarized under the term 'climate literacy.' The ultimate goal of climate literacy is to enable actors to address climate change, both in terms of stabilizing and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, but also an increased capacity to prepare for the consequences and opportunities of climate change. However, the long-term nature of climate change and the required societal response involve the changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues which presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). This session will explore how the United States educational efforts focus on three distinct, but related, areas: the science of climate change, the human-climate interaction, and using climate education to promote informed decision making. Each of these approaches are represented in the Atlas of Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007) and in the conceptual framework for science education developed at the National Research Council (NRC) in 2012. Instruction to develop these fundamental thinking skills (e.g., critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal) has been called for by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, 2013), an innovative and research based way to address climate change education within the decentralized U.S. education system. However, the promise of the NGSS is that students will have more time to build mastery on the subjects, but the form of that instructional practice has been show to be critical. Research has show that effective instructional activities that promote evaluation of evidence improve students' understanding and acceptance toward the scientifically accepted model of human
Heck, Daniel W; Hilbig, Benjamin E; Moshagen, Morten
Decision strategies explain how people integrate multiple sources of information to make probabilistic inferences. In the past decade, increasingly sophisticated methods have been developed to determine which strategy explains decision behavior best. We extend these efforts to test psychologically more plausible models (i.e., strategies), including a new, probabilistic version of the take-the-best (TTB) heuristic that implements a rank order of error probabilities based on sequential processing. Within a coherent statistical framework, deterministic and probabilistic versions of TTB and other strategies can directly be compared using model selection by minimum description length or the Bayes factor. In an experiment with inferences from given information, only three of 104 participants were best described by the psychologically plausible, probabilistic version of TTB. Similar as in previous studies, most participants were classified as users of weighted-additive, a strategy that integrates all available information and approximates rational decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acquavella, John; Doe, John; Tomenson, John; Chester, Graham; Cowell, John; Bloemen, Louis
Epidemiologic studies frequently show associations between self-reported use of specific pesticides and human cancers. These findings have engendered debate largely on methodologic grounds. However, biologic plausibility is a more fundamental issue that has received only superficial attention. The purpose of this commentary is to review briefly the toxicology and exposure data that are developed as part of the pesticide regulatory process and to discuss the applicability of this data to epidemiologic research. The authors also provide a generic example of how worker pesticide exposures might be estimated and compared to relevant toxicologic dose levels. This example provides guidance for better characterization of exposure and for consideration of biologic plausibility in epidemiologic studies of pesticides.
This article develops a model of change in medical law. Drawing on systems theory, it argues that medical law participates in a dynamic of 'deparadoxification' and 'reparadoxification' whereby the underlying contingency of the law is variously concealed through plausible argumentation, or revealed by critical challenge. Medical law is, thus, thoroughly rhetorical. An examination of the development of the law on abortion and on the sterilization of incompetent adults shows that plausibility is achieved through the deployment of substantive common sense and formal stylistic devices. It is undermined where these elements are shown to be arbitrary and constructed. In conclusion, it is argued that the politics of medical law are constituted by this antagonistic process of establishing and challenging provisionally stable normative regimes. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper is going to explore the logical process behind risk analysis, particularly in geopolitics. The main goal is to demonstrate the ambiguities behind risk calculation and to highlight the continuum between plausibility and probability in risk analysis. To demonstrate it, the author introduces two notions: the inference of abduction, often neglected in the social sciences literature, and the Bayesian calculation. Inspired by the works of Louise Amoore, this paper tries to go further by ...
The initial cosmological singularity in the framework of the general theory of relativity is resolved by introducing the effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory without violating conventional laws of physics. A plausible account of the mechanism of the big bang, analogous to that of a nuclear explosion, is given and the currently accepted Planck temperature of ≅10 32 K at the beginning of the big bang is predicted
Luecke, Katherine J; Bell, Leonard N
Tagatose, a monosaccharide similar to fructose, has been shown to behave as a prebiotic. To deliver this prebiotic benefit, tagatose must not degrade during the processing of foods and beverages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal stability of tagatose in solutions. Tagatose solutions were prepared in 0.02 and 0.1 M phosphate and citrate buffers at pHs 3 and 7, which were then held at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C. Pseudo-1st-order rate constants for tagatose degradation were determined. In citrate and phosphate buffers at pH 3, minimal tagatose was lost and slight browning was observed. At pH 7, tagatose degradation rates were enhanced. Degradation was faster in phosphate buffer than citrate buffer. Higher buffer concentrations also increased the degradation rate constants. Enhanced browning accompanied tagatose degradation in all buffer solutions at pH 7. Using the activation energies for tagatose degradation, less than 0.5% and 0.02% tagatose would be lost under basic vat and HTST pasteurization conditions, respectively. Although tagatose does breakdown at elevated temperatures, the amount of tagatose lost during typical thermal processing conditions would be virtually negligible. Practical Application: Tagatose degradation occurs minimally during pasteurization, which may allow for its incorporation into beverages as a prebiotic.
Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura
The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.
Wang, Hanru; Geier, Mark S; Howarth, Gordon S
Mucositis, characterized by ulcerative lesions along the alimentary tract, is a common consequence of many chemotherapy regimens. Chemotherapy negatively disrupts the intestinal microbiota, resulting in increased numbers of potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridia and Enterobacteriaceae, and decreased numbers of "beneficial" bacteria, such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Agents capable of restoring homeostasis in the bowel microbiota could, therefore, be applicable to mucositis. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds, commonly oligosaccharides, that seek to reverse chemotherapy-induced intestinal dysbiosis through selective colonization of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic bacteria. In addition, evidence is emerging that certain prebiotics contribute to nutrient digestibility and absorption, modulate intestinal barrier function through effects on mucin expression, and also modify mucosal immune responses, possibly via inflammasome-mediated processes. This review examines the known mechanisms of prebiotic action, and explores their potential for reducing the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the intestine.
Quezada, Maria Paz; Salinas, Carlos; Gotteland, Martin; Cardemil, Liliana
The nutraceutical properties of Aloe vera have been attributed to a glucomannan known as acemannan. Recently information has been published about the presence of fructans in Aloe vera but there are no publications about acemannan and fructans as prebiotic compounds. This study investigated in vitro the prebiotic properties of these polysaccharides. Our results demonstrated that fructans from Aloe vera induced bacterial growth better than inulin (commercial FOS). Acemannan stimulated bacterial growth less than fructans, and as much as commercial FOS. Using qPCR to study the bacterial population of human feces fermented in a bioreactor simulating colon conditions, we found that fructans induce an increase in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. Fructans produced greater amounts of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), while the branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) did not increase with these polysaccharides. Acemannan increased significantly acetate concentrations. Therefore, both Aloe vera polysaccharides have prebiotic potentials.
Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Vieira, A H; Neto, R P C; Cappato, L P; Coimbra, P T; Moraes, J; Andrade, M M; Calado, V M A; Granato, D; Freitas, M Q; Tavares, M I B; Raices, R S L; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T 22 ) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature. The replacement of sheep milk fat by prebiotics in sheep milk ice cream constitutes an interesting option to enhance nutritional aspects and develop a functional food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guimarães, Jonas T; Silva, Eric Keven; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Costa, Ana Letícia R; Cunha, Rosiane L; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Freitas, Monica Q; Meireles, M Angela A; Cruz, Adriano G
In this work, we investigated the effects of the ultrasonic power (0, 200, 400 and 600 W) on non-thermal processing of an inulin-enriched whey beverage. We studied the effects of high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on microbial inactivation (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria (AMHB), total and thermotolerant coliforms and yeasts and molds), zeta potential, microstructure (optical microscopy, particle size distribution), rheology, kinetic stability and color. The non-thermal processing applying 600 W of ultrasonic power was comparable to high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment (75 °C for 15 s) concerning the inactivation of AMHB and yeasts and molds (2 vs 2 log and 0.2 vs 0.4 log, respectively), although HIUS has reached a lower output temperature (53 ± 3 °C). The HIUS was better than HTST to improve beverage kinetic stability, avoiding phase separation, which was mainly attributed to the decrease of particles size, denaturation of whey proteins and gelation of polysaccharides (inulin and gellan gum). Thus, non-thermal processing by HIUS seems to be an interesting technology for prebiotic dairy beverages production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Nagafuchi, Shinya; Kurihara, Rina; Okuda, Kenji; Kanesaka, Takeshi; Ogawa, Norihiro; Kanematsu, Takayoshi; Takasugi, Satoshi; Yamaji, Taketo; Takami, Masao; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Mitsuo
We investigated the effect of prebiotics on the immunological response after influenza vaccination in enterally fed elderly individuals. The intervention group was given an enteral formula containing lactic acid bacteria-fermented milk products. In addition, two different types of other prebiotics, galacto-oligosaccharide and bifidogenic growth stimulator, were also given. The two prebiotics improved intestinal microbiota differently. In a control group, a standard formula without prebiotics was given. An enteral formula with (intervention group [F]) or without (control group [C]) prebiotics was given through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy to elderly participants for 10 weeks. Influenza vaccine was inoculated at week 4. Nutritional and biochemical indices, intestinal micro bacteria and immunological indices were analyzed. The Bifidobacterium count in groups F and C at week 0 was 6.4 ± 1.9 and 6.6 ± 3.0 (log10 [count/g feces]), respectively. Although the count in group C decreased at week 10, the count in group F increased. The Bacteroides count in group F increased from 10.7 ± 0.9 to 11.4 ± 0.5, but decreased in group C from 11.2 ± 0.2 to 10.7 ± 0.4. Although the enhanced titers of H1N1, H3N2 and B antigens against the vaccine decreased thereafter in group C, these enhanced titers in group F could be maintained. Our findings suggest that prebiotics affect the intestinal microbiota and might maintain the antibody titers in elderly individuals. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna
Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taniguchi, Masahiko; Ptaszek, Marcin; Chandrashaker, Vanampally; Lindsey, Jonathan S.
Attempts to develop a credible prebiotic route to tetrapyrroles have relied on enzyme-free recapitulation of the extant biosynthesis, but this process has foundered from the inability to form the pyrrole porphobilinogen ( PBG) in good yield by self-condensation of the precursor δ-aminolevulinic acid ( ALA). PBG undergoes robust oligomerization in aqueous solution to give uroporphyrinogen (4 isomers) in good yield. ALA, PBG, and uroporphyrinogen III are universal precursors to all known tetrapyrrole macrocycles. The enzymic formation of PBG entails carbon-carbon bond formation between the less stable enolate/enamine of one ALA molecule (3-position) and the carbonyl/imine (4-position) of the second ALA molecule; without enzymes, the first ALA reacts at the more stable enolate/enamine (5-position) and gives the pyrrole pseudo-PBG. pseudo-PBG cannot self-condense, yet has one open α-pyrrole position and is proposed to be a terminator of oligopyrromethane chain-growth from PBG. Here, 23 analogues of ALA have been subjected to density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations, but no motif has been identified that directs reaction at the 3-position. Deuteriation experiments suggested 5-(phosphonooxy)levulinic acid would react preferentially at the 3- versus 5-position, but a hybrid condensation with ALA gave no observable uroporphyrin. The results suggest efforts toward a biomimetic, enzyme-free route to tetrapyrroles from ALA should turn away from structure-directed reactions and focus on catalysts that orient the two aminoketones to form PBG in a kinetically controlled process, thereby avoiding formation of pseudo-PBG.
Raihing, C.; Mageshwari, S. U.
The study aims to develop an enriched functional biscuit with prebiotic inulin and to understand the impact of addition of different levels of inulin on sensory and nutritional properties of the biscuits. A standard biscuit and three variations namely P1, P2 and P3 were formulated and standardized through test and trial method to get consistent final products. Inulin was added replacing fat in the standard-0%, P1- 100% P2-62% and P3-37%. The biscuits were evaluated by 15 panel members for sensory attributes i.e. appearance, colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Nutrients analysis for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre, free fatty acid and total antioxidant activity were done using standard procedures. Addition of inulin can give rise to products with different rheological behaviour and sensory characteristics. P2 (62% fat replaced) was acceptable with a high score for overall acceptability (7.45±0.39). Fat content was found to be highest in P3 (25.88gm). The inulin content in P1, P2 and P3 was 25.7gm, 34.5gm and 19.1 gm respectively. Antioxidant activity was also observed in all the biscuits and activity was highest in P2 (229.54μg). The partial replacement of fat by inulin in the production of biscuits was effective in reducing the fat content in the final product. A significant difference in taste (p=0.004) and texture (p=0.048) and was observed among the biscuit variations. The formulation P2, with 62 % fat replacement by inulin, presented similar results to the standard product, being the formulation with the greatest sensory acceptance and physical characteristics.
Heydari, Somayeh; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of six different prebiotic compounds (inulin, lactulose, lactitol, Hi-maize, maltodextrin and Î²-glucan) on syneresis, sensory attributes and rheological characteristics (elastic modulus, viscous modulus, loss tangent, complex...... modules) of probiotic yoghurt. The results revealed that the inclusion of the prebiotic compounds into the probiotic yoghurt profoundly affected the products' syneresis, as well as the sensory and rheological characteristics of the probiotic yoghurts compared with control samples. On the whole, production...
Full Text Available The article presents a study of prophylactic effectiveness of hypoallergenic compound «Nutrilon Hypoallergenic 1», fortified with prebiotics «IMMUNOFORTIS», in children from group of risk of development of atopic dermatitis. Anthropometric rates of children after 8 weeks of observation corresponded with average age rates; their physical development was estimated as harmonious. The compound was well-tolerated. Its use resulted in increase of bifido- and lactobacteria of intestinal micro flora and decrease of acute respiratory infections in infants.Key words: infants, alimentary allergy, atopic dermatitis, artificial feeding, prebiotics, hypoallergenic compound.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:37-43
Hummelen, Ruben; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Reid, Gregor
Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use. PMID:22254046
Hansen, Morten Ejby
of probiotics, primarily non-digestible carbohydrates, are termed prebiotics. The knowledge of prebiotic utilization and in particular the specificities of carbohydrate transport and metabolism are limited, hampering robust understanding for the basis of selective utilization of known prebiotics...... and the discovery and documentation of novel ones. In this project we set out to investigate the metabolism of carbohydrates that are prebiotic or potential prebiotic compounds utilized by the probiotic organisms Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL-04 (Bl-04). The aim...... of this Ph.D. thesis was the study of probiotic NCFM and Bl-04 interaction with prebiotic carbohydrates using differential proteomics and protein characterization. Proteomics is a potential omics tool to investigate probiotic bacteria and its response to prebiotic carbohydrates at the protein level...
Su, P; Henriksson, A; Mitchell, H
To identify novel prebiotics that could be used to maintain persistence of three representative probiotic strains in vivo. Test mice were treated with prebiotics soybean oligosaccharide (SOS), fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or inulin, followed by probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI L10 (L10), Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI B94 (B94) or Lactobacillus casei L26 LAFTI (L26). Faecal samples were then collected and analysed using selective medium and PCR analysis to determine the presence of the probiotic strains. In contrast to the control groups, in mice fed prebiotics, the survival and retention time of the test probiotics was increased extensively. SOS and FOS prolonged the retention period of L10 from 24 to 30 h. Of the three prebiotics, FOS gave the best result with B94, prolonging the retention period from 3 to > or =10 days. Of the three prebiotics, inulin gave the best result for L26, prolonging the retention period from 2 to > or =6 days. The prebiotics SOS, FOS and inulin significantly enhance survival and prolong the retention period of L10, B94 and L26 in vivo. Our results demonstrate the potential use of FOS, inulin and SOS as prebiotics in conjunction with the probiotic strains L10, B94 and L26 for new synbiotic products.
Full Text Available The use of antibiotics for controlling of luminous vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi is restricted now, because it induces antibiotic-resistant bacteria and leave residue in shrimp’s body. An alternative solution that can be done to treat the disease is by using applications of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic on the survival rate and growth of Pacific white shrimp against V. harveyi infection. Feed as a treatment was supplemented with probiotic 1%, prebiotic 2%, and probiotic 1%+prebiotic 2% (synbiotic. Shrimps feed without supplementation of probiotic and prebiotic was used as a control treatment. The shrimps were maintainedin the aquarium (60×30×35 cm3 with a density of 40 shrimps/40 L and an average weight of 0.4±0.1 g. After 30 days of feeding treatment, the shrimp was challenged by immersion method with V. harveyi solution containing 106 CFU/mL. The results showed that before challenge, synbiotic feed treated shrimp has a growth rate (5.89%, feed conversionrate (1.21, and a high survival rate (80%. After challenge, survival rate (83.33% of shrimp fed diet supplemented with synbiotic was higher than prebiotic (51.67% and positive control (31.67%. Keywords: probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic, Vibrio harveyi,Pacific white shrimp
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate diets supplemented with prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance and immune response against the virus of Newcastle disease in broiler chickens. 1,400 one-day old male Cobb 500 chicks were raised until 42 days old in a completely randomized design with 2x2+1 factorial scheme with seven replications. The treatments were: diet without supplementation (base diet - BD, BD + prebiotic, BD + probiotic, BD + symbiotic (prebiotic + probiotic, and BD + antibiotic. The parameters evaluated were performance and antibody serum titers against Newcastle disease. No antibiotic effect was observed on performance. The symbiotic provided better results for weight gain and feed:gain ratio until 21 days old than isolated additives. At 28 days old, the broilers fed diets with prebiotic presented better feed: gain ratio. In the same period (28 d-old, there was an antibody production increase against the Newcastle disease virus in the group supplemented with prebiotic. It can be concluded that the utilization of symbiotic in broiler chickens' diets can substitute performance enhancing antibiotics. The inclusion of prebiotic in the diet improves feed: gain ratio at 1-28 days old. The chickens' immune response increases at 28 days against the Newcastle disease virus in the group supplemented with prebiotic.
Full Text Available Visual object recognition occurs easily despite differences in position, size, and rotation of the object, but the neural mechanisms responsible for this invariance are not known. We have found a set of transforms that achieve invariance in a neurally plausible way. We find that a transform based on local spatial frequency analysis of oriented segments and on logarithmic mapping, when applied twice in an iterative fashion, produces an output image that is unique to the object and that remains constant as the input image is shifted, scaled or rotated.
Sountsov, Pavel; Santucci, David M; Lisman, John E
Visual object recognition occurs easily despite differences in position, size, and rotation of the object, but the neural mechanisms responsible for this invariance are not known. We have found a set of transforms that achieve invariance in a neurally plausible way. We find that a transform based on local spatial frequency analysis of oriented segments and on logarithmic mapping, when applied twice in an iterative fashion, produces an output image that is unique to the object and that remains constant as the input image is shifted, scaled, or rotated.
Choudhury, D. C.
The initial cosmological singularity in the framework of the general theory of relativity is resolved by introducing the effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum theory without violating conventional laws of physics. A plausible account of the mechanism of the big bang, analogous to that of a nuclear explosion, is given and the currently accepted Planck temperature of about 10^(32)K at the beginning of the big bang is predicted. Subj-class: cosmology: theory-pre-big bang; mechanism of t...
Gomez, E; Tuohy, K M; Gibson, G R; Klinder, A; Costabile, A
This study was carried out to evaluate in vitro the fermentation properties and the potential prebiotic activity of Agave-fructans extracted from Agave tequilana (Predilife). Five different commercial prebiotics were compared using 24-h pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries. Measurement of prebiotic efficacy was obtained by comparing bacterial changes, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was also determined. Effects upon major groups of the microbiota were monitored over 24 h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridization. SCFA were measured by HPLC. Fermentation of the Agave fructans (Predilife) resulted in a large increase in numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Under the in vitro conditions used, this study has shown the differential impact of Predilife on the microbial ecology of the human gut. This is the first study reporting of a potential prebiotic mode of activity for Agave fructans investigated which significantly increased populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli compared to cellulose used as a control.
Thus, various means of altering the intestinal bacteria to achieve favorable effects such as better resistance to pathogens, enhancing growth and immune stimulation of the host organism have been investigated in various fish and shrimp. In this respect, probiotics and prebiotics are used in farm animal and for aquaculture, ...
Buigues, Cristina; Fernandez-Garrido, Julio; Pruimboom, Leo; Hoogland, Aldert J.; Navarro-Martinez, Rut; Martinez-Martinez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Carmen Mascaros, Mari; Peris, Carlos; Cauli, Omar
Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre (R) (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV), Numansdorp, The
Dwivedi, Mitesh; Kumar, Prasant; Laddha, Naresh C; Kemp, E Helen
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells that play a vital role in suppressing inflammation and maintaining immune tolerance. Given the crucial role of Tregs in maintaining immune homeostasis, it is probably not surprising that many microbial species and their metabolites have the potential to induce Tregs. There is now great interest in the therapeutic potential of probiotics and prebiotics based strategies for a range of autoimmune disorders. This review will summarise recent findings concerning the role of probiotics and prebiotics in induction of Tregs to ameliorate the autoimmune conditions. In addition, the article is focused to explain the different mechanisms of Treg induction and function by these probiotics and prebiotics, based on the available studies till date. The article further proposes that induction of Tregs by probiotics and prebiotics could lead to the development of new therapeutic approach towards curbing the autoimmune response and as an alternative to detrimental immunosuppressive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lichtenstein, Lev; Avni-Biron, Irit; Ben-Bassat, Ofer
Pouchitis is a common complication in patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. Therapeutic attempts include manipulations of pouch flora composition. In this review, we bring together the evidence supporting the use of probiotics and prebiotics in pouchitis patients, to clarify the place of these treatments in current therapeutic regimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...
R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)
textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical
Grueber, Christoph; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Mosca, Fabio; Moro, Guido; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Wahn, Ulrich
Background: Most infants developing atopic dermatitis have a low risk for atopy. Primary prevention of atopic dermatitis is difficult. Objective: To assess the effect of supplementation of an infant and follow-on formula with prebiotic and immunoactive oligosaccharides on the occurrence of atopic
Hardy, Holly; Harris, Jennifer; Lyon, Eleanor; Beal, Jane; Foey, Andrew D.
Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting the immune-modulatory ability of probiotic bacteria, it is therefore reasonable to suggest that this is potentiated via a combination of prebiotics and probiotics as a symbiotic mix. The need for probiotic formulations has been appreciated for the health benefits in “topping up your good bacteria” or indeed in an attempt to normalise the dysbiotic microbiota associated with immunopathology. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics and prebiotics on the cells, molecules and immune responses in the gut mucosae, from epithelial barrier to priming of adaptive responses by antigen presenting cells: immune fate decision—tolerance or activation? Modulation of normal homeostatic mechanisms, coupled with findings from probiotic and prebiotic delivery in pathological studies, will highlight the role for these xenobiotics in dysbiosis associated with immunopathology in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and hypersensitivity. PMID:23760057
Medina, Daniel A; Pinto, Francisco; Ovalle, Aline; Thomson, Pamela; Garrido, Daniel
Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters. A consortium containing Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis , Bacteroides vulgatus , Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus was grown on fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or 2'-fucosyllactose (2FL) in mono- or co-culture. While Bi. infantis and Ba. vulgatus dominated growth on 2FL, their combined growth was reduced. Besides, interaction coefficients indicated strong competition, especially on FOS. While FOS was rapidly consumed by the consortium, B. infantis was the only microbe displaying significant consumption of 2FL. Acid production by the consortium resembled the metabolism of microorganisms dominating growth in each substrate. Finally, the consortium was tested in a bioreactor, observing similar predominance but more pronounced acid production and substrate consumption. This study indicates that the chemical nature of prebiotics modulate microbial interactions in a consortium of infant gut species.
Carlos Alberto Luengas-Gómez
Full Text Available Anthracnose is the most limiting disease in the production of the tree tomato; losses may exceed 50% if control measures are not appropriate. For this reason, farmers use continuous applications of fungicides. Prebiotics have been successfully tested in animals and humans in order to stimulate the growth of intestinal flora and fauna to improve digestion, achieve greater increases in weight, reduce infections and stimulate the immune system. In plants, there are no data on their effectiveness in disease control, for this reason, this research was conducted on the La Esmeralda farm located in the town of Silvana (Cundinamarca, Colombia; to evaluate the effect of a prebiotic (BioKakimu® and potassium dose on disease control. We determined the incidence and severity of anthracnose, and crop production. We used a complete block design with three replications and twelve treatments, each experimental unit consisted of six plants, for a total of 216 plants and an area of 1,350 m². The crop was 18-months-old and consisted of the common red variety. The results showed that the foliar incidence, severity and production had significant differences between the various treatments, where the prebiotic - K2O interaction showed favorable results for disease management in high doses of prebiotic (6 L ha-1
Yeo, Siok-Koon; Liong, Min-Tze
Soy products have attracted much attention lately as carriers for probiotics. This study was aimed at enhancing the growth of probiotics in soymilk via supplementation with prebiotics. Lactobacillus sp. FTDC 2113, Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 8033, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, Bifidobacterium FTDC 8943 and Bifidobacterium longum FTDC 8643 were evaluated for their viability and growth characteristics in prebiotic-supplemented soymilk. In the presence of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, mannitol, maltodextrin and pectin, all strains showed viability exceeding 7 log(10) colony-forming units mL(-1) after 24 h. Their growth was significantly (P < 0.05) increased on supplementation with maltodextrin, pectin, mannitol and FOS. Additionally, supplementation with FOS, mannitol and maltodextrin increased (P < 0.05) the production of lactic acid. Supplementation with FOS and maltodextrin also increased the alpha-galactosidase activity of probiotics, leading to enhanced hydrolysis and utilisation of soy oligosaccharides. Finally, prebiotic supplementation enhanced the utilisation of simpler sugars such as fructose and glucose in soymilk. Supplementation with prebiotics enhances the potential of soymilk as a carrier for probiotics. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.
Multidisciplinary approaches enabled a better understanding of the connection between human gut microbes and health. This knowledge is rapidly changing how we think about probiotics and related –biotics (prebiotics, synbiotics, pharmabiotics and postbiotics). Functional –omics approaches are very im...
Quigley, Eamonn M M
For decades, if not centuries, a variety of products with what would now be regarded as prebiotic and probiotic properties have been consumed by the general public and advocated for their benefits on health and, in particular, gastrointestinal well-being. More recently, medical science has taken a great interest in the population of micro-organisms, the gut microbiota that normally populates the human gut, and the range of important functions carried out by the microbiota in health is being progressively defined. As a corollary, the list of disorders and diseases that may result from disruption of the normal microbiota and\\/or its interaction with the host continues to grow. A scientific basis for the use of probiotics and prebiotics is, therefore, beginning to emerge. Unfortunately, although progress has been made, the clinical evidence to support the use of these preparations lags behind. Nevertheless, a number of human disease states may benefit from the use of probiotics, most notably, diarrheal illnesses, some inflammatory bowel diseases, certain infectious disorders, and irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics promote the growth of "good" bacteria, and although a variety of health benefits have been attributed to their use, prebiotics have been subjected to few large-scale clinical trials.
R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)
textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical
Daniel A. Medina
Full Text Available Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters. A consortium containing Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus was grown on fructooligosaccharides (FOS or 2′-fucosyllactose (2FL in mono- or co-culture. While Bi. infantis and Ba. vulgatus dominated growth on 2FL, their combined growth was reduced. Besides, interaction coefficients indicated strong competition, especially on FOS. While FOS was rapidly consumed by the consortium, B. infantis was the only microbe displaying significant consumption of 2FL. Acid production by the consortium resembled the metabolism of microorganisms dominating growth in each substrate. Finally, the consortium was tested in a bioreactor, observing similar predominance but more pronounced acid production and substrate consumption. This study indicates that the chemical nature of prebiotics modulate microbial interactions in a consortium of infant gut species.
Euclides Braga Malheiros
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a probiotic and/or prebiotic additive on the nutrient digestibility of diets for growing rabbits. Twenty 50-day-old rabbits were used. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates each, was used. The applied treatments (T were the following: T1 = negative control diet (no growth promoter; T2 = diet with antibiotic, positive control (0.05% zinc bacitracin; T3 = diet with probiotic (0.15% Bacillus subtillis at a concentration of 109 UFC/g; T4 = diet with prebiotic (0.15% phosphorylated mananoligossaccharide at 30%; and T5 = diet with symbiotic (probiotic + prebiotic. The experimental period lasted 12 days, seven for adaptation to the experimental diets and to the cages, and five days of feces collection. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter, and ether extract were calculated. The addition of a probiotic and of a symbiotic to the rabbit diet resulted in digestibility similar to that of animals fed diets containing antibiotics or no additive at all. The best digestibility results were obtained with the prebiotic.
Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia; Mulder, Marieke; Leeuwen, Sander van; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing
of sialylated oligosaccharides was obtained with the same donor of sialic acid – cGMP and different glycans with a new Trypanosoma rangeli transsialidase, Tr13. Well-documented prebiotics galactooligosaccharides (GOS), isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and lactulose, and three other compounds, i.e., melibiose...
Full Text Available Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre® (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV, Numansdorp, The Netherlands to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin. Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks’ duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre® or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9–10 a.m. dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis. The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre® administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively. No significant effects were observed in functional and cognitive behavior or sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota–muscle–brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome.
Mugambi, Mary N; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé
This study assessed how the food industry applies the knowledge and evidence gained from synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics research in infants, on the general paediatric population. This study also explored: what happens after the clinical trials using infant formula are completed, data is published or remains unpublished; the effectiveness and type of medium the formula manufacturers use to educate consumers on probiotic, prebiotic or synbiotic infant formula. This was a descriptive study (a survey) that used a structured questionnaire. All listed companies that manufacture and / or market food products with added probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics for infants were identified and invited to participate. People responsible for research and development were invited to participate in the survey. A letter of invitation was sent to selected participants and if they expressed willingness to take part in the study, a questionnaire with a written consent form was sent. Descriptive statistics and associations between categorical variables were to be tested using a Chi-square test, a p food manufacturers were identified, invited to participate in the survey. No company was willing to participate in the survey for different reasons: failure to take any action 5 (20%), decision to participate indefinitely delayed 2 (8%), sensitivity of requested information 3 (12%), company does not conduct clinical trials 1 (4%), company declined without further information 4 (16%), erroneous contact information 6 (24%), refusal by receptionists to forward telephone calls to appropriate staff 3 (12%), language barrier 3 (12%), company no longer agrees to market research 1 (4%). Due to a poor response rate in this study, no conclusion could be drawn on how the food industry applies evidence gained through probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics research on infants for the benefit of the general paediatric population. More information and greater transparency is needed from the infant
Wu, Richard You
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother’s milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds. Current research is evaluating the benefits and potential pitfalls of adding probiotics and prebiotics to pasteurized milk so as to improve the functionality of the milk and thereby reduce the burden of illness caused by NEC. Probiotics (live micro-organisms that confer health to the host) and prebiotics (nondigestible oligosaccharides that stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria) are functional foods known to mediate immune responses and modulate microbial populations in the gut. Clinical research shows strain- and compound-specific responses when probiotics or prebiotics are administered in conjunction with donor breast milk for the prevention of NEC. Despite ongoing controversy surrounding optimal treatment strategies, randomized controlled studies are now investigating the use of synbiotics to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC. Synbiotics, a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to enhance beneficial health effects in the intestinal tract more than either agent administered alone. This review considers the implications of using probiotic-, prebiotic-, and synbiotic-supplemented breast milk as a strategy to prevent NEC and issues that could be encountered with the preparations. PMID:27633108
Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Carbon, Claus-Christian
Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers-extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect.
den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Anderson, Catherine; Christianson, Kiel
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Stimuli included sentences in which the garden-path interpretation was plausible, implausible because of a late pragmatic cue, or implausible because of a semantic mismatch between an optionally transitive verb and the following noun. Natural sentence intonation was correlated with left-hemisphere temporal activation, but also with activation that suggests the allocation of more resources to interpretation when natural prosody is provided. Garden-path processing was associated with upregulation in bilateral inferior parietal and right-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex, while differences between the strength and type of plausibility cues were also reflected in activation patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in regions associated with complex syntactic processing are consistent with a role for posterior temporal cortex supporting access to verb argument structure. Furthermore, ROI analyses within left-hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus suggest a division of labour, with the anterior-ventral part primarily involved in syntactic-semantic mismatch detection, the central part supporting structural reanalysis, and the posterior-dorsal part showing a general structural complexity effect.
Kentzoglanakis, Kyriakos; Poole, Matthew
In this paper, we investigate the problem of reverse engineering the topology of gene regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data. We adopt a computational intelligence approach comprising swarm intelligence techniques, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). In addition, the recurrent neural network (RNN) formalism is employed for modeling the dynamical behavior of gene regulatory systems. More specifically, ACO is used for searching the discrete space of network architectures and PSO for searching the corresponding continuous space of RNN model parameters. We propose a novel solution construction process in the context of ACO for generating biologically plausible candidate architectures. The objective is to concentrate the search effort into areas of the structure space that contain architectures which are feasible in terms of their topological resemblance to real-world networks. The proposed framework is initially applied to the reconstruction of a small artificial network that has previously been studied in the context of gene network reverse engineering. Subsequently, we consider an artificial data set with added noise for reconstructing a subnetwork of the genetic interaction network of S. cerevisiae (yeast). Finally, the framework is applied to a real-world data set for reverse engineering the SOS response system of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Results demonstrate the relative advantage of utilizing problem-specific knowledge regarding biologically plausible structural properties of gene networks over conducting a problem-agnostic search in the vast space of network architectures.
Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two
Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente
In comparison with the foundations of probability calculus, the inescapable and controversial issue of how to assign probabilities has only recently become a matter of formal study. The introduction of information as a technical concept was a milestone, but the most promising entropic assignment methods still face unsolved difficulties, manifesting the incompleteness of plausible inference theory. In this paper we examine the situation faced by risk analysts in the critical field of extreme events modelling, where the former difficulties are especially visible, due to scarcity of observational data, the large impact of these phenomena and the obligation to assume professional responsibilities. To respond to the claim for a sound framework to deal with extremes, we propose a metafoundational approach to inference, based on a canon of extramathematical requirements. We highlight their strong moral content, and show how this emphasis in morality, far from being new, is connected with the historic origins of plausible inference. Special attention is paid to the contributions of Caramuel, a contemporary of Pascal, unfortunately ignored in the usual mathematical accounts of probability.
Shimansky, Yury P
Learning processes in the brain are usually associated with plastic changes made to optimize the strength of connections between neurons. Although many details related to biophysical mechanisms of synaptic plasticity have been discovered, it is unclear how the concurrent performance of adaptive modifications in a huge number of spatial locations is organized to minimize a given objective function. Since direct experimental observation of even a relatively small subset of such changes is not feasible, computational modeling is an indispensable investigation tool for solving this problem. However, the conventional method of error back-propagation (EBP) employed for optimizing synaptic weights in artificial neural networks is not biologically plausible. This study based on computational experiments demonstrated that such optimization can be performed rather efficiently using the same general method that bacteria employ for moving closer to an attractant or away from a repellent. With regard to neural network optimization, this method consists of regulating the probability of an abrupt change in the direction of synaptic weight modification according to the temporal gradient of the objective function. Neural networks utilizing this method (regulation of modification probability, RMP) can be viewed as analogous to swimming in the multidimensional space of their parameters in the flow of biochemical agents carrying information about the optimality criterion. The efficiency of RMP is comparable to that of EBP, while RMP has several important advantages. Since the biological plausibility of RMP is beyond a reasonable doubt, the RMP concept provides a constructive framework for the experimental analysis of learning in natural neural networks.
Conclusion: These results show that prebiotic diets, such as NUTRIOSE, may promote the metabolic conversion of ginsenosides to CK and the subsequent absorption of CK in the gastrointestinal tract and may potentiate the pharmacological effects of ginseng.
Probiotics (live or inactivated beneficial microorganisms) and prebiotics (indigestible nutrients for beneficial microorganisms) have been used as additives to aquafeeds as a means to improve production (immunity and growth) in intensively-reared finfish species. The research literature has document...
Jers, Carsten; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Cantor, Mette D
We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this s......We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs....... In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase...... of producing prebiotic fibers via a feed containing Bacillus spores and potato pulp and identified candidates for future in vivo evaluation in piglets....
Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Ni, Li
Abstract BACKGROUND Almonds contain considerable amounts of potential prebiotic components, and the roasting process may alter these components. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fermentation properties and in vivo prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds. RESULTS In vitro, predigested raw and roasted almonds promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La?14) and Bifidobacterium breve (JCM 1192), and no significant differences were found between these two nuts. In a 4...
Full Text Available We address the neutrino radiation of plausible accreting supermassive black holes closely linking to the 5 nuclear components of galaxy samples of Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266. We predict a time delay before neutrino emission of the same scale as the age of the Universe. The ultrahigh energy neutrinos are produced in superdense protomatter medium via simple (quark or pionic reactions or modified URCA processes (G. Gamow was inspired to name the process URCA after the name of a casino in Rio de Janeiro. The resulting neutrino fluxes for quark reactions are ranging from to , where is the opening parameter. For pionic and modified URCA reactions, the fluxes are and , respectively. These fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at ultrahigh energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle .
De Raedt, H; Katsnelson, M I; Michielsen, K
We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. The extraordinary descriptive power of quantum theory then follows from the fact that it is plausible reasoning, that is common sense, applied to reproducible and robust experimental data. © 2016 The Author(s).
A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Md Ahsanur Reza
Full Text Available Prebiotics are used to influence the growth, colonization, survival, and activity of probiotics, and enhance the innate immunity, thus improving the health status of the host. The survival, growth, and activity of probiotics are often interfered with by intrinsic factors and indigenous microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, Bulnesia sarmienti aqueous extract (BSAE was evaluated for the growth-promoting activity of different strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, and a simple, precise, cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of active prebiotic ingredients in the extract. Different strains of L. acidophilus (probiotic were incubated in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS medium with the supplementation of BSAE in a final concentration of 0.0%, 1.0%, and 3.0% (w/v as the sole carbon source. Growth of the probiotics was determined by measuring the pH changes and colony-forming units (CFU/mL using the microdilution method for a period of 24 hours. The HPLC method was designed by optimizing mobile-phase composition, flow rate, column temperature, and detection wavelength. The method was validated according to the requirements of a new method, including accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and specificity. The major prebiotic active ingredients in BSAE were determined using the validated HPLC method. The rapid growth rate of different strains of L. acidophilus was observed in growth media with BSAE, whereas the decline of pH values of cultures varied in different strains of probiotics depending on the time of culture. (+-Catechin and (−-epicatechin were identified on the basis of their retention time, absorbance spectrum, and mass spectrometry fragmentation pattern. The developed method met the limit of all validation parameters. The prebiotic active components, (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin, were quantified as 1.27% and 0
Carbone, Donatella; Faggio, Caterina
Infectious diseases in fish represent a major problem for the aquaculture field as they produce extensive damages and loss. Over the last few years, with increased development of the aquaculture industry, different methods have been used to contrast these pathologies. Common interest has led to the use of components (as additives in diets) that could contrast diseases without causing any negative impact on the environment. These components are represented by prebiotics, probiotics, and plant extracts. In this review, the effects of prebiotics are described. Prebiotics are indigestible fibres fermented by gut enzymes and commensal bacteria, whose beneficial effects are due to the by-products generated from fermentation. The influence of pre-biotics on the immune system of fish is called immunosaccharides. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and Inulin act at different levels in the innate immune response. For example, through phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, and the complement system activity, an increase in fish growth and an amelioration of their health status is brought about. In this review, the use of prebiotics in aquaculture, such as immunostimulants, has been highlighted: particularly in two teleost fish species, Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax. The results demonstrate that the road is still long and further studies are required, but the use of prebiotics, individually or coupled together, can open the doors to pioneering a new model of alternative components to antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... changes in growth performance parameters were observed, but only in those groups fed with 1% and 2% prebiotics. Specifically, marked improvements relative to the control group were observed in percentage weight gain, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate in prebiotic-fed fish....... The levels of plasma thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormones were significantly elevated in the group receiving 2% prebiotics. Activities of lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase in skin mucus were significantly enhanced in prebiotics-fed groups, particularly at an inclusion...
Andermann, Tessa M.; Rezvani, Andrew; Bhatt, Ami S.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially life-saving therapy that often comes at the cost of complications such as graft-versus-host disease and post-transplant infections. With improved technology to under-stand the ecosystem of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and microeukaryotes) that make up the gut microbiota, there is increasing evidence of the microbiota’s contribution to the development of post-transplant complications. Antibiotics have traditionally been the mainstay of microbiota-altering therapies available to physicians. Recently, interest is increasing in the use of prebiotics and probiotics to support the development and sustainability of a healthier microbiota. In this review, we will describe the evidence for the use of prebiotics and probiotics in combating microbiota dysbiosis and explore the ways in which they may be used in future research to potentially improve clinical outcomes and decrease rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and post-transplant infection. PMID:26780719
Scaldaferri, Franco; Gerardi, Viviana; Boškoski, Ivo; Bruno, Giovanni; Petito, Valentina; Laterza, Lucrezia; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gaetani, Eleonora; Sgambato, Alessandro; Gasbarrini, Antonio
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, whose major forms are represented by Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiology is still unclear, although several factors have been identified as major determinants for induction or relapses. Among these, the role of the “forgotten organ”, gut microbiota, has become more appreciated in recent years. The delicate symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and the host appears to be lost in IBD. In this perspective, several studies have been conducted to assess the role of prebiotics and probiotics in gut microbiota modulation. This is a minireview aimed to address in an easy format (simple questions-simple answers) some common issues about the theme. An update on the role of selected constituents of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD is presented together with the analysis of the efficacy of gut microbiota modulation by prebiotics and probiotics administration in the management of IBD. PMID:23991417
Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia Wei
Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and preventative therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy on the horizon for this devastating disease. However, concerns regarding safety and optimal dosing have limited the widespread adoption of routine clinical use of probiotics in preterm infants. In addition, prebiotics and postbiotics may be potential alternatives or adjunctive therapies to the administration of live microorganisms, although studies demonstrating their clinical efficacy in preventing NEC are lacking. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the use of probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics in the preterm infant, including its therapeutic role in preventing NEC. PMID:23415261
Buriti, Flávia C A; Saad, Susana M I
Nowadays, food companies are endeavoring to differentiate their products through creative segmentation and positioning strategies based on superior functionality and quality. Some kinds of dairy desserts have shown a great market potential, as a function of consumers interested in healthier and functional products with fine taste and mouthfeel. In this context, chilled dairy desserts are emerging as attractive options for the incorporation of probiotic cultures and prebiotic ingredients, as seen in the previous launches from the food industry, as well as in the growing number of scientific studies dealing with this subject published in the last years. The main aspects involved in the development of probiotic and/or prebiotic dairy desserts for storage under refrigerated conditions are presented in this review.
Roselli, Marianna; Pieper, Robert; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer a health benefit on the host, and amongst various mechanisms probiotics are believed to exert their effects by production of antimicrobial substances, competition with pathogens for adhesion sites and nutrients, enhancement of mucosal barrier...... integrity and immune modulation. Through these activities probiotics can support three core benefits for the host: supporting a healthy gut microbiota, a healthy digestive tract and a healthy immune system. More recently, the concept of combining probiotics and prebiotics, i.e. synbiotics......, for the beneficial effect on gut health of pigs has attracted major interest, and examples of probiotic and prebiotic benefits for pigs are pathogen inhibition and immunomodulation. Yet, it remains to be defined in pigs, what exactly is a healthy gut. Because of the high level of variability in growth and feed...
The consumption of fermented foods by human kind goes a long way back in history and there are as many types of fermented food as civilizations. Food Science and Technology has progressed from designing nutritional foods towards food with health improvement characteristics such as functional foods. In this sense, the area of food with properties to improve gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has been the most important segment within functional foods. Most of these products are dairy-based so the development of nondairy gut improvement products has been of great interest for the food industry, resulting in the rise of cereal-based probiotic and synbiotic products. Finally, through Nanoscience and the application of Nanotechnology techniques in the food sector, it has been possible to design fermented beverages with synbiotic properties, and the incorporation of nanoparticles with unique and specific bioactivity, which has opened a new horizon in this segment of food created to improve human health and well-being. There is currently a great interest in producing healthy food in particular that which has an impact in improving the gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Most of these functional foods are dairy based and have been greatly accepted worldwide. Nevertheless, there has been a need for the development of nondairy probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic products. This has encouraged food scientists to study the feasibility of applying other fermenting substrates such as cereals for the development of innovative nondairy fermented functional foods. Therefore, in this review we have addressed the significance of applying cereals and their fractions for the development of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic beverages. Furthermore, we have presented the importance of including nanoscience and nanotechnology techniques for the creation of fermented cereal beverages that contain specific bioactive
Lisa R. Hoving; Margreet R. de Vries; Rob C. M. de Jong; Saeed Katiraei; Amanda Pronk; Paul H. A. Quax; Vanessa van Harmelen; Ko Willems van Dijk
The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce...
Luengas Gómez, Carlos Alberto; Roa Vásquez, Maro David; Orrego Vásquez, Juan David
Anthracnose is the most limiting disease in the production of the tree tomato; losses may exceed 50% if control measures are not appropriate. For this reason, farmers use continuous applications of fungicides. Prebiotics have been successfully tested in animals and humans in order to stimulate the growth of intestinal flora and fauna to improve digestion, achieve greater increases in weight, reduce infections and stimulate the immune system. In plants, there are no data on their effectiveness...
Quigley, Eamonn M M
Several recent observations have raised the possibility that disturbances in the gut microbiota and\\/or a low-grade inflammatory state may contribute to symptomatology and the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Consequent on these hypotheses, several therapeutic categories have found their way into the armamentarium of those who care for IBS sufferers. These agents include probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents.
Full Text Available Treatment options for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are notoriously either inadequate (IBS or loaded with potentially serious side effects and risks (IBD. In recent years a growing interest for effective and safer alternatives has focused on the potential role of probiotics and their metabolic substrates, prebiotics. It is in fact conceivable that the microbiome might be targeted by providing the metabolic fuel needed for the growth and expansion of beneficial microorganisms (prebiotics or by administering to the host such microorganisms (probiotics. This review presents a concise update on currently available data, with a special emphasis on children.Data for prebiotics in IBS are scarce. Low doses have shown a beneficial effect, while high doses are counterproductive. On the contrary, several controlled trials of probiotics have yielded encouraging results. A meta-analysis including 9 randomized clinical trials in children showed an improvement in abdominal pain for Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and the probiotic mixture VSL#3. The patients most benefitting from probiotics were those with predominant diarrhea or with a post-infectious IBS. In IBD, the use of prebiotics has been tested only rarely and in small scale clinical trials, with mixed results. As for probiotics, data in humans from about 3 dozens clinical trials offer mixed outcomes. So far none of the tested probiotics has proven successful in Crohn’s disease, while in ulcerative colitis a recent meta-analysis on 12 clinical trials (1 of them in children showed efficacy for the probiotic mixture VSL#3 in contributing to induce and to maintain remission. It is evident that this is a rapidly evolving and promising field; more data are very likely to yield a better understanding on what strains and in what doses should be used in different specific clinical settings.
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics. Yogurt’s unique fermented food matrix provides added health benefits by enhancing nutrient absorption and digestion. Combining the intake of yogurt and fruit could provide probiotics, prebiotics, high-quality protein, important fatty acids, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals that have the potential to exert synergistic effects on health. Yogurt consumption has been associated with reduced weight gain and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, whereas fruits have established effects on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yogurt and fruits can be eaten together and may exert combined health benefits through potential prebiotic and probiotic effects. Furthermore, substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods. In light of the positive cardiometabolic impacts of fruit and yogurt and their association with healthy dietary patterns, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further exploration into the potential synergistic health benefits of a combined intake of fruit and yogurt. PMID:28096139
Jack T. Trevors
Full Text Available This article discusses the hypothesized composition and organization of cytoplasm in prebiotic cells from a theoretical perspective and also based upon what is currently known about bacterial cytoplasm. It is unknown if the first prebiotic, microscopic scale, cytoplasm was initially contained within a primitive, continuous, semipermeable membrane, or was an uncontained gel substance, that later became enclosed by a continuous membrane. Another possibility is that the first cytoplasm in prebiotic cells and a primitive membrane organized at the same time, permitting a rapid transition to the first cell(s capable of growth and division, thus assisting with the emergence of life on Earth less than a billion years after the formation of the Earth. It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1–0.2 µm3 (possibly less if a nanocell prior to the first cell division.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Among the risk of developing colorectal cancer and the intestinal microbiota there is a complex relationship that can be modified by diet. The effect of prebiotics on the composition and colonic microbiota activity can produce beneficial changes in the altered flora of pacients with colon cancer. Of all the prebiotic inulin HP and sinergil (30% oligofructose and 70% inulin are supposed to be the ones that keep a closer relationship with the tumor. This phenomenon could be explained by the long chain fructans. The animal studies observed that administration of prebiotics reduces the number and multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci, reduce the number and lifetime of the tumors, inhibits their growth and potentiates the effect of different chemotherapeutic drugs. The results obtained in rodents that are intended to simulate genetic predisposition are not homogeneous. Some human studies, mostly healthy, observed changes in the composition of the microbiota, in the bile acid profile and the short chain fatty acids, but the results differ among studies and no conclusive results are obtained.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Fortification of beverages with new functional ingredients such as prebiotics is one of the recent progresses in the field of juice production. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of adding some prebiotics such as Inulin and Tagatose on physicochemical and sensory properties of orange juice. Methods: The prebiotic compounds (Inulin and Tagatose along with sucrose were added to orange juice in specific proportions and then pasteurized at 90°C. Orange juice treated samples were kept at 4°C (refrigerator temperature and 25°C (room temperature for 3 months. Physicochemical (Brix, acidity, sucrose content and pH and sensory properties of treated samples were evaluated within time intervals of one month. Results: The results showed that storage temperature had no significant effect on pH, Brix and acidity of all treatments (P>0.05. On the other hand, total sugar content of all treatments had decreased significantly during storage (P0.05. Storage of treatments at room temperature had decreased the acceptance of flavors significantly (P<0.05. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that Inulin in combination with sucrose and Tagatose could be used to produce salutary juice with desirable sensory properties.
José Rodolfo Velázquez-Martínez
Full Text Available Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1 and β-(2→6 linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3–60 fructose units, medium (2–40 and low (2–22 DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD, which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions.
Claudia L. González-Aguirre
Full Text Available Context: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS are known as oligofructanes, oligosaccharides or oligofructose, which fall within the concept of prebiotics. One of the methods most commonly used in the industry for quantification and quality control nutraceutical substances classification is the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Aims: To develop a procedure for the determination of FOS by HPLC in raw materials and a prebiotic ice cream. Methods: For the chromatographic separation, an HPLC was used with a refractive index detector (IR. The separation was performed using two columns coupled Sugar-pak I™ using an isocratic procedure with water type 1 at 0.35 mL/min. Kestose (GF2, nistose (GF3 and fructofuranosylnystose (GF4 were used as standards. Robustness was assessed by applying the Youden and Steiner test. Results: Good linear correlations were obtained (y = 14191.4470 x + 285684.2, r2 = 0.9904 within the concentration range of 8.0-12.0 mg/mL. The FOS recoveries were 99.5% with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD less than 0.8%. The robustness test showed that the temperature parameters of the column and flow velocity are critical factors in the method. Conclusions: This reliable, simple and cost-effective method could be applied to the routine monitoring of FOS (GF2, GF3, and GF4 in raw materials and prebiotic ice creams.
Raman, Maya; Ambalam, Padma; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Pithva, Sheetal; Kothari, Charmy; Patel, Arti T.; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Dave, J.M.; Vyas, B.R.M.
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and is the fourth most common malignant neoplasm in USA. Escaping apoptosis and cell mutation are the prime hallmarks of cancer. It is apparent that balancing the network between DNA damage and DNA repair is critical in preventing carcinogenesis. One-third of cancers might be prevented by nutritious healthy diet, maintaining healthy weight and physical activity. In this review, an attempt is made to abridge the role of carcinogen in colorectal cancer establishment and prognosis, where special attention has been paid to food-borne mutagens and functional role of beneficial human gut microbiome in evading cancer. Further the significance of tailor-made prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in cancer management by bio-antimutagenic and desmutagenic activity has been elaborated. Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host. Prebiotics are a selectively fermentable non-digestible oligosaccharide or ingredient that brings specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microflora, conferring health benefits. Synbiotics are a combination of probiotic bacteria and the growth promoting prebiotic ingredients that purport “synergism.” PMID:23511582
Feria, Manuel G; Taborda, Natalia A; Hernandez, Juan C; Rugeles, María T
HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion. Although antiretroviral treatment decreases viral load and substantially improves the prognosis of the infection, the alterations in GALT remains, having a great impact on the ability to establish effective immune responses. This emphasizes the importance of developing new therapeutic alternatives that may promote structural and functional integrity of this tissue. In this regard, therapy with probiotics/prebiotics has beneficial effects in GALT, mainly in syndromes characterized by intestinal dysbiosis, including the HIV-1 infection. In these patients, the consumption of probiotics/prebiotics decreased microbial products in plasma and CD4+ T cell activation, increased CD4+ T cell frequency, in particular Th17, and improved the intestinal flora. In this review, the most important findings on the potential impact of the probiotics/prebiotics therapy are discussed.
V. P. Gourineni
Full Text Available Prebiotic fructans are nondigestible carbohydrates with numerous health benefits. Soybean is a rich source of phytonutrients such as isoflavones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of prebiotics (Synergy1 and soybean meal (SM at 5% and 10% levels alone and in combination on azoxymethane- (AOM- induced colon carcinogenesis. After one wk of acclimatization, Fisher 344 male rats (N=90 were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n=10. Control rats (C were fed AIN-93G/M. Two s/c injections of AOM were administered to rats at 7 and 8 wk of age at 16 mg/kg body weight. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation at 45 wk. Tumor incidence (% in treatment groups ranged from 40 to 75 compared to 100 in C. Results indicate that feeding prebiotics and soybean in combination significantly reduced incidence of AOM-induced colon tumors with implications for food industry in the food-product development.
Ilana C. Agmon
Full Text Available An indispensable prerequisite for establishing a scenario of life emerging by natural processes is the requirement that the first simple proto-molecules could have had a realistic probability of self-assembly from random molecular polymers in the prebiotic world. The vestige of the proto-ribosome, which is believed to be still embedded in the contemporary ribosome, is used to assess the feasibility of such spontaneous emergence. Three concentric structural elements of different magnitudes, having a dimeric nature derived from the symmetrical region of the ribosomal large subunit, were suggested to constitute the vestige of the proto-ribosome. It is assumed to have materialized spontaneously in the prebiotic world, catalyzing non-coded peptide bond formation and simple elongation. Probabilistic and energetic considerations are applied in order to evaluate the suitability of the three contenders for being the initial proto-ribosome. The analysis points to the simplest proto-ribosome, comprised of a dimer of tRNA-like molecules presently embedded in the core of the symmetrical region, as the only one having a realistic statistical likelihood of spontaneous emergence from random RNA chains. Hence it offers a feasible starting point for a continuous evolutionary path from the prebiotic matter, through natural processes, into the intricate modern translation system.
Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Marette, André
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics. Yogurt's unique fermented food matrix provides added health benefits by enhancing nutrient absorption and digestion. Combining the intake of yogurt and fruit could provide probiotics, prebiotics, high-quality protein, important fatty acids, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals that have the potential to exert synergistic effects on health. Yogurt consumption has been associated with reduced weight gain and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, whereas fruits have established effects on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yogurt and fruits can be eaten together and may exert combined health benefits through potential prebiotic and probiotic effects. Furthermore, substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods. In light of the positive cardiometabolic impacts of fruit and yogurt and their association with healthy dietary patterns, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further exploration into the potential synergistic health benefits of a combined intake of fruit and yogurt. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Longoria-García, S; Cruz-Hernández, M A; Flores-Verástegui, M I M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Montañez-Sáenz, J C; Belmares-Cerda, R E
Several health benefits have been associated to probiotics and prebiotics, most of these are involved in the regulation of the host's gut microbiome. Their incorporation to diverse food products has been done to develop potential functional foods. In the case of bakery products, their incorporation has been seen to improve several technological parameters such as volume, specific volume, texture along with sensorial parameters such as flavor and aroma. Scientific literature in this topic has been divided in three main research branches: nutrition, physical quality and sensory analyzes, however, studies rarely cover all of them. Due to the harsh thermal stress during baking, sourdough technology along with microencapsulation of probiotics, has been studied as an alternative to enhance its nutritional values and increase cell viability, though in few occasions. The potential functional baked goods have maintained acceptable physical characteristics and sensorial acceptability, while in some cases an improvement is seen due to the effect of probiotics and prebiotics. The results obtained from several studies done, have shown the viability of developing functional bakery products by applying prebiotics or probiotics. This could be used as an encouragement for more research to be done in this topic.
Full Text Available Rheological properties are very important parameters in the production of products with high-quality and desirable texture. So far, many attempts to produce low-calorie milk chocolate have not succeeded. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of sugar substitutes on rheological characteristics of prebiotic milk chocolate using Simplex-lattice mixture design. For doing this, a prebiotic compound (inulin with two bulking agents (polydextrose and maltodextrin at different levels (0–100 % along with sucralose were used. Fifteen formulations covering the entire range of a triangular simplex were examined in order to find the optimum levels. All chocolates showed thixotropic and shear thinning behaviour and among the evaluated mathematical models, Casson model showed the best fitting for predicting rheological properties. According to our findings, chocolate formulations containing high levels of sugar substitutes (where a single component predominated had higher moisture content, Casson viscosity and yield stress than others, including the control. In contrast, the lowest moisture content, Casson viscosity and yield stress were observed at medium levels. Therefore, the optimum values for substitution of sucrose and production of a low-calorie prebiotic milk chocolate are 8–28 % and 67–86 % for inulin, 0–19 % and 31–69 % for polydextrose and 0–47 % for maltodextrin, respectively.
Joakim Mark Andersen
Full Text Available The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β-linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS, galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS. The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota.
Schreiber, Ulrich; Mayer, Christian; Schmitz, Oliver J; Rosendahl, Pia; Bronja, Amela; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Mulder, Ines; Sattler, Tobias; Schöler, Heinz F
The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis. Here we present evidence for organic compounds which were preserved in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz minerals from Western Australia. We found a variety of organic compounds such as alkanes, halocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes which unambiguously show that simple and even more complex prebiotic organic molecules have been formed by hydrothermal processes. Stable-isotope analysis confirms that the methane found in the inclusions has most likely been formed from abiotic sources by hydrothermal chemistry. Obviously, the liquid phase in the continental Archean crust provided an interesting choice of functional organic molecules. We conclude that organic substances such as these could have made an important contribution to prebiotic chemistry which might eventually have led to the formation of living cells.
Gonzalez-Ochoa, Guadalupe; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian K; Icedo-Garcia, Ramona; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia
Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. On the other hand, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in combination with prebiotics such as inulin, HMO, scGOS, lcFOS have been associated with improved generalized antiviral response and anti-rotavirus effect by the reduction of rotavirus infectivity and viral shedding, decreased expression of NSP4 and increased levels of specific anti-rotavirus IgAs. Moreover, these probiotics and prebiotics have been related to shorter duration and severity of rotavirus diarrhea, to the prevention of infection and reduced incidence of reinfections. In this review we will discuss in detail about the rotavirus pathogenesis and immunity, and how probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in combination with prebiotics have been associated with the prevention or modulation of rotavirus severe gastroenteritis.
Lerch, Mathias; Spoerri, Adrian; Jasilionis, Domantas; Viciana Fernandèz, Francisco
Reliable estimates of mortality according to socioeconomic status play a crucial role in informing the policy debate about social inequality, social cohesion, and exclusion as well as about the reform of pension systems. Linked mortality data have become a gold standard for monitoring socioeconomic differentials in survival. Several approaches have been proposed to assess the quality of the linkage, in order to avoid the misclassification of deaths according to socioeconomic status. However, the plausibility of mortality estimates has never been scrutinized from a demographic perspective, and the potential problems with the quality of the data on the at-risk populations have been overlooked. Using indirect demographic estimation (i.e., the synthetic extinct generation method), we analyze the plausibility of old-age mortality estimates according to educational attainment in four European data contexts with different quality issues: deterministic and probabilistic linkage of deaths, as well as differences in the methodology of the collection of educational data. We evaluate whether the at-risk population according to educational attainment is misclassified and/or misestimated, correct these biases, and estimate the education-specific linkage rates of deaths. The results confirm a good linkage of death records within different educational strata, even when probabilistic matching is used. The main biases in mortality estimates concern the classification and estimation of the person-years of exposure according to educational attainment. Changes in the census questions about educational attainment led to inconsistent information over time, which misclassified the at-risk population. Sample censuses also misestimated the at-risk populations according to educational attainment. The synthetic extinct generation method can be recommended for quality assessments of linked data because it is capable not only of quantifying linkage precision, but also of tracking problems in
Matsuki, Kazunaga; Chow, Tracy; Hare, Mary; Elman, Jeffrey L; Scheepers, Christoph; McRae, Ken
In some theories of sentence comprehension, linguistically relevant lexical knowledge, such as selectional restrictions, is privileged in terms of the time-course of its access and influence. We examined whether event knowledge computed by combining multiple concepts can rapidly influence language understanding even in the absence of selectional restriction violations. Specifically, we investigated whether instruments can combine with actions to influence comprehension of ensuing patients of (as in Rayner, Warren, Juhuasz, & Liversedge, 2004; Warren & McConnell, 2007). Instrument-verb-patient triplets were created in a norming study designed to tap directly into event knowledge. In self-paced reading (Experiment 1), participants were faster to read patient nouns, such as hair, when they were typical of the instrument-action pair (Donna used the shampoo to wash vs. the hose to wash). Experiment 2 showed that these results were not due to direct instrument-patient relations. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 1 using eyetracking, with effects of event typicality observed in first fixation and gaze durations on the patient noun. This research demonstrates that conceptual event-based expectations are computed and used rapidly and dynamically during on-line language comprehension. We discuss relationships among plausibility and predictability, as well as their implications. We conclude that selectional restrictions may be best considered as event-based conceptual knowledge rather than lexical-grammatical knowledge.
Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Rujia; Li, Song; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Le, Weidong
Sleep disorders are among the most common clinical problems and possess a significant concern for the geriatric population. More importantly, while around 40% of elderly adults have sleep-related complaints, sleep disorders are more frequently associated with co-morbidities including age-related neurodegenerative diseases and mild cognitive impairment. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that disturbed sleep may not only serve as the consequence of brain atrophy, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia and, therefore, significantly increase dementia risk. Since the current therapeutic interventions lack efficacies to prevent, delay or reverse the pathological progress of dementia, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms by which sleep disorders interact with the pathogenesis of dementia will provide possible targets for the prevention and treatment of dementia. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological roles of sleep in learning/memory, and specifically update the recent research evidence demonstrating the association between sleep disorders and dementia. Plausible mechanisms are further discussed. Moreover, we also evaluate the possibility of sleep therapy as a potential intervention for dementia.
Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B.; Fresco, David M.; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A.; Fulwiler, Carl
The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy. PMID:26482755
Benjamin, Sailas; Masai, Eiji; Kamimura, Naofumi; Takahashi, Kenji; Anderson, Robin C; Faisal, Panichikkal Abdul
Disregarding the rising alarm on the hazardous nature of various phthalates and their metabolites, ruthless usage of phthalates as plasticizer in plastics and as additives in innumerable consumer products continues due low their cost, attractive properties, and lack of suitable alternatives. Globally, in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, in vivo preclinical and limited clinical or epidemiological human studies showed that over a dozen phthalates and their metabolites ingested passively by man from the general environment, foods, drinks, breathing air, and routine household products cause various dysfunctions. Thus, this review addresses the health hazards posed by phthalates on children and adolescents, epigenetic modulation, reproductive toxicity in women and men; insulin resistance and type II diabetes; overweight and obesity, skeletal anomalies, allergy and asthma, cancer, etc., coupled with the description of major phthalates and their general uses, phthalate exposure routes, biomonitoring and risk assessment, special account on endocrine disruption; and finally, a plausible molecular cross-talk with a unique mechanism of action. This clinically focused comprehensive review on the hazards of phthalates would benefit the general population, academia, scientists, clinicians, environmentalists, and law or policy makers to decide upon whether usage of phthalates to be continued swiftly without sufficient deceleration or regulated by law or to be phased out from earth forever. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Azmat, Rafia; Hamid, Neelofer
Dual symbioses of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi with growth of Momordica charantia were elucidated in terms of plausible mechanism of biosorption in this article. The experiment was conducted in green house and mixed inoculum of the VAM fungi was used in the three replicates. Results demonstrated that the starch contents were the main source of C for the VAM to builds their hyphae. The increased plant height and leaves surface area were explained in relation with an increase in the photosynthetic rates to produce rapid sugar contents for the survival of plants. A decreased in protein, and amino acid contents and increased proline and protease activity in VAM plants suggested that these contents were the main bio-indicators of the plants under biotic stress. The decline in protein may be due to the degradation of these contents, which later on converted into dextrose where it can easily be absorbed by for the period of symbioses. A mechanism of C chemisorption in relation with physiology and morphology of plant was discussed.
Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam; Curtis, Nigel
Non-specific effects (NSE) or heterologous effects of vaccines are proposed to explain observations in some studies that certain vaccines have an impact beyond the direct protection against infection with the specific pathogen for which the vaccines were designed. The importance and implications of such effects remain controversial. There are several known immunological mechanisms which could lead to NSE, since it is widely recognised that the generation of specific immunity is initiated by non-specific innate immune mechanisms that may also have wider effects on adaptive immune function. However, there are no published studies that demonstrate a mechanistic link between such immunological phenomena and clinically relevant NSE in humans. While it is highly plausible that some vaccines do have NSE, their magnitude and duration, and thus importance, remain uncertain. Although the WHO recently concluded that current evidence does not justify changes to immunisation policy, further studies of sufficient size and quality are needed to assess the importance of NSE for all-cause mortality. This could provide insights into vaccine immunobiology with important implications for infant health and survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Yezaz A Ghouri, David M Richards, Erik F Rahimi, Joseph T Krill, Katherine A Jelinek, Andrew W DuPont The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA Background: Probiotics are microorganisms that are ingested either in combination or as a single organism in an effort to normalize intestinal microbiota and potentially improve intestinal barrier function. Recent evidence has suggested that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD may result from an inappropriate immunologic response to intestinal bacteria and a disruption in the balance of the gastrointestinal microbiota in genetically susceptible individuals. Prebiotics, synbiotics, and probiotics have all been studied with growing interest as adjuncts to standard therapies for IBD. In general, probiotics have been shown to be well-tolerated with few side effects, making them a potential attractive treatment option in the management of IBD. Aim: To perform a systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in IBD. Results: In our systematic review we found 14 studies in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD, 21 studies in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and five studies in patients with pouchitis. These were randomized controlled trials using probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics. In patients with CD, multiple studies comparing probiotics and placebo showed no significant difference in clinical outcomes. Adding a probiotic to conventional treatment improved the overall induction of remission rates among patients with UC. There was also a similar benefit in maintaining remission in UC. Probiotics have also shown some efficacy in the treatment of pouchitis after antibiotic-induced remission. Conclusions: To date, there is insufficient data to recommend probiotics for use in CD. There is evidence to support the use of probiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in UC and pouchitis. Future quality studies are
Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning , which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning , which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15
Reis, José Maciel Caldas Dos; Pinheiro, Maurício Fortuna; Oti, André Takashi; Feitosa-Junior, Denilson José Silva; Pantoja, Mauro de Souza; Barros, Rui Sérgio Monteiro
Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods. Electronic consultation was conducted (online) in the main public databases of patents in Brazil (INPI), United States (USPTO) and the European Patent Bank (EPO). The research involved the period from January 2014 to July 2015, being used in the title fields and summary of patents, the following descriptors in INPI "prebiotic", "prebiotic" "probiotics", "probiotic" and the USPTO and EPO: "prebiotic", "prebiotics", "probiotic", "probiotics". This search haven't found any deposit at the brazilian patents website (INPI) in this period; US Patent &Trademark Office had registered 60 titles in patents and the European Patent Office (EPO) showed 10 documents on the issue. Information technology offered by genetic engineering, biotechnology and nanotechnology deposited in the form of titles and abstracts of patents in relation to early nutritional intervention as functional foods, has increasingly required to decrease the risks and control the progression of health problems. But, the existing summaries, although attractive and promising in this sense, are still incipient to recommend them safely as a therapeutic tool. Therefore, they should be seen more as diet elements and healthy lifestyles. A alimentação é fator primordial tanto na prevenção quanto na promoção para a saúde humana. Dentre os alimentos funcionais destacam-se os probióticos e prebióticos. Os bancos de dados de patentes representam a maior fonte de informação tecnológica acerca de inovação em nível mundial
Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A
The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R
Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that favourably modulate the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to develop a functional prebiotic bread using Bimuno®, (galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) mixture), for modulation of the gut microbiota in vitro in individuals at risk of metabolic syndrome. A control bread, (no added prebiotic) and positive control bread (containing equivalent carbohydrate to B-GOS bread) were also developed. A 3-stage continuous in vitro colonic model was used to assess prebiotic functionality of the breads. Bacteria were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography. Ion-exchange chromatography was used to determine GOS concentration after bread production. Following B-GOS bread fermentation numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher compared to controls. There was no significant degradation of B-GOS during bread manufacture, indicating GOS withstood the manufacturing process. Furthermore, based on previous research, increased bifidobacteria and butyrate levels could be of benefit to those with obesity related conditions. Our findings support utilization of prebiotic enriched bread for improving gastrointestinal health. PMID:26099034
Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J
Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar
Full Text Available Introduction: Modulation of intestinal microbiota toward potentially beneficial communities (probiotics positively affects fish physiology and health status. Different prebiotics showed contradictory effects on intestinal microbiota. The present study investigates the effects of different levels of two prebiotics, galacto- and fructooligosaccharide on intestinal microbiota of Caspian roach fry which is a commercially valuable species of Caspian sea. Materials and methods: The study was performed as a randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications in which Caspian roach were fed different levels, 0, 1, and 2% of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide prebiotics for 6 weeks. At the end of the trial culture, analysis of intestinal microbiota include lactic acid bacteria levels, total bacteria as well as proportion of LAB were performed by using MRS agar, Plate count agar media. Results: Administration of different levels of galacto- and fructooligosaccharide had no significant effects on total bacteria of intestinal microbiota (P > 0.05. The lactic acid bacteria levels significantly increased compared to control group following prebiotics administration in diet (P > 0.05. LAB levels in galactooligosaccharide treatment were higher than those of fructooligosaccharide treatment. The highest LAB proportion in intestinal microbiota was observed in roach fed diet which contains 2% galactooligosaccharide (P > 0.05. Discussion and conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that prebiotics can be used for modulation of Caspian roach intestinal microbiota toward beneficial bacterial communities. Also, the results showed that galactooligosaccharide was more efficient than fructooligosaccharide in case of modulation of intestinal microbiota and elevation of LAB levels.
Wiebe, Keith; Islam, Shahnila; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Biewald, Anne; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald; Tabeau, Andrzej; Van Meijl, Hans; Van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Willenbockel, Dirk
Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and input data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. This paper extends that analysis to explore a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from multiple climate and economic models are combined to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on agricultural yields, area, production, consumption, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar crops to 2050. We find that climate impacts on global average yields, area, production and consumption are similar across shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP 1, 2 and 3, as we implement them based on population, income and productivity drivers), except when changes in trade policies are included. Impacts on trade and prices are higher for SSP 3 than SSP 2, and higher for SSP 2 than for SSP 1. Climate impacts for all variables are similar across low to moderate emissions pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0), but increase for a higher emissions pathway (RCP 8.5). It is important to note that these global averages may hide regional variations. Projected reductions in agricultural yields due to climate change by 2050 are larger for some crops than those estimated for the past half century, but smaller than projected increases to 2050 due to rising demand and intrinsic productivity growth. Results illustrate the sensitivity of climate change impacts to differences in socioeconomic and emissions pathways. Yield impacts increase at high emissions levels and vary with changes in population, income and technology, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables. (paper)
Willis, Craig K R; Menzies, Allyson K; Boyles, Justin G; Wojciechowski, Michal S
White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused alarming declines of North American bat populations in the 5 years since its discovery. Affected bats appear to starve during hibernation, possibly because of disruption of normal cycles of torpor and arousal. The importance of hydration state and evaporative water loss (EWL) for influencing the duration of torpor bouts in hibernating mammals recently led to "the dehydration hypothesis," that cutaneous infection of the wing membranes of bats with the fungus Geomyces destructans causes dehydration which in turn, increases arousal frequency during hibernation. This hypothesis predicts that uninfected individuals of species most susceptible to WNS, like little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), exhibit high rates of EWL compared to less susceptible species. We tested the feasibility of this prediction using data from the literature and new data quantifying EWL in Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri), a species that is, like other European bats, sympatric with G. destructans but does not appear to suffer significant mortality from WNS. We found that little brown bats exhibited significantly higher rates of normothermic EWL than did other bat species for which comparable EWL data are available. We also found that Natterer's bats exhibited significantly lower rates of EWL, in both wet and dry air, compared with values predicted for little brown bats exposed to identical relative humidity (RH). We used a population model to show that the increase in EWL required to cause the pattern of mortality observed for WNS-affected little brown bats was small, equivalent to a solitary bat hibernating exposed to RH of ∼95%, or clusters hibernating in ∼87% RH, as opposed to typical near-saturation conditions. Both of these results suggest the dehydration hypothesis is plausible and worth pursuing as a possible explanation for mortality of bats from WNS.
Background We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Results Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm3 that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. Conclusion We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.
Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Glikman, Eilat; Koposov, Sergey
We present the discovery of a plausible super-luminous supernova (SLSN), found in the archival data of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, called PSN 000123+000504. The supernova (SN) peaked at m g < 19.4 mag in the second half of 2005 September, but was missed by the real-time SN hunt. The observed part of the light curve (17 epochs) showed that the rise to the maximum took over 30 days, while the decline time lasted at least 70 days (observed frame), closely resembling other SLSNe of SN 2007bi type. The spectrum of the host galaxy reveals a redshift of z = 0.281 and the distance modulus of μ = 40.77 mag. Combining this information with the SDSS photometry, we found the host galaxy to be an LMC-like irregular dwarf galaxy with an absolute magnitude of M B = –18.2 ± 0.2 mag and an oxygen abundance of 12+log [O/H]=8.3±0.2; hence, the SN peaked at M g < –21.3 mag. Our SLSN follows the relation for the most energetic/super-luminous SNe exploding in low-metallicity environments, but we found no clear evidence for SLSNe to explode in low-luminosity (dwarf) galaxies only. The available information on the PSN 000123+000504 light curve suggests the magnetar-powered model as a likely scenario of this event. This SLSN is a new addition to a quickly growing family of super-luminous SNe.
Wei, Hui; Dai, Dawei; Bu, Yijie
A human's, or lower insects', behavior is dominated by its nervous system. Each stable behavior has its own inner steps and control rules, and is regulated by a neural circuit. Understanding how the brain influences perception, thought, and behavior is a central mandate of neuroscience. The phototactic flight of insects is a widely observed deterministic behavior. Since its movement is not stochastic, the behavior should be dominated by a neural circuit. Based on the basic firing characteristics of biological neurons and the neural circuit's constitution, we designed a plausible neural circuit for this phototactic behavior from logic perspective. The circuit's output layer, which generates a stable spike firing rate to encode flight commands, controls the insect's angular velocity when flying. The firing pattern and connection type of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are considered in this computational model. We simulated the circuit's information processing using a distributed PC array, and used the real-time average firing rate of output neuron clusters to drive a flying behavior simulation. In this paper, we also explored how a correct neural decision circuit is generated from network flow view through a bee's behavior experiment based on the reward and punishment feedback mechanism. The significance of this study: firstly, we designed a neural circuit to achieve the behavioral logic rules by strictly following the electrophysiological characteristics of biological neurons and anatomical facts. Secondly, our circuit's generality permits the design and implementation of behavioral logic rules based on the most general information processing and activity mode of biological neurons. Thirdly, through computer simulation, we achieved new understanding about the cooperative condition upon which multi-neurons achieve some behavioral control. Fourthly, this study aims in understanding the information encoding mechanism and how neural circuits achieve behavior control
Pezdek, Kathy; Blandon-Gitlin, Iris; Lam, Shirley; Hart, Rhiannon Ellis; Schooler, Jonathan W
False memories are more likely to be planted for plausible than for implausible events, but does just knowing about an implausible event make individuals more likely to think that the event happened to them? Two experiments assessed the independent contributions o f plausibility a nd background knowledge to planting false beliefs. In Experiment 1, subjects rated 20 childhood events as to the likelihood of each event having happened to them. The list included the implausible target event "received an enema," a critical target event of Pezdek, Finger, and Hodge (1997). Two weeks later, subjects were presented with (1) information regarding the high prevalence rate of enemas; (2) background information on how to administer an enema; (3) neither type of information; or (4) both. Immediately or 2 weeks later, they rated the 20 childhood events again. Only plausibility significantly increased occurrence ratings. In Experiment 2, the target event was changed from "barium enema administered in a hospital" to "home enema for constipation"; significant effects of both plausibility and background knowledge resulted. The results suggest that providing background knowledge can increase beliefs about personal events, but that its impact is limited by the extent of the individual's familiarity with the context of the suggested target event.
Dewulf, E.M.; Cani, P.D.; Claus, S.P.; Fuentes, S.; Puylaert, P.G.B.; Neyrinck, A.M.; Bindels, L.B.; Vos, de W.M.; Gibson, G.R.; Thissen, J.P.; Delzenne, N.M.
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the contribution of the gut microbiota to the modulation of host metabolism by dietary inulin-type fructans (ITF prebiotics) in obese women. METHODS: A double blind, placebo controlled, intervention study was performed with 30 obese women treated with ITF prebiotics
Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...
Stam, Jose; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Garssen, Johan; Knipping, Karen; Sauer, Pieter J. J.
Background: Previous studies have shown, that prebiotics can modulate the immune response in infants at risk for allergy, leading to a lower incidence of atopic dermatitis. Few studies have evaluated the effect of prebiotic carbohydrates alone on the vaccine-specific antibody response as a marker
Wilbrink, Maarten Hotse; Ten Kate, Geert Albert; Sanders, Peter; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Sallomons, Erik; Klarenbeek, Bert; Hage, Johannes H; van Vuure, Carine A; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P
Decoration of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) with sialic acid yields mixtures of GOS and sialylated GOS (Sia-GOS), novel products that are expected to have both prebiotic and anti-adhesive functionalities. The recombinantly produced trans-sialidase enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS), an
Strube, Mikael Lenz; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Meyer, Anne S.
Prebiotics may be efficient for prevention of intestinal infections in humans and animals by increasing the levels of beneficial bacteria and thereby improving gut health. Using purified prebiotics may however not be cost-effective in the livestock production industry. Instead, prebiotic fibres may...... be released directly in the gastro-intestinal tract by feeding enzymes with a suitable substrate and allowing the prebiotics to be produced in situ. Using low doses, 0.03 % enzyme-to-substrate ratio, of the enzymes pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in combination with potato pulp, a low-value industrial by...... and is then followed by distribution through the small intestines. To our knowledge, this is the first paper describing targeted production of prebiotics in an animal model....
A snapshot into the uptake and utilization of potential oligosaccharide prebiotics by probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria as accessed by transcriptomics, functional genomics, and recombinant protein characterization
Andersen, Joakim Mark
and lifestyle diseases are currently well documented. Selective utilization, of primarily non-digestible carbohydrates, termed prebiotics, by probiotics has been identified as an attribute of probiotic action, however the molecular mechanisms of prebiotics utilization and in particular the specificities...... of carbohydrate transporters and glycoside hydrolases that confer this remain largely unknown, limiting a robust understanding for the basis of selective utilization of known prebiotics and the discovery and documentation of novel prebiotics. The aim of this Ph.D. thesis was to identify the genes involved...... with uptake and catabolism of potential prebiotics by the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 as model organisms, using DNA whole genome microarrays and by in silico pathway re-construction to identify key genes for further functional analysis by gene...
Murtini, Devi; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji
To investigate carbohydrate preference of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM15, six prebiotics, including two milk-derived prebiotics, galactooligosaccharides and lacto-N-biose I, and four plant-origin prebiotics, beet oligosaccharide syrup, difructose anhydride III, fructooligosaccharides, and raffinose, were examined. The strain utilized the milk-derived prebiotics at similar levels to glucose but did not utilize the plant-origin ones in the same manner, reflecting their genetic background, which allows them to adapt to dairy ecological niches. These prebiotics had little influence on the expression pattern of cell surface-associated proteins in the strain; however, an ATP-binding cassette transporter substrate-binding protein and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were suggested to be upregulated in response to carbon starvation stress.
Dateo, Christopher E.
We develop a reacting flow model to simulate the shock induced chemistry of comets and meteoroids entering planetary atmospheres. Various atmospheric compositions comprising of simpler molecules (i.e., CH4, CO2, H2O, etc.) are investigated to determine the production efficiency of more complex prebiotic molecules as a function of composition, pressure, and entry velocity. The possible role of comets and meteoroids in creating the inventory of prebiotic material necessary for life on Early Earth is considered. Comets and meteoroids can also introduce new materials from the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to planetary atmospheres. The ablation of water from comets, introducing the element oxygen into Titan's atmosphere will also be considered and its implications for the formation of organic and prebiotic material.
Michael P Friedmann
Full Text Available Enzymes are capable of directing complex stereospecific transformations and of accelerating reaction rates many orders of magnitude. As even the simplest known enzymes comprise thousands of atoms, the question arises as to how such exquisite catalysts evolved. A logical predecessor would be shorter peptides, but they lack the defined structure and size that are apparently necessary for enzyme functions. However, some very short peptides are able to assemble into amyloids, thereby forming a well-defined tertiary structure called the cross-β-sheet, which bestows unique properties upon the peptides. We have hypothesized that amyloids could have been the catalytically active precursor to modern enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we designed an amyloid peptide library that could be screened for catalytic activity. Our approach, amenable to high-throughput methodologies, allowed us to find several peptides and peptide mixtures that form amyloids with esterase activity. These results indicate that amyloids, with their stability in a wide range of conditions and their potential as catalysts with low sequence specificity, would indeed be fitting precursors to modern enzymes. Furthermore, our approach can be efficiently expanded upon in library size, screening conditions, and target activity to yield novel amyloid catalysts with potential applications in aqueous-organic mixtures, at high temperature and in other extreme conditions that could be advantageous for industrial applications.
Lambert, Jennifer E; Parnell, Jill A; Eksteen, Bertus; Raman, Maitreyi; Bomhof, Marc R; Rioux, Kevin P; Madsen, Karen L; Reimer, Raylene A
Evidence for the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging. Strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a healthier community structure are actively being investigated. Based on their ability to favorably modulate the gut microbiota, prebiotics may provide an inexpensive yet effective dietary treatment for NAFLD. Additionally, prebiotics have established benefits for glucose control and potentially weight control, both advantageous in managing fatty liver disease. Our objective is to evaluate the effects of prebiotic supplementation, adjunct to those achieved with diet-induced weight loss, on heptic injury and liver fat, the gut microbiota, inflammation, glucose tolerance, and satiety in patients with NAFLD. In a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (BMI ≥25) with confirmed NAFLD will be randomized to either a 16 g/d prebiotic supplemented group or isocaloric placebo group for 24 weeks (n = 30/group). All participants will receive individualized dietary counseling sessions with a registered dietitian to achieve 10 % weight loss. Primary outcome measures include change in hepatic injury (fibrosis and inflammation) and liver fat. Secondary outcomes include change in body composition, appetite and dietary adherence, glycemic and insulinemic responses and inflammatory cytokines. Mechanisms related to prebiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (shot-gun sequencing) and their metabolic by-products (volatile organic compounds) and de novo lipogenesis (using deuterium incorporation) will also be investigated. There are currently no medications or surgical procedures approved for the treatment of NAFLD and weight loss via lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of current care recommendations. Given that prebiotics target multiple metabolic impairments associated with NAFLD, investigating their ability to modulate the gut microbiota and hepatic health in patients
To review the role of human large bowel microbacteria (microbiota) in the glucose homeostasis, to address vitamin D (VD) and prebiotics interactions with microbiota, and to summarize recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of VD and prebiotics supplementation in prediabetes (PreDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Primary literature was reviewed in the following areas: composition and activity of human microbiota associated with PreDM and T2DM, interactions between microbiota and glucose homeostasis, the interaction of microbiota with VD/prebiotics, and RCTs of VD/prebiotics in subjects with PreDM or T2DM. The human microbiota is comprised of 100 trillion bacteria with an aggregate genome that is 150-fold larger than the human genome. Data from the animal models and human studies reveal that an "obesogenic" diet results into the initial event of microbiota transformation from symbiosis to dysbiosis. The microbial antigens, such as Gram(-) bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), translocate to the host interior and trigger increased energy harvesting and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation with subsequent inflammatory pathways signaling. The "double hit" of steatosis (ectopic fat accumulation) and "-itis" (inflammation) and contribution of "corisks" (e.g., vitamin D deficiency [VDD]) are required to activate molecular signaling, including impaired insulin signaling and secretion, that ends with T2DM and associated diseases. Dietary changes (e.g., prebiotics, VD supplementation) may ameliorate this process if initiated prior to the process becoming irreversible. Emerging evidence suggests an important role of microbiota in glucose homeostasis. VD supplementation and prebiotics may be useful in managing PreDM and T2DM.
Cardoso, Beatriz B; Silvério, Sara C; Abrunhosa, Luís; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R
β-galactosidase (EC 220.127.116.11) are interesting enzymes able to catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer reactions to produce lactose-based prebiotics with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus is described, for the first time, as an effective β-galactosidase producer. The extracellular enzyme production was evaluated in synthetic and alternative media containing cheese whey and corn steep liquor. Although β-galactosidase production occurred in all media (expect for the one composed solely by cheese whey), the highest enzymatic activity values (460U/mL) were obtained for the synthetic medium. Ochratoxin A production in synthetic medium was also evaluated and 9days of fermentation was identified as a suitable fermentation time to obtain a crude extract enzyme with mycotoxin concentration below the legal comparable value established for wine and grape juices (2ng/mL). The optimal pH and temperature for the crude extract enzyme was found in the range of 3.5-4.5 and 50-60°C, respectively. The β-galactosidase activity was reduced in the presence of Ba 2+ , Fe 2+ , Li + , K + and galactose, while additives (except for ascorbic acid) and detergents exhibited a positive effect on enzymatic activity. This enzyme was able to catalyze the synthesis of prebiotics, namely lactulose (2.5g/L) and a galacto-oligosaccharide (trisaccharide, 6.3g/L), either when whole cells or crude enzyme was used as biocatalyst. The lactulose production using fungal whole cells is herein reported for the first time. Additionally, A. lacticoffeatus was also found to produce an enzyme with fructosyltransferase activity and other prebiotics, namely fructo-oligosaccharide 1-kestose (2.4g/L). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ki Bae Hong
Full Text Available Galactooligosaccharides (GOS are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS. Following administration of 1 % (by mass of HP-GOS to rats, the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum and B. longum in the gut increased most rapidly up to 12 h, and thereafter the increase was slow. Therefore, 1 % HP-GOS was found to be acceptable for the growth of probiotic bacteria. Groups of animals that were orally administered HP-GOS and bifidobacteria during the study, and the group administered HP-GOS during the 2nd (days 13–15 and 4th (days 28–30 period of the study had significantly (p<0.05 higher numbers of bifidobacteria in faeces than groups receiving a single dose of bifidobacteria. HP-GOS affected the expression of genes encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY. There was a significant upregulation of GLP-1 and PYY mRNA with HP-GOS and bifidobacteria intake. We propose that the prebiotic properties of HP-GOS are potentially valuable for the production of functional foods for human consumption.
O. D. ZHURLOVA
Full Text Available The development of new physiologically functional ingredients allows us to expand the range of these additives and to attract additional non-traditional sources of raw materials. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of probiotic microorganisms in the gastro-intestinal tract. The chemical nature of the most prebiotics are carbohydrates nature polymers: dietary fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides. Among non-starch polysaccharides, arabinoxylan (AX, arabinogalactan (AG, and β-glucan are of paramount importance. Arabinoxylans are mainly found in cereals grains, for example, wheat, rye, barley, oat, rice, and sorghum. The current study is a review of literature and authors' own research on biosynthesis, chemical structure, production, physicochemical and physiological properties of arabinoxylans. The structure and molecular weight of AX are vital determinants of their physicochemical, technological and physiological properties. In the article is illustrated in detail the biosynthesis of arabinoxylan in a plant tissue, which makes it possible to understand the formation mechanism of complex structure of these polysaccharides. The main part of cereal grains arabinoxylans are contained mainly in the cell walls of starchy endosperm and the aleurone layer, in the bran tissues, and in the husk of some cereals. The amount of arabinoxylans in a particular tissue depends on the genus and species. However, the degree of branching was found to be lower in arabinoxylans from aleurone than in that from original bran. The molecular structure of arabinoxylans from wheat, rye, and barley is less complex than that from rice, sorghum, finger millet, and maize bran, since their side branches contain, besides the arabinose residues, small amounts of xylopyranose, galactopyranose, and α-Dglucuronic acid or 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic residues. In the review analyzed methods of obtaining water-soluble and water-unsoluble AX
de Cossío, Lourdes Fernández; Fourrier, Célia; Sauvant, Julie; Everard, Amandine; Capuron, Lucile; Cani, Patrice D; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates. We assessed the impact of chronic administration (8weeks) of prebiotics (oligofructose) on both metabolic (body weight, food intake, glucose homeostasis) and behavioral (increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired spatial memory) alterations characterizing db/db mice, as well as related neurobiological correlates, with particular attention to neuroinflammatory processes. Prebiotic administration improved excessive food intake and glycemic dysregulations (glucose tolerance and insulin resistance) in db/db mice. This was accompanied by an increase of plasma anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels and hypothalamic mRNA expression of the anorexigenic cytokine IL-1β, whereas unbalanced mRNA expression of hypothalamic orexigenic (NPY) and anorexigenic (CART, POMC) peptides was unchanged. We also detected signs of improved blood-brain-barrier integrity in the hypothalamus of oligofructose-treated db/db mice (normalized expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin). On the contrary, prebiotic administration did not improve behavioral alterations and associated reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis displayed by db/db mice, despite normalization of increased hippocampal IL-6 mRNA expression. Of note
Flávio Endrigo Cechim
Full Text Available World fish production are growing about 10% a year and Brazil presents potential to be the first one in fish production until 2030. However, intensification of aquaculture production systems expose fish to numerous stressors such as poor water quality, crowding, handling and transport which may negatively affect their growth and and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. This study was set out to determine de effects of increasing levels of mannanoligosccharides (MOS on growth of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR. Fish were fed during 60 days with a commercial diet (32%CP supplemented with 0.0 (control; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% dietary MOS (n=4. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. After 60 days feeding trial, fish were fasted for 24 hours and sedated for biometrical parameters to evaluate growth parameters. It was observed no influence (p>0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia growth parameters (weight gain, feed conversion rate, specific growth rate as well as for hepatosomatic index. Fish fed 0.4% dietary MOS showed increased (p<0.05 feed consumption (76.74 ± 3.98 when compared to fish fed control (unsupplemented diet (69.31 ± 1.11. MOS are indigestible glucomannoproteins, which provide mannose substrate upon which pathogenic gut bacteria selectively attach and prevents formation of mixed colonies leading to better gut health by increasing regularity, height and integrity of the gut villi and consequent better utilization and absorption of nutrients. Several authors found positive effects of MOS supplementation on fish growth and at same time, others
Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, John F.
Saturn as a system has two very exotic moons Titan and Enceladus. Titan, taking in energy from Saturn's magnetosphere, solar UV irradiation, and cosmic rays, can make HCN based molecules as discussed in earlier paper by Raulin and Owen. Space radiation effects at both moons, and as coupled by the Saturn magnetosphere, could cause an unexpected series of events potentially leading to prebiotic chemical evolution at Titan with HCNO from magnetospheric oxygen as the new ingredient. The "Old Faithful" model suggests that Enceladus, highly irradiated by Saturn magnetospheric electrons and thus having a source of chemical energy from radiolytic gas production, has episodic ejections of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and various hydrocarbons into Saturn's magnetosphere. The hydrocarbons do not survive transport through the plasma environment, but oxygen ions from Enceladus water molecules become the dominant ion species in the outer magnetosphere. At Titan, Cassini discovered that 1) keV oxygen ions, evidently from Enceladus, are bombarding Titan's upper atmosphere and 2) heavy positive and negative ions exist in significant abundances within Titan's upper atmosphere. Initial models of heavy ion formation in Titan's upper atmosphere invoked polymerization of aromatics such as benzenes and their radicals to make polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) , while a more recent model by Sittler et al., has raised the possibility of carbon chains forming from the polymerization of acetylene and its radicals to make fullerenes. Laboratory measurements indicate that fullerenes, which are hollow carbon shells, can trap keV oxygen ions. Clustering of the fullerenes with aerosol mixtures from PAHs and the dominant nitrogen molecules could form larger aerosols enriched in trapped oxygen. Aerosol precipitation could then convey these chemically complex structures deeper into the atmosphere and to the moon surface. Ionizing solar UV, magnetospheric electron, and galactic cosmic ray
Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.
The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.
Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
Background Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians? experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mech...
Welch, Vivian; Brand, Kevin; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Smylie, Janet; Wells, George; Tugwell, Peter
Systematic reviews have been challenged to consider effects on disadvantaged groups. A priori specification of subgroup analyses is recommended to increase the credibility of these analyses. This study aimed to develop and assess inter-rater agreement for an algorithm for systematic review authors to predict whether differences in effect measures are likely for disadvantaged populations relative to advantaged populations (only relative effect measures were addressed). A health equity plausibility algorithm was developed using clinimetric methods with three items based on literature review, key informant interviews and methodology studies. The three items dealt with the plausibility of differences in relative effects across sex or socioeconomic status (SES) due to: 1) patient characteristics; 2) intervention delivery (i.e., implementation); and 3) comparators. Thirty-five respondents (consisting of clinicians, methodologists and research users) assessed the likelihood of differences across sex and SES for ten systematic reviews with these questions. We assessed inter-rater reliability using Fleiss multi-rater kappa. The proportion agreement was 66% for patient characteristics (95% confidence interval: 61%-71%), 67% for intervention delivery (95% confidence interval: 62% to 72%) and 55% for the comparator (95% confidence interval: 50% to 60%). Inter-rater kappa, assessed with Fleiss kappa, ranged from 0 to 0.199, representing very low agreement beyond chance. Users of systematic reviews rated that important differences in relative effects across sex and socioeconomic status were plausible for a range of individual and population-level interventions. However, there was very low inter-rater agreement for these assessments. There is an unmet need for discussion of plausibility of differential effects in systematic reviews. Increased consideration of external validity and applicability to different populations and settings is warranted in systematic reviews to meet this
Rebouças, Marina Cabral; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Afonso, Marcos Rodrigues Amorim
The aim of this research was to develop a prebiotic beverage from a hydrosoluble extract of broken cashew nut kernels and passion fruit juice using response surface methodology in order to optimize acceptance of its sensory attributes. A 2(2) central composite rotatable design was used, which produced 9 formulations, which were then evaluated using different concentrations of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernel, passion fruit juice, oligofructose, and 3% sugar. The use of response surface methodology to interpret the sensory data made it possible to obtain a formulation with satisfactory acceptance which met the criteria of bifidogenic action and use of hydrosoluble cashew nut kernels by using 14% oligofructose and 33% passion fruit juice. As a result of this study, it was possible to obtain a new functional prebiotic product, which combined the nutritional and functional properties of cashew nut kernels and oligofructose with the sensory properties of passion fruit juice in a beverage with satisfactory sensory acceptance. This new product emerges as a new alternative for the industrial processing of broken cashew nut kernels, which have very low market value, enabling this sector to increase its profits. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Akbari-Alavijeh, Safoura; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Hashmi, Sarwar
We isolated and characterized pistachio hull polysaccharides (PHP). The PHP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly contained 75.50% (w/w) total sugar and 9.51% (w/w) uronic acid. As determined by GPC analysis, the polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 3.71×10 6 D (83.2%) was the most dominant fraction. Moreover, HPLC analysis indicated that PHP was predominantly composed of xylose, glucose, arabinose, and fructose with a molar ratio of 1.00:2.50:19.67:28.81. FT-IR and NMR analysis also confirmed the results obtained by HPLC and characterized preliminary structure features of the PHP. Functional properties of the PHP including water holding capacity (WHC: 2.44±0.05g water/g DM), and oil holding capacity (OHC: 11.53±0.04g oil/g DM) were significant compared to inulin used as reference prebiotic (pPHP remained 94.37% undigested in the simulated digestion process and stimulated the growth of L. plantarum PTCC 1896 and L. rhamnosus GG and increased the acetate, propionate and butyrate production over inulin in vitro. Totally, the PHP showed a considerable prebiotic capability and high WHC, OHC suggesting that the PHP is a potent pharmaceutical with good technological properties which can be used in food and drug industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A total of one hundred unsexed, day old and straight run commercial Cobb - 400 broiler chicks were randomly divided in to five groups consisting of twenty chicks in each group. The control group received only the basal diet (Group I and the treatment groups were administered with prebiotic (Lactose @ 2.5%, probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus @ 0.1% and their combination (Lactose @ 2.5% plus Lactobacillus acidophilus @ 0.1% in drinking water, respectively for Group II, Group III and Group IV and commercial product G-Probiotic Spl® (containing five species of probiotic organisms, three digestive enzymes and liver extract, @ 0.05 % in the feed to Group V from day one to 42 to evaluate the hematological parameters in broiler chickens such as total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, packed cell volume and total leukocyte count on day 21 and 42 of the experiment. There were non significant (P>0.05 differences between different groups on both the days of observation with respect to total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and packed cell volume. But, the total leukocyte count in treatment groups significantly (P<0.05 differed from control group on day 21 and 42 which may be possibly due to improved immunostimulatory effect and physiological well-being of the birds received prebiotic and probiotic. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 344-346
The formation of packets of parallel oriented platelets and separating distances of several angstrom units in montmorillonite-water systems produces an intrinsic inhomogeneity with respect to the proton donating power of internal and external zones. Stable packets can be induced by both inorganic and organic molecules or ions, in suspensions or in drying-out systems. The coexistence of zones with different proton donating power was demonstrated by the pH-sensitive color reaction of benzidine, where stable packets of montmorillonite platelets were formed by the use of either paraquat or diquat. The close proximity of the two types of zones, which can be of the order of several angstroms, produces the conditions which were defined by Katchalsky as essential for the polymerization of amino acids. Since these enviromental conditions are quite common in nature, both at present and in prebiotic times, it is proposed that the inhomogeneity of clay-water systems with respect to proton donating power should be taken into account in both theoretical and experimental efforts to demonstrate the catalytic activity of clays in prebiotic synthesis.
Kazemalilou, Sahar; Alizadeh, Ainaz
Chocolate milk is one of the most commonly used non-fermentative dairy products, which, due to high level of sucrose, could lead to diabetes and tooth decay among children. Therefore, it is important to replace sucrose with other types of sweeteners, especially, natural ones. In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the ingredients formulation of prebiotic chocolate milk, date syrup as sweetener (4-10%w/w), inulin as prebiotic texturizer (0-0.5%w/w) and carrageenan as thickening agent (0-0.04%w/w) in the formulation of chocolate milk. The fitted models to predict the variables of selected responses such as pH, viscosity, total solid, sedimentation and overall acceptability of chocolate milk showed a high coefficient of determination. The independent effect of carrageenan was the most effective parameter which led to pH and sedimentation decrease but increased viscosity. Moreover, in most treatments, date syrup and inulin variables had significant effects which had a mutual impact. Optimization of the variables, based on the responses surface 3D plots showed that the sample containing 0.48% (w/w) of inulin, 0.04% (w/w) of carrageenan, and 10% of date syrup was selected as the optimum condition.
Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo
Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual's quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.
Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra
This study assessed the effectiveness of presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics on reducing serum oxidative stress parameters. PubMed/Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched up to September 2016. English language randomized clinical trials reporting the effect of presybiotics, prosybiotics or synbiotic interventions on serum oxidative stress parameters in human adults were included. Twenty-one randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Two studies investigated prebiotics, four studies synbiotics and fifteen studies probiotics. According to our systematic review, prebiotic could decrease malondialdehyde and increase superoxidative dismutase, but evidence is not enough. In comparison with fructo-oligosaccharide, inulin is much more useful for oxidative stress reduction. Using probiotics with dairy products could reduce oxidative stress significantly, but probiotic in form of supplementation did not have any effect on oxidative stress. There is limited but supportive evidence that presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics are effective for reducing oxidative stress parameters. Further randomized clinical trials with longer duration of intervention especially on population with increased oxidative stress are needed to provide more definitive results before any recommendation for clinical use of these interventions.
Bellili, A.; Hochlaf, M.; Schwell, M.; Bénilan, Y.; Fray, N.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Mogren Al-Mogren, M.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Poisson, L.
The present combined theoretical and experimental investigation concerns the single photoionization of gas-phase acetyl cyanide and the fragmentation pathways of the resulting cation. Acetyl cyanide (AC) is inspired from both the chemistry of cyanoacetylene and the Strecker reaction which are thought to be at the origin of medium sized prebiotic molecules in the interstellar medium. AC can be formed by reaction from cyanoacetylene and water but also from acetaldehyde and HCN or the corresponding radicals. In view of the interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) experimental data obtained using synchrotron radiation, we explored the ground potential energy surface (PES) of acetyl cyanide and of its cation using standard and recently implemented explicitly correlated methodologies. Our PES covers the regions of tautomerism (between keto and enol forms) and of the lowest fragmentation channels. This allowed us to deduce accurate thermochemical data for this astrobiologically relevant molecule. Unimolecular decomposition of the AC cation turns out to be very complex. The implications for the evolution of prebiotic molecules under VUV irradiation are discussed
Altieri, Clelia; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena
This article reports on the effects of prebiotics on the growth/death kinetics, metabolism, and biomass production by 2 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (c19 and DSMZ 2601, isolated from table olives and purchased from a Public Collection, respectively). The research was divided into 3 different steps, in order to highlight the optimal combination for cell viability and experiments were performed under the conditions of an accelerated shelf life test; thus, 3 combinations were pointed out (fructooligosaccharides [FOS], 5 g/L; glucose + inulin, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L; glucose + FOS, 2.5 + 2.5 g/L). A sample containing only glucose was used as control. The results highlighted that the 3 combinations aforementioned prolonged cell viability over the time both under low and high inoculum conditions (3 and 9 log CFU/mL, respectively); however, FOS alone caused a reduction of biomass production, even if cell number was not affected by this compound. Therefore, as a final result of this research, the combination glucose + FOS could be proposed as a suitable mean to achieve an optimal production of biomass and prolong cell viability over the time. Food producers require a prolonged viability of probiotic bacteria in functional foods; this goal is usually achieved by refrigeration. In this article, the prolongation of cell viability through the addition of prebiotics was proposed. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Yoo, Ji Youn; Kim, Sung Soo
Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity). The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area. PMID:26999199
Ji Youn Yoo
Full Text Available Metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD, present an increasing public health concern and can significantly undermine an individual’s quality of life. The relative risk of CVD, the primary cause of death in T2DM patients, is two to four times higher in people with T2DM compared with those who are non-diabetic. The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been associated with dynamic changes in dietary macronutrient intake and lifestyle changes over recent decades. Recently, the scientific community has considered alteration in gut microbiota composition to constitute one of the most probable factors in the development of metabolic disorders. The altered gut microbiota composition is strongly conducive to increased adiposity, β-cell dysfunction, metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM and CVD through improvement of gut microbiota, which in turn leads to insulin-signaling stimulation and cholesterol-lowering effects. We analyze the currently available data to ascertain further potential benefits and limitations of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of metabolic disorders, including T2DM, CVD, and other disease (obesity. The current paper explores the relevant contemporary scientific literature to assist in the derivation of a general perspective of this broad area.
Bhushan, Brij; Nayak, Arunima; Kamaluddin
Origin of life processes might have begun with the formation of important biomonomers, such as amino acids and nucleotides, from simple molecules present in the prebiotic environment and their subsequent condensation to biopolymers. While studying the prebiotic synthesis of naturally occurring purine and pyrimidine derivatives from formamide, the manganese oxides demonstrated not only good binding for formamide but demonstrated novel catalytic activity. A novel one pot manganese oxide catalyzed synthesis of pyrimidine nucleobases like thymine is reported along with the formation of other nucleobases like purine, 9-(hydroxyacetyl) purine, cytosine, 4(3 H)-pyrimidinone and adenine in acceptable amounts. The work reported is significant in the sense that the synthesis of thymine has exhibited difficulties especially under one pot conditions and also such has been reported only under the catalytic activity of TiO2. The lower oxides of manganese were reported to show higher potential as catalysts and their existence were favored by the reducing atmospheric conditions prevalent on early Earth; thereby confirming the hypothesis that mineral having metals in reduced form might have been more active during the course of chemical evolution. Our results further confirm the role of formamide as a probable precursor for the formation of purine and pyrimidine bases during the course of chemical evolution and origin of life.
Bellili, A.; Hochlaf, M., E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, Université Paris-Est, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Schwell, M., E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Bénilan, Y.; Fray, N.; Gazeau, M.-C. [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR 7583 CNRS, Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, Universités Paris-Est Créteil et Paris Diderot, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Mogren Al-Mogren, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Guillemin, J.-C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Poisson, L. [Laboratoire Francis Perrin, CNRS URA 2453, CEA, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Interactions Dynamique et Lasers, Bât 522, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France)
The present combined theoretical and experimental investigation concerns the single photoionization of gas-phase acetyl cyanide and the fragmentation pathways of the resulting cation. Acetyl cyanide (AC) is inspired from both the chemistry of cyanoacetylene and the Strecker reaction which are thought to be at the origin of medium sized prebiotic molecules in the interstellar medium. AC can be formed by reaction from cyanoacetylene and water but also from acetaldehyde and HCN or the corresponding radicals. In view of the interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) experimental data obtained using synchrotron radiation, we explored the ground potential energy surface (PES) of acetyl cyanide and of its cation using standard and recently implemented explicitly correlated methodologies. Our PES covers the regions of tautomerism (between keto and enol forms) and of the lowest fragmentation channels. This allowed us to deduce accurate thermochemical data for this astrobiologically relevant molecule. Unimolecular decomposition of the AC cation turns out to be very complex. The implications for the evolution of prebiotic molecules under VUV irradiation are discussed.
Full Text Available The beneficial effects of carbohydrate-derived fibers are mainly attributed to modulation of the microbiota, increased colonic fermentation, and the production of short-chain fatty acids. We studied the direct immune responses to alimentary fibers in in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, we evaluated the immunomodulation induced by nine different types of low-digestible fibers on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. None of the fibers tested induced cytokine production in baseline conditions. However, only one from all fibers almost completely inhibited the production of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines induced by bacteria. Secondly, the impact of short- (five days and long-term (three weeks oral treatments with selected fibers was assessed in the trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid colitis model in mice. The immunosuppressive fiber significantly reduced levels of inflammatory markers over both treatment periods, whereas a nonimmunomodulatory fiber had no effect. The two fibers did not differ in terms of the observed fermentation products and colonic microbiota after three weeks of treatment, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory action was not related to prebiotic properties. Hence, we observed a direct effect of a specific fiber on the murine immune system. This intrinsic, fiber-dependent immunomodulatory potential may extend prebiotic-mediated protection in inflammatory bowel disease.
Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni K; Yáñez, Remedios
Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 48 h of incubation, the total SCFAs were 106.5 mM for quinoa and 108.83 mM for amaranth, in line with the decrease in pH. Considerable differences (p spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. Our research suggests that these pseudocereals can have the prebiotic potential and that their intake may improve dysbiosis or maintain the gastrointestinal health through a balanced intestinal microbiota, although additional studies are necessary.
Rodier, C.J.; Johnston, R.A.
A sensitivity analysis of plausible errors in population, employment, fuel price, and income projections is conducted using the travel demand and emissions models of the Sacramento, CA, USA, region for their transportation plan. The results of the analyses indicate that plausible error ranges for household income and fuel prices are not a significant source of uncertainty with respect to the region's travel demand and emissions projections. However, plausible errors in population and employment projections (within approximately one standard deviation) may result in the region's transportation plan not meeting the conformity test for nitrogens of oxides (NO x ) in the year 2005 (i.e., an approximately 16% probability). This outcome is also possible in the year 2015 but less likely (within approximately two standard deviations or a 2.5% probability). Errors in socioeconomic projections are only one of many sources of error in travel demand and emissions models. These results have several policy implications. First, regions like Sacramento that meet their conformity tests by a very small margin should rethink new highway investment and consider contingency transportation plans that incorporate more aggressive emissions reduction policies. Second, regional transportation planning agencies should conduct sensitivity analyses as part of their conformity analysis to make explicit significant uncertainties in the methods and to identify the probability of their transportation plan not conforming. Third, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should clarify the interpretation of ''demonstrate'' conformity of transportation plans; that is, specify the level of certainty that it considers a sufficient demonstration of conformity. (author)
Plaudis, H; Pupelis, G; Zeiza, K; Boka, V
Experience with administration of synbiotics (prebiotics/probiotics) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity. The aim of this trial was evaluation of the feasibility and perspective of early clinical application of oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplements in patients with SAP. 90 SAP patients were enrolled during the period from 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to the feeding mode. CONTROL (n = 32) group received standard whole protein feeding formula. SYNBIO (n = 30) and FIBRE groups (n = 28) received early (within first 24-48 hours) synbiotic or prebiotic supplements. Oral administration of synbiotics or prebiotics was commenced when patients were able to sip water. Daily provided average volume and calories of synbiotic/prebiotic blends were smaller compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.001. Oral administration of synbiotic/prebiotic supplements was associated with lower infection rate (pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis) compared to the CONTROL, (p = 0.03; p = 0.001), lower rate of surgical interventions, p = 0.005, shorter ICU (p = 0.05) and hospital stay (p = 0.03). Synbiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut resulted in reduced mortality rate compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.02. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut seems to be a potentially valuable complement to the routine treatment protocol of SAP.
Hoentjen, F; Welling, GW; Harmsen, HJM; Zhang, XY; Snart, J; Tannock, GW; Lien, K; Churchill, TA; Lupicki, M; Dieleman, LA
HLA-B27 transgenic rats develop spontaneous colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions (SPF) but germ-free rats remain disease-free, emphasizing a role for intestinal bacteria in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. Prebiotics are dietary substances that affect the host by
Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Sun Ae; Christensen, Karen; Ricke, Steven C
Prebiotics are defined as fermentable food ingredients that selectively stimulate beneficial bacteria in the lower gastrointestinal tract of the host. The purpose of this study was to assess growth performance of broilers and the cecal microbial populations of an antibiotic, BMD50, supplemented birds compared to broiler chickens fed the prebiotic, Biolex® MB40. Weight response data including feed conversion ratios (FCR), carcasses without giblets (WOG), wing, skin, white meat were collected during processing. Extracted DNA from cecal contents was utilized for microbiome analysis via an Illumina Miseq. In conclusion, white meat yield of Biolex® MB40 supplemented group exhibited significant improvement compared to both negative control (NC) and BMD50 supplemented groups. In addition, antibiotic significantly decreased level of Lactobacillus in 2 wk compared to other groups. A significantly higher percentage of Campylobacter was observed from the 4 wk old birds treated with antibiotic BMD50 compared to the NC and prebiotic group. Retention of broiler performance and improvement of white meat yield suggest that the prebiotic MB40 appears to be a potential alternative to replace the antibiotic growth promoter.
Full Text Available The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.
Hernández-Alcántara Annel M
Full Text Available Agro-industrial co-products derived of fruit processing represents an important source of bioactive compounds as fiber, antioxidants and prebiotics. The objective of this work was to determine the content of fiber, antioxidant capacity and prebiotic activity of three flours obtained from commonly co-products (banana peel, apple peel, and carrot bagasse. The results showed a higher total fiber content in carrot bagasse, and lower in apple peel. Significantly differences were found in antioxidant activity. Fruit co-products flours were a suitable carbon source increasing specific growth rate with a reduction in duplication time as compared to glucose. The prebiotic activity was positive in the three co-products, all flours survived at pH 1.0 and showed resistance to simulated gastric acid for about 60 min. Banana peel, apple peel and carrot bagasse showed to be a good source of bioactive compounds as fiber and antioxidants and can be used as prebiotics for lactic acid bacteria.
Cao, Yang; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products. PMID:29649123
Majumder, Avishek; Sultan, Abida; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa Rakownikow
subunit, galactokinase, galactose‐1‐phosphate uridylyltransferase and UDP‐glucose‐4‐epimerase, which all are potentially involved in lactitol metabolism. This first comprehensive proteome analysis of L. acidophilus NCFM provides insights into protein abundance changes elicited by the prebiotic lactitol....
Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Monacis, Noemi; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria
The aim of this study was to develop a functional fresh cream cheese with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 or Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 and prebiotics (inulin, FOS and lactulose). The research was divided into two steps: in vitro evaluation of the effects of prebiotic compounds; validation at laboratory level with production of functional cream mini-cheeses. Prebiotics showed a protective effect: B. animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 cultivability on Petri dishes was positively influenced by lactulose, whereas fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were the prebiotic compounds able to prolong Lb. reuteri DSM 20016 cultivability. At 30 °C, a prolongation of the death time (more than 300 days) was observed, while the controls showed death time values about 100 days. At 45 °C, death time values increased from 32.2 (control) to 33, 35, and 38 days in the samples added with FOS, inulin and lactulose, respectively. Lactulose and FOS were chosen to be added to cream mini-cheeses inoculated with B. animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and Lb. reuteri DSM 20016, respectively; the proposed functional cream cheese resulted in a product with favourable conditions for the viability of both probiotics which maintained cultivable cells above the recommended level during 28 days of storage at 4 °C with good sensory characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pruszynska-Oszmalek, E; Kolodziejski, P A; Stadnicka, K; Sassek, M; Chalupka, D; Kuston, B; Nogowski, L; Mackowiak, P; Maiorano, G; Jankowski, J; Bednarczyk, M
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 2 prebiotics and 2 synbiotics on the digestive potency of pancreas in 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, and 34-day-old cockerels. Prebiotics (inulin and Bi²tos) and synbiotics (inulin + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Bi²tos + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris) were injected in ovo into the air cell on the 12th d embryonic development. Their application increased the activity of amylase, lipase, and trypsin in the pancreas. The most pronounced changes were observed at the end of the investigated rearing period (d 34). The strongest stimulative effects on amylase were shown by both synbiotics, on lipase synbiotic Bi²tos + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, and on trypsin all the used prebiotics and synbiotics. Simultaneously, neither the absolute nor the relative mass of the pancreas in comparison to control group were changed. Also, the injected in ovo compounds did not cause a deterioration in the posthatching condition of the chicken liver, as determined by measurement of the activity of marker enzymes in the blood (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). Treatment with the prebiotics and synbiotics did not change the feed conversion ratio but Bi²tos (galacto-oligosaccharide) and inulin (fructan) + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis significantly increased final BW. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Hansen, Morten Ejby; Majumder, Avishek
Whole cell and surface proteomes were analyzed together with adhesive properties of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) grown on the emerging prebiotic raffinose, exemplifying a synbiotic. Adhesion of NCFM to mucin and intestinal HT-29 cells increased three-fold after...
Altieri, Clelia; Iorio, Maria Clara; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena
Eaten foodstuffs are usually fortified with prebiotic ingredients, such as inulin and oligofructose (FOS). The main goal of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of inulin and FOS with either suboptimal pH or storage temperature on the viability of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016. Data were modeled through Weibull equation for the evaluation of the microbiological shelf life and the survival time. Prebiotics enhanced the microbiological shelf life and enhanced the survival time of the target bacterium. The use of the factorial ANOVA highlighted that inulin and FOS exerted a different effect as a function of pH and temperature. Inulin prolonged survival time under acidic conditions, while the effect of glucose + FOS was significant at pH 8. Finally, temperature could act by increasing or decreasing the effect of prebiotics, as they could exert a protective effect at 30 °C but not at 44 °C. As the main output of this research, we could suggest that the effect of prebiotics on L. reuteri could be significantly affected by pH and temperature, thus pinpointing that the design of a symbiotic food should also rely on these factors.
Mika, A; Rumian, N; Loughridge, A B; Fleshner, M
The gut microbial ecosystem can mediate the negative health impacts of stress on the host. Stressor-induced disruptions in microbial ecology (dysbiosis) can lead to maladaptive health effects, while certain probiotic organisms and their metabolites can protect against these negative impacts. Prebiotic diets and exercise are feasible and cost-effective strategies that can increase stress-protective bacteria and produce resistance against the detrimental behavioral and neurobiological impacts of stress. The goal of this review is to describe research demonstrating that both prebiotic diets and exercise produce adaptations in gut ecology and the brain that arm the organism against inescapable stress-induced learned helplessness. The results of this research support the novel hypothesis that some of the stress-protective effects of prebiotics and exercise are due to increases in stress-protective gut microbial species and their metabolites. In addition, new evidence also suggests that prebiotic diet or exercise interventions are most effective if given early in life (juvenile-adolescence) when both the gut microbial ecosystem and the brain are plastic. Based on our new understanding of the mechanistic convergence of these interventions, it is feasible to propose that in adults, both interventions delivered in combination may elevate their efficacy to promote a stress-resistant phenotype. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morais, E C; Esmerino, E A; Monteiro, R A; Pinheiro, C M; Nunes, C A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, Helena M A
The addition of prebiotic and sweeteners in chocolate dairy desserts opens up new opportunities to develop dairy desserts that besides having a lower calorie intake still has functional properties. In this study, prebiotic low sugar dairy desserts were evaluated by 120 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale, in relation to the attributes of appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking. Internal preference map using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the consumer data. In addition, physical (texture profile) and optical (instrumental color) analyses were also performed. Prebiotic dairy desserts containing sucrose and sucralose were equally liked by the consumers. These samples were characterized by firmness and gumminess, which can be considered drivers of liking by the consumers. Optimization of the prebiotic low sugar dessert formulation should take in account the choice of ingredients that contribute in a positive manner for these parameters. PARAFAC allowed the extraction of more relevant information in relation to PCA, demonstrating that consumer acceptance analysis can be evaluated by simultaneously considering several attributes. Multiple factor analysis reported Rv value of 0.964, suggesting excellent concordance for both methods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Das, Deeplina; Baruah, Rwivoo; Goyal, Arun
An α-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities. Glucan-DM5 demonstrated 21.6% solubility, 316.9% water holding capacity, 86.2% flocculation activity, 71.4% emulsification activity and a degradation temperature (Td) of 292.2°C. Glucan-DM5 exhibited lowest digestibility of 0.54% by artificial gastric juice, 0.21% by intestinal fluid and 0.32% by α-amylase whereas the standard prebiotic inulin, showed 25.23%, 5.97% and 19.13%, hydrolysis, respectively. Prebiotic activity assay of glucan-DM5 displayed increased growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, but did not support the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall findings indicated that glucan from L. plantarum DM5 can serve as a potential prebiotic additive for food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nyangale, Edna P; Farmer, Sean; Keller, David; Chernoff, David; Gibson, Glenn R
In advancing age, gut populations of beneficial microbes, notably Bifidobacterium spp., show a marked decline. This contributes to an environment less capable of maintaining homoeostasis. This in vitro investigation studied the possible synergistic effects of probiotic supplementation in modulating the gut microbiota enabling prebiotic therapy to in elderly persons. Single stage batch culture anaerobic fermenters were used and inoculated with fecal microbiota obtained from volunteers after taking a 28 day treatment of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30 (BC30)) or a placebo. The response to prebiotic supplements fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in the fermenters was assessed. Bacterial enumeration was carried out using fluorescent in situ hybridisation and organic acids measured by gas chromatography. Baseline populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium lituseburense and Bacillus spp. were significantly higher in those having consumed BC30 compared to the placebo. Both prebiotics increased populations of several purportedly beneficial bacterial groups in both sets of volunteers. Samples from volunteers having ingested the BC30 also increased populations of C. lituseburense, Eubacterium rectale and F. prausnitzii more so than in persons who had consumed the placebo, this also resulted in significantly higher concentrations of butyrate, acetate and propionate. This shows that consumption of BC30 and subsequent use of prebiotics resulted in elevated populations of beneficial genres of bacteria as well as organic acid production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guangwei; Zhang, Wen; Ni, Li
Almonds contain considerable amounts of potential prebiotic components, and the roasting process may alter these components. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro fermentation properties and in vivo prebiotic effect of raw and roasted almonds. In vitro, predigested raw and roasted almonds promoted the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-14) and Bifidobacterium breve (JCM 1192), and no significant differences were found between these two nuts. In a 4-week animal trial, daily intake of raw or roasted almonds promoted the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. and inhibited the growth of Enterococcus spp. in faeces and caecal contains of rats. Compared with roasted almonds, raw almonds had a greater bifidobacteria promotion effect. Besides, significantly higher β-galactosidase activity and lower β-glucuronidase and azoreductase activities in faeces or caecal contents of rats were observed with raw almonds than with roasted almonds. While, in terms of metabolic effects, the ingestion of roasted almonds resulted in significantly greater intestinal lipase activities. Both raw and roasted almonds exhibit potential prebiotic effects, including regulation of intestinal bacteria and improved metabolic activities. The roasting process may slightly reduce the prebiotic effects of almonds but significantly improve the metabolic effects © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to obtain the optimum proportion of the carbon source and prebiotics for Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 by the central composite design (CCD. The effect of carbon source (lactose and two prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides on the BB01 were observed by measuring the OD600 value, pH value and the viable counts at 18h. The final optimized concentrations of carbon source and prebiotics were: lactose 1.6%, inulin 0.26%, and fructooligosaccharides 0.22%. The result indicates that the growth of B. bifidum BB01 shows an significant increase in the optimized culture medium (p < 0.05, the OD600 value reached 1.434 at 18h, which increased 6.58% compared to the control. And the viable counts of B. bifidum BB01 increased 24.36% and reached (2.17±0.06 ×109cfu/mL. The results show that the optimization of the carbon source and prebiotics using CCD in this study is workable and necessary.
Cardarelli, H.R.; Martinez, R.C.R.; Albrecht, S.; Schols, H.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Saad, S.M.I.; Smidt, H.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the assimilation of the prebiotics fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and Konjac glucomannan oligosaccharides (KGMO) by three human (H1, H2 and H3) and pig (P1, P2 and P3) faecal microbiotas in the presence of the potentially
Cao, Yang; Ma, Zheng Feei; Zhang, Hongxia; Jin, Yifan; Zhang, Yihe; Hayford, Frank
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes. Bioactive chemical compounds and extracts isolated from yacon have been studied for their various nutrigenomic properties, including as a prebiotic for intestinal health and their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. This article reviewed scientific studies regarding the bioactive chemical compounds and nutrigenomic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from yacon. These findings may help in further research to investigate yacon-based nutritional products. Yacon can be considered a potential prebiotic source and a novel functional food. However, more detailed epidemiological, animal, and human clinical studies, particularly mechanism-based and phytopharmacological studies, are lacking for the development of evidence-based functional food products.
Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.
Full Text Available Prebiotic carbohydrates derived from lactulose (OsLu are appealing ingredients that provide beneficial effects following their fermentation by the gut microbiota; however, more investigation is needed to evaluate their technological properties and applicability as a functional food ingredient in the market. In this paper, a comparative study on the rheological and thermal behavior of OsLu and a commercial mixture of galactooligosaccharides (GOS was carried out. In both cases, there was a strong influence of temperature and shear rate on viscosity. Viscosity of OsLu was higher than that of commercial GOS and variations and rheopexy cycles were also higher for OsLu. The exponential increase of viscosity associated with the structural changes took place later in OsLu than in commercial GOS, suggesting more stability to the shear over time in the former. More stability of OsLu was also observed in the study of the effect of temperature on viscosity. In addition, the thermal study indicated different behavior of both prebiotics under the assayed conditions, showing that OsLu have lower values of glass transition temperature (Tg than commercial GOS and that commercial GOS are more sensible against humidity. The results here obtained provide important information on the treatment and storage conditions of these prebiotic ingredients during the elaboration of functional foods.
Ranjan, Sukrit; Wordsworth, Robin; Sasselov, Dimitar D.
Recent findings suggest that Mars may have been a clement environment for the emergence of life and may even have compared favorably to Earth in this regard. These findings have revived interest in the hypothesis that prebiotically important molecules or even nascent life may have formed on Mars and been transferred to Earth. UV light plays a key role in prebiotic chemistry. Characterizing the early martian surface UV environment is key to understanding how Mars compares to Earth as a venue for prebiotic chemistry. Here, we present two-stream, multilayer calculations of the UV surface radiance on Mars at 3.9 Ga to constrain the surface UV environment as a function of atmospheric state. We explore a wide range of atmospheric pressures, temperatures, and compositions that correspond to the diversity of martian atmospheric states consistent with available constraints. We include the effects of clouds and dust. We calculate dose rates to quantify the effect of different atmospheric states on UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry. We find that, for normative clear-sky CO2-H2O atmospheres, the UV environment on young Mars is comparable to young Earth. This similarity is robust to moderate cloud cover; thick clouds (τcloud ≥ 100) are required to significantly affect the martian UV environment, because cloud absorption is degenerate with atmospheric CO2. On the other hand, absorption from SO2, H2S, and dust is nondegenerate with CO2, meaning that, if these constituents build up to significant levels, surface UV fluence can be suppressed. These absorbers have spectrally variable absorption, meaning that their presence affects prebiotic pathways in different ways. In particular, high SO2 environments may admit UV fluence that favors pathways conducive to abiogenesis over pathways unfavorable to it. However, better measurements of the spectral quantum yields of these pathways are required to evaluate this hypothesis definitively.
Slawinska, Anna; Plowiec, Arkadiusz; Siwek, Maria; Jaroszewski, Marcin; Bednarczyk, Marek
In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics in chickens allows for the development of intestinal microflora prior to hatching, which boosts their robustness. The goal of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile of the spleen (S), cecal tonsils (CT), and large intestine (LI) of adult chickens injected with prebiotics and synbiotics in ovo. On day 12 of embryo development, incubating eggs were injected with prebiotics: inulin alone (P1) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB2955 (S1), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) alone (P2) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 (S2); control group (C) was mock injected with physiological saline. Gene expression analysis was conducted using an Affymetrix Chicken Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEG) were detected in the cecal tonsils of P2 (378 DEG), and were assigned to gene ontology categories: lymphocyte proliferation, activation and differentiation, and cytokine production. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the DEG (CT of P2) indicated the inhibition of humoral and cellular immune responses, e.g., role of NFAT in regulation of immune responses, phagocytosis, production of nitric oxide, NF-κB, IL-8, and CXCR4 signaling. The DEG with the highest up-regulation from S1 and P2 were involved in gene expression (PAPOLA, RPL27A, RPLP1, and RPS29) from P1 and P2 in transport (BEST4, SLC9A3, and SLC13A2), metabolism (OGT, ALPP, CA4, and CA7), signaling (FGG, G3BP2, UBB, G3BP2, CACNA1G, and ATP6V0A4), and immune responses (MSMB, LGALS3, CABIN1, CXCR5, PAX5, and TNFRSF14). Two DEG influencing the complement system (SERPING1 and MIR1674) were down-regulated in P2 and S1. In conclusion, GOS injected in ovo provided the most potent stimulation of the host transcriptome. This is likely due to its strong bifidogenic effect, which triggers proliferation of indigenous embryonic microflora in ovo, and indirectly influences gene expression regulation in
Full Text Available Energy homeostasis is tightly regulated by the central nervous system which responds to nervous and circulating inputs to adapt food intake and energy expenditure. However, the rewarding and motivational aspect of food is tightly dependent of dopamine (DA release in mesocorticolimbic (MCL system and could be operant in uncontrolled caloric intake and obesity. Accumulating evidence indicate that manipulating the microbiota–gut–brain axis through prebiotic supplementation can have beneficial impact of the host appetite and body weight. However, the consequences of manipulating the implication of the microbiota–gut–brain axis in the control motivational and hedonic/reinforcing aspects of food are still underexplored. In this study, we investigate whether and how dietary prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS could oppose, or revert, the change in hedonic and homeostatic control of feeding occurring after a 2-months exposure to high-fat high-sugar (HFHS diet. The reinforcing and motivational components of food reward were assessed using a two-food choice paradigm and a food operant behavioral test in mice exposed to FOS either during or after HFHS exposure. We also performed mRNA expression analysis for key genes involved in limbic and hypothalamic control of feeding. We show in a preventive-like approach, FOS addition of HFHS diet had beneficial impact of hypothalamic neuropeptides, and decreased the operant performance for food but only after an overnight fast while it did not prevent the imbalance in mesolimbic markers for DA signaling induced by palatable diet exposure nor the spontaneous tropism for palatable food when given the choice. However, when FOS was added to control diet after chronic HFHS exposure, although it did not significantly alter body weight loss, it greatly decreased palatable food tropism and consumption and was associated with normalization of MCL markers for DA signaling. We conclude that the nature of the diet
Full Text Available In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics in chickens allows for the development of intestinal microflora prior to hatching, which boosts their robustness. The goal of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile of the spleen (S, cecal tonsils (CT, and large intestine (LI of adult chickens injected with prebiotics and synbiotics in ovo. On day 12 of embryo development, incubating eggs were injected with prebiotics: inulin alone (P1 or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB2955 (S1, galactooligosaccharides (GOS alone (P2 or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 (S2; control group (C was mock injected with physiological saline. Gene expression analysis was conducted using an Affymetrix Chicken Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEG were detected in the cecal tonsils of P2 (378 DEG, and were assigned to gene ontology categories: lymphocyte proliferation, activation and differentiation, and cytokine production. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the DEG (CT of P2 indicated the inhibition of humoral and cellular immune responses, e.g., role of NFAT in regulation of immune responses, phagocytosis, production of nitric oxide, NF-κB, IL-8, and CXCR4 signaling. The DEG with the highest up-regulation from S1 and P2 were involved in gene expression (PAPOLA, RPL27A, RPLP1, and RPS29 from P1 and P2 in transport (BEST4, SLC9A3, and SLC13A2, metabolism (OGT, ALPP, CA4, and CA7, signaling (FGG, G3BP2, UBB, G3BP2, CACNA1G, and ATP6V0A4, and immune responses (MSMB, LGALS3, CABIN1, CXCR5, PAX5, and TNFRSF14. Two DEG influencing the complement system (SERPING1 and MIR1674 were down-regulated in P2 and S1. In conclusion, GOS injected in ovo provided the most potent stimulation of the host transcriptome. This is likely due to its strong bifidogenic effect, which triggers proliferation of indigenous embryonic microflora in ovo, and indirectly influences gene expression regulation in
Verhaeghe, Tom; De Winter, Karel; Berland, Magali; De Vreese, Rob; D'hooghe, Matthias; Offmann, Bernard; Desmet, Tom
Despite the growing importance of prebiotics in nutrition and gastroenterology, their structural variety is currently still very limited. The lack of straightforward procedures to gain new products in sufficient amounts often hampers application testing and further development. Although the enzyme sucrose phosphorylase can be used to produce the rare disaccharide kojibiose (α-1,2-glucobiose) from the bulk sugars sucrose and glucose, the target compound is only a side product that is difficult to isolate. Accordingly, for this biocatalyst to become economically attractive, the formation of other glucobioses should be avoided and therefore we applied semi-rational mutagenesis and low-throughput screening, which resulted in a double mutant (L341I_Q345S) with a selectivity of 95% for kojibiose. That way, an efficient and scalable production process with a yield of 74% could be established, and with a simple yeast treatment and crystallization step over a hundred grams of highly pure kojibiose (>99.5%) was obtained.
Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.
The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.
Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi
Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.
López-Molina, Dorotea; Navarro-Martínez, María Dolores; Rojas Melgarejo, Francisco; Hiner, Alexander N P; Chazarra, Soledad; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno
A high molecular weight inulin has been prepared from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) agroindustrial wastes using environmentally benign aqueous extraction procedures. Physico-chemical analysis of the properties of artichoke inulin was carried out. Its average degree of polymerization was 46, which is higher than for Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, and dahlia inulins. GC-MS confirmed that the main constituent monosaccharide in artichoke inulin was fructose and its degradation by inulinase indicated that it contained the expected beta-2,1-fructan bonds. The FT-IR spectrum was identical to that of chicory inulin. These data indicate that artichoke inulin will be suitable for use in a wide range of food applications. The health-promoting prebiotic effects of artichoke inulin were demonstrated in an extensive microbiological study showing a long lasting bifidogenic effect on Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 cultures and also in mixed cultures of colonic bacteria.
Armstrong, Don L; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron
We present a new embodiment of the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) for the growth, replication and evolution of lipid vesicles based on a semi-empirical foundation using experimentally measured kinetic values of selected extant lipid species. Extensive simulations using this formalism elucidated the details of the dependence of the replication and properties of the vesicles on the physicochemical properties and concentrations of the lipids, both in the environment and in the vesicle. As expected, the overall concentration and number of amphiphilic components strongly affect average replication time. Furthermore, variations in acyl chain length and unsaturation of vesicles also influence replication rate, as do the relative concentrations of individual lipid types. Understanding of the dependence of replication rates on physicochemical parameters opens a new direction in the study of prebiotic vesicles and lays the groundwork for future studies involving the competition between lipid vesicles for available amphiphilic monomers
Nicolucci, Alissa C; Hume, Megan P; Martínez, Inés; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Walter, Jens; Reimer, Raylene A
It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity. We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7-12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI; 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared with children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of
Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota regulates many physiological functions, ranging from energy regulation and cognitive processes to toxin neutralization and immunity against pathogens. Accordingly, alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have been shown to contribute to the development of various chronic diseases. The main objectives of this review are to present recent breakthroughs in the study of the gut microbiota and show that intestinal bacteria play a critical role in the development of different disease conditions, including obesity, fatty liver disease, and lung infection. We also highlight the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics in maintaining optimal health and treating chronic inflammatory and immunity-related diseases.
Snytnikov, Valeriy; Stoynovskaya, Olga; Rudina, Nina
We have carried out scanning electron microscopic examination of CM carbonaceous chondrites meteorites Migey, Murchison, Staroe Boriskino aged more than 4.56 billion years (about 50 million years from the beginning of the formation of the Solar system). Our study confirmed the conclusion of Rozanov, Hoover and other researchers about the presence of microfossils of bacterial origin in the matrix of all these meteorites. Since the time of the Solar system formation is 60 - 100 million years, the primary biocenosis emerged in the protoplanetary disc of the Solar system before meteorites or simultaneously with them. It means that prebiological processes and RNA world appeared even earlier in the circumsolar protoplanetary disc. Most likely, this appearance of prebiotic chemistry takes place nowday in massive and medium-massive discs of the observed young stellar objects (YSO) class 0 and I. The timescale of the transition from chemical to biological evolution took less than 50 million years for the Solar system. Further evolution of individual biocenosis in a protoplanetary disc associated with varying physico-chemical conditions during the formation of the Solar system bodies. Biocenosis on these bodies could remove or develop under the influence of many cosmic factors and geological processes in the case of Earth. To complete the primary biosphere formation in short evolution time - millions of years - requires highly efficient chemical syntheses. In industrial chemistry for the efficient synthesis of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, methanol and other organic species, that are the precursors to obtain prebiotic compounds, catalytic reactors of high pressure are used. Thus (1) necessary amount of the proper catalyst in (2) high pressure areas of the disc can trigger these intense syntheses. The disc contains the solids with the size from nanoparticle to pebble. Iron and magnesium is catalytically active ingredient for such solids. The puzzle is a way to provide hydrogen
Aylward, Nigel; Bofinger, Neville
A set of chemical reactions is postulated to account for the formation of the macrocyclic porphin structure, basic to the pyrrole derivatives chlorophyll, protoporphyrin, heme and bilirubin, important in photosynthesis, respiration and digestion. A set of equations is given for the prebiotic synthesis of porphin derivatives from the simple molecules; cyanoacetylene, diacetylene, carbon monoxide and ammonia that have been detected in space. A number of isomers of hydrogenated porphin arise which may lose hydrogen to give ultimately porphin and its dehydrogenated derivative. The reactions, while not unique, provide a pathway which has been shown to be feasible from the overall enthalpy changes in the ZKE approximation at the HF and MP2/6-31G* level
Hernandez, Andres F.; Grover, Martha A.
A necessary, but not sufficient, mathematical condition for the coexistence of short replicating species is presented here. The mathematical condition is obtained for a prebiotic environment, simulated as a fed-batch reactor, which combines monomer recycling, variable reaction order and a fixed monomer inlet flow with two replicator types and two monomer types. An extensive exploration of the parameter space in the model validates the robustness and efficiency of the mathematical condition, with nearly 1.7% of parameter sets meeting the condition and half of those exhibiting sustained coexistence. The results show that it is possible to generate a condition of coexistence, where two replicators sustain a linear growth simultaneously for a wide variety of chemistries, under an appropriate environment. The presence of multiple monomer types is critical to sustaining the coexistence of multiple replicator types. PMID:25369813
van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek
Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations there of, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro-and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins...... of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis....... Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium...
Braegger, Christian; Chmielewska, Anna; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis; Pieścik, Małgorzata; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes
Infant formulae are increasingly supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics despite uncertainties regarding their efficacy. The present article, developed by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, systematically
Full Text Available Thirteen plants and their parts acquired from southern Thailand were investigated for their polysaccharide contentsand prebiotic properties. The fresh, ground samples were extracted with 50% and 95% ethanol and water at ambient and boilingtemperatures. The extracts were freeze-dried, digested with HCl buffer and -amylase, and indigestible polysaccharidecontents were determined. Base on extract yields and indigestible polysaccharide contents, ten samples were chosen aspotential sources of prebiotics. These included embryo, flesh and pericarp of palm fruit (Borrassus flabellifer L., skin, fleshand seed of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., flesh of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., jampadah (Artocarpusinteger Merr., and young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn., and okra pod (Hibiscus esculentus Linn.. Their extract yields (%dry wt were 26.54, 44.94, 51.69, 71.54, 59.43, 16.00, 55.73, 34.11, 22.66, and 12.39, respectively, and indigestible polysaccharidecontents (mg/g dry extract were 409.85, 334.87, 705.80, 689.08, 605.76, 403.44, 566.83, 542.56, 513.87, and 460.73, respectively.The amounts of oligosaccharide were 33.69, 47.20, 14.13, 0.00, 98.05, 29.35, 9.43, 2.40, 0.00, and 49.15 mg/g dry extract, respectively. Subsequently, five samples were chosen for further studies and possible commercial development based on theirextract yield, the amount and type of oligosaccharides, i.e. palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okrapod. Molecular weights of the polysaccharides from the five samples were 190-1,600 Daltons with a degree of polymerizationof 5-6.
Vandeputte, Doris; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Wang, Jun; Sailer, Manuela; Theis, Stephan; Verbeke, Kristin; Raes, Jeroen
Contrary to the long-standing prerequisite of inducing selective (ie, bifidogenic) effects, recent findings suggest that prebiotic interventions lead to ecosystem-wide microbiota shifts. Yet, a comprehensive characterisation of this process is still lacking. Here, we apply 16S rDNA microbiota profiling and matching (gas chromatography mass spectrometry) metabolomics to assess the consequences of inulin fermentation both on the composition of the colon bacterial ecosystem and faecal metabolites profiles. Faecal samples collected during a double-blind, randomised, cross-over intervention study set up to assess the effect of inulin consumption on stool frequency in healthy adults with mild constipation were analysed. Faecal microbiota composition and metabolite profiles were linked to the study's clinical outcome as well as to quality-of-life measurements recorded. While faecal metabolite profiles were not significantly altered by inulin consumption, our analyses did detect a modest effect on global microbiota composition and specific inulin-induced changes in relative abundances of Anaerostipes , Bilophila and Bifidobacterium were identified. The observed decrease in Bilophila abundances following inulin consumption was associated with both softer stools and a favourable change in constipation-specific quality-of-life measures. Ecosystem-wide analysis of the effect of a dietary intervention with prebiotic inulin-type fructans on the colon microbiota revealed that this effect is specifically associated with three genera, one of which ( Bilophila ) representing a promising novel target for mechanistic research. NCT02548247. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Austin T Mudd
Full Text Available Introduction: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment. Methods: Twenty-four male piglets were provided either TEST (n=12 or CONT (n=12 diet from 2 to 31 d of age. Piglets underwent spatial T-maze assessment starting at 17 d of age, were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at 30 d of age, and were euthanized for tissue collection at 31 d of age. Results: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed differences in radial (P = 0.032 and mean (P = 0.028 diffusivities in the internal capsule, where CONT piglets had higher rates of diffusion compared with TEST piglets. Voxel-based morphometry indicated larger (P < 0.05 differences in cortical grey and white matter concentrations, with CONT piglets having larger tissue clusters in these regions compared with TEST piglets. In the spatial T-maze assessment, CONT piglets exhibited shorter latency to choice compared with TEST piglets on d 2 of acquisition and d 3 and 4 of reversal. Conclusion: Observed differences in microstructure maturation of the internal capsule and cortical tissue concentrations suggest that piglets provided TEST diet were more advanced developmentally than piglets provided CONT diet. Therefore, supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may support neurodevelopment in human infants.
Full Text Available Introduction: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID are non-fatal, unknown etiology disorders with absence of a structural or biochemical explanation and accounting for up to 50% of gastroenterology referrals. Infant regurgitation, rumination and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Current researches suggest a role of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of FGID and qualitative and quantitative alterations in the normal gut flora in some functional disorder such as IBS, chronic constipation and formula-fed infants which suffering colic or regurgitation have been described. Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms, when they are ingested, have positive effects on the host’s health. They influence intestinal physiology by different ways. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which promote the growth and/or activity of probiotic bacteria. Evidences for the therapeutic or preventive effect of particular probiotic strains with or without prebiotics in FGID are available in many of articles. Results are encouraging in symptomatic alleviation and improvement in quality of life in IBS, functional constipation, functional abdominal pain, infantile colic, aerophagia and infantile regurgitation. Conclusion: Different probiotic strains have different effects, so selection of strains with specific health benefits is important. In general according to review of articles, although some of specific probiotic strains can provide a health benefit in these disorders, it seems, more high-quality and long-duration placebo-con-trolled trials are required. Keywords: Functional gastrointestinal disorders, Probiotic.
Patel, Rachna; DuPont, Herbert L
The gut microbiota has a significant role in human health and disease. Dysbiosis of the intestinal ecosystem contributes to the development of certain illnesses that can be reversed by favorable alterations by probiotics. The published literature was reviewed to identify scientific data showing a relationship between imbalance of gut bacteria and development of diseases that can be improved by biologic products. The medical conditions vary from infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea to obesity to chronic neurologic disorders. A number of controlled clinical trials have been performed to show important biologic effects in a number of these conditions through administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Controlled clinical trials have identified a limited number of prebiotics, probiotic strains, and synbiotics that favorably prevent or improve the symptoms of various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants, and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that probiotics alter gut flora and lead to elaboration of flora metabolites that influence health through 1 of 3 general mechanisms: direct antimicrobial effects, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity, and immune modulation. Restoring the balance of intestinal flora by introducing probiotics for disease prevention and treatment could be beneficial to human health. It is also clear that significant differences exist between different probiotic species. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics together with bioinformatics have allowed us to study the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host, furthering insight into the next generation of biologic products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions
Patel, Rachna; DuPont, Herbert L.
The gut microbiota has a significant role in human health and disease. Dysbiosis of the intestinal ecosystem contributes to the development of certain illnesses that can be reversed by favorable alterations by probiotics. The published literature was reviewed to identify scientific data showing a relationship between imbalance of gut bacteria and development of diseases that can be improved by biologic products. The medical conditions vary from infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea to obesity to chronic neurologic disorders. A number of controlled clinical trials have been performed to show important biologic effects in a number of these conditions through administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Controlled clinical trials have identified a limited number of prebiotics, probiotic strains, and synbiotics that favorably prevent or improve the symptoms of various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants, and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that probiotics alter gut flora and lead to elaboration of flora metabolites that influence health through 1 of 3 general mechanisms: direct antimicrobial effects, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity, and immune modulation. Restoring the balance of intestinal flora by introducing probiotics for disease prevention and treatment could be beneficial to human health. It is also clear that significant differences exist between different probiotic species. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics together with bioinformatics have allowed us to study the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host, furthering insight into the next generation of biologic products. PMID:25922396
Farcy, B. J.; Grubisic, A.; Li, X.; Pinnick, V. T.; Sutton, M.; Pavlov, A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.
Organic molecules, including amino acids and other biotic precursors, have been shown to form in the cooling and expanding plasma plume generated from hypervelocity impacts through the processes of atomization, ionization, and molecular recombination of impactor and impact surface. Various sources of carbon, such as atmospheric methane and carbonaceous material from meteorites, are known to yield cyano-bearing molecules and simple amino acids from impact plasmas. However, the role of mineralogical carbon has not yet been investigated in this process. We have performed experiments using laser ablation mass spectrometry (LA-MS) to study the negative ion yield of plasma-produced prebiotic molecules. A mixture of 10% NH4Cl and 90% CaCO3 was pressed into a pellet and ablated with a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, and the resultant negative ions were measured by a plasma analyzer quadrupole MS. Mass spectra show characteristic peaks at m/z = 26 and m/z = 42, indicating the presence of CN- and CNO- ions. When isotopically labeled 15NH4Cl and Ca13CO3 were used in the sample ablation pellet, the purported CN- and CNO- peaks shifted according to their added isotopic mass. Indeed, comparison of resulting ion formation from momentum-based techniques, such as massive cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry, show comparable fragmentation and recombination of CN- and CNO- ions. These findings show that CN- ions, as well as CN radicals and thus HCN, can be formed during meteoritic bombardment of carbonate minerals. During the late heavy bombardment of the earth from 4.1-3.8 Ga, impact-driven chemistry could have played a dominant role in shaping the earth's early prebiotic inventory and sources of chemical energy. As carbonate sediments are common in the Archean, carbonate deposits are most likely an important contributor of carbon for this process, along with atmospheric and meteoritic carbon sources.
Janardhana, Vijaya; Broadway, Mary M; Bruce, Matthew P; Lowenthal, John W; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Bean, Andrew G D
The recent European Union ban on the prophylactic use of in-feed antibiotics has escalated the search for alternatives for use within the poultry industry. When evaluating the efficacy of potential antibiotic alternatives on bird health and productivity, it is important to analyze the competence of the immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), because it is routinely involved in the surveillance of colonizing microbes as well as in interacting with the ingested feed antigens. Therefore, we studied the effect of the prebiotics mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the phenotypic and functional competence of immune cells in cecal tonsil (CT), which is a major GALT. Day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomized to 4 groups. Control chickens were fed the basal diet only. Chickens in experimental groups received 0.05 g/kg zinc bacitracin or 5 g/kg of either FOS or MOS in addition to basal diet. At the end of 25 d, our comparison of the experimental groups with controls revealed that the addition of prebiotics to diet resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of B cells and in mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes in CT. Furthermore, FOS treatment significantly enhanced the IgM and IgG antibody titers in plasma. These findings emphasize the need for the analyses of the gut immune function following treatment with novel feed additives. The knowledge obtained from such analyses may aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying the immune competence of the birds, which needs consideration when selecting and optimizing new feed additives instead of antibiotics for poultry production.
Tahir Rasool Qamar
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths around the globe. Bioactive food ingredients such as prebiotics have protective potential in colon cancer. Data on galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS against CRC are very limited and GalOS used in this study have β-1,6 and β-1,3 as major glycosidic linkages and, to our best knowledge, were never used before against any cancer treatment. This study aims to investigate the protective role of novel GalOS against various biomarkers of CRC including aberrant crypt foci (ACF, bacterial enzymes and short chain fatty acids (SCFA in a rodent model induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH. Inulin group was taken as positive control in present study to compare novel GalOS protective effects. GalOS doses of 76–151 mg and inulin doses of 114 mg were given to different groups treated with DMH. Results showed that ACF formation was significantly (p ≤ 0.05 less in high dose GalOS group (27.3%. GalOS also had protective effects against DMH-induced body weight loss and showed higher level of cecal and fecal SCFA (acetate, propionate and butyrate. High doses of GalOS also resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05 reduction of bacterial enzymatic activities. Increased populations of beneficial bacteria (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and decreased concentrations of harmful bacteria were observed in all prebiotics treatment groups. It can be concluded that novel GalOS exhibit robust protective activity against ACF formation in vivo.
Full Text Available In our study, we dwelled upon combinations of lactobacilli/prebiotics, considering four different strains belonging to the Lactobacillus rhamnosus species, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, and different prebiotics often found in commercial synbiotic products, such as inulin, lactulose and polyols mannitol and sorbitol. In the first step of the research, the survival, the growth kinetic parameters and the protein expression of Lb. rhamnosus strains cultivated in presence of the different prebiotics as a unique carbon source were evaluated. In the second step, the influence of pre-cultivation in medium added of metabolizable prebiotics on the strains survival to simulated gastrointestinal (GI transit, assayed without prebiotics addition, was estimated. Our results showed that the presence in the medium of certain low fermented prebiotics, specific for each strain, represents a stress factor that significantly affects the growth of Lb. rhamnosus strains, inducing the up-regulation of several proteins. In detail, all added prebiotics used as unique carbon source caused a growth retard compared with glucose, as testified by increased values of the lag phase and decreased values of the μmax. Mannitol evidenced intermediate μmax values between those registered with glucose and those detected with the other assayed prebiotics. Moreover, the cultivation with prebiotics induced the over expression of 7 protein bands. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the up-regulation of two specific stress proteins, called P4 (ATP-binding subunit Clpx and P7 (GrpE, and the death kinetic parameters (resistance and cells viability registered during the simulated GI transit of strains pre-cultivated with specific, low fermented prebiotics. Specifically, the highest resistance and gastric-vitality scores were highlighted for the strain AT195 when pre-cultivated in presence of sorbitol. Conversely, the lowest values were found in the case of DSM20021
Succi, Mariantonietta; Tremonte, Patrizio; Pannella, Gianfranco; Tipaldi, Luca; Cozzolino, Autilia; Romaniello, Rossana; Sorrentino, Elena; Coppola, Raffaele
In our study, we dwelled upon combinations of lactobacilli/prebiotics, considering four different strains belonging to the Lactobacillus rhamnosus species, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and different prebiotics often found in commercial synbiotic products, such as inulin, lactulose and polyols mannitol and sorbitol. In the first step of the research, the survival, the growth kinetic parameters and the protein expression of Lb. rhamnosus strains cultivated in presence of the different prebiotics as a unique carbon source were evaluated. In the second step, the influence of pre-cultivation in medium added of metabolizable prebiotics on the strains survival to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) transit, assayed without prebiotics addition, was estimated. Our results showed that the presence in the medium of certain low fermented prebiotics, specific for each strain, represents a stress factor that significantly affects the growth of Lb. rhamnosus strains, inducing the up-regulation of several proteins. In detail, all added prebiotics used as unique carbon source caused a growth retard compared with glucose, as testified by increased values of the lag phase and decreased values of the μmax. Mannitol evidenced intermediate μmax values between those registered with glucose and those detected with the other assayed prebiotics. Moreover, the cultivation with prebiotics induced the over expression of 7 protein bands. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the up-regulation of two specific stress proteins, called P4 (ATP-binding subunit Clpx) and P7 (GrpE), and the death kinetic parameters (resistance and cells viability) registered during the simulated GI transit of strains pre-cultivated with specific, low fermented prebiotics. Specifically, the highest resistance and gastric-vitality scores were highlighted for the strain AT195 when pre-cultivated in presence of sorbitol. Conversely, the lowest values were found in the case of DSM20021 pre
Full Text Available In the light of some recent hypotheses suggesting plausible unification of thermostatistics where Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein and Tsallis statistics become its special subsets, we consider further plausible extension to include non-integer Hausdorff dimension, which becomes realization of fractal entropy concept. In the subsequent section, we also discuss plausible extension of this unified statistics to include anisotropic effect by using quaternion oscillator, which may be observed in the context of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.
Sealey, Wendy M.; Conley, Zachariah B.; Bensley, Molly
Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health, and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westsl...
Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Knez, Marija; Stangoulis, James Cr
Currently, there is a lot of interest in improving gut health, and consequently increasing Fe absorption, by managing the colonic microbial population. This is traditionally done by the consumption of probiotics, live microbial food supplements. However, an alternative, and often very effective approach, is the consumption of food ingredients known as prebiotics. Fructans and arabinoxylans are naturally occurring non-digestible oligosaccharides in wheat that exhibit prebiotic properties and may enhance intestinal iron (Fe) absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prebiotics from wheat on Fe bioavailability in vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (broiler chickens, Gallus gallus). In the current study, the effect of intra-amniotic administration of wheat samples extracts at 17 d of embryonic incubation on the Fe status and possible changes in the bacterial population in intestinal content of broiler hatchlings were investigated. A group of 144 eggs were injected with the specified solution (1 ml per egg) into the amniotic fluid. Immediately after hatch (21 d) and from each treatment group, 10 chicks were euthanized and their small intestine, liver and cecum were removed for relative mRNA abundance of intestinal Fe related transporters, relative liver ferritin amounts and bacterial analysis of cecal content, respectively. The in vivo results are in agreement with the in vitro observations, showing no differences in the hatchling Fe status between the treatment groups, as Fe bioavailability was not increased in vitro and no significant differences were measured in the intestinal expression of DMT1, Ferroportin and DcytB in vivo. However, there was significant variation in relative amounts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal content between the treatments groups, with generally more bifidobacteria being produced with increased prebiotic content. In this study we showed that prebiotics naturally found in wheat grains/bread products
Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena Mara A; de Brito, Edy S; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Fonteles, Thatyane V; Rodrigues, Sueli
The effects of thermal (pasteurization and sterilization) and non-thermal (ultrasound and plasma) processing on the composition of prebiotic and non-prebiotic acerola juices were evaluated using NMR and GC-MS coupled to chemometrics. The increase in the amount of Vitamin C was the main feature observed after thermal processing, followed by malic acid, choline, trigonelline, and acetaldehyde. On the other hand, thermal processing increased the amount of 2-furoic acid, a degradation product from ascorbic acid, as well as influenced the decrease in the amount of esters and alcohols. In general, the non-thermal processing did not present relevant effect on juices composition. The addition of prebiotics (inulin and gluco-oligosaccharides) decreased the effect of processing on juices composition, which suggested a protective effect by microencapsulation. Therefore, chemometric evaluation of the 1 H qNMR and GC-MS dataset was suitable to follow changes in acerola juice under different processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanches Lopes, Sheila Mara; Francisco, Mariane Grigio; Higashi, Bruna; de Almeida, Rafaela Takako Ribeiro; Krausová, Gabriela; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; Oliveira, Arildo José Braz de
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is widely studied because of its foliar steviol glycosides. Fructan-type polysaccharides were recently isolated from its roots. Fructans are reserve carbohydrates that have important positive health effects and technological applications in the food industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) from S. rebaudiana roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures and evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of these molecules. The in vitro adventitious root cultures were obtained using a roller bottle system. Chemical analyses (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and off-line electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed similar chemical properties of FOSs that were obtained from the different sources. The potential prebiotic effects of FOSs that were isolated from S. rebaudiana roots enhanced the growth of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, with strains specificity in their fermentation ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tingirikari, Jagan Mohan Rao; Kothari, Damini; Goyal, Arun
The dextran produced by dextransucrase from Weissella cibaria JAG8 was subjected to physicochemical characterization and assessment of its prebiotic potential. Dextran displayed a solubility of 24.5% and a water holding capacity of 352%. The emulsion and flocculation activity of dextran were 89% and 92%, respectively. The degradation temperature (Td) of dextran was 353 °C. Dextran exhibited 33- and 12-fold less hydrolysis than inulin, in simulated gastric juice (pH 1.0) and α-amylase (pH 7.0), respectively. Dextran stimulated the growth of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly and was comparable to that of commercial inulin. However, the growth of E. coli was not enhanced by dextran or inulin. The dextran used in this study can be used as a potential prebiotic for health benefits.
Blanco, Celia; Bayas, Marco; Yan, Fu; Chen, Irene A
A central difficulty facing study of the origin of life on Earth is evaluating the relevance of different proposed prebiotic scenarios. Perhaps the most established feature of the origin of life was the progression through an RNA World, a prebiotic stage dominated by functional RNA. We use the appearance of proteins in the RNA World to understand the prebiotic milieu and develop a criterion to evaluate proposed synthetic scenarios. Current consensus suggests that the earliest amino acids of the genetic code were anionic or small hydrophobic or polar amino acids. However, the ability to interact with the RNA World would have been a crucial feature of early proteins. To determine which amino acids would be important for the RNA World, we analyze non-biological protein-aptamer complexes in which the RNA or DNA is the result of in vitro evolution. This approach avoids confounding effects of biological context and evolutionary history. We use bioinformatic analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to characterize these complexes. We find that positively charged and aromatic amino acids are over-represented whereas small hydrophobic amino acids are under-represented. Binding enthalpy is found to be primarily electrostatic, with positively charged amino acids contributing cooperatively to binding enthalpy. Arginine dominates all modes of interaction at the interface. These results suggest that proposed prebiotic syntheses must be compatible with cationic amino acids, particularly arginine or a biophysically similar amino acid, in order to be relevant to the invention of protein by the RNA World. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Legette, LeeCole L; Lee, Wang-Hee; Martin, Berdine R; Story, Jon A; Arabshahi, Ali; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M
Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that the consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy) and a phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women. A 4-week feeding study was conducted in 5-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats to examine the effect of genistein, Synergy (a prebiotic), and genistein and Synergy combined on bone density and strength, calcium metabolism, and lipid biomarkers. There were six treatment groups: sham control, OVX control, OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections, and OVX rats receiving an AIN-93M diet supplement with 200 ppm genistein, with 5% Synergy or with 200 ppm genistein and 5% Synergy combined. The rats receiving genistein had significantly lower total serum cholesterol concentrations than OVX rats in the control group (17%), OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections (14%), and OVX rats fed the 5% Synergy diet (19%). Consumption of Synergy improved calcium absorption efficiency (41%) compared with nonconsumption (OVX control). Sham control rats had a significantly higher femoral bone density, as determined by underwater weighing, than did the rats in all of the OVX groups. Genistein consumption restored total and trabecular bone mineral density at the distal femur similar to the levels of sham rats. Genistein supplementation imparts modest heart health benefits and improves bone geometry at the distal femur, and prebiotic consumption (Synergy) results in improved calcium utilization strength in ovariectomized rats, but the combination produced no synergistic effects.
Chung, Wing Sun Faith; Meijerink, Marjolein; Zeuner, Birgitte
Dietary plant cell wall carbohydrates are important in modulating the composition and metabolism of the complex gut microbiota, which can impact on health. Pectin is a major component of plant cell walls. Based on studies in model systems and available bacterial isolates and genomes, the capacity...... suggest the potential to explore further the prebiotic potential of pectin and its derivatives to re-balance the microbiota towards an anti-inflammatory profile....
Akoy, Rebin Aswad Mirza
Abstract The microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tracts of poultry play an important role in normal digestive processes and in maintaining animal health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics on the growth parameters, gut ecosystem, histology and immune function. In this study, four experiments one in vitro and three in vivo were conducted using specific pathogen free (SPF) and Hubbard broiler chickens. The first exper...
Full Text Available En la búsqueda de medidas de prevención de enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles, se piensa en los prebióticos como una forma efectiva, saludable y relativamente barata para la optimización de la absorción de Ca. El aumento de la expectativa de vida de la población y el incremento de enfermedades como la osteoporosis traen graves consecuencias a la salud del individuo, acarreando importantes desembolsos económicos. En esta revisión se condensa el conocimiento presente sobre el efecto fisiológico del consumo de carbohidratos prebióticos y su posible interferencia en la biodisponibilidad del Ca, como también las posibilidades de su empleo en estrategias para combatir las deficiencias del mineral. Se elaboró una recopilación de los estudios originales realizados con mayor impacto en el tema, dando preferencia a los publicados en los últimos 6 años. Utilizamos las bases de datos PubMed, Lilacs e SciELO, usando las palabras claves calcio, prebióticos e probióticos.The increased life expectancy and prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases have serious health and economic consequences on the population. Among the useful tools for preventing osteoporosis, prebiotics are thought to be an effective, healthy and relatively cheap way of optimizing calcium absorption. The objective of this review was to summarize the present knowledge on the physiological effects of prebiotic carbohydrate consumption and its possible interference with calcium bioavailability. The possibility of using prebiotics to fight calcium deficiency was also assessed. The keywords calcium, prebiotics and probiotics were used to search the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases for the most significant original studies on the subject published in the last 6 years.
Guerreiro, Inês; Couto, Ana; Machado, Marina; Castro, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on immune and hepatic oxidative status, and gut morphology of white sea bream juveniles. Four diets were formulated: a control diet with fish meal (FM) and plant feedstuffs (PF) (30FM:70PF) and three test diets similar to the control but supplemented with 1% of scFOS, XOS or GOS. Dietary prebiotic incorporation did not affect total blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood indices or differential white blood cell counts. Fish fed GOS had lower ACH50 and nitric oxide than fish fed control diet. XOS enhanced immune status through the increase in alternative complement pathway (ACH50), lysozyme and total immunoglobulin. The higher activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish fed FOS compared to the other dietary groups was the only related antioxidant enzyme affected by prebiotics in the liver. GOS ameliorated the precocious adverse effects of PF based diet on gut histomorphology, as denoted by the lower incidence of histological alterations in fish fed GOS for 15 days. In conclusion, XOS and GOS at 1% might have potential to be used as prebiotics in white sea bream juveniles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anney, Richard J L
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.
Widicus Weaver, Susanna
We propose a THz spectroscopic study of the small prebiotic molecules aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol. These target molecules are predicted as the dominant products of photo-driven grain surface chemistry in interstellar environments, and are precursors to important prebiotic molecules like sugars and amino acids. These molecules are also expected to be major contributors to the spectral line density in the submillimeter spectral surveys from the Herschel and SOFIA observatories. We will use our custom mixing source to produce these molecules through O(1D) insertion reactions with the precursor molecules methyl amine, methanol, and dimethyl ether, respectively. We will then record their rotational spectra across the THz frequency range using our existing submillimeter spectrometer. This research will increase the science return from NASA missions because the target molecules serve as tracers of the simplest organic chemistry that can occur in starforming regions. This chemistry begins with methanol, which is the predominant organic molecule observed in interstellar ices. Methanol photodissociation leads to small organic radicals such as CH3O, CH2OH, and CH3. These radicals can undergo combination reactions on interstellar ices to form many of the complex organic molecules that are routinely observed in star-forming regions. Our target molecules aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are some of the simplest molecules that can form from this type of chemistry, and serve as tracers of ice mantle liberation in star-forming regions. These molecules also participate in gas-phase reactions that lead to amino acids and sugars, and as such are fundamentally important prebiotic molecules in interstellar environments. These types of small organic molecules also have high spectral line density, and are major contributors to line confusion in observational spectral surveys such as those conducted by Herschel and SOFIA. Therefore, the proposed research
Stephanie M. Roto
Full Text Available The poultry industry has been searching for a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed as public concerns over the use of antibiotics and the appearance of antibiotic resistance has become more intense. An ideal replacement would be feed amendments that could eliminate pathogens and disease while retaining economic value via improvements on body weight and feed conversion ratios. Establishing a healthy gut microbiota can have a positive impact on growth and development of both body weight and the immune system of poultry, while reducing pathogen invasion and disease. The addition of prebiotics to poultry feed represents one such recognized way to establish a healthy gut microbiota. Prebiotics are feed additives, mainly in the form of specific types of carbohydrates that are indigestible to the host while serving as substrates to select beneficial bacteria and altering the gut microbiota. Beneficial bacteria in the ceca easily ferment commonly studied prebiotics, producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA, while pathogenic bacteria and the host are unable to digest their molecular bonds. Prebiotic-like substances are less commonly studied, but show promise in their effects on the prevention of pathogen colonization, improvements on the immune system, and host growth. Inclusion of yeast and yeast derivatives as probiotic and prebiotic-like substances, respectively, in animal feed has demonstrated positive associations with growth performance and modification of gut morphology. This review will aim to link together how such prebiotics and prebiotic-like substances function to influence the native and beneficial microorganisms that result in a diverse and well-developed gut microbiota.
Wendy M. Sealey
Full Text Available Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ± standard deviation of 0.5 g were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.9582 nor prebiotic inclusion (P=0.9348 and no interaction was observed (P=0.1242. Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P=0.4895, prebiotic inclusion (P=0.3258 or their interaction (P=0.1478. Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.0038 and prebiotic inclusion (P=0.0327 without significant interaction (P=0.3370. Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F.psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P=0.0345 while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P=0.0671. These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat trout to F.psychrophilum infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been published. The aim of the present study was to examine whether S. Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice could be prevented by administration of dietary carbohydrates with different structures and digestibility profiles. BALB/c mice were fed a diet containing 10% of either of the following carbohydrates: inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligosaccharide, apple pectin, polydextrose or beta-glucan for three weeks prior to oral Salmonella challenge (107 CFU and compared to mice fed a cornstarch-based control diet. Results The mice fed with diets containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS or xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS had significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 numbers of S. Typhimurium SL1344 in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes when compared to the mice fed with the cornstarch-based control diet. Significantly increased amounts (P < 0.01 of Salmonella were detected in ileal and fecal contents of mice fed with diets supplemented with apple pectin, however these mice did not show significantly higher numbers of S. Typhimyrium in liver, spleen and lymph nodes than animals from the control group (P < 0.20. The acute-phase protein haptoglobin was a good marker for translocation of S. Typhimurium in mice. In accordance with the increased counts of Salmonella in the organs, serum concentrations of haptoglobin were significantly increased in the mice fed with FOS or XOS (P < 0.001. Caecum weight was increased in the mice fed with FOS (P < 0.01, XOS (P < 0.01, or polydextrose (P < 0.001, and caecal pH was reduced in the mice fed with polydextrose (P < 0
Meneses, María E.; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R.
Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a progressive disease leading to requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT over a period of time. Limited availability and high cost of RRT in many countries necessitates the researchers to focus on either prevention or slowing the progression of CKD. High dose probiotics have been hypothesized to metabolize the nitrogenous waste products, thus delaying the requirement of dialysis. The purpose of this short term intervention study was to study the effect of probiotic-prebiotic therapy and diet counseling on nutrition, renal progression, and overall health of CKD patients. Thirty predialysis CKD patients (21 males, 9 females were included in the study. The diet charts were designed according to the underlying nutritional status and blood parameters. Calorie intake was 30-40 kcal/kg; proteins 0.6-0.8 g/kg (with at least 50% high biological value; potassium 1.5-2 gm./day; and phosphorus <1 gm./day. All patients were prescribed enteric coated gelatin capsules containing lyophilized Streptococcus Thermophilus, Lactobacillus Acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium Longum, in a dose of 15 billion colony forming units along with 100 mg Lactitol monohydrate as prebiotic. Each patient received two capsules three times a day with each meal. The mean age was 45 years (range 18-68. The statistical analysis was done using ‘RGui’ software version 2.13.0 and the outcomes were tested using paired t-test at 5% level of significance. The mean calorie intake increased from 1479 kcal/day to 1869 kcal/day (p<0.0005, with significant reduction in protein, phosphorus and potassium intake. There was significant improvement in body mass index (p=0.002 and serum albumin levels (p=0.005. All but four patients showed improvement or stabilisation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the mean GFR improved from 24.72 ml/min to 27.73 ml/min (p=0.03. There was also significant improvement in triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels
Majumdar, Liton; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Chakrabarti, Sonali
One of the stumbling blocks for studying the evolution of interstellar molecules is the lack of adequate knowledge about the rate coefficients of various reactions which take place in the interstellar medium and molecular clouds. Some theoretical models of rate coefficients do exist in the literature for computing abundances of complex pre-biotic molecules. So far these have been used to study the abundances of these molecules in space. However, in order to obtain more accurate final compositions in these media, we have calculated the rate coefficients for the formation of some of the most important interstellar pre-biotic molecules by using quantum chemical theory. We use these rates inside our hydro-chemical model to examine the chemical evolution and final abundances of pre-biotic species during the collapsing phase of a proto-star. We find that a significant amount of various pre-biotic molecules could be produced during the collapse phase of a proto-star. We thoroughly study the formation of these molecules via successive neutral-neutral and radical-radical/radical-molecular reactions. We present the time evolution of the chemical species with an emphasis on how the production of these molecules varies with the depth of a cloud. We compare the formation of adenine in interstellar space using our rate-coefficients and using those obtained from existing theoretical models. Formation routes of the pre-biotic molecules are found to be highly dependent on the abundances of the reactive species and the rate coefficients involved in the reactions. The presence of grains strongly affects the abundances of the gas phase species. We also carry out a comparative study between different pathways available for the synthesis of adenine, alanine, glycine and other molecules considered in our network. Despite the huge abundances of the neutral reactive species, production of adenine is found to be strongly dominated by the radical-radical/radical-molecular reaction pathways
Claudia C. Alves
Full Text Available Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by the presence of fat in hepatocytes because of decreased β-oxidation and increased lipogenesis. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotic have modulatory effects on intestinal microbiota and may influence the gut-liver axis. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotics, and synbiotic on liver histopathology and gene expression related to β-oxidation and lipogenesis after hypercholesterolemia.Methods: Wistar male adult rats (n = 40 were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (HPC (60 days. On Day 30 of HPC, rats were subdivided in 5 groups: negative control (NC: without HPC + Gv (distilled water; positive control (PC: with HPC + Gv (distilled water; prebiotic (PRE: HPC + Gv with prebiotic (Fiber FOS®; probiotic (PRO: HPC + Gv with probiotic strains Gv (Probiatop®; and synbiotic (SYN: HPC + Gv with synbiotic (Simbioflora®. All rats were sacrificed on Day 30 post-treatment. Blood was collected to verify total serum cholesterol, and liver tissue was sampled to verify histopathological changes and gene expression. Gene expression related to ß-oxidation (PPAR-α and CPT-1 and lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS and ME was evaluated in liver tissue using RT-qPCR.Results: PC had higher cholesterol levels when compared to NC. PRE and SYN rats had lower cholesterol levels than PC. PC rats showed more histopathological changes than NC rats; PRE and SYN rats showed fewer alterations than PC rats. PPAR-α was expressed at higher levels in SYN and PC rats compared with PRE and PRO rats. CPT-1 expression was similar in all groups. SREBP-1c was expressed at higher levels in PC rats compared with NC rats; levels were lower in SYN rats compared with PRO rats; levels were lower in PRE rats compared with PC and PRO rats. FAS was expressed at lower levels in PRE rats compared with SYN rats. ME expression was lower in PC rats compared with NC rats.Conclusion: Prebiotic and
Herbal medicine has long been contrasted to modern medicine in terms of a holistic approach to healing, vitalistic theories of health and illness and an emphasis on the body’s innate self-healing capacities. At the same time, since the early 20th century, the cultivation, preparation and mass...... production of herbal medicines have become increasingly industrialised, scientificised and commercialised. What is more, phytochemical efforts to identify and isolate particular ‘active ingredients’ from whole-plant extracts have intensified, often in response to increasing regulatory scrutiny of the safety...... and quality of herbal medicinal products. In this paper, I examine whether describing these developments in terms of a biomedical ‘colonisation’ of herbal medicine, as has been common, allows us to sufficiently account for the mundane collaborative efforts of herbalists, botanists, phytochemists...
Rivera-Huerta, Marisol; Lizárraga-Grimes, Vania Lorena; Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Tinoco-Méndez, Mabel; Macías-Rosales, Lucía; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Tapia-Pérez, Graciela Guadalupe; Romero-Romero, Laura; Gracia-Mora, María Isabel
Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin "Synergy 1®" and inulin from Mexican agave "Metlin®" in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra) in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis.
Full Text Available Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin “Synergy 1®” and inulin from Mexican agave “Metlin®” in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia. On the other hand, inulin treatments significantly increased bone densitometry (femur and vertebra in ovariectomized rats without altering the concentration of many serum biochemical parameters and urinary parameters. Histopathology results were compared between different experimental groups. There were no apparent histological changes in rats treated with inulins and a mixture of inulins-isoflavones. Our results showed that inulin-type fructans have health-promoting properties related to enhanced calcium absorption, potential anticancer properties, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of inulin as a prebiotic can improve health and prevent development of chronic diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis.
A.B.M. Rawshon Jamil
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the prebiotic effects of Spirulina as a growth and immunity promoter for broiler chickens. Birds (n=100 were randomly and equally distributed into four groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3 and fed on a diet containing 0, 2, 4 and 8 g Spirulina/kg feed respectively for 4 weeks. The body weight was significantly (P<0.05 increased in the treatment groups fed with Spirulina diet from 7th days to 28th days old. FCR was also significantly (P<0.05 decreased among the treatment groups. Hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05 increased except ESR which was decreased significantly (P<0.05 in the treatment group. Aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and alanine aminotransferase (AST level were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in all the treatment groups. The study suggests that, Spirulina is a good natural feed additive which has a tremendous effect to improve the broiler production and thereby may reduce the production cost. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 304-309
Farias, Ana Paula S F; Carneiro, Cristine E A; de Batista Fonseca, Inês C; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M
Few prebiotic chemistry experiments have assessed the adsorption of biomolecules by iron oxide-hydroxides. The present work investigated the effects of cations in artificial seawaters on the adsorption of Gly, α-Ala and β-Ala onto goethite, and vice versa. Goethite served to concentrate K and Mg cations from solution; these effects could have played important roles in peptide nucleoside formation. Goethite showed low adsorption of Gly and α-Ala. On the other hand, β-Ala (a non-protein amino acid) was highly adsorbed by goethite. Because Gly and α-Ala are the most common amino acids in living beings, and iron oxide-hydroxides are widespread on Earth, additional iron oxides should be studied. Increased ionic strength in artificial seawaters decreased the adsorption of amino acids by goethite. Because Na was highly abundant in the artificial seawater, it showed the highest effect on amino acid adsorption. β-Ala increased the adsorption of K and Ca by goethite, this effect could have been important for peptide synthesis.
Andrew S. Tupper
Full Text Available Biological RNA is a uniform polymer in three senses: it uses nucleotides of a single chirality; it uses only ribose sugars and four nucleobases rather than a mixture of other sugars and bases; and it uses only 3′-5′ bonds rather than a mixture of different bond types. We suppose that prebiotic chemistry would generate a diverse mixture of potential monomers, and that random polymerization would generate non-uniform strands of mixed chirality, monomer composition, and bond type. We ask what factors lead to the emergence of RNA from this mixture. We show that template-directed replication can lead to the emergence of all the uniform properties of RNA by the same mechanism. We study a computational model in which nucleotides react via polymerization, hydrolysis, and template-directed ligation. Uniform strands act as templates for ligation of shorter oligomers of the same type, whereas mixed strands do not act as templates. The three uniform properties emerge naturally when the ligation rate is high. If there is an exact symmetry, as with the chase of chirality, the uniform property arises via a symmetry-breaking phase transition. If there is no exact symmetry, as with monomer selection and backbone regioselectivity, the uniform property emerges gradually as the rate of template-directed ligation is increased.
Hoving, Lisa R; de Vries, Margreet R; de Jong, Rob C M; Katiraei, Saeed; Pronk, Amanda; Quax, Paul H A; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko
The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden ( E3L ) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.
Ashis Kumar Samanta
Full Text Available Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder and prebiotic (inulin as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline, ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI. The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig.
Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly
Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the food to be improved without changing its viscosity. Inulin and oligofructose have similar nutritional properties. Inulin is more indicated for obtaining products with a low fat content such as ice cream, cake and soup, while oligofructose is indicated for yogurt with a low caloric value and in order to mask the residual flavor from high intensity sweeteners used in food preparation. Research has shown that inulin and oligofructose have prebiotic effects because they are not digestible and they can develop bifidogenic effects, improving the intestinal microflora. The simultaneous use of inulin and oligofructose with probiotic agents in food is recommended for symbiotic effects.
Lisa R. Hoving
Full Text Available The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1% diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.
Keefe, A. D.; Newton, G. L.; Miller, S. L.
The involvement of coenzyme A in many enzyme reactions suggests that it acted in this capacity very early in the development of life on Earth. Particularly relevant in this regard is its role in the activation of amino acids and hydroxy acids in the biosynthesis of some peptide antibiotics--a mechanism of peptide synthesis that forms the basis for the proposal that a thioester world could have preceded the RNA world. The components of coenzyme A have been shown to be probable prebiotic compounds: beta-alanine, pantoyl lactone and cysteamine and possibly adenosine. We show here that the pantetheine moiety of coenzyme A (which also occurs in a number of enzymes) can be synthesized in yields of several per cent by heating pantoyl lactone, beta-alanine and cysteamine at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C. These components are extremely soluble and so would have been preferentially concentrated in evaporating bodies of water, for example on beaches and at lagoon margins. Our results show that amide bonds can be formed at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C, and provide circumstantial support for the suggestion that pantetheine and coenzyme A were important in the earliest metabolic systems.
Zhu, Yongsheng; Sun, Hanju; He, Shudong; Lou, Qiuyan; Yu, Min; Tang, Mingming; Tu, Lijun
Anthocyanins are naturally active substances. In this study, anthocyanins from black rice were obtained by membrane filtration and column chromatography separation. Five anthocyanin monomers in black rice extract were identified by HPLC-MS/MS, and the major anthocyanin monomer (cyanidin-3-glucoside, C3G) was purified by preparative HPLC (Pre-HPLC). The proliferative effects of the anthocyanins on Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus were investigated by determining the media pH, bacterial populations and metabolic products. After anaerobic incubation at 37 °C for 48 h, not only the pH of the media containing C3G was lower than that of the extract of black rice anthocyanin (BRAE), but the numbers of both Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus were also significantly increased. Furthermore, hydroxyphenylpropionic, hydroxyphenylacetic, and hydroxybenzoic acids and other metabolites were detected by GC-MS in vitro. Our results revealed that the anthocyanins and anthocyanin monomers from black rice had prebiotic activity and they were metabolized into several small molecules by Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus.
Radon in the environment of early Earth was present in sites, determined by location of deposits of uranium, in very different geological formations. According to the decay of uranium-238, the total production of radon at the beginnings was twice as high as now and was continuously diminishing to the present levels. This nuclide could not play as big a role as do radioactive elements connected with the presence of high concentration of 235 U, which was high enough in some places to give rise to formation of natural nuclear fission reactors (e.g. Oklo phenomenon in Africa). The main role of ionizing radiation in prebiotic chemistry and biological evolution was played by low LET (linear energy transfer) radiations, as deep penetrating sources of external energy. High LET radiations are of low penetration and could act only superficially. Radon is an exception, due to its easy transfer in the air. Therefore, it could play a role already in the cases of these early organisms which exhibited the gaseous exchange of chemical compounds with the surrounding atmosphere. The action was destructive, but, on the other hand, was also mutagenic. Nevertheless, the general quantitative effect of radon on the global scale could not be larger than of other radioactive nuclides. Presented considerations are part of the chapter by the present author on the role of nuclear and radiation chemistry in astrobiology, in the monograph published by American Scientific Publishers. (author)
Boual, Z.; Kemassi, A.; Oudjana, A.H.; Michaud, P.; Didi, O.H.M.
Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae), a spontaneous plant used in traditional medicine is found inGhardaia (Septentrional EastAlgerian Sahara). This paper reports on the extraction and partial characterization of water-soluble polysaccharides from M. parviflorleaves. These polysaccharides were obtained by elimination of the ethanol extract and sequential extraction in distilled water, followed by precipitation in 75% ethanol. The yield of extract is of 1.46%. The crude water soluble polysaccharide extract was further characterized and revealed the average values:15 ± 2,64% total ashes, 17,14 ± 1,43% proteins and 68,18 ± 0,94% carbohydrates, among them 44,96 ± 0,42% are acidic monosaccharides and the rest 55 ± 0,62% are neutral monosaccharides. The considered optimum conditions of hydrolysis by trifluoroacetic acid were: 4 M during 5 hours at 80°C. Anion exchange high performance chromatography of hydrosoluble polysaccharides of Malva leaves indicates the presence of galactose (56.86%), glucuronic acid (20.57%), arabinose (9.04%), rhamnose (8.46%) and mannose (5.05%). The oligosaccharides resulting from the partial hydrolys is of the hydrosoluble polysaccharides stimulate significantly (concentration of 0,333 mg/mL) for 0,1 DO after 24 hours, the growth of Bifido bacterium longum. Their prebiotic effect is notable. (author)
Bajury, Dayang Marshitah; Rawi, Muhamad Hanif; Sazali, Iqbal Hakim; Abdullah, Aminah; Sarbini, Shahrul Razid
Red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) cultivated from Sabah (RSS) and Langkawi (RSL) were digested using in vitro mouth, gastric and duodenal model. The digested seaweed then fermented in a pH-controlled batch culture system inoculated with human faeces to mimic the distal colon. Bacterial enumeration were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and the fermentation end products, the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), were analysed using HPLC. Both RSS and RSL showed significant increase of Bifidobacterium sp.; from log 10 7.96 at 0 h to log 10 8.72 at 24 h, and from log 10 7.96 at 0 h to log 10 8.60 at 24 h, respectively, and shows no significant difference when compared to the Bifidobacterium sp. count at 24 h of inulin fermentation. Both seaweeds also showed significant increase in total SCFA production, particularly acetate and propionate. Overall, this data suggested that K. alvarezii might have the potential as a prebiotic ingredient.
Schwell, M.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Bénilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Fray, N.; Saul, G.; Champion, N.; Leach, S.; Guillemin, J.-C.
For many years, our group has been investigating the VUV spectroscopy and photochemistry of molecules of astrophysical (Jochims et al. 2006a,b; Leach et al. 2008; Schwell et al. 2012) and prebiotic interest (Schwell et al. 2006). Polyynes and cyano-polyynes that are abundant in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in planetary atmospheres, have been investigated too (e.g. Fray et al. 2010). An aerosol source for reactive and thermo-labile compounds has been developed (Gaie-Levrel et al. 2011) to perform gas-phase measurements. These are necessary to measure intrinsic molecular properties and to compare to quantum chemical calculations. Besides measuring absolute absorption and photoionization cross sections, dissociative channels and their involved excited states are identified for a number of molecules of interstellar interest. Branching ratios of the respective elementary photoreactions are determined in order to understand and model the photochemistry occurring in the ISM. Some very recent results on the dissociative photoionization of methylformate (MF), glycolaldehyde (GA), dimethylether (DIM), aminoacetonitrile (AAC) and cyanoacetylene (CA), are presented here.
Arcia, P L; Costell, E; Tárrega, A
The purpose of this work was to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic dairy dessert with low fat content (dessert were prepared, varying inulin concentration (3 to 9 g/100g), sucrose concentration (4 to 16 g/100g), and lemon flavor concentration (25 to 225 mg/kg). Sample acceptability evaluated by 100 consumers varied mainly in terms of inulin and sucrose concentrations and, to a lesser extent, of lemon flavor content. An interaction effect among inulin and sucrose concentration was also found. According to the model obtained, the formulation with 5.5 g/100g inulin, 10 g/100g sucrose and 60 mg/kg of lemon flavor was selected. Finally, this sample was compared sensorially with the regular fat content (2.8 g/100g) sample previously optimized in terms of lemon flavor (146 mg/kg) and sucrose (11.4 g/100g). No significant difference in acceptability was found between them but the low-fat sample with inulin possessed stronger lemon flavor and greater thickness and creaminess. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Møllendal, Harald; Konovalov, Alexey
The microwave spectrum in the 26.6-80 GHz spectral range of 2-aminooxazole, which may have played a potential role in the prebiotic generation of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, is reported. A large number of transitions have been assigned, and accurate values of the rotational and quartic centrifugal distortion constants have been obtained for the four lowest vibrational states. The frequencies of the vibrationally excited states have been determined by relative intensity measurements. The microwave spectra should be useful for the identification of this compound in planetary atmospheres or in interstellar space. 2-Aminooxazole is nonplanar with the amino group bent 35(5) degrees out of the oxazole plane. Inversion of the amino group manifests itself in a characteristic doubling of the microwave transitions and the absence of c-type transitions. The microwave work has been augmented by quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The spectroscopic constants obtained by these two methods are in good agreement with one another, as well as with their experimental counterparts. The B3LYP method predicts a more accurate value for the angle between the oxazole ring and the plane formed by the amino group than the MP2 procedure.
Johnson, Laura P; Walton, Gemma E; Psichas, Arianna; Frost, Gary S; Gibson, Glenn R; Barraclough, Timothy G
Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.
Laura P. Johnson
Full Text Available Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation—another method used to modulate gut composition and function—could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre, inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.
Anizelli, Pedro R; Baú, João Paulo T; Gomes, Frederico P; da Costa, Antonio Carlos S; Carneiro, Cristine E A; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs B V; Zaia, Dimas A M
There are currently few mechanisms that can explain how nucleic acid bases were synthesized, concentrated from dilute solutions, and/or protected against degradation by UV radiation or hydrolysis on the prebiotic Earth. A natural zeolite exhibited the potential to adsorb adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil over a range of pH, with greater adsorption of adenine and cytosine at acidic pH. Adsorption of all nucleic acid bases was decreased in artificial seawater compared to water, likely due to cation complexation. Furthermore, adsorption of adenine appeared to protect natural zeolite from thermal degradation. The C=O groups from thymine, cytosine and uracil appeared to assist the dissolution of the mineral while the NH2 group from adenine had no effect. As shown by FT-IR spectroscopy, adenine interacted with a natural zeolite through the NH2 group, and cytosine through the C=O group. A pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of adenine adsorption, which occurred faster in artificial seawaters.
Balak A. K.
Full Text Available Mass uncontrolled use of antibiotics, environmentaldegradation, large amount of stress situations cause re-duction of adaptive abilities of human body, activate thesympathetic-adrenal system, which, in turn, causes theneurohumoral changes due to the imbalance of neuro-transmitters production, affecting specific and nonspe-cific resistance of the organism, as well as the microflora.According to WHO data, the number of people with dis-orders of immune system is constantly increasing. Thatleads to exacerbation of chronic diseases, including thosecaused by opportunistic pathogens. Thereby, it is veryimportant to develop appropriate methods for macroor-ganism’s optimum microflora restoring. The review sum-marizes the scientific data about composition, mecha-nisms of action and drug formulations of probiotics, pre-biotics and synbiotics. The probable complications aftertaking these drugs are described. The main problems as-sociated with the production and standardization of pro-biotic preparations and perspective directions aimed atthe normalization of microbial ecology are presented inthe article.