WorldWideScience

Sample records for stabilize low-income families

  1. "The Kids Still Come First": Creating Family Stability during Partnership Instability in Rural, Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…

  2. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  3. Federal Income Tax Cuts and Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, Frank J.

    This report identifies overall tax burdens faced by low income families, explaining how those burdens would change if certain types of federal income tax cuts were enacted. Using detailed household-level data on incomes and taxes, the report shows how federal income and payroll taxes differ for low income families and how these families benefit…

  4. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  5. Delivering Healthy Diets to Low-Income Families through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Delivering Healthy Diets to Low-Income Families through Community Kitchens in Peru ... These kitchens provide more than 500,000 lunches to Peruvian families living in poverty. Established in 1978 to respond to ... Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du tabac en Argentine, en Bolivie et au Chili.

  6. Delivering Healthy Diets to Low-Income Families through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Delivering Healthy Diets to Low-Income Families through Community Kitchens in Peru ... These kitchens provide more than 500,000 lunches to Peruvian families living in poverty. ... Researchers will use the information to design and implement strategies to promote healthier food choices in the Comedores Populares.

  7. Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

    This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

  8. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  9. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482

  10. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  11. Role of Service Learning Activities: Assessing and Enhancing Food Security in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Many low-income families are at risk for food insecurity. In addition, with the aging of America, multigenerational families are becoming more prevalent, resulting in excessive strain and burden on the resources of low-income families. Family and consumer sciences educators need to teach their students about factors that contribute to food…

  12. Youth from Low-Income Families. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. ASPE Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Adam

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, nearly 40 percent of children in the United States lived in low-income families--families with incomes at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL). Youth from low-income families are vulnerable to poor outcomes as adults, as these youth often lack the resources and opportunities found to lead to better outcomes. This fact…

  13. Family economic pressure and health outcomes in low-income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected concepts from stress theory are used as a conceptual framework. An explanatory correlational research design was used in this cross-sectional study to explore the relationships among the study variables. Data were collected from 388 residents of low-income urban residents in Francistown, Botswana.

  14. Conserving the planet without hurting low-income families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachern, Maine; Vivian, Jill [University of Victoria, Environmental Law Centre (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    In British Columbia, energy poverty, defined as households having to spend over 10% of their incomes on home energy, affects 17% of homes. Energy poverty depends on household energy efficiency, fuel prices and household income and can lead to respiratory, cardiovascular or other health problems. General household energy programs have been adopted in British Columbia, however low income persons are not taking advantage of them due to problems in terms of affordability, awareness and acceptance of programs. The aim of this paper is to provide useful information to stakeholders to better address energy poverty in British Columbia. This report present the implementation of low income energy efficiency programs (LIEEPs) as a way to fight energy poverty and at the same time decrease greenhouse gas emissions and reduce health care and energy infrastructure costs. LIEEPs best practices around the world and recommendations for the implementation of LIEEPs in British Columbia are presented herein.

  15. Housing famine and homelessness: how the low-income housing crisis affects families with inadequate supports

    OpenAIRE

    R Wallace; E Bassuk

    1991-01-01

    A famine paradigm of low-income housing deficit in the USA first introduced by recent studies of homelessness in New York City is extended to understand how impacts of that deficit may be structured according to the social network length of low-income families. A simplified mathematical model suggests that poor families with truncated social support networks are most vulnerable to housing famine, and explores how the famine may synergistically interact with inadequacy of support, leading to t...

  16. Stability in the feeding practices and styles of low-income mothers: questionnaire and observational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley D; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2018-03-23

    During the last two decades, researchers have devoted considerable attention to the role of maternal feeding behaviors, practices, and styles in the development of obesity in young children. Little is known, however, about the consistency of maternal feeding across settings and time. The purpose of this paper was to provide data on this issue by examining the consistency of observed maternal feeding behavior across multiple eating occasions, as well as examine the consistency of observed and self-reported maternal feeding behavior across 18 months. Videotapes from two studies of low-income mothers and their preschool children were coded for feeding practices, dimensions, and styles: a study of 137 low-income, African American and Latina mothers and their children observed during three meals in their homes over a two to three week period, and a study of 138 low-income, Latina mothers observed during a buffet meal in a laboratory setting on two separate occasions 18 months apart. Videotapes from both studies were coded for a wide range of maternal feeding behaviors and strategies. Mothers in the second study also completed three validated, self-report questionnaires on their feeding practices and styles. Overall, both observed and self-reported feeding practices and styles showed only moderate levels of stability across meals and over time. Maternal attempts to regulate children's eating showed more stability across meals and over time than the content of general mealtime conversation. Also, greater stability was found in what mothers were trying to get their children to do during the meals than in the strategies they used to influence child behavior. Self-reports of feeding showed greater stability over time than observational measures. Across meals and across 18 months, the stability of general feeding styles was between 40% and 50%. The findings demonstrate that maternal feeding behavior was only moderately stable across meals and over time-that is, feeding

  17. Still High: Marginal Effective Tax Rates on Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Finn Poschmann

    2008-01-01

    Most federal and provincial government benefits for families with children are sharply income-tested. Reductions in these benefits, as family income rises, mean that low-income families face much higher effective tax rates than most others do, and deny such families the full benefit of the broad-based tax rate relief other Canadians have enjoyed in recent years.

  18. Coping with Family Conflict: What's Helpful and What's Not for Low-Income Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…

  19. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Pitts, M Melinda; Lee, Chung-Won

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. A retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Low-income families. Family income was linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2099 families living near or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity (i.e., having insufficient funds to purchase enough food to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle) was calculated from the 18-core-item food security module of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Current smoking status was determined. Smoking prevalence was higher among low-income families who were food insecure compared with low-income families who were food secure (43.6% vs. 31.9%; p < .01). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking was associated with an increase in food insecurity of approximately six percentage points (p < .01). Given our finding that families near the federal poverty level spend a large share of their income on cigarettes, perhaps it would be prudent for food-assistance and tobacco-control programs to work together to help low-income people quit smoking.

  20. Formulating Rural Development Programmes to Aid Low-Income Farm Families

    OpenAIRE

    Findeis, Jill L.; Reddy, Venkateshwar K.

    1989-01-01

    Rural development programmes may facilitate the off-farm employment of low-income farm families and provide additional public suppon beyond traditional US farm income and price support programmes. To examine the implications of alternative rural development strategies for low-income farmers, joint off-farm labour participation models are developed for farm operators and spouses. Univariate and bivariate probit models are estimated. based on 1985 Current Population Survey farm household data. ...

  1. How Medicaid Expansion Affected Out-of-Pocket Health Care Spending for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.

  2. Home Literacy Beliefs and Practices among Low-Income Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather S.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura M.; Soares, Denise A.; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina; Hagan-Burke, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore within-group patterns of variability in the home literacy environments (HLEs) of low-income Latino families using latent profile analysis. Participants were (N = 193) families of Latino preschoolers enrolled in a larger study. In the fall of 2012, mothers filled out a family literacy practices inventory, a…

  3. Enterprising Principles of Counseling the Low-Income Black Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Barbara Nelson

    1976-01-01

    Three principles of the enterprising approach to counseling the poor black family are: (1) sensitizing the counselor to the attitudes, values, interests, living conditions, etc. of poor blacks; (2) creating opportunities for poor blacks to succeed in some of their endeavors; and, (3) training the counselor as an intervening agent. (Author)

  4. South Dakota Low Income Families and Migration. Bulletin 637.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Marco; And Others

    Using the U.S. Census definition of poverty, an attempt was made to determine: how many poverty level South Dakota families there were in 1970 and where they resided; the socioeconomic factors explaining county differences in poverty incomes; whether those factors explaining poverty incidence would correlate with county differences in the extent…

  5. Social Policy Trends- Housing Affordability for Families with Low Incomes Across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita (Gres Wilkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR FAMILIES WITH LOW INCOMES ACROSS CANADA Percentage of income devoted to paying lowest-priced rent in a city, by low-income family type, select years, 1990-2015 Much public attention has been directed towards the issue of a Canada-wide housing crisis. The focus has typically been on the cost of housing for an average income Canadian family. Less attention has been paid to families with incomes much lower than those of the average Canadian household, for which the housing crisis is far more severe. Households and individuals with particularly low incomes are at the highest risk of experiencing the worst effects of a lack of housing affordability, including homelessness.

  6. Welfare and the family size decision of low-income, two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensler, H

    1997-10-01

    This study determines the increase in family size given an increase in the per child welfare benefit for a family with children in the US. The family size decision was modeled as a discrete choice decision. Data were obtained from the 1980-91 March Current Population Surveys of the US Census Bureau on 13,516 low-income, nonmilitary, non-farm, two-parent families with at least one dependent child. Low income was any amount under twice the official poverty level. Parents were limited to ages 18-40 years. Alaska and Hawaii were excluded. The data sets for 1979-90 were pooled. The sample included 10% Blacks and 27% receiving some amount of welfare. Average ages were 28.9 years for mothers and 30.8 years for fathers. The average number of children was 2.43. Findings from the ordered probit model indicate that education had a negative impact on family size, and age and race had positive impacts. Wages did not have a significant effect. The state unemployment rate and the average state income had negative effects. Unearned income had a small but significant effect on family size. The marginal welfare benefit had a positive impact. Findings reinforce the wealth hypothesis, that wealthier societies have smaller family sizes. Family size declines with increases in wages and education, which reflect increases in opportunity costs for time. Family size increases with age, as rearing children is labor-intensive. Family size increases with unearned income and welfare benefits that make childbearing affordable. It is argued that poor people in developed societies behave more consistently like poor people in developing countries. A 100% increase in the per child welfare benefit resulted in a 2% increase in the number of children. The policy implication is that a considerable increase in welfare benefits will have only trivial behavioral impacts for the poor on family size decisions.

  7. Family Investments in Low-Income Children's Achievement and Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study,…

  8. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  9. Fathers' Early Contributions to Children's Language Development in Families from Low-Income Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a large sample of two-parent families from low-income rural communities to examine the contributions of father education and vocabulary, during picture book interactions with their infants at 6 months of age, to children's subsequent communication development at 15 months and expressive language development at 36 months. After…

  10. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  11. Personal Empowerment in the Study of Home Internet Use by Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda; Gallo, Michael; Nucklos, Eddy; Sherblom, Stephen; Pennick, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a United States Department of Commerce (National Telecommunications and Information Administrations, NTIA, 1995) study of home Internet use by Low-income families. The study investigated the barriers, benefits (empowerment), and perceived worth of the Internet and concluded that home Internet access enabled powerful emotional and…

  12. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Brian S.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Lee, Chung-won

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. This analysis is a retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Family income is linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2,099 families living near or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level. Food insecurit...

  13. The association of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental comorbidities in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Korgaonkar, Purva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental indicators in low-income families. Parents/guardians of approximately 400 children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from a charity hospital serving low income neighborhoods in the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers of children were interviewed in their local language by a trained nurse. Eight self-reported comorbidities were grouped into two constructs based on factor analysis and conveniently labeled as mental health (anxiety, attention and behavioral problems) and developmental problems (learning, developmental delay, hearing impairment, sleep and speech problems). Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of older siblings, number of people in the household, child birth weight, presence of mold, and family history of asthma or hay fever. Children with asthma had 18 times greater odds of mental health problems (adjusted OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 9.2, 35.1) as compared to children without asthma. The odds of developmental problems were more than 14 times greater for children with asthma (adjusted OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 7.8, 26.1) as compared to children without asthma. This study found mental and developmental adverse consequences of childhood asthma in low-income families. Identifying and treating asthma at an early age could reduce the burden of comorbidities in this population.

  14. Risk and Protective Factors for Family Violence among Low-Income Fathers: Implications for Violence Prevention and Fatherhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura; Hammock, Amy Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence. Toward these aims, this study explored factors associated with fathers' self-reported approval of family violence. Understanding the prevalence of risk and protective factors in this population and factors associated with fathers' potential for family violence is important in developing programs to address responsible fatherhood and healthy relationships. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  15. Smart Choices for Healthy Families: A Pilot Study for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Courtney A.; Hart, Michael H.; Hodgkins, Yvonne; Serrano, Elena L.; McFerren, Mary M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This pre-post study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the impact of a family-based weight management program among a low-income population. Smart Choices for Healthy Families was developed through an integrated research-practice partnership and piloted with 26 children and parents (50% boys; mean age = 10.5 years; 54% Black) who were…

  16. Influence of maternal depression on household food insecurity for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arvin; Toy, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos; Cook, John; Cordella, Nick

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether maternal depression predicts future household food insecurity for low-income families. This was a secondary data analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The study cohort consisted of 2917 low-income mothers, defined as insecurity at follow-up was measured by the US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Scale. At baseline, 16% of mothers were depressed (raw score >9). Most mothers were white, unemployed, and born in the United States. The majority received Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (86%); 39% received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). At follow-up, 11.8% of mothers reported household food insecurity. In multivariable analysis, maternal depression at baseline was significantly associated with food insecurity at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio 1.50; 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.12). Our results suggest that maternal depression is an independent risk factor for household food insecurity in low-income families with young children. Multidisciplinary interventions embedded within and outside the pediatric medical home should be developed to identify depressed mothers and link them to community-based mental health and food resources. Further longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to understand and address the complex relationship between poverty, maternal depression, social safety nets, and food insecurity. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Food purchasing and food insecurity among low-income families in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachner, Naomi; Ricciuto, Laurie; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Factors underlying food-purchasing decisions were examined among a sample of low-income Toronto families. A cross-sectional survey was completed among 485 families residing in high-poverty Toronto neighbourhoods. Food-security status was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Open-ended questions were included to examine respondents' food selection and management practices and their purchasing decisions for six indicator foods. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between factors influencing food-purchasing decisions, perceived food adequacy, and severity of food insecurity. Twenty-two percent of families had been severely food insecure in the past 30 days. Respondents engaged in thrifty food shopping practices, such as frequenting discount supermarkets and budgeting carefully. Price was the most salient factor influencing food-purchasing decisions; the likelihood that families would report this factor increased with deteriorating food security. Preference, quality, and health considerations also guided food-purchasing decisions, but generally to a lesser extent as food insecurity increased. Household food supplies reflected constraints on food purchasing, and they diminished with increasing food insecurity. Despite their resourcefulness, low-income families struggle to feed their families. Dietitians have an important role to play as advocates for adequate income supports to promote food security and nutritional health.

  18. Family and cultural influences on low-income latino children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = .66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77% of parents and 32% of children identifying as immigrants. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that family reframing interacted with familism, with high levels of both associated with fewer psychological symptoms, whereas passive appraisal is linked to worse functioning. Results are discussed with regard to the implications of this research for preventive interventions with families in poverty.

  19. CDM pilot project to stimulate market for family-hydro for low-income households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Over 100,000 low-income households living in rural, rice-farming regions of Vietnam and China rely upon family-hydro (between 100 and 200W) as the only affordable means of obtaining electricity. These systems are used for domestic lighting, radio and, in some cases, televisions. The units are small, cheap and are usually installed and owned by a single family. Funding from the CDM could be utilised in order to reduce the cost of good quality equipment to provide low-income households living in isolated off-grid locations with an affordable and sustainable electricity supply which can meet their needs for lighting, educational, productive and recreational uses. Therefore research was needed to determine the level of carbon emission reductions resulting from their use. The successful acceptance by the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) of the methodology of establishing the benchmark developed during this project could then be used as a precedent by other project developers in the future, thus being of long-term support to the emerging family-hydro industry. (author)

  20. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  1. The Selection of Children from Low-Income Families into Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.

    2016-01-01

    Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. In general, parental necessity (e.g., maternal employment) and human capital considerations (e.g., maternal education) most consistently predicted preschool enrollment among children from low-income families. Supply side factors (e.g., local child care options) and more necessity and human capital factors (e.g., having fewer children, desiring preparation for school) selected such children into preschool over parental care or other care arrangements, and several necessity factors (e.g., being less concerned about costs) selected them into non-Head Start preschools over Head Start programs. Systemic connections and child elicitation did not consistently predict preschool enrollment in this population. PMID:26890917

  2. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  3. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning about Children's School Preparation through Photographs: The Use of Photo Elicitation Interviews with Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger project on the transition to kindergarten, eight families volunteered for a photography-based study. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into how low-income families prepare children for kindergarten. Following a photo elicitation approach, eight families used a digital camera for 1 week to document activities…

  5. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children's developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten.

  6. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  7. Improving Mental Health Access for Low-Income Children and Families in the Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Stacy; Godoy, Leandra; Beers, Lee Savio; Lewin, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Poverty is a common experience for many children and families in the United States. Children health and increased risk for mental health problems in both children and adults that can persist across the life span. Despite their high need for mental health services, children and families living in poverty are least likely to be connected with high-quality mental health care. Pediatric primary care providers are in a unique position to take a leading role in addressing disparities in access to mental health care, because many low-income families come to them first to address mental health concerns. In this report, we discuss the impact of poverty on mental health, barriers to care, and integrated behavioral health care models that show promise in improving access and outcomes for children and families residing in the contexts of poverty. We also offer practice recommendations, relevant to providers in the primary care setting, that can help improve access to mental health care in this population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; May, Ashleigh L.; Wethington, Holly; Dalenius, Karen; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups. METHODS We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010–2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity at follow-up was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile. We used a multivariable log-binomial model to estimate relative risk of obesity adjusting for gender, baseline age, race/ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and baseline weight-for-length percentile. RESULTS The incidence of obesity was 11.0% after the follow-up period. The incidence was significantly higher among boys versus girls and higher among children aged 0 to 11 months at baseline versus those older. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the risk of obesity was 35% higher among Hispanics and 49% higher among American Indians (AIs)/Alaska Natives (ANs), but 8% lower among non-Hispanic African Americans. Among children who were obese at baseline, 36.5% remained obese and 63.5% were nonobese at follow-up. The proportion of reversing of obesity was significantly lower among Hispanics and AIs/ANs than that among other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence underscores the importance of early-life obesity prevention in multiple settings for low-income children and their families. The variations within population subgroups suggest that culturally appropriate intervention efforts should be focused on Hispanics and AIs/ANs. PMID:24276843

  9. Waiting in Line: Low Income Families and the Search for Housing. Watching Out for Children in Changing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philadelphia Citizens for Children and Youth, PA.

    The existing housing crisis for Philadelphia's low income families has been exacerbated by a decrease in the real income of these families over the past 10 years, a shortage of affordable housing during the same period, and the deterioration of much of the existing housing stock. "Watching Out for Children in Changing Times," a joint…

  10. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  11. Social Support, Family Organizations, and Adolescent Adjustment in Low-Income Puerto Rican Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Elenor; Jacobson, Leanne; Rodriguez, Antoinette U.; Dominguez, Antonio

    Social support from kin has been discussed as an important feature of family life among Puerto Rican families. This study examines the association between kinship support, family organization, and adolescent adjustment in Puerto Rican families. (Author)

  12. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  13. Evaluation of a sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E; Miller, Alison L; Bonuck, Karen; Lumeng, Julie C; Chervin, Ronald D

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate a novel sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families. Randomized trial of an educational intervention. Community-based. Head Start preschool families (n = 152) in greater Lansing and Detroit, Michigan. Classrooms or Head Start sites were randomized to an intervention group (prompt intervention) versus a control group (delayed intervention). Parents attended a one-time, 45-min sleep education program and preschoolers received 2 w (320 total min) of classroom sleep curriculum. Parent knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and beliefs were assessed as the primary outcomes just before the 45-min sleep intervention, immediately postintervention, and approximately 1 mo postintervention. Parents reported their child's bedtimes and wake times on 7-day sleep diaries at baseline and at 1-mo follow-up. Average weeknight sleep durations and bedtimes served as secondary outcomes. Linear mixed models showed a time × treatment effect for parents' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy (each P Educational interventions in early childhood can have an effect on parents' sleep knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy, and on children's sleep behavior. However, repeated exposure to the new information may be important for parents as well as their children.

  14. Early Childhood Risk Factors for Mealtime TV Exposure and Engagement in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoff, Sarah E; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Miller, Alison L

    To identify whether child and mother characteristics in early childhood predict TV exposure and engagement during mealtime in middle childhood. A total of 220 low-income mother-child dyads participated. Children were 4.26 years old (SD = 0.51) at baseline and 5.94 years (SD = 0.68) at 2-year follow-up. Mothers completed baseline measures of child negative emotionality and parenting practices. Family mealtimes were video recorded and coded for background TV exposure and child TV engagement. Multinomial logistic regression tested whether child emotionality and parenting practices during early childhood predicted risk of child TV exposure or engagement during mealtime, relative to no TV use, 2 years later. Children with greater negative emotionality in early childhood were more likely to engage with TV during mealtime than to have no TV. Similarly, early parenting disciplinary practices characterized by over-reactivity and laxness increased the risk for child TV engagement versus no TV during mealtime approximately 2 years later. We identified 2 factors that associated with an increased risk for TV viewing during meals. Helping parents manage child negative emotionality using positive parenting strategies might reduce later child TV engagement and improve the quality of family mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting in low-income families from the perspective of social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovcinova A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the study was to find how poverty affects parenting. For the data collection was used questionnaire Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ, which measures parenthood through five dimensions (1 positive involvement with children, (2 Supervision and monitoring, (3 use of positive discipline techniques, (4 consistency in Theus of discipline chniques, (5 use of corporal punishment. The sample was divided into two groups, with the first group consisted of 188 parents living in poverty The reference group consisted of parents living in households with income standard (N−188.Analysis of the results showed differences between parents living in poverty and between parents with a standard rate of income especially in monitoring and supervision, and also in the use of positive disciplinary techniques. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in cooperation between the parents or the use of corporal punishment. Based on the results it is clear that poverty is one of the factors affecting parenting. Therefore, social worker who works with low-income families should focus attention on this area of family functioning.

  16. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does longer duration of breastfeeding prevent childhood asthma in low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of breastfeeding duration with childhood asthma among low-income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers/caregivers of 200 children with asthma and an equal number of children without asthma were interviewed about breastfeeding duration. Based on the responses, 6 different binary variables were constructed: breastfeeding 3 months or less, 6 months or less, 9 months or less, 12 months or less, 18 months or less, and 24 months or less. Asthma status of the child was determined by clinical examination by a primary care physician. Data was analyzed using multiple logistic regression method, adjusted for age and sex of the child, household income, parental ethnicity, number of older siblings, family history of asthma or hay fever, presence of mold, parental smoking, number of people in the household, and body mass index of the child. The average duration of breastfeeding was 21.4 months (SD = 7.33 months). Breastfeeding for at least 24 months was associated with increased odds of asthma (aOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.99, 3.16). Whereas breastfeeding for 12 months or less, and to some extent 18 months or less, was protective against childhood asthma. There was some evidence this protective effect may be delayed in children with a family history of asthma or hay fever. This study found breastfeeding for 12 months or less may have a protective effect against asthma. The protective effect weans down after 18 months, and if continued 24 months or more may place the child at-risk of asthma.

  18. Role of expendable income and price in food choice by low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cate; Cook, Kay; Mavoa, Helen

    2013-12-01

    The public health literature suggests that the cheapness of energy-dense foods is driving the obesity epidemic. We examined food purchases in low-income families and its relationship to the price of food and availability of funds. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 parents with children less than 15 years of age whose major source of income was a government pension. A photo taxonomy, where participants sorted 50 photos of commonly purchased foods, was used to explore food choice. The most common food groupings used by the participants were: basic, emergency, treat and comfort. The process of food purchase was described by participants as weighing up the attributes of a food in relation to price and money available. Shoppers nominated the basic unit of measurement as quantity per unit price and the heuristic for food choice when shopping as determining "value for money" in a process of triage relating to food purchase decisions. Participants stated satiation of hunger to be the most common "value" relative to price. Given that the foods nominated as filling tended to be carbohydrate-rich staples, we suggest that public health initiatives need to acknowledge this triage process and shape interventions to promote nutrition over satiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inclusive Development through Providing Vertical Housing for Low Income Family in Yogyakarta Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rachmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive development is mean to accommodate the marginalized people, most of whom are the poor with problem of fulfilling their need of housing. The government has tried hard to meet the need of housing by constructing rusunawa. This paper is aimed at describing about the provision and uses of rusunawa, both in cities and peri urban area by studying the cases in the City of Yogyakarta, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency. The study was conducted by doing observation and both structured and in-depth interviews. The research results show that rusunawa was viewed as one solutions to help low-income family in fulfilling their need of housing. In some cases in the City of Yogyakarta, rusunawa plays an important role in preventing the settlement along both sides of rivers from becoming slum areas. Rusunawa in both Regencies of Sleman and Bantul are located near the city so it is easy for the settlers to get to their workplace. The construction of rusunawa has also paid attention to the disabled by providing special facilities. The same case is providing playground for children and facilities for early education for young kids. However, there have not been special facilities for the elderly and pregnant women.

  20. Barriers to utilization of dental services for children among low-income families in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Maryam S; Perez, Arnaldo; Nyachhyon, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    To explore reasons for underutilization of dental services covered by a governmental funded program in Alberta. A survey questionnaire was sent to 4,000 randomly selected clients of Alberta Health Benefit program. Only respondents with children were included in the analysis. Reasons were explored among those who indicated that their children did not receive any dental services in the year prior to the survey (non-users). Difficulties faced by those who reported receiving at least one dental service (users) were also collected. Among 795 returned surveys, 597 had at least one child. A total of 1,303 children aged 1 to 19 years (mean age = 11.79 years, SD = 4.2) were included in the analysis. Of the 1,303 children, 443 (34%) did not receive any covered dental services (non-users); the most common reason (50.7%) was 'no perceived need' labeled for the replies 'my child was too young or had no dental problems' followed by perceived insufficient coverage (38.6%). The most common challenge reported by the dental care users was also insufficient coverage (44.9%). About 57% of parents were aware of the covered yearly fluoride application; however, only 34.3% of their children received fluoride and 14.2% had sealants. Low-income families underutilized available dental benefits for children. Perceived need seemed to be the primary determinant of utilization. Parental awareness about the coverage did not seem to promote the utilization of preventive measures for young children.

  1. Visual impairment in urban school children of low-income families in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukhopadhyay, Udayaditya; Maji, Dipankar; Bhaduri, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9%) and 65 (2.5%) children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2%) and 5 (0.2%) children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group.

  2. Accessibility of low-income family flats in North Jakarta city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feminin, T. A.; Wiranegara, H. W.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of relocated, low-income families in North Jakarta city who residing the flats, complained at decreasing their accessibility to the workplaces and to the social facilities. The aim of this research was to identify the changing of their accessibility before and after relocated, viewed from three dimensions: distance, travel time, and travel cost to the workplaces, educational facilities, and shopping areas. The research design was questionnaire survey containing the degree of accessibility before and after resided the flats. Five flats were chosen as cases. Their inhabitants were chosen as respondents which used simple random sampling. The result showed that their flats accessibility to the workplaces in all three dimensions was lower than when they resided in the slum area. Also, in distance and travel time accessibility to shopping areas was lower. Only accessibility to educational facilities measured in those three dimensions was higher after they moved. Supply for affordable public transport from their flats to reach their workplaces is needed to raise their accessibility. Also, they need subsidizeto rent of their flats so the burden to their income lesser.Using the ground space of their flats for retail activities was to make more accessible for their shopping activities.

  3. Optimizing Early Mathematics Experiences for Children from Low-Income Families: A Study on Opportunity to Learn Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aubrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Both the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the National Association for the Education of Young Children recognize that well-designed opportunity to learn mathematics can help improve mathematics achievement of students from low-income families and from minority backgrounds. Using data from a nationally representative sample, the…

  4. The Influence of Family on Educational and Occupational Achievement of Adolescents in Rural Low-Income Areas: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee

    Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…

  5. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of you...

  6. BOUNCE: A community-based mother–daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise), to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consis...

  7. Pro-Poor PRIMR: Improving Early Literacy Skills for Children from Low-Income Families in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Jepkemei, Evelyn; Kibukho, Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Children from low-income families are at risk of learning outcome difficulties, particularly in literacy. Various studies link poor literacy results with performance later in primary and secondary school, and suggest that poverty, literacy skills and weak instructional methods combine to drastically limit the educational opportunities for many…

  8. Outcome of a Food Observational Study among Low-Income Preschool Children Participating in a Family-Style Meal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Vasquez, Liset; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Mosley, Desiree; Jechow, Katherine; Piña, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the United States, one out of every seven low-income children between the ages of 2 and 5 years is at risk for overweight and obesity. Formative research was conducted to determine if preschool children participating in family-style meals consumed the minimum food servings according to U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary…

  9. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…

  10. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  11. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  12. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  13. Studying the Impact of Technology-Infused Activities among Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Héctor H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an intervention technology program--Community Learning Centers--designed to assist low-income Spanish-speaking parents in learning and using technology for family advancement. The study is based on a sample of 408 participants who completed pre- and post-surveys. Data collection was conducted across 2 years in…

  14. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  15. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Assets and Family Stress among Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, David W.; Han, Chang-Keun

    2010-01-01

    The "hard times" resulting from the 2008 Great Recession represent an opportunity to re-examine the theoretical framework for how families use economic resources to manage stress. M. Sherraden's (1991) theory of assets and H. I. McCubbin and J. Patterson's (1983) family adjustment and adaptation response model informed this study of how assets…

  17. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  18. Community Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Barriers to Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Families, Massachusetts 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Blaine, Rachel E.; Giannetti, Mary; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of childhood obesity is multidimensional and includes individual, familial, organizational, and societal factors. Policymakers and researchers are promoting social–ecological approaches to obesity prevention that encompass multiple community sectors. Programs that successfully engage low-income families in making healthy choices are greatly needed, yet little is known about the extent to which stakeholders understand the complexity of barriers encountered by families. The objective of this study was to contextually frame barriers faced by low-income families reported by community stakeholders by using the Family Ecological Model (FEM). Methods From 2012 through 2013, we conducted semistructured interviews with 39 stakeholders from 2 communities in Massachusetts that were participating in a multisector intervention for childhood obesity prevention. Stakeholders represented schools; afterschool programs; health care; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and early care and education. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Stakeholder reports of the barriers experienced by low-income families had a strong degree of overlap with FEM and reflected awareness of the broader contextual factors (eg, availability of community resources, family culture, education) and social and emotional dynamics within families (eg, parent knowledge, social norms, distrust of health care providers, chronic life stressors) that could affect family adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, results illustrated a level of consistency in stakeholder awareness across multiple community sectors. Conclusion The congruity of stakeholder perspectives with those of low-income parents as summarized in FEM and across community sectors illustrates potential for synergizing the efforts necessary for multisector, multilevel community interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms and child obesity in low-income urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Velazco, Nerissa K; Briggs, Rahil D; Racine, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child weight status, obesity-promoting feeding practices, and activity-related behaviors in low-income urban families. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of mothers with 5-year-old children receiving pediatric care at a federally qualified community health center. We used regression analyses to examine the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (trichotomized: none, mild, moderate to severe) and 1) child weight status; 2) obesity-promoting feeding practices, including mealtime practices and feeding styles; and 3) activity-related behaviors, including sleep time, screen time, and outdoor playtime. The sample included 401 mother-child pairs (78.3% response rate), with 23.4% of mothers reporting depressive symptoms (15.7% mild, 7.7% moderate to severe). Mothers with moderate to severe depressive symptoms were more likely to have overweight and obese children than mothers without depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 2.62; 95% confidence interval 1.02-6.70). Children of mildly depressed mothers were more likely to consume sweetened drinks and to eat out at restaurants and were less likely to eat breakfast than children of nondepressed mothers. Mothers with depressive symptoms were less likely to set limits, to use food as a reward, to restrict their child's intake, and to model healthy eating than nondepressed mothers. Children with depressed mothers had less sleep and outdoor playtime per day than children of nondepressed mothers. Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with child overweight and obese status and with several obesity-promoting practices. These results support the need for maternal depression screening in pediatric obesity prevention programs. Further research should explore how to incorporate needed mental health support. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant and toddlers' feeding practices and obesity amongst low-income families in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of childhood obesity among infants and toddlers from low-income families from three cities in Mexico. This is a cross-sectional study of mothers and their infants and toddlers attending a vaccination centre at three primary care clinics in Tijuana, Tuxtla, and Reynosa. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and children were conducted at the clinic and a questionnaire was administered to the mother. Eight-hundred and ten mothers and their 5 to 24 months old infants participated in the study. Average age for the mothers was 24 (21-28) years, and 57% of them were either overweight or obese. The children's average age was 12.7 (5-24) months. Overall overweight prevalence in this sample was 11% and obesity 8%, these increased with age, from 3% for overweight and 6 % for obesity before 6 months, to 13 and 10% between 12 to 24 months respectively. Thirty-five percent of infants were breastfed>or=6 month and 92% were introduced to other solid foods before 6 months. Introduction of high-fat content snacks (HFS) and carbonated and non-carbonated sweetened (CSD) drinks starts before 6 months and more than sixty percent of the children between 12 to 24 months of age were eating HFS and CSD sweetened drinks at least once a week. Consumption of snacks and CSD sweetened drinks (>or=1 week) was associated with being overweight and obese (crude), OR, 1.82; 95% CI=1.24-2.65 (p=0.002). These results suggest that preventive programs should be initiated during pregnancy and continued.

  1. Chronic health conditions and depressive symptoms strongly predict persistent food insecurity among rural low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L; Olson, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Longitudinal studies of food insecurity have not considered the unique circumstances of rural families. This study identified factors predictive of discontinuous and persistent food insecurity over three years among low-income families with children in rural counties in 13 U.S. states. Respondents reported substantial knowledge of community resources, food and finance skills, and use of formal public food assistance, yet 24% had persistent food insecurity, and another 41% were food insecure for one or two years. Multivariate multinomial regression models tested relationships between human capital, social support, financial resources, expenses, and food insecurity. Enduring chronic health conditions increased the risk of both discontinuous and persistent food insecurity. Lasting risk for depression predicted only persistent food insecurity. Education beyond high school was the only factor found protective against persistent food insecurity. Access to quality physical and mental health care services are essential to ameliorate persistent food insecurity among rural, low-income families.

  2. "We Keep the Education Goin' at Home All the Time": Family Literacy in Low-Income African American Families of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L.; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have examined the impact of family on child literacy among low-income African American families and preschoolers considered to be at risk for not being ready for kindergarten. Quantitative studies identify family-parental variables associated with poorer literacy outcomes, whereas qualitative studies detail family practices that…

  3. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

  4. Literacy Discussions in Low-Income Families: The Effect of Parent Questions on Fourth Graders' Retellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capotosto, Lauren; Kim, James S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of four types of reading comprehension questions--immediate, non-immediate, summary, and unanswerable questions--that linguistically diverse and predominantly low-income parents asked their fourth graders on children's text retellings. One-hundred-twenty (N = 120) parent and child dyads participated in a home visit…

  5. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  6. Daughter-Father Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning in Low-Income African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of biological and social fathers in the lives of low-income African American adolescent girls. Analyses indicated that daughters' perceptions of anger and alienation from fathers was related to greater emotional and behavioral problems for adolescents, whereas perceptions of trust and communication with fathers were not…

  7. Food Insecurity and Obesity: A Dual Challenge for Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    "Food insecurity," which is the lack of access to enough food to fully meet basic needs at all times because of economic constraints, afflicts 40.6% of low-income households with children. Research shows that living in a food-insecure household can lead to negative health and developmental consequences for young children, including obesity.…

  8. Predicting Child Protective Services (CPS) Involvement among Low-Income U.S. Families with Young Children Receiving Nutritional Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kristen S; Font, Sarah; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-10-11

    This exploratory study examines combinations of income-tested welfare benefits and earnings, as they relate to the likelihood of child maltreatment investigations among low-income families with young children participating in a nutritional assistance program in one U.S. state (Wisconsin). Using a sample of 1065 parents who received the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits in late 2010 and early 2011, we find that relying on either work in the absence of other means-tested welfare benefits, or a combination of work and welfare benefits, reduces the likelihood of CPS involvement compared to parents who rely on welfare benefits in the absence of work. Additionally, we find that housing instability increases the risk of CPS involvement in this population. The findings from this investigation may be useful to programs serving low-income families with young children, as they attempt to identify safety net resources for their clientele.

  9. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  10. Home literacy activities: Accounting for differences in early grade literacy outcomes in low-income families in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Chansa-Kabali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inequalities on child cognitive outcomes exist as children enter the first grade. These differences are even wider for children in low-income families. This article aims to examine the extent to which home factors account for variation in early literacy outcomes in the first year of schooling. A total of 72 first graders and their parents from low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia, participated in the study. A self-reported home literacy questionnaire was used to collect home literacy data − parental education, home possessions, reading materials, language awareness, print experience, writing activities, reading activities and teaching letters. Children’s early literacy skills were assessed using four measures: orthography awareness, spelling, vocabulary and math tests. These tests were measured at two points: at the beginning and at the end of the first grade. Results showed that teaching letters was most predictive of literacy outcomes both at the beginning and end of the first year. The study concludes that formal teaching of letters at home is the parents’ greatest strength for supporting literacy in low-income families. Thus, energies for parental involvement should be directed in ways that are culturally practised and manageable by parents for better literacy outcomes.

  11. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Sharp, Carla; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles - authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent-child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Family Support and Family Negativity as Mediators of the Relation between Acculturation and Postpartum Weight in Low-Income Mexican-Origin Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Letham-Hamlett, Kirsten; Hanna Ibrahim, Mariam; Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P

    2017-12-01

    Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26-38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.

  13. Risk and protective factors for adult and child hunger among low-income housed and homeless female-headed families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl; Weinreb, Linda F; Huntington, Nicholas; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Fletcher, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert; Gundersen, Craig

    2004-01-01

    We sought to identify factors associated with adult or child hunger. Low-income housed and homeless mothers were interviewed about socioeconomic, psychosocial, health, and food sufficiency information. Multinomial logistic regression produced models predicting adult or child hunger. Predictors of adult hunger included mothers' childhood sexual molestation and current parenting difficulties, or "hassles." Risk factors for child hunger included mothers' childhood sexual molestation, housing subsidies, brief local residence, having more or older children, and substandard housing. This study found that the odds of hunger, although affected by resource constraints in low-income female-headed families, were also worsened by mothers' poor physical and mental health. Eliminating hunger thus may require broader interventions than food programs.

  14. Reproductive and family planning history, knowledge, and needs: A community survey of low-income women in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østbye Truls

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproductive health status of China's low-income urban women is believed to be poor. Therefore, understanding their reproductive history and needs and improving services provision is very important. However, few studies have been done to assess reproductive health status, knowledge and needs in this low-income population. The purpose of this study is to broadly assess reproductive and family planning history, knowledge and health needs among low income urban women with an aim to informing health services interventions. Methods 1642 low-income women age 18–49 from Haidian district, Beijing were selected. All were interviewed via a standardized questionnaire in 2006. Results Most women reported at least one pregnancy and delivery (97.7%, 98.3%. Deliveries in hospitals (97.3% by medical personnel (98.5% were commonplace, as was receipt of antenatal care (86.0%. Nearly half had at least one abortion, with most (56.0% performed in district hospitals, by physicians (95.6%, and paid for out-of-pocket (64.4%. Almost all (97.4% used contraception, typically IUDs or condoms. Reproductive knowledge was limited. Health needs emphasized by the participants included popularizing reproductive health information, being able to discuss their reproductive health concerns, free reproductive health insurance, examination and treatment. Conclusion Among poor urban women in Beijing, antenatal care and contraceptive use were common. However, abortions were also common. Knowledge about reproductive health was limited. There is a need for better reproductive health education, free medical care and social support.

  15. Free tax assistance and the earned income tax credit: vital resources for social workers and low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee; DeJohn, Tara V; Murray, Drew

    2012-04-01

    As the United States' economy continues to experience challenges, more families at or near the poverty level fall prey to predatory financial practices. Their vulnerability to these operations is increased by a lack of knowledge of asset-building resources and alternative financial services. This article focuses on Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA)--a free income tax preparation program, which is a vital resource available to low-income families. Unfortunately, VITA is largely underused and often unknown to economically strained families and to the social workers and other professionals to whom these families turn for assistance. This article concludes with policy and practice implications for social workers and other professionals engaged in providing services to financially vulnerable families.

  16. Child cortisol moderates the association between family routines and emotion regulation in low-income children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Song, Ju-Hyun; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C.; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kaciroti, Niko; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2018-01-01

    Biological and social influences both shape emotion regulation. In 380 low-income children, we tested whether biological stress profile (cortisol) moderated the association among positive and negative home environment factors (routines; chaos) and emotion regulation (negative lability; positive regulation). Children (M age = 50.6, SD = 6.4 months) provided saliva samples to assess diurnal cortisol parameters across 3 days. Parents reported on home environment and child emotion regulation. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether cortisol parameters moderated associations between home environment and child emotion regulation. Results showed that home chaos was negatively associated with emotion regulation outcomes; cortisol did not moderate the association. Child cortisol level moderated the routines-emotion regulation association such that lack of routine was most strongly associated with poor emotion regulation among children with lower cortisol output. Findings suggest that underlying child stress biology may shape response to environmental influences. PMID:27594200

  17. Nutritional status of under-five children from urban low-income families in Xiangtan and Jilin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Fang; Gan, Yin-Yan; Guo, Chao-Nan; Sun, Ju; Hao, Li-Ping

    2017-02-01

    There have been many studies on the nutrition and the growth status of children from rural and remote western regions of China, whereas researches on children from urban low-income families are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the growth and nutritional status of children under five years of age from urban low-income families in China. There were 169 children aged 25-60 months recruited from Xiangtan and Jilin, two cities with a population of 2.81 million and 4.26 million respectively, in China in this cluster cross-sectional study. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the feeding practices and the incidence of anemia and diarrhea. The results showed that the prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia was 7.1% and 9.5% for the two cities, respectively, which was higher than that for other cities in China (1.5% and 5.9%). Of all the sampled children, 14.6% and 8.2% suffered anemia and diarrhea, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that legumes or nuts fed in a 24-h recall increased the risk of anemia (OR=4.9). Children whose caregivers began to introduce complementary foods relatively late would have high diarrhea prevalence (OR=1.4). In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia and diarrhea in under-five children from urban low-income families in China is relatively high. The growth and nutritional status of these children is greatly affected by feeding practices. A series of measures should be taken by relevant government departments to improve the health of these children.

  18. A prospective cohort study to investigate parental stress and child health in low-income Chinese families: protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wan, Eric Yuk-Fai; Chin, Weng-Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Tung, Keith Tsz Suen; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2018-02-22

    Chronic stress has adverse effects on health. Adults and children from low-income families are subject to multiple sources of stress. Existing literature about economic hardship mostly focuses on either adults or children but not both. Moreover, there is limited knowledge on the relationship between parental generalised stress and child health problems. This study aims to explore the bidirectional relationship between parental stress and child health in Chinese low-income families and to identify other modifiable factors influencing this relationship. This prospective cohort study will sample 254 low-income parent-child pairs and follow them up for 24 months with assessments at three time points (baseline, 12 and 24 months) on parental stress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and child health and behaviour using both subjective measures and objective physiological parameters. This study will collect data using standardised measures on HRQOL and behaviours of children as well as on HRQOL, mental health and stress levels of parents along with physiological tests of allostatic load and telomere length. The mediating or moderating effect of family harmony, parenting style and neighbourhood conditions will also be assessed. Data will be analysed using latent growth modelling and cross-lagged path analysis modelling to examine the bidirectional effect of parental stress and child health over time. Mediation and moderation analysis will also be conducted to examine the mechanism by which the variables relate. This study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Hong Kong-the Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster, reference no: UW 16-415. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. NCT03185273; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  19. Severity of household food insecurity is sensitive to change in household income and employment status among low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have established a relationship between poverty and food insecurity, but little is known about the acute changes within households that lead to changes in food insecurity. This study examined how changes in income, employment status, and receipt of welfare related to change in severity of food insecurity during 1 y among low-income families. In 2005-2007, 501 families living in market and subsidized rental housing were recruited through door-to-door sampling in high-poverty neighborhoods in Toronto. One year later, families were re-interviewed. The final longitudinal analytic sample included 331 families. Within-household change in income, employment, and welfare receipt were examined in relation to change in severity of food insecurity. Severity was denoted by the aggregate raw score on the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Analyses were stratified by housing subsidy status owing to differences in characteristics between households. Food insecurity was a persistent problem among families; 68% were food insecure at both interviews. Severity was dynamic, however, as 73.4% answered more or fewer questions affirmatively on the HFFSM between baseline and follow-up. Among market-rent families, a $2000 gain in income during the year and gain of full-time employment were associated with a 0.29 and 1.33 decrease in raw score, respectively (P income and employment are related to improvements in families' experiences of food insecurity, highlighting the potential for income- and employment-based policy interventions to affect the severity of household food insecurity for low-income families.

  20. Trends in Disparities in Low-Income Children's Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care by Family Immigration Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L

    2016-03-01

    To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes poverty level. We examined 3 immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Service Participation, Friendship Networks, and Family Support on Developmental Outcomes: A Study of Young People from Low-Income Families in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek-yum; Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; To, Siu-ming

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the factors conducive to the success of young people growing up in low-income families. Many studies carried out locally and overseas focus on the risks and difficulties experienced by these young people; however, little attempt has been made to examine the factors that help them change their lives from failure, poverty,…

  2. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Family food insecurity and nutritional risk in adolescents from a low-income area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Taís S; Sichieri, Rosely; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Veiga, Gloria V; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2013-09-01

    The study objective was to analyse the association between food insecurity and the weight and height status of adolescents from a low-income area in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The population-based cross-sectional survey included 523 adolescents aged 12-18 years, selected by a three-stage cluster sample. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire and family food insecurity was assessed with a validated questionnaire. The analysis estimated weighted means of energy and nutrient intakes by families' socioeconomic characteristics and the association between dietary intake with overweight and stunting. The prevalence of mild family food insecurity was 36%, and 24% of the families reported moderate or severe food insecurity. Overweight prevalence was 24%, and the prevalence of stunting was 9%, with no significant differences between sex or age groups. Family food insecurity was associated with unfavourable socioeconomic characteristics, but there was no association between socioeconomic characteristics (including family food insecurity) and overweight or stunting. Moderate or severe family food insecurity was inversely associated with intake of protein and calcium. In addition, stunting was associated with low calcium and iron intake. The co-existence of family food insecurity with overweight and stunting implies a high nutritional risk for adolescents from poor areas of Rio de Janeiro. Nevertheless, the observed absence of a statistical association between family food insecurity and weight status attests to the complexity of this issue.

  4. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-Ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-07-03

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological-developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people.

  5. Similarities and differences between families who have frequent and infrequent family meals: A qualitative investigation of low-income and minority households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Draxten, Michelle; Trofholz, Amanda; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Justesen, Kathryn; Slattengren, Andrew

    2018-02-23

    Numerous quantitative studies have examined the association between family meal frequency and child/adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to identify mealtime characteristics (e.g., child behavior during meals, rules/expectations, family dynamics) that occur during family meals that may explain why some families engage in frequent family meals and others do not. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse households, as these demographic groups are at higher risk for weight-related problems. The current study aimed to identify similarities and differences in mealtime characteristics between households that have frequent and infrequent family meals within a low-income and minority population. This qualitative study included 118 parents who participated in Family Meals, LIVE!, a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study. Parents (90% female; mean age = 35) were racially/ethnically diverse (62% African American, 19% White, 4% Native American, 4% Asian, 11% Mixed/Other) and from low-income (73% characteristics (i.e., picky eating, involving family members in meal preparation) between households having frequent and infrequent family meals. Additionally, several differences in mealtime characteristics were identified between households having frequent (i.e., importance of family meals, flexibility in the definition of family meals, family meal rules, no pressure-to-eat feeding practices) versus infrequent family meals (i.e., pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices, family meals are dinner meals only, and difficult meal time behaviors). Study findings may be useful for developing intervention targets for low-income and racially/ethnically diverse households so more families can benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Mommy and Me Play Program: a pilot play intervention for low-income, African American preschool families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Linnie Green

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author examined the effects of a dyadic, mother-paired play intervention-The Mommy and Me Play Program-an innovative intervention program designed using a live-action modeling technique in which mothers serve as "natural helpers" to each other. By identifying natural strengths in mothers and employing opportunities for scaffolded learning, this intervention aimed to enhance mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competence. Fifty mother-child dyads from a single, low-income, African American, urban community were assessed in this study on measures of mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competency. Results from this pilot were not statistically significant, but provide important information regarding future research with this intervention program. These preliminary findings indicated that mothers with fewer play skills pre-intervention demonstrated improvement in their play skills post-intervention beyond other intervention participants; and children of those same mothers showed the greatest decrease in angry and aggressive behaviors in the classroom when compared to other participating children from pre- to post-intervention. Implications for research and practice in community-based, intervention work with low-income, ethnic-minority families are discussed.

  7. Obesity Risk in Children: The Role of Acculturation in the Feeding Practices and Styles of Low-Income Hispanic Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-12-01

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.

  8. Language Outcomes for Children of Low-Income Families Enrolled in Auditory Verbal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Sarah; Stokes, Jacqueline; Weller, Isobel

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception about families in the UK who choose to participate in an Auditory Verbal (AV) approach for their child with hearing impairment, is that they are uniformly from affluent backgrounds. It is asserted that the good spoken language outcomes in these children are a product of the child's social background and family's values…

  9. Kinship Support, Family Relations, and Psychological Adjustment among Low-Income African American Mothers and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…

  10. Psychosocial effects of stroke in low-income family context - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the psychosocial effects of stroke – cerebrovascular accident (CVA – in a low-income family context. Methods: A qualitative and descriptive research held in one of the units of Associação Beneficente Cearense de Reabilitação (ABCR in Fortaleza, Ceará, in the period from June to December, 2002. Six patients with sequel of CVA and their families joined in the study, regardless of age, with an average of six months of physiotherapy. For data collection we applied free observation and semi-structured interviews to patients and families, mediated by specific guiding questions for each group. From content analysis five categories emerged. Results: The difficulties of family life, the feelings of anguish and anxiety prevailed in the quest for rehabilitation, with the treatment being long, requiring determination and awareness of patient-family dyad. The fear of losing their jobs, the responsibility, the expenses and their family life were present in the discourse of patients and relatives, in addition to questions about the disease and concerns about recovery and / or healing. Final considerations: The stroke (CVA brings as psychological effects feelings of fear, anguish and limitation, contrasting with the determination of the quest for recovery. Socially, the unemployment, both physical and financial dependence and social isolation were highlighted.

  11. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  12. Strengthening Low-Income Families: A Research Agenda for Parenting, Relationship, and Fatherhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…

  13. Supporting Low-Income Parents of Young Children: The Palm Beach County Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Julie; Rich, Lauren; Gouvea, Marcia; Winje, Carolyn; Scannell, Molly; Harden, Allen; Berg, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, Florida's Palm Beach County has been building an infrastructure of prevention and early intervention services to promote and support the healthy development and school readiness of children from birth to age 8. The county began this effort with a set of programs focused on serving families in four targeted geographic areas…

  14. Mothers' and Fathers' Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Willoughby, Michael T; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children.

  15. Enhancing Father Involvement in Low-Income Families: A Couples Group Approach to Preventive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Marsha Kline; Pruett, Kyle; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Cowan, Philip A

    2017-03-01

    To address the problem of fathers' absence from children's lives and the difficulty of paternal engagement, especially among lower income families, government agencies have given increasing attention to funding father involvement interventions. Few of these interventions have yielded promising results. Father involvement research that focuses on the couple/coparenting relationship offers a pathway to support fathers' involvement while strengthening family relationships. Relevant research is reviewed and an exemplar is provided in the Supporting Father Involvement intervention and its positive effects on parental and parent-child relationships and children's outcomes. The article concludes with policy implications of this choice of target populations and the need to develop new strategies to involve fathers in the lives of their children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Postpartum contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning in five low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Omrana; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Patel, Archana; Garces, Ana; Esamai, Fabian; Chomba, Elwyn; Moore, Janet L; Kodkany, Bhalchandra S; Saleem, Sarah; Derman, Richard J; Liechty, Edward A; Hibberd, Patricia L; Hambidge, K; Krebs, Nancy F; Carlo, Waldemar A; McClure, Elizabeth M; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    During the post-partum period, most women wish to delay or prevent future pregnancies. Despite this, the unmet need for family planning up to a year after delivery is higher than at any other time. This study aims to assess fertility intention, contraceptive usage and unmet need for family planning amongst women who are six weeks postpartum, as well as to identify those at greatest risk of having an unmet need for family planning during this period. Using the NICHD Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research's multi-site, prospective, ongoing, active surveillance system to track pregnancies and births in 100 rural geographic clusters in 5 countries (India, Pakistan, Zambia, Kenya and Guatemala), we assessed fertility intention and contraceptive usage at day 42 post-partum. We gathered data on 36,687 women in the post-partum period. Less than 5% of these women wished to have another pregnancy within the year. Despite this, rates of modern contraceptive usage varied widely and unmet need ranged from 25% to 96%. Even amongst users of modern contraceptives, the uptake of the most effective long-acting reversible contraceptives (intrauterine devices) was low. Women of age less than 20 years, parity of two or less, limited education and those who deliver at home were at highest risk for having unmet need. Six weeks postpartum, almost all women wish to delay or prevent a future pregnancy. Even in sites where early contraceptive adoption is common, there is substantial unmet need for family planning. This is consistently highest amongst women below the age of 20 years. Interventions aimed at increasing the adoption of effective contraceptive methods are urgently needed in the majority of sites in order to reduce unmet need and to improve both maternal and infant outcomes, especially amongst young women. Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475).

  17. Social Support May Buffer the Effect of Intrafamilial Stressors on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Time in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. Methods: In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Results: Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Conclusions: Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time. PMID:24168754

  18. Reconstruction Policy and Displacement: The case of low income families of inner Talca city

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    Francisco Letelier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 8.8 magnitude earthquake (27F affected the south central zone of Chile on 27 of February 2010. The Maule Region was one of the most affected and its capital, Talca, suffered the destruction of an important part of its center, which constitutes 20% of its built urban area. Many non-proprietary families lived there with vulnerability conditions. Based on the review of secondary data, official documents and press information, this paper explores how government, private and civil society sectors acted in the face of the problem of non-owner families in the center of Talca. From the analysis, it is argued the lack of ownership, socioeconomic status and the prevalence of female household heads and older adults, were risk factors that made them vulnerable to losing their location. This risk condition was not addressed by public policies, with a lack of territorial perspective and consideration of the right to location. It is concluded that apart from a weak master planning system, the biggest obstacle was the absence of a public policy that would not allow to deal with the effects of the earthquake properly and to include both the needs and expectations of civil society.

  19. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

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    Avanci Joviana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94, high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31, parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32 and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23. Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families.

  20. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  1. Meaning-Less Differences: Exposing Fallacies and Flaws in "The Word Gap" Hypothesis That Conceal a Dangerous "Language Trap" for Low-Income American Families and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, John

    2017-01-01

    The present article compares and contrasts linguistic findings from longitudinal studies of low-income Americans derived from evidence of recorded family speech interactions. Hart and Risley (1995) employed research assistants who spent 1 hour per month observing language usage among families from different socioeconomic backgrounds in their homes…

  2. Astronomy for Special Needs Children (Low-income and/or Serious Medical Conditions) and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI* sponsored and one IAU OAD grant for astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill or traumatically injured children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and Chicago or for children hospitalized at the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center, (Mineola, NY). An astronomy program was also created for the five Fresh Air Fund Charity summer camps (low-income and special needs) and for a Hofstra summer camp for developmentally challenged youths.These programs are designed for children of all ages include” STSCi’s “Tonight’s Sky” (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown to the children.The staff and volunteers at the Ronald McDonald House and Children’s Medical Center are trained to use the telescope and to do astronony demonstrations. I created an Activity Book for the staff with demonstrations, participatory hands-on activities, and edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are to stimulate interest.These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.

  3. The low-income single-family house and the effectiveness of architects in affecting affordability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Dulaney Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Architects are increasingly engaged in efforts to provide affordable, owner-occupied housing in the United States. Yet architects’ roles in broadly addressing affordable housing remain marginal as was anecdotally evident by the absence of architects at a recent university-sponsored affordable housing workshop. Apparently, the potential contributions of architects in “the development of innovative approaches and best practices” related to affordable, owner-occupied housing is not always valued to housing policymakers and planners such as those who organized this workshop. This paper speculatively explores the gap between the potential value of architects and their actual effectiveness at realizing widespread relevancy, innovation, and change in improving the quality and attainability of affordable, owner occupied housing and how this gap may contribute to the undervaluation and marginalization of architects’ efforts to address affordable housing needs in the United States. Case studies of several recent U.S. house design competitions exemplify these gaps. Potential strategies for closing these gaps and thus appreciating the value of architects’ efforts in this endeavor are identified.To become central in providing much-needed affordable, owner-occupied housing, architects must make the value of their potential contributions evident. This requires a clear definition of design goals, a rigorous assessment of built projects, and the thorough dissemination of findings and methodologies. Architects must engage those fields to which they have, in the U.S., long relinquished affordable, single-family housing. Architects must demonstrate that qualitative design improvements are not just possible within the frameworks and agendas of those other fields but that good design will better enable the achievement of those extra-disciplinary goals.

  4. Quality of Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care for Children in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Amanda R; French, Benjamin; Aysola, Jaya; Saloner, Brendan; Noonan, Kathleen G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    frustration obtaining health care services (26% [23%-28%]). These challenges were also magnified for privately insured children with special health care needs, whose caregivers reported significantly greater problems accessing specialty care (29% [26%-33%]) and frustration obtaining health care services (36% [32%-41%]) than did caregivers of children insured by Medicaid, and a lower likelihood of insurance always meeting the child's needs (63% [60%-67%]) than children insured by Medicaid or CHIP. Caregivers of privately insured children were also significantly more likely to experience out-of-pocket costs (77% [75%-78%]) than were caregivers of children insured by Medicaid (26% [23%-28%]; P insurance types revealed important differences that can help guide future policymaking regarding coverage for families with low to moderate incomes.

  5. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

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    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Healthy Home Environments and Use of Patient-Centered Medical Homes by Children of Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Phillips, Victoria L; Gaydos, Laura M; Joski, Peter

    Medicaid agencies have been promoting the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model. Most caregivers choose physician practices for their children, and we hypothesized that those following healthier childrearing practices are more likely to seek care in a PCMH. We selected children with public insurance plans (n = 20,801) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We used generalized ordinal logistic regression with state fixed effects to assess the association between home environments and children's use of PCMHs. Children living in the healthiest homes were 1.33 times (p = .001) more likely to receive care from the highest level of PCMH. In states with early PCMH implementation, the odds increased to 2.11 times (p = .001). Our results show a significant, sizeable relationship between healthier home environments and the use of PCMH by children from low-income families. They provide implications for assessing the effect of PCMH use on health outcomes and use patterns. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-05-21

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each $100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from $570/house to $106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect

  9. Influence of Child Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress on Parent-Child Conflict among Low-Income Families: The Moderating Role of Maternal Nativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aileen S.; Ren, Lixin; Esteraich, Jan M.; Raikes, Helen H.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether parenting stress and child behavioral problems are significant predictors of parent-child conflict in the context of low-income families and how these relations are moderated by maternal nativity. The authors conducted multiple regression analyses to examine relations between teachers' report of…

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MEASURES OF ATTAINMENT VALUE AND ACHIEVEMENT EXPECTANCY TO THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, FRANK H.

    THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSED ON THE USEFULNESS OF A PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING MEASURES OF THE MOTIVATION OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES TO ACHIEVE IN READING WHICH DID NOT REQUIRE WRITTEN OR ORAL VERBAL RESPONSES FROM THE SUBJECTS. MEASURES OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WERE CORRELATED WITH TEACHER RATINGS OF EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE IN…

  11. The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.; Auston, Aletha C.; Murphy, Kimberlee C.; St. Peters, Michelle; Pinon, Ronda Scantlin; Kotler, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Collected time-use diaries of television viewing from two cohorts of children (ages 2-5 and 4-7) from low-income families and gave annual tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. Found that viewing of child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted higher academic performance. Frequent viewers of…

  12. Mothers’ health-related quality of life: Its relationship with children’s health-related quality of life and behavior in low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sze Man Wong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the association between mothers’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL and their children’s HRQOL and behavior in low-income families. Methods: Mothers of 278 children aged 6–12 years from low-income families were invited to complete the Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50 and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ for their children as well as the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2 and the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2. Multiple linear regressions with mother–child pairs as the unit of analysis were performed to examine the associations between maternal and child variables with adjustment of mother- and child-level confounders. Results: Compared with the general population, low-income mothers had a lower mean SF-12v2 mental component summary score and their children also had lower mean CHQ-PF50 physical and psychosocial summary scores and SDQ total difficulties score. Children of mothers with SF-12v2 scores below the population mean of 50 had significantly worse CHQ-PF50 scores and higher SDQ total difficulties scores. The mother’s PHQ-2 depression status had no association with the child’s CHQ-PF50 scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to reducing the negative impact of health problems on mothers’ daily roles in childcare in low-income families.

  13. Parent-Child Interactions Among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ From Nonreferred Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2009-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts. PMID:20171330

  14. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. Familial environment in high- and middle-low-income municipalities: a survey in Italy to understand the distribution of potentially obesogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, D; Foltran, F; Ghidina, M; Zobec, F; Berchialla, P

    2012-09-01

    To explore the familial and social environment in high- and middle-low-income municipalities in Italy to evaluate the distribution of potentially obesogenic factors. A hybrid methodological approach was chosen. A survey of 1215 Italian children was performed to collect information regarding child, family and peer characteristics; additionally, income data were derived from national estimates based on zip codes. A cross-sectional study conducted via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). A CATI facility was used to interview 1215 Italian children aged 6-10 years. Information regarding family composition; body mass index (BMI) of the child, father and mother; mother's perception of the child's weight; levels of physical activity of the child, father and mother; time spent watching television or playing video games; use of social networks; leisure-time habits; and dietary habits of peers was collected. Income per year per person was obtained from the Italian National Institute of Statistics estimates. Municipalities were divided into two groups: one representing the highest ranking income from the total Italian income distribution, and one representing middle-low incomes. Differences between middle-low-income and high-income groups for child and parent BMIs, social networks, and dietary and leisure-time habits were compared using Wilcoxon and McNemar tests, as appropriate. Multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression. In total, 604 high-income children and 611 middle-low-income children were identified. A significant difference in father's BMI was found between middle-low- and high-income groups: 10.5% of fathers in middle-low-income municipalities were obese, compared with 3.8% in high-income areas (P middle-low-income children participated in less physical activity than high-income children (22.7% vs 34.8% participated in sporting activities for more than 3 h per week, P middle-low-income children were not isolated and were surrounded by a

  16. Mixed methods study of management of health conditions in rural low-income families: implications for health care policy in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, L A; Huddleston-Casas, C A; Morgan, K A; Feldman, D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the health issues and health management strategies utilized by rural low-income women and their families to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of health reform in rural areas of the USA. METHODS; Quantitative data was analyzed from 271 rural, low-income women and their families and qualitative data from a sub-sample of 44. Specifically explored were the: (1) types and perceived severity of health conditions rural, low-income individuals report; (2) perceived value and utilization of a usual source of care; and (3) strategies these individuals employ to manage their health. Rural American families manage multiple healthcare needs with limited resources; 42.1% reported 1-4 chronic conditions in the family, 31.4% reported 5-8 conditions, and 17.7% reported 9 or more conditions. The majority of participants (79.0%) reported having a doctor or other healthcare professional that they usually see; 61.3% reported their partners had a usual provider, and 91.7% reported their children had a usual provider. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed two main themes regarding management of health conditions: (1) lack of engagement in managing overall health; and (2) ineffective utilization of health care. Rural low-income individuals in the US may benefit from new policies that promote patient-centered, personalized care. However, any policy change must be carefully designed to consider the ways in which rural American families manage their health in order to improve individual health status and reduce rural health disparities.

  17. Mediating effect of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life among low-income older Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Differential relationships between language skills and working memory in Turkish–Dutch and native-Dutch first-graders from low-income families

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, Anna M. T.; Janssen, Marije

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Turkish–Dutch children constitute a substantial group of children who learn to speak Dutch at the age of four after they learned to speak Turkish. These children are generally academically less successful. Academic success appears to be affected by both language proficiency and working memory skill. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between language skills and working memory in Turkish–Dutch and native-Dutch children from low-income families. The f...

  19. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  20. Multivariate Associations Among Health-Related Fitness, Physical Activity, and TGMD-3 Test Items in Disadvantaged Children From Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan; Brusseau, Tim; Hannon, James

    2016-10-04

    Motor skills are needed for physical development and may be linked to health-related fitness and physical activity levels. No studies have examined the relationships among these constructs in large samples of disadvantaged children from low-income families using the Test for Gross Motor Development-3rd Edition (TGMD-3). The purpose of this study was to examine the multivariate associations among health-related fitness, physical activity, and motor skills assessed using the TGMD-3. Participants included 1460 school-aged children (730 boys, 730 girls; M age = 8.4 years, SD = 1.8 years) recruited from the K to sixth grades from three low-income schools. Health-related fitness was assessed using the FITNESSGRAM battery, physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and pedometers, and motor skills were assessed using the TGMD-3. Canonical correlations revealed statistically significant correlations between the Ball Skills and health-related fitness variates (R c  = 0.43, R c 2  = 17%, p health-related fitness variate included body mass index and the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (p health-related fitness or physical activity. Ball skills are related to health-related fitness in disadvantaged children from low-income families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S C; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence demonstrating the negative impact of poverty and income disparity on children's psychological well-being, there has been a lack of qualitative information which addresses its contributing factors. This study aimed to shed light on this area by comparing the experiences toward daily life between children living in low- and high-income families. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. A random sample of 42 children aged 10-13, with 25 from low- and 17 from high-income families were asked to voluntarily response to a demographic sheet and undergo individual semi-structured interviews which lasted about 25-30 min. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (reference UW 12-237). The findings of this study revealed that the living environment, physical health, social life and ability to function at school of children from low-income families are severely impaired. It fills a gap in the literature by showing how poverty and income disparity affect the daily lives of children from low-income families on different levels. Also, adopting a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are possible factors mediating the effects of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of children from low-income families. It is vital for healthcare professionals going beyond their normal roles to give advice on healthy lifestyles and behaviors by building multidisciplinary partnerships with schools and the community. Additionally, healthcare professionals should also target on these two possible factors to develop and implement appropriate interventions for promoting the psychological well-being among children living in poverty. Trial registration NCT02877719. 19 August 2016 retrospectively registered.

  2. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Poverty and health-related quality of life of people living in Hong Kong: comparison of individuals from low-income families and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung

    2017-06-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Chinese adults from low-income households in Hong Kong, and to explore any threshold of household income that impaired HRQOL. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 298 adults from low-income families when they enrolled into a cohort study between 2012 and 2014. HRQOL was measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey-version 2 (SF-12v2). Their mean SF-12v2 subscale and summary scores were compared with those of 596 age-sex-matched subjects randomly selected from a database of 2763 adults from the Hong Kong general population (ratio = 1:2). Multiple linear regressions were conducted to determine any association between monthly household income and HRQOL. Subjects from low-income households had significantly lower SF-12v2 bodily pain, general health, vitality and physical component summary (PCS) scores than the age-sex matched subjects from the general population. Subgroup analysis showed that a household income income in Hong Kong (HK$10 000 ≈ US$1290, i.e. poverty line in Hong Kong) was independently associated with poorer PCS and mental component summary (MCS) scores after adjustment for socio-demographics and co-morbidities. Chinese adults from low-income households had poorer HRQOL, and income seems to be the threshold for impairment of both physical and mental HRQOL. The findings support the current definition of the poverty line. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A Supermarket Double-Dollar Incentive Program Increases Purchases of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Among Low-Income Families With Children: The Healthy Double Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; Moran, Alyssa; Thorndike, Anne N; Boulos, Rebecca; Franckle, Rebecca L; Greene, Julie C; Blue, Dan J; Block, Jason P; Rimm, Eric B

    2018-03-01

    To carry out a pilot study to determine whether a supermarket double-dollar fruit and vegetable (F&V) incentive increases F&V purchases among low-income families. Randomized controlled design. Purchases were tracked using a loyalty card that provided participants with a 5% discount on all purchases during a 3-month baseline period followed by the 4-month intervention. A supermarket in a low-income rural Maine community. A total of 401 low-income and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) supermarket customers. Same-day coupon at checkout for half-off eligible fresh, frozen, or canned F&V over 4 months. Weekly spending in dollars on eligible F&V. A linear model with random intercepts accounted for repeated transactions by individuals to estimate change in F&V spending per week from baseline to intervention. Secondary analyses examined changes among SNAP-eligible participants. Coupons were redeemed among 53% of eligible baskets. Total weekly F&V spending increased in the intervention arm compared with control ($1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], $0.29 to $3.88). The largest increase was for fresh F&V ($1.97; 95% CI, $0.49 to $3.44). Secondary analyses revealed greater increases in F&V spending among SNAP-eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($5.14; 95% CI, $1.93 to $8.34) than among non-SNAP eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($3.88; 95% CI, $1.67 to $6.08). A double-dollar pricing incentive increased F&V spending in a low-income community despite the moderate uptake of the coupon redemption. Customers who were eligible for SNAP saw the greatest F&V spending increases. Financial incentives for F&V are an effective strategy for food assistance programs to increase healthy purchases and improve dietary intake in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Responding to the needs of low-income and homeless women who are survivors of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuk, E L; Melnick, S; Browne, A

    1998-01-01

    Americans have started to recognize interpersonal violence as a major health care issue. Increasingly, clinicians are beginning to recognize both the high rate of victimization among extremely poor women and its health consequences. However, most clinical responses focus on the immediate effects of child abuse, partner abuse, and rape. The long-term medical and mental health consequences and the relationship between early victimization and adult problems are still largely ignored. This article focuses on medical and mental health needs of extremely poor women survivors of interpersonal violence. It begins by documenting the extent and nature of violence against low-income women. Special attention is focused on the long-term sequelae of childhood abuse and on identifying and managing complex trauma responses in these women. The article concludes by discussing obstacles to care and the necessity of advocating for increased resources to respond to women living in extreme poverty.

  6. Preliminary efficacy of an intervention to reduce psychosocial stress and improve coping in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Einhorn, Lindsey; Etter, Erica M; Rienks, Shauna; Markman, Howard

    2011-12-01

    This article reports pre-post intervention results from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the initial efficacy of a couples-based intervention aimed at teaching skills for coping with stress and improving relationship skills in a sample of 173 ethnically diverse low-income co-resident mothers and fathers who were raising at least one child together. Couples were randomly assigned to one of three interventions or to an assessment-only control condition. The Fatherhood, Relationship, and Marriage Education (FRAME) intervention is a 14-h psychoeducation intervention developed specifically to strengthen the ability of low-income mothers and fathers to reduce conflict, cope with stress, and co-parent effectively. Three versions of FRAME were assessed: a men-only group, a women-only group, and a couple's group. The pre-post intervention analyses revealed reductions in financial stress, disengagement coping, and involuntary disengagement responses, as well as improvements in problem solving. These pre-post changes on stress and coping variables were both statistically significant and reliable as assessed by the Reliable Change Index (Jacobson and Truax 1991). Results were particularly strong for the couples' and women's groups. In addition, positive pre-post changes on stress and coping variables were associated with pre-post reductions on symptoms of depression for participants assigned to an intervention. The results demonstrate that participants in FRAME acquire some of the key skills taught in the intervention, and skills acquisition appears to translate into symptom reduction. In addition, this study highlights the value of an intervention aiming to improve the capacity of parents with economic hardship to cope effectively with stress.

  7. Factors associated with reverse-migration separation among a cohort of low-income chinese immigrant families in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Kenny; Chung, Henry; Sun, Loretta; Chou, Jolene C; Taylor-Shih, Anna

    2009-01-01

    A survey was administered to 219 Chinese immigrant women receiving prenatal and postnatal care in a community health center in New York City to examine the practice of and factors associated with "reverse-migration"-sending American-born children to China to be raised by extended family members, and bringing them back upon reaching school age. Results suggest that this practice was common (57%), and was significantly associated with certain maternal and family sociodemographic characteristics. Reasons leading to and perceived impact of reverse-migration separation were also explored. The long-term consequences of reverse-migration separation on child development or family dynamics are unknown. Further research is indicated on larger samples of low-income Chinese immigrant families to explore the prevalence and consequences of this practice.

  8. An examination of interventions to reduce respiratory health and injury hazards in homes of low-income families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Sherry L.; Fowler, Cecile; Harris, Judy; Moffat, Sally; Martinez, Yolanda; Walton, Heather; Ruiz, Bernice; Jacobs, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether combining asthma trigger reduction with housing structural repairs, device disbursement and education in low-income households with children would improve self-reported respiratory health and reduce housing-related respiratory health and injury hazards (convenience sample of n=67 homes with 63 asthmatic and 121 non-asthmatic children). At baseline, a visual assessment of the home environment and a structured occupant interview were used to examine 29 potential injury hazards and 7 potential respiratory health hazards. A home-specific intervention was designed to provide the children's parents or caretakers with the knowledge, skills, motivation, supplies, equipment, and minimum housing conditions necessary for a healthy and safe home. The enrolled households were primarily Hispanic and owned their homes. On average, 8 injury hazards were observed in the homes at baseline. Four months following intervention, the average declined to 2.2 hazards per home (p<0.001), with 97% of the parents reporting that their homes were safer following the interventions. An average of 3.3 respiratory health hazards were observed in the homes at baseline. Four months following intervention, the average declined to 0.9 hazards per home (p<0.001), with 96% of parents reporting that the respiratory health of their asthmatic children improved. A tailored healthy homes improvement package significantly improves self-reported respiratory health and safety, reduces respiratory health and injury hazards, and can be implemented in concert with a mobile clinical setting

  9. Ecological Factors Influencing Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Concept in Adolescents from Low-Income Families in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suyon; Yoo, Haewon

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Hierarchical multiple regression models were generated. The mean score of emotional/behavioral problem has been changed from 2.20 (2011), 2.15 (2013), to 2.11 (2015) out of 4, and the mean score of self-concept has been changed from 2.73 (2012), 2.73 (2014), to 2.77 (2015) out of 4. Factors that influenced emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept among adolescents were health perception and academic achievement (only associated with self-concept) at the intrapersonal level and parenting style, peer attachment (only associated with self-concept), and relationships with teachers at the interpersonal level. These results may be used to inform the development of interventions designed to decrease emotional/behavioral problems and improve positive self-concept in adolescents from low-income families.

  10. Convergent Validity of Preschool Children's Television Viewing Measures among Low-Income Latino Families: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jessica; Chen, Tzu-An; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is an important modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity. However, valid methods for measuring children's TV viewing are sparse and few studies have included Latinos, a population disproportionately affected by obesity. The goal of this study was to test the reliability and convergent validity of four TV viewing measures among low-income Latino preschool children in the United States. Methods Latino children (n=96) ages 3–5 years old were recruited from four Head Start centers in Houston, Texas (January, 2009, to June, 2010). TV viewing was measured concurrently over 7 days by four methods: (1) TV diaries (parent reported), (2) sedentary time (accelerometry), (3) TV Allowance (an electronic TV power meter), and (4) Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) on personal digital assistants (parent reported). This 7-day procedure was repeated 3–4 weeks later. Test–retest reliability was determined by intraclass correlations (ICC). Spearman correlations (due to nonnormal distributions) were used to determine convergent validity compared to the TV diary. Results The TV diary had the highest test–retest reliability (ICC=0.82, pTV Allowance (ICC=0.69, pTV Allowance (r=0.45–0.55, pTV diaries. Accelerometer-determined sedentary minutes were not correlated with TV diaries. The TV Allowance and EMA methods were significantly correlated with each other (r=0.48–0.53, pTV diary is feasible and is the most reliable method for measuring US Latino preschool children's TV viewing. PMID:23270534

  11. Promoting Toddlers’ Positive Social-Emotional Outcomes in Low-Income Families: A Play-Based Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This multi-method study of mothers and toddlers (a) examined the effectiveness of a play-based intervention (child-oriented play versus play-as-usual) on children’s cooperation with their mothers and socioemotional competence, (b) introduced a robust new measure of maternal engagement in the intervention, reflected in the dose of child-oriented play the mother delivered to the child, (c) examined ecological factors that predicted maternal engagement, and the effect of engagement on the outcomes. Methods Low-income mothers (N=186, 11% Latino, 27% minority) were randomized into Child-Oriented Play group or Play-as-Usual group, and participated in 8 play sessions and played daily with their children for 10 weeks. Microscopic coding of mothers’ behavior in play sessions assessed the dose of child-oriented play delivered to children; mothers’ diaries assessed time in daily play. Children’s cooperation with maternal control, observed in the laboratory, and mother-rated competence were measured before randomization (Pretest), after play sessions (Posttest 1), and 6 months later (Posttest 2). Results Children in both groups made significant gains in both outcomes. The gains in cooperation appeared longer lasting in Child-Oriented Play group. Both groups made significantly greater gains than a “historical community control” group, an unrelated longitudinal study without any intervention. Structural Equation Analyses revealed that married mothers, and those with fewer children delivered higher doses of child-oriented play, and those doses predicted children’s higher cooperation and competence, with the effects of earlier scores covaried. The dose of time spent in daily play had no effect. Conclusion Child-oriented play may be a promising, effective, and inexpensive means of promoting toddlers’ positive development. PMID:23557253

  12. Promoting toddlers' positive social-emotional outcomes in low-income families: a play-based experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig

    2013-01-01

    This multimethod study of mothers and toddlers (a) examined the effectiveness of a play-based intervention (child-oriented play vs. play-as-usual) on children's cooperation with their mothers and socioemotional competence; (b) introduced a robust new measure of maternal engagement in the intervention, reflected in the dose of child-oriented play the mother delivered to the child; and (c) examined ecological factors that predicted maternal engagement, and the effect of engagement on the outcomes. Low-income mothers (N = 186, 11% Latino, 27% minority) were randomized into child-oriented play group or play-as-usual group, participated in 8 play sessions, and played daily with their children for 10 weeks. Microscopic coding of mothers' behavior in play sessions assessed the dose of child-oriented play delivered to children; mothers' diaries assessed time in daily play. Children's cooperation with maternal control, observed in the laboratory, and mother-rated competence were measured before randomization (Pretest), after play sessions (Posttest 1), and 6 months later (Posttest 2). Children in both groups made significant gains in both outcomes. The gains in cooperation appeared longer lasting in child-oriented play group. Both groups made significantly greater gains than a "historical community control" group, an unrelated longitudinal study without any intervention. Structural equation analyses revealed that married mothers and those with fewer children delivered higher doses of child-oriented play, and those doses predicted children's higher cooperation and competence, with the effects of earlier scores covaried. The dose of time spent in daily play had no effect. Child-oriented play may be a promising, effective, and inexpensive means of promoting toddlers' positive development.

  13. Children from low-income families have less access to sports facilities, but are no less physically active: cross-sectional study (EarlyBird 35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, L D; Hosking, J; Metcalf, B S; Jeffery, A N; Wilkin, T J

    2008-07-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity have led to an increasing number of Government sponsored initiatives attempting to stem the problem. Much of the focus to date has been on physical activity and out-of-school activity in particular. There is an assumption that children from low-income families suffer most where there is a lack of structured physical education in school. Accordingly, provision of additional facilities for sport and other forms of active recreation tend to target areas of socio-economic deprivation. We have assessed the relationship between parental income, the use of out-of-school sports facilities and the overall physical activity of young children across a wide socio-economic range. Total weekly physical activity was measured, objectively, over 7 days both at 7 years and 8 years in a healthy cohort of 121 boys and 93 girls using actigraph accelerometers. Questionnaires were used to establish parental income and parents reported the child's weekly use of out-of-school facilities for structured physical activity. Children from low-income families attended significantly fewer sessions of structured out-of-school activities than those from wealthier families (r = 0.39), with a clear dose-response relationship across income groups. Nevertheless, total physical activity, measured objectively over seven continuous days, showed no relationship between parental income and the mean activity level of the children (r = -0.08). Nor did we find a relationship between parental income and time spent in higher intensity activity (r = -0.04). Social inequality appears to have little impact on physical activity in young children. Those from poorer families make less use of facilities for structured activity out-of-school but they nevertheless record the same overall level of activity as others. What they lack in opportunity they appear to make up in the form of unstructured exercise. Improving provision for sport may not lead to the expected rise in activity levels

  14. Employment Alone is Not Enought for America's Low-Income Children and Families. Living at the Edge Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthen, Nancy K.; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Families with incomes between the official poverty level and the minimum economic security level face many of the same material hardships and financial pressures that officially poor families face, partly because as their income grows, they lose eligibility for public benefits. This report focuses on the role that public policies play in…

  15. The First Avenue After-School Day Care Center: A Program for Low Income Families in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarm, Charles

    This paper provides a very brief overview of an after-school day care center in New York City which cares for a maximum of 65 immigrant children 6 through 12 years of age. The population served consists of families from Hong Kong, China, Latin America, India, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Korea and Nigeria. As most families served know little English,…

  16. And still WE rise: Parent-child relationships, resilience, and school readiness in low-income urban Black families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Riana Elyse

    2018-02-01

    The Family Stress Model acknowledges forms of resilience in the face of hardship; however, few studies have emerged on the potentially positive role of familial relationships in the academic, psychological, and prosocial success of impoverished Black children. The current study evaluates how parent-child relationship conflict and financial stress are associated with children's school readiness (i.e., academic, psychosocial, and socioemotional indicators). Latent profile analyses, incorporating financial stress, general stress, and parent-child relationship variables were used to test whether varying family stress profiles differentially predicted children's school readiness in Black families with children entering kindergarten (N = 292). Findings revealed 4 latent classifications with profiles of low, moderate, moderate/high, and high/moderate stress and conflict variables, respectively. Whereas the low-profile was associated with the most desirable school readiness indicators overall, children in the high/moderate-profile were rated as significantly more psychosocially and socioemotionally prepared for school than their moderate/high-profile counterparts. Families with less conflictual parent-child relationships had more optimal school readiness relative to families with higher conflict and less financial strain. The findings of the current study have the potential to contribute to theories of poverty and parent-child relationships, as well as guide therapeutic services focused on family relationships through school- and community-related programs for impoverished urban Black youth and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  18. Free Tax Assistance and the Earned Income Tax Credit: Vital Resources for Social Workers and Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee; DeJohn, Tara V.; Murray, Drew

    2012-01-01

    As the United States' economy continues to experience challenges, more families at or near the poverty level fall prey to predatory financial practices. Their vulnerability to these operations is increased by a lack of knowledge of asset-building resources and alternative financial services. This article focuses on Volunteer Income Tax Assistance…

  19. Examining maternal beliefs and human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among male and female children in low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L. Fuchs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines within-family differences in the uptake of the HPV vaccine and HPV-related beliefs by children׳s sex. Methods: From a 2011–2013 survey of mothers of children aged 9–17 years in Texas, mothers with both male and female children (n=350 were selected. Results: Mothers were more likely to report having initiated and completed HPV vaccination for their daughters than sons. Mothers did not express differences by children׳s sex in HPV-related beliefs. Among those who had not completely vaccinated either child, mothers were more likely to report they wanted their daughters compared to sons vaccinated and were more likely to report feeling confident they could get their daughters vaccinated than their sons. Conclusion: In this population, mothers were more likely to report HPV vaccination of and motivation to vaccinate daughters compared to sons, although maternal beliefs about HPV did not differ by children׳s sex. Keywords: HPV vaccine, Vaccine series completion, Human papillomavirus, Vaccination, Mothers, Belief

  20. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p early cognitive stimulation on 24-month language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  1. Perfil de consulta en niños alérgicos provenientes de familias de bajos ingresos Profile of consultation of allergic children from low income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades alérgicas son una de las principales causas de atención médica en la infancia y su impacto se acentúa más en las familias de bajos ingresos. En un estudio descriptivo analítico se caracterizó el perfil de consulta del niño alérgico proveniente de familias mexicanas de bajos recursos económicos. Las enfermedades alérgicas predominaron en el sexo masculino y la edad escolar; el 71 % de los enfermos provenía de localidades urbanas. El asma fue el diagnóstico más frecuente (64 %, seguido de la rinitis alérgica (30 %, dermatitis atópica (6 % y urticaria (3 %. Las reactividades encontradas con más frecuencia en la prueba cutánea fueron Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, gato (17 %, perro (14 % y Cynodon dactylon (11 %. El alto grado de disfunción familiar y la poca adhesión a tratamientos prolongados posibilitan la perpetuidad de los síntomas y el pronóstico incierto en este grupo de niños.Allergic diseases are one of the main causes for seeing the doctor in childhood and their impact is more acute in low income families. An analytical descriptive study characterized the profile of medical consultation of the allergic child from Mexican low income families. Allergic diseases prevailed in males and at school age, and 71 % of the sick children lived in urban settings. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis (64 % followed by allergic rhinitis (30%, atopic dermatitis (6 % and urticaria (3 %. The most commom reactivity rates in the cutaneous test were Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, cat (17 %, dog (14 % and Cynodon dactylon (11 %. The high level of family dysfunction and low adhesion to long therapies make it possible the persistence of symptoms and the uncertain prognosis in this group of children.

  2. "Doing our best to keep a routine:" How low-income mothers manage child feeding with unpredictable work and family schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tara; Farrell, Tracy Jean; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol M

    2018-01-01

    Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies - planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  4. A qualitative study for understanding family and peer influences on obesity-related health behaviors in low-income African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K

    2012-10-01

    Given the cultural and developmental relevance of family members and peers in the lives of African-American adolescents, the present study used a bioecological framework to qualitatively explore the parenting context as well as specific family factors (support, rules, monitoring) and peer factors (support) related to weight status, physical activity (PA), and healthy eating in low-income African-American boys versus girls. Qualitative data were obtained from African-American adolescents through focus groups. Adolescents (n = 45, 100% African American, 51% girls, 12.6 ± 1.2 years, 51% overweight/obese) were from two underserved communities in South Carolina (median income ≈$17,000-$22,000, high crime levels). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters (r = 0.75). QSR NVivo 8 was used to analyze data, and themes were categorized separately for boys and girls. Adolescents reported themes of family warmth and control practices consistent with an authoritative style of parenting. Although adolescents wanted increased autonomy, they viewed parental monitoring as a favorable part of their relationship. Boys reported receiving more constructive feedback from parents about weight status and greater overall support for PA and diet than did girls. Girls reported more honest feedback from peers about weight status than did boys. Overall, adolescents acknowledged the unique opportunities of parents and peers in improving their health behaviors. Findings suggest parents and peers interact in different ways with African-American boys and girls regarding their weight status and health behaviors. Future obesity prevention efforts in minority youth may need to target parenting skills that provide greater support to African-American girls. In addition, given peers influence PA and diet differently in boys and girls, interventions should strategically include parenting strategies that involve monitoring peer-adolescent interactions.

  5. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  6. Neighborhood safety and green space as predictors of obesity among preschool children from low-income families in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James W; Berger, Diana K; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Jaslow, Risa; Lee, Karen K; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Neighborhood safety, green space, walkability, and sociodemographics may influence physical activity and childhood obesity. Data on measured height and weight, demographic characteristics, and home ZIP code were collected from year 2004 enrollees in a means-tested preschool program in New York City. Each ZIP code was surrounded by a 400-m buffer and characterized using data from the US census, local government departments, New York Times website, and Transportation Alternatives. Linear and Poisson models were constructed using cluster robust standard errors and adjusting for child's sex, race, ethnicity, age, and neighborhood characteristics. Analyses included 11,562 children ages 3-5 years living in 160 residential ZIP codes. A higher homicide rate (at the 75th vs 25th percentile) was associated with a 22% higher prevalence of obesity (95% CI for the prevalence ratio (PR): 1.05 to 1.41). A higher density of street trees (at the 75th vs 25th percentile) was associated with 12% lower prevalence of obesity (95% CI for the PR: 0.79 to 0.99). Other neighborhood characteristics did not have significant associations with childhood obesity. Among preschool children from low-income families, neighborhood homicide rate was associated with more obesity and street tree density was associated with less obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential relationships between language skills and working memory in Turkish-Dutch and native-Dutch first-graders from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Anna M T; Janssen, Marije

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Turkish-Dutch children constitute a substantial group of children who learn to speak Dutch at the age of four after they learned to speak Turkish. These children are generally academically less successful. Academic success appears to be affected by both language proficiency and working memory skill. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between language skills and working memory in Turkish-Dutch and native-Dutch children from low-income families. The findings revealed reduced Dutch language and Dutch working-memory skills for Turkish-Dutch children compared to native-Dutch children. Working memory in native-Dutch children was unrelated to their language skills, whereas in Turkish-Dutch children strong correlations were found both between Turkish language skills and Turkish working-memory performance and between Dutch language skills and Dutch working-memory performance. Reduced language proficiencies and reduced working-memory skills appear to manifest itself in strong relationships between working memory and language skills in Turkish-Dutch children. The findings seem to indicate that limited verbal working-memory and language deficiencies in bilingual children may have reciprocal effects that strongly warrants adequate language education.

  8. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  9. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Women, Children, and Poverty in America. A Look at the Problems Facing Low-Income Families Headed by Women and at Some Current and Planned Ford Foundation Responses. A Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The problems facing low-income families headed by women and some current and planned Ford Foundation responses are discussed in this paper. The first section presents a general overview of the problem, with special focus on nonpayment of child support and teenage pregnancy. The debate over the Federal welfare program and other attempts to use…

  11. A model for scale up of family health innovations in low-income and middle-income settings: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Taylor, Lauren A; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Yuan, Christina; Fox, Ashley; Minhas, Dilpreet; Ciccone, Dana Karen; Berg, David; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Many family health innovations that have been shown to be both efficacious and cost-effective fail to scale up for widespread use particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Although individual cases of successful scale-up, in which widespread take up occurs, have been described, we lack an integrated and practical model of scale-up that may be applicable to a wide range of public health innovations in LMIC. To develop an integrated and practical model of scale-up that synthesises experiences of family health programmes in LMICs. We conducted a mixed methods study that included in-depth interviews with 33 key informants and a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 11 electronic databases and 20 global health agency web sites. We included key informants and studies that reported on the scale up of several family health innovations including Depo-Provera as an example of a product innovation, exclusive breastfeeding as an example of a health behaviour innovation, community health workers (CHWs) as an example of an organisational innovation and social marketing as an example of a business model innovation. Key informants were drawn from non-governmental, government and international organisations using snowball sampling. An article was excluded if the article: did not meet the study's definition of the innovation; did not address dissemination, diffusion, scale up or sustainability of the innovation; did not address low-income or middle-income countries; was superficial in its discussion and/or did not provide empirical evidence about scale-up of the innovation; was not available online in full text; or was not available in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, resulting in a final sample of 41 peer-reviewed articles and 30 grey literature sources. We used the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to extract recurrent themes from the interviews, and we integrated these themes with findings from the

  12. Adapting the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) approach to explore the acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations: what works for low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Seim, Gretchen

    2015-10-01

    Interventions to prevent childhood obesity must consider not only how child feeding behaviours are related to child weight status but also which behaviours parents are willing and able to change. This study adapted Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to assess acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations, using in-depth interviews and household trials to explore families' experiences over time. A diverse sample of 23 low-income parents of 3-11-year-olds was recruited following participation in nutrition and parenting education. Parents chose nutrition and parenting practices to try at home and were interviewed 2 weeks and 4-6 months later about behaviour change efforts. Qualitative analysis identified emergent themes, and acceptability and feasibility were rated based on parents' willingness and ability to try new practices. The nutrition goal parents chose most frequently was increasing children's vegetable intake, followed by replacing sweetened beverages with water or milk, and limiting energy-dense foods. Parents were less inclined to reduce serving sizes. The parenting practices most often selected as applicable to nutrition goals were role-modelling; shaping home environments, often with other adults; involving children in decisions; and providing positive feedback. Most recommendations were viewed as acceptable by meaningful numbers of parents, many of whom tried and sustained new behaviours. Food preferences, habits and time were common barriers; family resistance or food costs also constrained some parents. Despite challenges, TIPs was successfully adapted to evaluate complex nutrition and parenting practices. Information on parents' willingness and ability to try practices provides valuable guidance for childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gender and family stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of partnership disruption among families with children in recent decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in traditional gender roles in industrialized countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the effects of changing gender relations on family stability in the European context. In this paper, we study such gender influences at the familial and societal level in Sweden and Hungary between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. We focus on the disruption of the first parental union (i.e. the union in which a couple's first child was born. Our analysis is based on data extracted from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93. We use the method of hazard regression. The results suggest (i that the establishment of the dual-earner family model influences family stability only if it is accompanied by some changes in traditional gender relations within the family, and (ii that women's and men's labor-market behavior have different effects in spite of the relatively long history of women's (also mothers' labor-force participation in both Sweden and Hungary.

  14. Better breathing or better living? A qualitative analysis of the impact of asthma medication acquisition on standard of living and quality of life in low-income families of children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Macdonald, Tony; Cousins, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing children's asthma medications places a burden on low-income families. The objective of this study was to explore how purchasing children's asthma medications influenced household purchasing behavior and quality of life in low-income families with no drug insurance. Seventeen parents residing in the Greater Toronto Area with no drug plan and with household incomes below 45,000 US dollars (twice the U.S. poverty level) participated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, emphasizing the topics of prescription drugs used and cost versus effectiveness; purchasing behavior and drug administration; effects of medication purchasing on the family; and payment assistance. Transcribed narratives were coded and analyzed thematically. Annual expenditures for asthma drugs were 300 US dollars to 3000 US dollars. Because asthma management was a high priority, foregone expenditures included paying for other family members' health needs, essentials (clothing, food, better housing), and nonessentials (recreation, vacations) and long-term investments, such as their child's future education and their retirement. Respondents believed quality of life was negatively affected. Not addressing the health concerns of family members, making sacrifices, and modifying investment decisions created sustained anxiety in families of children with asthma. Access to medication benefits would have a positive impact on quality of life. Health care providers can help to ensure that low-income families receive available assistance.

  15. Launching Low-Income Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Kahliah

    2013-01-01

    With middle-income jobs in decline, entrepreneurship offers an increasingly promising pathway out of poverty; but few low-income New Yorkers are currently taking this route to economic self-sufficiency. This report provides the most comprehensive examination of low-income entrepreneurship in New York. The report documents current self-employment…

  16. Maternal feeding styles and food parenting practices as predictors of longitudinal changes in weight status in Hispanic preschoolers from low-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) an...

  17. Narrative Communication as a Strategy to Improve Diet and Activity in Low-Income Families: The Use of Role Model Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Menendez, Tiffni; Creamer, MeLisa; Hussaini, Aliya; Potratz, Christa R.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Narrative communication is gaining attention in the health education literature. In this article, we evaluate the acceptability and psychosocial impact of a book of role model stories presenting low-income women's success stories in changing diet and physical activity. Methods: Free copies of the "Be Well" book were…

  18. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low-Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how low-income Black men in South Africa and the United States work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. They use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992 to 2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally…

  19. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  20. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  1. Climate Resilient Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in East Africa, Uganda is one of the most economically deprived countries that is likely to be dramatically affected by climate change. Over 50% of Ugandan families live in single-roomed overcrowded properties and over 60% of the country’s urban population live in slums. Moreover, the gradual shift towards relatively modern and low thermal resistance building materials, in addition to imminent thermal discomfort due to global warming, may considerably affect the health and wellbeing of low-income people, the majority of whom live in low quality homes with very little or no access to basic amenities. This paper evaluates the effects of various construction methods as well as refurbishment strategies on thermal comfort in low-income houses in Uganda. It is aimed at helping low-income populations adapt to climate changes by developing simple, effective and affordable refurbishment strategies that could easily be applied to existing buildings. Dynamic thermal simulations are conducted in EnergyPlus. The adaptive model defined in BS EN 15251 and CIBSE TM52 is used to evaluate the risk and extent of thermal discomfort. Roofing methods/materials are found to be the key factor in reducing/increasing the risk of overheating. According to the results, roof insulation, painting the roof with low solar absorptance materials and inclusion of false ceilings are, respectively, the most effective and practical refurbishment strategies in terms of improving thermal comfort in low-income houses in Uganda. All refurbishment strategies helped to pass Criterion 3 of CIBSE TM52, as an indicator of “future climate scenarios”, making low-income houses/populations more climate resilient.

  2. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Klepeis

    Full Text Available Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14 and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring. We explored the relationship between weekly mean particle counts and interview responses using graphical visualization and multivariable linear regression (base sample n = 262; complete cases n = 193. We found associations of higher weekly mean particle counts with reports of indoor smoking of cigarettes or marijuana, as well as with frying food, using candles or incense, and house cleaning. Lower particle levels were associated with larger homes. We did not observe an association between lower mean particle counts and reports of opening windows, using kitchen exhaust fans, or other ventilation activities. Our findings about sources of fine airborne particles and their mitigation can inform future studies that investigate more effective feedback on residential indoor-air-quality and better strategies for reducing occupant exposures.

  3. Quali-quantitative study of nutritional status and eating patterns in children aged 1-3 years from low-income families in two population groups with different productive activities (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Pasarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the nutritional status and eating patterns of children aged 1-3 years from low-income families who reside in areas with different productive activities: primary production and production of goods and services. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with a qualitative and quantitative methodology, evaluating anthropometric and biochemical nutritional status, food intake, economic and demographic characteristics, dietary practices and representations. The results show that children from areas of primary production had a lower prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency. They also had a higher consumption of energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin A and protein and a greater diversity and quality in food consumption. We can conclude that the geographical context of families closer to sources of primary production favors interaction with individuals outside of the family, expanding both the informal social network and access to better quality nutritional food.

  4. [Quali-quantitative study of nutritional status and eating patterns in children aged 1-3 years from low-income families in two population groups with different productive activities (Buenos Aires, Argentina), 2007-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasarin, Lorena; Falivene, Mariana A; Disalvo, Liliana; Varea, Ana; Apezteguía, María C; Malpeli, Agustina; Sala, Marisa; González, Horacio F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the nutritional status and eating patterns of children aged 1-3 years from low-income families who reside in areas with different productive activities: primary production and production of goods and services. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with a qualitative and quantitative methodology, evaluating anthropometric and biochemical nutritional status, food intake, economic and demographic characteristics, dietary practices and representations. The results show that children from areas of primary production had a lower prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency. They also had a higher consumption of energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin A and protein and a greater diversity and quality in food consumption. We can conclude that the geographical context of families closer to sources of primary production favors interaction with individuals outside of the family, expanding both the informal social network and access to better quality nutritional food.

  5. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  6. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  7. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in...

  8. Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Levy, Douglas E; Macias-Navarro, Lorena; Rimm, Eric B; Thorndike, Anne N

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the effectiveness of financial incentives and traffic-light labels to reduce purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in a community supermarket. In this randomized controlled trial, after a 2-month baseline period (February-March 2014), in-store traffic-light labels were posted to indicate healthy (green), less healthy (yellow) or unhealthy (red) beverages. During the subsequent five months (April-August 2014), participants in the intervention arm were eligible to earn a $US 25 in-store gift card each month they refrained from purchasing red-labelled beverages. Urban supermarket in Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income Latino community. Participants were customers of this supermarket who had at least one child living at home. A total of 148 customers (n 77 in the intervention group and n 71 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. Outcomes were monthly in-store purchases tracked using a store loyalty card and self-reported consumption of red-labelled beverages. Compared with control participants, the proportion of intervention participants who purchased any red-labelled beverages decreased by 9 % more per month (P=0·002). More intervention than control participants reduced their consumption of red-labelled beverages (-23 % v. -2 % for consuming ≥1 red beverage/week, P=0·01). Overall, financial incentives paired with in-store traffic-light labels modestly reduced purchase and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by customers of a community supermarket.

  9. Designing Low-Income Housing Using Local Architectural Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumansyahjaya, K.; Tatura, L. S.

    2018-02-01

    The provision of houses for low-income people who do not have a home worthy of being one of the major problems in the city of Gorontalo, because the community in establishing the house only pay attention to their wants and needs in creating a healthy environment, the beauty of the city and the planning of the home environment in accordance with the culture of the people of Gorontalo. In relation to the condition, the focus of this research is the design of housing based on local architecture as residential house so that it can be reached by a group of low income people with house and environment form determined based on family development, social and economic development of society and environment which take into account the local culture. Stages of this research includes five (5) stages, including the identification phase characteristics Gorontalo people of low income, the characteristics of the identification phase house inhabited by low-income people, the stage of identification preference low-income households, the phase formation house prototype and the environment, as well as the stage of formation model home for low-income people. Analysis of the model homes for low-income people using descriptive analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, and discrimination analysis to produce a prototype of the house and its surroundings. The prototype is then reanalyzed to obtain the model home for low-income people in the city of Gorontalo. The shape of a model home can be used as a reference for developers of housing intended for low-income people so that housing is provided to achieve the goals and the desired target group.

  10. Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK): An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Morgan, Emily H; Hanson, Karla L; Ammerman, Alice S; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Kolodinsky, Jane; Sitaker, Marilyn; Becot, Florence A; Connor, Leah M; Garner, Jennifer A; McGuirt, Jared T

    2017-04-08

    Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or "cost-offset," community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2-12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children's intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid) fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. This integrated project will provide important information and contribute to the

  11. Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids (F3HK: An innovative community supported agriculture intervention to prevent childhood obesity in low-income families and strengthen local agricultural economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or “cost-offset,” community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. Methods/design The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2–12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children’s intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. Discussion This

  12. Community-Based After-School Inclusive Programs for Low-Income Minority Youth and Their Families: the Disability Specialist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald G. Unger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Intervention for helping community based after-school programs become more responsive to youth with disabilities and their families is presented in this manuscript. The Disability Specialist intervention utilized a variety of approaches, including: a increasing awareness of disabilities and services by providing learning opportunity sessions for families and staff, and outreach activities to youth through interactive theater; b developing in house “disability specialists” to offer ongoing leadership and technical expertise for after-school programs and their community centers; c developing a network of technical consultants in order to connect families and after-school programs to specialized community resources; d providing financial assistance to enable community center staff to allocate time to outreach activities; and e providing families with support in educational advocacy efforts by partnering with a local parent mentoring program. The success of the project depended upon building partnerships with families, community centers, human service agencies, schools, and local funding sources.

  13. Perspectives on community gardens, community kitchens and the Good Food Box program in a community-based sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-01-08

    Growing recognition of the problem of household food insecurity in Canada has meant public health practitioners are looking for effective ways to ameliorate this problem in their communities. Community gardens, community kitchens, and food box programs can offer nutritious foods for comparably lower costs, however, the uptake and perceptions of these programs in populations at risk of food insecurity have not been evaluated. Building on a previous finding of low program participation among 485 families living in high-poverty neighbourhoods in Toronto, the objective of this study was to understand reasons for non-participation. One year after the baseline study, 371 families were interviewed a second time and were asked to provide their reasons for not participating in community gardens, community kitchens, or the Good Food Box program. Responses were analyzed by inductive content analysis. At follow-up, only 12 families had participated in a community garden, 16 in a community kitchen, and 4 in the Good Food Box program. Reasons for non-participation grouped under two themes. First, families expressed that programs were not accessible because they lacked the knowledge of how or where to participate or because programs were not in their neighbourhoods. Second, programs lacked fit for families, as they were not suited to busy schedules, interests, or needs. This study provides unique perspective on participation in community food programs among food-insecure families and suggests that these programs may not be effective options for these families to improve their food access.

  14. Strategies for Recruitment and Retention of Families from Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Backgrounds in a Longitudinal Study of Caregiver Feeding and Child Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Erin E; Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Boles, Richard E; Aylward, Brandon S; Ratcliff, Megan Benoit; Valenzuela, Jessica M; Johnson, Susan L; Powers, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Children from low-SES and ethnic minority backgrounds are at heightened risk for overweight, yet are underrepresented in the pediatric obesity literature. The current paper describes strategies employed to minimize barriers to recruitment and retention of African-American families receiving WIC services in a longitudinal study examining caregiver feeding and child weight. Seventy-six families enrolled in the study over 3.5 years, and 50% of the families completed the study. Despite effortful planning, unanticipated barriers likely contributed to lengthy recruitment and a modest retention rate. Future research should incorporate lessons learned to modify and develop effective strategies for increasing engagement of low-SES and ethnic minority families in research.

  15. Family-school connections and the transitions of low-income youths and English language learners from middle school to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The theoretical and policy focus on parental involvement in education has evolved into a consideration of 2-way connections between families and schools. Working from a social capital perspective emphasizing the importance of information in periods and domains of uncertainty, the author tested a specific application of this reconceptualization in this study. Multilevel models of the National Education Longitudinal Study (n = 17,899) revealed that youths started high school in higher level math when parents, middle school personnel, and high school personnel were in contact with each other and when middle school personnel bridged middle school and high school. The observed effects of other family-school patterns on math and of all family-school patterns on science were driven by selection, including the personal characteristics that select adolescents into different family-school configurations. Multiple forms of family-school communication were related to reduced income and language disparities in math and science coursework, regardless of their associations with coursework in the general population.

  16. Brief PRT Parent Training for a Rural, Low-Income Family with Three Young Children with Autism: A Mixed-Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders followed by timely research-based intervention is associated with better long-term outcomes such as the improvement of social skills, communication, and increased IQ (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001). Characteristics of children with autism and their families, including limited financial resources…

  17. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  18. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N.; Koenig, Harold F.; Brown, Nicole A.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100%) with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  19. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Tobey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2 and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082 were conducted in intervention counties (IC and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100% with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators. Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12% and interpretation of intended messages (60% vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively. Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  20. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  1. Training early childcare providers in evidence-based nutrition strategies can help improve nutrition policies and practices of early childcare centres serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, T Lucas; Cook, Nicole; Natale, Ruby; Quinn, David; Phillips, Teina; DeLucca, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the extent to which providing training and technical assistance to early childcare centre (ECC) directors, faculty and staff in the implementation of evidence-based nutrition strategies improved the nutrition contexts, policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse, low-income children in Broward County, Florida, USA. The nutrition strategies targeted snack and beverage policies and practices, consistent with Caring for Our Children National Standards. We used the nutrition observation and document review portions of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument to observe ECC as part of a one-group pre-test/post-test evaluation design. ECC located within areas of high rates of poverty, diabetes, minority representation and unhealthy food index in Broward County, Florida, USA. Eighteen ECC enrolled, mean 112·9 (sd 53·4) children aged 2-5 years; 12·3 (sd 7·2) staff members; and 10·2 (sd 4·6) children per staff member at each centre. We found significant improvements in centres' overall nutrition contexts, as measured by total EPAO nutrition scores (P=0·01). ECC made specific significant gains within written nutrition policies (P=0·03) and nutrition training and education (P=0·01). Our findings support training ECC directors, faculty and staff in evidence-based nutrition strategies to improve the nutrition policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families. The intervention resulted in improvements in some nutrition policies and practices, but not others. There remains a need to further develop the evaluation base involving the effectiveness of policy and practice interventions within ECC serving children in high-need areas.

  2. Família e trabalho: difícil conciliação para mães trabalhadoras de baixa renda Family and work: hard reconciliation for low-income working mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina A. Bruschini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é produto da pesquisa Articulação Trabalho e Família: Famílias Urbanas de Baixa Renda e Políticas de Apoio às Trabalhadoras, que teve por objetivo analisar a administração das dificuldades e dos conflitos que surgem na vida cotidiana de mulheres que trabalham fora de casa e têm responsabilidades familiares. Apresenta dados quantitativos e qualitativos: os primeiros foram extraídos da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostragem de Domicílios, de 2002, e os segundos, da realização de quatro grupos focais, com mulheres de 20 a 45 anos, de famílias de baixa renda, com filhos de até 14 anos. A análise foi realizada de forma integrada, estruturada em torno das seguintes questões: o conceito de trabalho doméstico; a divisão sexual do trabalho doméstico; o uso do tempo em afazeres domésticos; a conciliação do trabalho com a família e políticas sociais que contribuem para essa conciliação.This article results from the research Reconciling Work and Family: Urban Low-Income Families and Policies of Support to Female Workers, the purpose of which was to analyze the management of the obstacles and conflicts that arise in the daily life of women who have family responsibilities and jobs. It provides quantitative and qualitative data: the first were obtained from the National Research by Home Sampling, in 2002, and the second resulted from four focal groups with low-income women aged 20-45 years old rother of children up to 14 years of age. The analysis was based on the following issues: the concept of domestic work; the sexual division of domestic work; the time used for domestic work; reconciliation of work and family and social policies favoring this conciliation.

  3. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How Low-Income Children Use the Internet at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2005-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, academic…

  5. 76 FR 14417 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... adjusts the low-income levels based on the Department's poverty guidelines and makes them available to... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration ``Low Income... to identify a ``low-income family'' for the purpose of determining eligibility for programs that...

  6. Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders, Is There An Advantage to Being on Medicaid Because of reduced financial barriers, dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment of...

  7. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income children...

  8. Childhood Nutrition: Perceptions of Caretakers in a Low-Income Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lynn E.; Patterson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of overweight and obese children, especially those from low-income and minority backgrounds, continues to rise. Multiple factors contribute to the rising rates. In order to gain an understanding of factors contributing to obesity in low-income families, a qualitative study was conducted with the purpose of gaining knowledge of…

  9. The Voice of Low-Income Adolescent Mothers on Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mills, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent mothers' feeding practices impact infant weight gain. Infant obesity, especially in low-income families, is rapidly increasing. The aim of the exploratory study reported here was to identify factors affecting low-income African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent mothers' infant feeding practices and useful learning modalities.…

  10. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  11. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  12. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a survey of assistance programs that public utility commissions have approved in most states to assist the low-income customers of utilities within their states. Surveys find that there is no single model of low-income assistance; rather, each state has adopted a program that meets its particular circumstances. However, while the details of programs vary considerably, they all fall within four broad categories: (1) Affordability programs, which provide direct assistance in paying energy bills; (2) Consumer protections, such as collection practices and installment billing requirements, which make it easier to pay energy bills on time; (3) Education programs, which teach consumers about prudent energy use and counsel them about budgeting; and (4) Efficiency and weatherization programs, which make investments to help consumers control their energy bills by reducing their need for energy. Programs usually include more than one of these components. All programs also include outreach and evaluation components. This report describes these options, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the economic and other benefits of utility assistance programs for low-income customers. Low-income programs help participants by lowering the fraction of their incomes devoted to energy bills (the energy burden) from a very high level. In the United States, the median household devotes only 3.8 percent of its income to electricity while a family depending on a minimum-wage earner must devote 12.1 percent to energy while facing housing cost increases all over the nation. Low-income families unable to keep up with these pressures find themselves forced to go without power at times, to move, or to forgo other necessities such as food or medicine in order to pay their electricity bills

  13. Determinants of longitudinal health-related quality-of-life change in children with asthma from low-income families: a report from the PROMIS®Pediatric Asthma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Leite, W L; Thompson, L A; Gross, H E; Shenkman, E A; Reeve, B B; DeWalt, D A; Huang, I-C

    2017-03-01

    How the longitudinal asthma control status and other socio-demographic factors influence the changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among asthmatic children, especially from low-income families, has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to describe the trajectories of asthma-specific HRQOL over 15 months and examine the effect of asthma control status on HRQOL by taking socio-demographic factors into consideration. A total of 229 dyads of asthmatic children and their parents enroled in public insurance programs were recruited for assessing asthma control status and HRQOL over four time points of assessment. Asthma control status was measured using the Asthma Control and Communication Instrument, and asthma-specific HRQOL was assessed using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's Pediatric Asthma Impact Scale. Latent growth models (LGMs) were applied to examine the trajectory of HRQOL and the factors contributing to the changes of HRQOL. Unconditional LGM revealed that HRQOL was improved over time. Conditional LGM suggested that accounting for asthma control and participants' socio-demographic factors, the variation in the initial level of HRQOL was significant, yet the rate of change was not. Conditional LGM also revealed that poorly controlled asthma status was associated with poor HRQOL at each time point (P's < 0.05). Lower parental education was associated with lower baseline HRQOL (P < 0.05). Hispanic children had a larger increase in HRQOL over time (P < 0.01) than non-Hispanic White children. Vulnerable socio-demographic characteristics and poorly controlled asthma status affect HRQOL in children. This finding encourages interventions to improve asthma control status and HRQOL in minority children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Life satisfaction among low-income rural youth from Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S M; Henry, C S; Peterson, G W

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative strength of objective, subjective, and congruency variables as predictors of life satisfaction among low-income youth from rural areas. A 10-year longitudinal survey of low-income, rural youth from Appalachia (n = 322) was conducted to explore these issues. Although support was provided for variables representing all three types of life satisfaction predictors, the strongest of these were subjective variables such as self-perceptions about goal attainment in jobs, overall goal attainment in life, and self-esteem. Another set of consistent predictors of life satisfaction, congruence variables, were concerned with the extent to which low-income you believed that they had fulfilled their own aspirations in terms of formal education, proximity to their childhood homes, and number of children, Finally, some of the objective variables consisting of family of origin's SES, community size, and marital status also were predictive of life satisfaction. In general, the life satisfaction of low-income, rural youth seemed to be influenced more extensively by personal meanings shaped within a particular cultural context rather than by traditional objective measures of life circumstances.

  15. Cohabitation and Repartnering among Low-Income Black Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Serial cohabitation has increased dramatically in the U.S., especially in the low-income Black population. The purpose of the study is to understand cohabiting and co-parenting relationships among unmarried cohabiting low-income urban Black families on their own terms, identifying the strengths, challenges, and unique needs of these families. Though cohabitation patterns varied widely, most participants had extensive periods living without a partner. This finding provides more support for the unbalanced marriage markets explanation than the serial cohabitation explanation. Indeed, most participants' children (83%) had none or only one resident father prior to the current cohabitation. Implications for having a new resident father and child development are discussed.

  16. Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Øderud

    2014-06-01

    explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

  17. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study...... of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  18. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... of pneumonia and asthma/wheezing/bronchiolitis and examines whether asthma in under-5s may be confused with pneumonia. Over-diagnosing of bacterial pneumonia can be suspected from the limited association between clinical pneumonia and confirmatory test results such as chest x-ray and microbiological findings...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...

  19. Coping with low incomes and cold homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Will; White, Vicki; Finney, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of low-income households in Great Britain which explored households’ strategies for coping both with limited financial resources in the winter months, when demand for domestic energy increases, and, in some cases, with cold homes. The study combined a national survey of 699 households with an income below 60 per cent of national median income with in-depth interviews with a subsample of 50 households. The primary strategy adopted by low-income households to cope with financial constraint was to reduce spending, including spending on essentials such as food and fuel, and thereby keep up with core financial commitments. While spending on food was usually reduced by cutting the range and quality of food purchased, spending on energy was usually reduced by cutting consumption. Sixty-three per cent of low-income households had cut their energy consumption in the previous winter and 47 per cent had experienced cold homes. Improvements to the thermal performance of homes reduced but did not eliminate the risk of going cold as any heating cost could be a burden to households on the lowest incomes. Householders’ attitudes were central to their coping strategies, with most expressing a determination to ‘get by’ come what may.

  20. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week’s supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability. It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  1. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  2. Poverty and mental health: how do low-income adults and children fare in psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kaltman, Stacey; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-02-01

    Poverty is associated with an increased risk for psychological problems. Even with this increased risk for mental health problems and need for care, many low-income adults and families do not receive treatment because of logistical, attitudinal, and systemic barriers. Despite significant barriers to obtaining care, research suggests that low-income individuals show significant benefit from evidence-based mental healthcare. In this article, we review the link between poverty and mental health, common barriers to obtaining mental health services, and treatment studies that have been conducted with low-income groups. Finally, we discuss the implications of the research reviewed and offer recommendations for clinicians working with low-income children or adults, highlighting the importance of evidence-based care, extensive outreach, and empathic respect. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Access and Mobilization: How Social Capital Relates to Low-Income Youth's Postsecondary Educational (PSE) Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Mariam; Feliciano, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who "overcome the odds" and persist in higher education?…

  4. 75 FR 8392 - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... each state agency administering low-income housing tax credits (LIHTCs) to furnish HUD information... Lists the Following Information Title Of Proposal: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database. Omb... low-income housing tax credits (LIHTCs) to furnish HUD information concerning the race, ethnicity...

  5. Exploring Low-Income Families’ Financial Barriers to Food Allergy Management and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leia M. Minaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Low-income families may face financial barriers to management and treatment of chronic illnesses. No studies have explored how low-income individuals and families with anaphylactic food allergies cope with financial barriers to anaphylaxis management and/or treatment. This study explores qualitatively assessed direct, indirect, and intangible costs of anaphylaxis management and treatment faced by low-income families. Methods. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 23 participants were conducted to gain insight into income-related barriers to managing and treating anaphylactic food allergies. Results. Perceived direct costs included the cost of allergen-free foods and allergy medication and costs incurred as a result of misinformation about social support programs. Perceived indirect costs included those associated with lack of continuity of health care. Perceived intangible costs included the stress related to the difficulty of obtaining allergen-free foods at the food bank and feeling unsafe at discount grocery stores. These perceived costs represented barriers that were perceived as especially salient for the working poor, immigrants, youth living in poverty, and food bank users. Discussion. Low-income families report significant financial barriers to food allergy management and anaphylaxis preparedness. Clinicians, advocacy groups, and EAI manufacturers all have a role to play in ensuring equitable access to medication for low-income individuals with allergies.

  6. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  7. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  8. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  9. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  10. Asthma-related school absenteeism and school concentration of low-income students in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is one of the leading causes of school absenteeism. Previous studies have shown that school absenteeism is related to family income of individual students. However, there is little research examining whether school absenteeism is related to school-level concentration of low-income students, independent of family income. The objective of this study was to examine whether the proportion of low-income students at a school was related to school absenteeism due to asthma. Using data from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey of California households, we examined the association between attending schools with high concentrations of low-income students and missing school because of asthma, adjusting for demographic characteristics, asthma severity, and health insurance status. Schools with high concentrations of low-income students were identified on the basis of the percentage of students participating in the free and reduced-price meal program, data publicly available from the California Department of Education. Students attending schools with the highest concentrations of low-income students were more likely to miss school because of asthma. Students from low-income families, younger students, those with more frequent asthma symptoms, or those taking prescription asthma medications also were more likely to miss school because of asthma. The use of school-level interventions to decrease school absenteeism due to asthma should be explored, especially in schools with high concentrations of low-income students. Potential interventions could include school-based asthma education and disease management or indoor and outdoor air pollution control.

  11. Seeking health advice from social networks in low-income urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia; Ely, Gretchen; Flaherty, Chris; Dignan, Mark; White, Carol R

    2012-11-01

    To examine how individuals residing in low-income neighborhoods use their social networks for health advice. Secondary data analysis of 363 individuals living in low-income neighborhoods was conducted using social network analysis and logistic regression techniques. Findings suggest that residents typically seek health advice from one or 2 friends and family members rather than a health professional. Age and family history of illness increased the likelihood that one would seek support whereas the combination of anxiety and depression decreased advice seeking. Findings support the need for multidisciplinary strategies for disseminating health information through informal social networks.

  12. Low-Income First-Time Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hannan PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low-income mothers have greater challenges in accessing health care services due changes in the health care system and budget cuts. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test a nurse practitioner (NP intervention using cell phone and texting on maternal/infant outcomes. Methods. The sample included 129 mother-infant pairs. Intervention group mothers received NP 2-way cell phone follow-up intervention post–hospital discharge for 6 months. Results. Intervention mothers’ perceived social support was significantly higher. Intervention infants received their first newborn follow-up visit significantly earlier (6 vs 9 days; significantly more infants were immunized at recommended times (2, 4, and 6 months of age; and there were fewer infant morbidities compared to controls. The intervention saved between $51 030 and $104 277 in health care costs averted. Conclusion. This easy-to-use, safe intervention is an effective way to reach a wide range of populations and demonstrated improved maternal/infant outcomes and decreased cost.

  13. Math Matters: MDRC's Projects in Math for Low-Income Students, from Preschool to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In an increasingly technological world, developing basic math skills is crucial. Headlines regularly be-moan the international ranking of American students on math proficiency, and students from low-income families do worse in math than their more affluent peers. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that employment in occupations…

  14. Understanding the Gender Gap in School Performance among Low-Income Children: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…

  15. Peer Mentoring to Support First-Generation Low-Income College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaskett, Sean; Bali, Diksha; Nakkula, Michael J.; Harris, John

    2018-01-01

    Transitioning from high school to college can be a formidable challenge, especially for students who are the first in their family to attend college (first-generation) and/or are from low-income backgrounds. The authors' qualitative investigation of a college mentoring program illuminates the potential value of relatable peer mentors in helping…

  16. Multidisciplinary Perspectives towards the Education of Young Low-Income Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Demir-Dagdas, Tuba; Cakmakci, Huzeyfe; Cava-Tadik, Yasemin; Intepe-Tingir, Seyma

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the issues surrounding low-income immigrants in the U.S. and the ways they shape the educational experiences of their young children. Using a multidisciplinary lens including sociology, family studies, education, and mental health, the authors analyse multiple perspectives towards the educational experiences of children in…

  17. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  18. Predictors of Paternal Involvement for Resident and Nonresident Low-Income Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Hernandez, Daphne C.

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of low-income families (N = 239), structural equation models assessed predictors of fathers' involvement with preschool-aged children in instrumental, behavioral, and emotional realms. Results suggest that parental conflict has a strong negative relation with father involvement. Fathers' human capital characteristics, healthy…

  19. Low-Income Immigrant Pupils Learning Vocabulary through Digital Picture Storybooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhallen, Marian J. A. J.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2010-01-01

    Children from immigrant, low-income families in the Netherlands start school with a limited vocabulary in the language of instruction; therefore, this places them at risk for developing reading difficulties. Exposure to books is assumed to reduce their 2nd language (L2) vocabulary disadvantage. In this experiment, we examined the effects of video…

  20. Funds of High School to College Knowledge: Exploring Low-Income Student Perceptions of College Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relles, Stefani R.

    2017-01-01

    This narrative study tracks low-income student perceptions of college writing. The study uses the Funds of Knowledge theoretical framework to suggest that underperforming high schools--like diverse households and families--socialize students into bodies of knowledge that are academically relevant regardless of whether or not they resemble…

  1. Millennial Learners and Net-Savvy Teens? Examining Internet Use among Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Kim, Seongdok

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses access and use of information and communication technologies among urban high school students from low-income families, a topic of great interest to teacher educators, educational policymakers, and others concerned with digital literacy instruction. Recent reports from national digital learning initiatives have portrayed…

  2. Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2006-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…

  3. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  4. Validating the Use of "D" for Measuring Lexical Diversity in Low-Income Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Stephanie A.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Children from low--socioeconomic status families often perform poorly on standardized vocabulary assessments. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether lexical diversity as measured by "D" (Malvern, Richards, Chipere, & Durán, 2004) serves as a valid measure of vocabulary in at-risk, low-income, predominantly…

  5. Doubled-Up Homeless: Comparing Educational Outcomes with Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Justin A.; Hallett, Ronald E.; Mo, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Living doubled-up is a form of homelessness that can go undetected by schools, yet the toll it takes on the lives of students is significant. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine how students who live in doubled-up homeless families differ from low-income students who live in permanent housing with regard to demographics,…

  6. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Low-income women's navigation of childbearing norms throughout the reproductive life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Hawkins, Laurie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-01-01

    Shifts in family structure have affected age norms about both teenage childbearing and reproductive sterilization, but we lack research examining how childbearing norms are connected across the reproductive life course. Drawing on interviews from 40 low-income women in Colorado, we explored linkages between early childbearing and the desire for early sterilization. Specifically, we examined two narratives women use to negotiate competing norms throughout the reproductive life course. The low-income women in our study characterized their teenage childbearing experiences negatively and justified them using a "young and dumb" narrative. Women also asserted that reversible contraceptives do not work for them, using a "hyper-fertility" narrative to explain both their early childbearing and their desire for early sterilization. Our results illustrate the influence of mainstream social norms about childbearing timing on low-income women's lives and provide evidence of how women use narratives to explain and justify their violation of childbearing norms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Housing and Schools: Working Together to Reduce the Negative Effects of Student Mobility. "A Summary from the Washington, D.C.,and Baltimore Region Roundtables." Perspectives on Low Income Working Families. Urban Institute Brief 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comey, Jennifer; Litschwartz, Sophie; Pettit, Kathryn L. S.

    2012-01-01

    How has the recession and its resulting family instability impacted children’s residential and school mobility? Officials from housing, homeless, and school programs discussed the full spectrum of residential mobility in two recent Urban Institute roundtables: from chronic mobility, eviction, and foreclosure to doubled-up households and…

  9. The Design, Usability, and Feasibility of a Family-Focused Diabetes Self-Care Support mHealth Intervention for Diverse, Low-Income Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Satterwhite Mayberry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family members’ helpful and harmful actions affect adherence to self-care and glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D and low socioeconomic status. Few family interventions for adults with T2D address harmful actions or use text messages to reach family members. Through user-centered design and iterative usability/feasibility testing, we developed a mHealth intervention for disadvantaged adults with T2D called FAMS. FAMS delivers phone coaching to set self-care goals and improve patient participant’s (PP ability to identify and address family actions that support/impede self-care. PPs receive text message support and can choose to invite a support person (SP to receive text messages. We recruited 19 adults with T2D from three Federally Qualified Health Centers to use FAMS for two weeks and complete a feedback interview. Coach-reported data captured coaching success, technical data captured user engagement, and PP/SP interviews captured the FAMS experience. PPs were predominantly African American, 83% had incomes <$35,000, and 26% were married. Most SPs (n=7 were spouses/partners or adult children. PPs reported FAMS increased self-care and both PPs and SPs reported FAMS improved support for and communication about diabetes. FAMS is usable and feasible and appears to help patients manage self-care support, although some PPs may not have a SP.

  10. Gaps in Prevention and Treatment: Dental Care for Low-Income Children. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-15. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Genevieve M.; Ko, Grace; Ormond, Barbara A.

    Using estimates drawn from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), this brief examines variations in the receipt of dental care services and in unmet need for dental care across different subgroups of children aged 3 and over, both nationally and across 13 states. The NSAF is a household survey that provides information on more than…

  11. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. 108.130 Section 108.130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. A NMVC Company must identify the specific LI Areas in which it...

  12. achieving improved financing for low-income producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their goods immediately, whether market prices are favorable or not. This paper reviews the second set of approaches for improving low-income producers access to financing. Second Set of Approaches for Achievement of. Improved Financing for Low-Income Producers. Collateral substitutes: Farmers operating in areas.

  13. 75 FR 80677 - The Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD75 The Low-Income Definition... definition of ``low-income members'' to clarify that, in determining if a credit union qualifies for a low... be with statistical data for the same category. The amendment will clarify the intention of the...

  14. Poject Managment Approach to Public Low Income Housing. | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research assesses the impacts of project management (PM) variables on the socio-economic formation of public low-income housing (LIH) users in Abia and ... socio-economic impact of public low income housing (LIH) and the PM variables: project scope control (PS), project planning (PPC), project cost control (PC), ...

  15. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  16. Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad.

  17. Participação paterna no cuidado de crianças pequenas: um estudo etnográfico com famílias de camadas populares Paternal involvement in the care of small children: an ethnographic study of low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Bustamante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo focaliza a participação paterna no cuidado da saúde de crianças menores de seis anos em famílias de camadas populares. Trata-se de um estudo de cunho etnográfico desenvolvido mediante observação participante e entrevistas. Visitamos famílias de um bairro de periferia de uma capital nordestina, durante um período de nove meses, e encontramos que ter filhos constitui uma dimensão fundamental na vida de homens e mulheres, constituindo causa comum da formação de novos núcleos familiares. A participação paterna é sintetizada em três dimensões: a educação, em que o pai é fundamental; os cuidados corporais, entendidos como atribuição feminina; e a preservação da integridade, considerada dever de todos os membros da família. Embora persista a identificação com papéis de gênero tradicionais, ao contrastarmos discursos com práticas, percebemos que em todas as famílias, e mais intensamente nas nucleares, existem dimensões nas que os homens participam ativamente, evidenciando proximidade física e emocional com os filhos.The present study focused on father's involvement in the health care of small children (under six years in low-income families. An ethnographic study was performed with interviews and participatory observation. We visited families in an outlying low-income urban neighborhood in Northeast Brazil, for nine months. Children appeared as a fundamental dimension in the lives of men and women, constituting a common reason for forming a family nucleus. The paternal role involved three key dimensions: education, in which the father was essential; body care, usually considered a female attribution; and preservation of integrity, considered an obligation for all family members. Despite the fact that traditional identification of gender roles still persists, based on contrasting discourses and practices, in all families (and especially in nuclear ones there were dimensions in which men participated

  18. Strategies for Effective Eating Development-SEEDS: Design of an Obesity Prevention Program to Promote Healthy Food Preferences and Eating Self-Regulation in Children From Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley; Betz, Drew; Calodich, Shirley; Goodell, L Suzanne; Hill, Laura G; Hill, Rachael; Jaramillo, J Andrea; Johnson, Susan L; Lanigan, Jane; Lawrence, Adair; Martinez, AnaMaria Diaz; Nesbitt, Merrianneeta; Overath, Irene; Parker, Louise; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    To develop a scientifically based childhood obesity prevention program supporting child eating self-regulation and taste preferences. This article describes the research methods for the Strategies for Effective Eating Development program. A logic model is provided that depicts a visual presentation of the activities that will be used to guide the development of the prevention program. Randomized, controlled prevention program, pretest, posttest, 6 months, and 12 months. Two sites: Houston, TX and Pasco, WA. Each trial will last 7 weeks with 8-10 mother-child dyads in each arm (prevention and control). Recruitment at Head Start districts (Texas; n = 160) and Inspire Child Development Center including Early Childhood Education and Head Start (Washington; n = 160). Sixteen trials with 16-20 parent-child dyads per trial will provide adequate power to detect moderate effects. Multicomponent family-based prevention program incorporating a dialogue approach to adult learning and self-determination theory. Child assessments will include observed taste preferences, caloric compensation, and eating in the absence of hunger. Parent assessments will include parent-reported feeding, feeding emotions, acculturation, child eating behaviors, child food preferences, and child dietary intake. Heights and weights will be measured for parent and child. A multilevel growth modeling analysis will be employed to consider the nested nature of the data: time points (level 1) within families (level 2) within trials (level 3). Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  20. Adolescent maternity in a low income community: experiences revealed by oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent maternity involves relevant factors associated with each family, culture and society. This research aimed to describe the experiences in the trajectory of adolescent maternity. The oral history method was used, obtaining the narratives of 21 adolescent mothers living in a low income community located in São Paulo City, Brazil. The following descriptive categories emerged from the narratives: Pregnancy: an event in the initial phase of the relationship; Insufficient knowledge and access to contraceptives, gender inferiority and God's will: the ways to look at pregnancy; To escape from family problems and define the life course: the personal meanings attributed to pregnancy; More gain than pain: the balance of adolescent maternity. Adolescent maternity in low income contexts involves very complex factors and requires an integral, integrated, personal and family centered care.

  1. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  2. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments can provide benefits to low-income communities by investing in energy efficiency. Use the Program Finder table to identify those programs that reach the sectors and audiences of interest in your organization.

  3. Disability in low-income countries: issues and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Penny; Cameron, Debra; Christie, Nancy; Cockburn, Lynn; Hashemi, Goli; Yoshida, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted for the Canadian International Development Agency by The International Centre for Disability and Rehabilitation at the University of Toronto. We critically examined the broad literature in the area of disability and development and in this article we identify the key issues which emerged. Most of the data were collected from existing literature in the academic and practice settings and from the publications of key NGOs and governments. We first, examine disability in the context of low-income countries, and then discuss key critical issues: disability and poverty, disability and health, disability and education, disability and gender, disability and children/youth, disability and conflict/natural disasters and disability and human rights. In all these areas we find reports of discrimination, stigmatisation and marginalisation. We conclude that, as we address issues of multi-cultural disability services in developed countries, it is important to bear in mind the various issues that many people with disabilities and their families bring with them as the result of immigrating from a developing country. Although we address these issues within our own countries, we must bear in mind the changes that are occurring due to globalisation.

  4. Housing for low income families in São Paulo: an alternative in analysis Habitação social em São Paulo: alternativa em análise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Fava Grassiotto

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization process in Brazil has caused 119 million people to live in the cities, creating the necessity of nearly 26 million new residences, from the middle of the last century on. In the metropolis, most of the houses (self-help constructed arose clandestinely. Through BNH (Banco Nacional da Habitação, in the period of 1964-86 the government fostered the financing of 4 million units, a significant number, yet a small one, due to the dimension of the problem. After this, there was no new definition of a durable project, due to successive economical crises. The economical moment of high internal and external indebtedness does not make it possible to expect, in near future, auspicious perspectives of full resources, on the contrary. In this context, the present article draws up a profile of the self-help constructed house as well as of the self-help constructor, because it is based on the premise that, due to the shortage of resources, the alternative to make housing viable to the less favored ones, is the self-help construction, individual or collective. Considerations related to the first one, which involves a larger number of persons are taken into account, commenting on possible alternatives to be followed in relation to the application of resources and to the elaboration of projects involving users. At the end, a particular solution of housing for income families is emphasized, using dry-stack concrete blocks presenting several construction details. Also, the advantages of the new system are outlined.O processo de urbanização no Brasil fez com que mais de 119 milhões de pessoas passassem a morar nas cidades, gerando a partir de meados do século passado, a necessidade de aproximadamente 26 milhões de novas moradias. nas metrópoles, os loteamentos e as casas (executadas por autoconstrução, em sua imensa maioria, surgiram clandestinamente. por meio do bnh, no período 1964-86, o governo promoveu o financiamento de 4 milhões de

  5. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  6. Management of low-income condominiums in Bogotá and Quito : the balance between property law and self-organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donoso-gomez, R.E.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Governments in urbanising Latin America encourage low-income homeownership. In practice, this means that low-income urban families become owners of units in condominium properties. While the homeownership dream may thus be achieved, difficulties with maintenance can lead to deterioration. This paper

  7. Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Donley, Sachiko; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2015-10-01

    The creation of economically mixed communities has been proposed as one way to improve the life outcomes of children growing up in poverty. However, whether low-income children benefit from living alongside more affluent neighbors is unknown. Prospectively gathered data on over 1,600 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study living in urban environments is used to test whether living alongside more affluent neighbors (measured via high-resolution geo-spatial indices) predicts low-income children's antisocial behavior (reported by mothers and teachers at the ages of 5, 7, 10, and 12). Results indicated that low-income boys (but not girls) surrounded by more affluent neighbors had higher levels of antisocial behavior than their peers embedded in concentrated poverty. The negative effect of growing up alongside more affluent neighbors on low-income boys' antisocial behavior held across childhood and after controlling for key neighborhood and family-level factors. Findings suggest that efforts to create more economically mixed communities for children, if not properly supported, may have iatrogenic effects on boys' antisocial behavior. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Cost of eating: whole foods versus convenience foods in a low-income model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Andrew J; Stephens, Mark B

    2010-04-01

    Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy) from local supermarkets and from fast-food outlets (convenient). Using cost per calorie as a metric for comparison, we used estimated single-parent, low-income living expenses to determine the relative costs of meeting national dietary guidelines. Average food costs for healthy and convenience diets accounted for 18% and 37% of income, respectively. Dairy products and vegetables accounted for the largest cost percentages of diet costs (36% and 28%, respectively). The cost per calorie of a convenience diet was 24% higher than the healthy diet. Both models resulted in net financial loss over the course of a year for a single-parent, low-income family. Food costs represent a significant proportion of annual income. Diets based heavily on foods from convenient sources are less healthy and more expensive than a well-planned menu from budget foods available from large supermarket chains.

  9. Multilevel Perspectives on Female Sterilization in Low-Income Communities in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marie A; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Jadhav, Kalpita

    2016-09-01

    Surgical sterilization is the primary method of contraception among low-income women in India. This article, using qualitative analysis of key informant, in-depth interviews, and quantitative analyses, examines the antecedents, process, and outcomes of sterilization for women in a low-income area in Mumbai, India. Family planning policies, socioeconomic factors, and gender roles constrain women's reproductive choices. Procedures for sterilization rarely follow protocol, particularly during pre-procedure counseling and consent. Women who choose sterilization often marry early, begin conceiving soon after marriage, and reach or exceed ideal family size early due to problems in accessing reversible contraceptives. Despite these constraints, this study indicates that from the perspective of women, the decision to undergo sterilization is empowering, as they have fulfilled their reproductive duties and can effectively exercise control over their fertility and sexuality. This empowerment results in little post-sterilization regret, improved emotional health, and improved sexual relationships following sterilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. African-American homeless and low-income housed mothers: comparison of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A

    1997-01-01

    The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.

  11. Expecting to work, fearing homelessness: The possible selves of low-income mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shawna J.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2009-01-01

    We explored the content of possible selves of low-income mothers and the strategies they have to work on their possible selves. Positive, expected possible selves focused on getting a job, making ends meet and caregiving. Negative, to-be-avoided possible selves focused on failing to make ends meet, losing (or not getting) jobs, and problems with mental health. Immediate social context, rather than demographic characteristics or global work-family variables, were associated with content of pos...

  12. High Hopes but Even Higher Expectations: The Retreat from Marriage among Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Edin, Kathryn; McLanahan, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This study examines why low-income, unmarried parents who say that they plan to marry at the time their child is born do not follow through on their plans. We use data from a nationally representative birth cohort survey--the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3,710)--combined with data from an embedded qualitative study--Time, Love,…

  13. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Low-Income Adolescents Under Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expre...

  14. Involvement with Children and Low-Income Fathers’ Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Low income men are at risk for depressive symptoms and reduced father involvement. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2,703), we examined reciprocal associations between father involvement and depressive symptoms, and the moderating effect of relationship quality, for resident and nonresident fathers. Higher father involvement was associated with lower depressive symptoms two years later across the full sample of fathers. However, nonresidence functioned as a risk; high...

  15. The Contribution of Early Communication Quality to Low-Income Children's Language Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Pace, Amy; Yust, Paula K S; Suma, Katharine

    2015-07-01

    The disparity in the amount and quality of language that low-income children hear relative to their more-affluent peers is often referred to as the 30-million-word gap. Here, we expand the literature about this disparity by reporting the relative contributions of the quality of early parent-child communication and the quantity of language input in 60 low-income families. Including both successful and struggling language learners from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we noted wide variation in the quality of nonverbal and verbal interactions (symbol-infused joint engagement, routines and rituals, fluent and connected communication) at 24 months, which accounted for 27% of the variance in expressive language 1 year later. These indicators of quality were considerably more potent predictors of later language ability than was the quantity of mothers' words during the interaction or sensitive parenting. Bridging the word gap requires attention to how caregivers and children establish a communication foundation within low-income families. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Primary Care Pediatricians' Perceived Prevalence and Surveillance of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Melissa A; Thompson, Lindsay; Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Alford, Shannon; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    A recent policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics outlines the central role of pediatricians in screening for and addressing precipitants of toxic stress (e.g., adverse experiences). Despite these recommendations, it is unknown whether pediatricians are in fact screening for these precipitants. A sample of 210 pediatricians serving low-income children completed a survey regarding their responses to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Participants were asked to estimate the prevalence of ACEs in their practice, their current practices, and recommendations for screening. For nearly all ACEs, pediatricians' estimates of the prevalence in their practice were lower than state-reported prevalence. For many ACEs, the number of pediatricians who support the need for recommended screening was far higher than the number who reported actually screening. Our findings suggest clinicians serving primarily low-income families recommend screening but may underestimate the prevalence of ACEs in their practice and may not be equipped to screen or address these matters consistently.

  17. Building and using a social network: nurture for low-income Chinese American adolescents' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of social networks in lieu of direct parental involvement: (a) designating a helper in and outside the home for the child, (b) identifying peer models for the child to emulate, and (c) involving extended kin to guide the child jointly. These forms of social capital reflect Chinese cultural values applied to the challenges of immigrant adaptation. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

  19. Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social Entrepreneurship in India. A social enterprise is one that uses innovation, finance and business acumen in a business setting to produce social outcomes such as poverty alleviation, health benefits or social inclusion. Social enterprises generate products and ...

  20. Best Practices in Nutrition Education for Low-Income Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan; Auld, Garry; MacKinnon, Chloe; Ammerman, Alice; Hanula, Gail; Lohse, Barbara; Scott, Marci; Serrano, Elena; Tucker, Easter; Wardlaw, Mary Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) identified a need for a comprehensive set of best practices in nutrition education for low-income audiences for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) educational projects, including SNAP-Ed. A comprehensive list of best practices would promote consistency and efficacy in program planning,…

  1. Achievement Unlocked: Effective Curriculum Interventions with Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the world of curriculum intervention for gifted students from low-income and culturally diverse backgrounds. It delineates both general and specific approaches to practices that can be used in classrooms and beyond. Affective and conative concerns are addressed as they have an impact on motivation and learning. Efforts toward…

  2. Low Incomes, High Hurdles: An Interview with Kati Haycock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with Kati Haycock, Director of the Education Trust, discussing: challenges to developing high quality staff development in schools serving low-income, minority students; teacher turnover; rural poverty; content-oriented staff development; learning from colleagues; making time for staff learning; willingness to change and…

  3. Concept of innovation in low-income market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Koki da Costa Nogami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Investigate the concept and the adoption of innovation in the low-income market. Design/methodology/approach – Four different studies were conducted. First, a Delphi study with 126 Marketing and Innovation professors from graduate programs. Second, interviews with 13 professionals, technical assistance professionals and retail managers. Third, two focus groups with low-income consumers. Fourth, survey with 390 respondents. Findings – The results indicate that innovations in the low-income markets are mainly characterized by adaptations and adjustments in products, with emphasis on incremental innovations, not radical. In addition, the adoption of innovation in this context is characterized as late, not initial. Originality/value – In terms of theoretical contributions, the present study reveals how the concept of innovation is built in the low-income market. From a perspective collectively constructed with information from different market agents (industry, retail and consumers, research findings become robust to understanding a phenomenon. Moreover, in addition to different market agents, different methods of data collection and analysis were also used, further enriching the results. This collective contribution, based theoretically on a literature of social construction, interviewing different market agents and using different methodological approaches, synergistically potentiated the development of this paper

  4. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-01-01

    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  5. Low Income Inequality, High Wealth Inequality'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Bavel, van B.

    2013-01-01

    Inequality studies tend to assume a positive correlation between income and wealth inequality. We doubt whether this holds for Rhineland welfare states as they seem to combine low income inequality with high wealth inequality levels. We hypothesize that publicly funded life-time income security,

  6. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  7. Understanding the rural food environment--perspectives of low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian, Anush; Leighton, Al; Fox, Kimberly; Hartley, David

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates appear to be more pronounced among youth in rural areas of the USA. The availability of retail food outlets in rural communities that sell quality, affordable, nutritious foods may be an important factor for encouraging rural families to select a healthy diet and potentially reduce obesity rates. Researchers use the term 'food desert' to describe communities where access to healthy and affordable food is limited. Understanding the ways in which the food environment and food deserts impact childhood obesity may be a key component to designing interventions that increase the availability of healthy and affordable foods, thus improving the health of rural communities. The food environment was investigated in 6 rural low-income Maine communities to assess how food environments affect eating behaviors and obesity rates of rural children enrolled in Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program in Maine ('MaineCare'). Focus groups were conducted with low-income parents of children enrolled in MaineCare to ask them about their food shopping habits, barriers faced when trying to obtain food, where they get their food, and what they perceive as healthy food. Cost, travel distance, and food quality were all factors that emerged as influential in rural low-income family's efforts to get food. Parents described patterns of thoughtful and creative shopping habits that involve coupons and sales. Grocery shopping is often supplemented with food that is harvested, hunted, and bartered. The use of large freezers for storing bulk items was reported as necessary for survival in 'tough' times. Families often travel up to 128.8 km (80 miles) to purchase good quality, affordable food, recognizing that in rural communities travelling these distances is a reality of rural life. Parents appeared to know what qualities describe 'healthy food'. Rural families may have greater flexibility and opportunity to be methodical in their food shopping than urban families

  8. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Low-Income Adolescents Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expression in low-income adolescents, an understudied population. One hundred and seventy nine adolescents (aged 14-17) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Trained coders rated adolescents' expressions of happiness, sadness, anxiety, shame/embarrassment, anger, and contempt during the TSST using a micro-analytic coding system. Analyses showed that, consistent with gender roles, girls expressed higher levels of happiness and shame than boys; however, contrary to traditional gender roles, girls showed higher levels of contempt than boys. Also, in contrast to cultural stereotypes, there were no differences in anger between boys and girls. Findings suggest gender-role inconsistent displays of externalizing emotions in low-income adolescents under acute stress, and may reflect different emotion socialization experiences in this group.

  9. Recruitment and retention strategies in longitudinal clinical studies with low-income populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Schwirian, Patricia M; Klein, Elizabeth G; Skybo, Theresa; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Bethany; French, Gina M; Groner, Judith A

    2011-05-01

    Conducting longitudinal research studies with low-income and/or minority participants present a unique set of challenges and opportunities. To outline the specific strategies employed to successfully recruit and retain participants in a longitudinal study of nutritional anticipatory guidance during early childhood, conducted with a low-income, ethnically diverse, urban population of mothers. We describe recruitment and retention efforts made by the research team for the 'MOMS' Study (Making Our Mealtimes Special). The 'multilayered' approach for recruitment and retention included commitment of research leadership, piloting procedures, frequent team reporting, emphasis on participant convenience, incentives, frequent contact with participants, expanded budget, clinical staff buy-in, a dedicated phone line, and the use of research project branding and logos. Barriers to enrollment were not encountered in this project, despite recruiting from a low-income population with a large proportion of African-American families. Process evaluation with clinic staff demonstrated the perception of the MOMS staff was very positive. Participant retention rate was 75% and 64% at 6 months and 12 months post-recruitment, respectively. We attribute retention success largely to a coordinated effort between the research team and the infrastructure support at the clinical sites, as well as project branding and a dedicated phone line. Successful participant recruitment and retention approaches need to be specific and consistent with clinical staff buy in throughout the project. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Health outcomes in low-income children with current asthma in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, T; Dell, S; Tassoudji, M; Wang, C

    2009-01-01

    Data collected from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in 1994/95 and 1996/97 were used to measure longitudinal health outcomes among children with asthma. Over 10 000 children aged 1 to 11 years with complete data on asthma status in both years were included. Outcomes included hospitalizations and health services use (HSU). Current asthma was defined as children diagnosed with asthma by a physician and who took prescribed inhalants regularly, had wheezing or an attack in the previous year, or had their activities limited by asthma. Children having asthma significantly increased their odds of hospitalization (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.71, 3.70) and health services use (OR = 3.80; 95% CI: 2.69, 5.37). Low-income adequacy (LIA) in 1994/ 95 significantly predicts hospitalization and HSU in 1996/97 (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.29, 5.59 and OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99, respectively). Our results confirmed that both having current asthma and living in low-income families had a significant impact on the health status of children in Canada. Programs seeking to decrease the economic burden of pediatric hospitalizations need to focus on asthma and low-income populations.

  11. BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN DEVELOPING 'DO-IT-YOURSELF' (DIY PRODUCTS FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lepre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct involvement of the user in the assembling process of his/her own products or even entire house is a reality among low-income populations in developing countries. Nevertheless, there are a limited number of products that have actually been designed from a do-it-yourself (DIY perspective, which results in several problems, such as poor user safety while the product is being assembled or inadequate results from an improvised assembling. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyse barriers to and opportunities for developing DIY products for low-income housing in developing countries. The research method utilises a case study of a DIY product consisting of a hybrid solution that acted as both a partition wall and a wardrobe. The identified opportunities included more systematic use of existing craft competencies among low-income families and the possibility of cost reduction through DIY concepts. Major barriers included the perception of the DIY product as inferior and the difficulty of communicating the DIY assembly process to users who quite often are illiterate.

  12. [Low rate of achieving LDL-cholesterol objective in a low income population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacanti, Luciano J; Santos, Silvio C de Moraes; Fujita, Alessandro M; Lima, David S; Lopes, Alan F; Vetorazi, Rodrigo; Sellera, Ana; Scarin, Nataly R

    2005-09-01

    To assess the percentage of patients suitable to the objectives preconized by III Diretrizes sobre Dislipidemias da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (3rd Guidelines on Dyslipidemia of Brazilian Society of Cardiology), in a low income population. To determine whether there was a difference of that percentage in high risk patients, according to their age ( 75 years old). We analyzed, consecutively, 190 patients, divided in two groups: 51 low and middle risk patients (G I) and 139 high risk patients for coronary artery disease (G II). The sample was characterized by low income patients (69% for the patients had a family income between 1 and 2 minimum salaries), whose hypolipidemic therapy was irregularly supplied by the state. G I and G II showed, respectively, 70.1 +/- 13.7 years old and 13.7% of men and 68.5 +/- 10.6 years old and 62.6% of men. Among patients from G II, 30% showed LDL-cholesterol within the preconized objectives. The frequency of patients suitable to the objectives was significantly lower in individuals with 75 years of age or older than among those younger than 75 years old (16% vs. 30%, p = 0.04). In a predominantly low income population and without continuous assistance from the State to purchase statins, the achievement of preconized objectives for LDL-cholesterol, by 3rd Guidelines on Dyslipidemia of Brasilian Society of Cardiology, is low and also significantly lower among very old patients, with a high risk profile for atherosclerosis.

  13. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  14. Prevalence of periodontal disease by recorded indices among low income discount dental school patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famili, Pouran; Shaya, Mandana M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of periodontal disease among the patient population at the University of Pittsburgh who receive the Low Income Discount (LID) financial obligation reduction based on family income in relation to federal poverty guidelines. This was a retrospective study examining the Electronic Health Record at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine (axiUm, Exan Group) from August 2008 to April 2013 (N = 7936). Records of the complete periodontal examination, income, age, gender, race, and other variables were collected and analyzed. Logistic regressions were performed, controlling for patients' age, ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, and diabetes. The odds of having periodontal disease for patients receiving the low income discount (LID) was higher (1.055), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35). Patients receiving the low income discount did not have a higher prevalence of periodontal disease. Factors other than income appear to be more important to predict greater prevalence of periodontal disease, but this insight requires further investigation.

  15. The Mental Health Needs of Low-Income Pregnant Teens: A Nursing-Social Work Partnership in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nancy A.; Anastas, Jeane W.

    2015-01-01

    While the rates of teen childbearing have declined in the United States, adolescents who become pregnant and decide to bear and rear their babies are often from low-income, highly stressed families and communities. This article will describe the psychosocial problems of pregnant urban teens and how exposure to interpersonal trauma and current…

  16. Getting Out, Missing Out, and Surviving: The Social Class Experiences of White, Low-Income, First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Georgianna LaNelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how White students from low socioeconomic status backgrounds (operationalized as students who are both low income and of the first generation in their family to attend college) experience and navigate social class during college. This was a qualitative research study employing a phenomenological research…

  17. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  18. Effects of Parent Implemented Visual Schedule Routines for African American Children with ASD in Low-Income Home Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Samantha E.; Glover, Carrie A.; Lloyd, Blair P.; Barton, Erin E.; Mello, Maria P.

    2018-01-01

    Low-income, minority families are underrepresented in the literature on parent training for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although the use of visual supports, such as visual schedules, is considered to be an evidence-based practice for children with ASD in school, it is not known whether this strategy is effective for…

  19. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Relation to Respiratory Disease and Social Behaviors In Low-Income Infants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1993-01-01

    Examined a sample of 177 infants (age 9 through 12 months) with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) from low-income French, African, and North African Muslim families in Paris. Found a higher than normal incidence of otitis media and respiratory diseases such as bronchitis among the infants. Also examined the relationship between infant IDA and child…

  20. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  1. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  2. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  3. On Stability Conditions for a Family of Nonselfadjoint Difference Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, A. V.; Martynov, A. A.

    1983-04-01

    In the article, stability with respect to initial data of a family of explicit nonselfadjoint operator-difference schemes defined on the direct sum of two spaces is studied. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability in the energy norms are obtained. The equivalence of the norms obtained to the mesh norm L2 is proved. Bibliography: 3 titles.

  4. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo

    2017-09-28

    : The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  5. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Castro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  6. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.

    2008-01-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428

  7. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-14

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.  Created: 8/14/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  8. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    This report has been prepared to provide low-income advocates and other stakeholders information on the energy burden faced by low-income customers and programs designed to alleviate that burden in various states. The report describes programs designed to lower payments, manage arrearages, weatherize and provide other energy efficiency measures, educate consumers, increase outreach to the target It discusses the costs and benefits of the population, and evaluate the programs. various options--to the degree this information is available--and describes attempts to quantify benefits that have heretofore not been quantified. The purpose of this report is to enable the low-income advocates and others to assess the options and design program most suitable for the citizens of their states or jurisdictions. It is not the authors' intent to recommend a particular course of action but, based on our broad experience in the field, to provide the information necessary for others to do so. We would be happy to answer any questions or provide further documentation on any of the material presented herein. The original edition of this report was prepared for the Utah Committee on Consumer Services, pursuant to a contract with the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC), to provide information to the Utah Low-Income Task Force established by the Utah Public Service, Commission. Attachment 1 is drawn from NCLC's 1998 Supplement to its Access to Utility Services; NCLC plans to update this list in 2001, and it will be available then from NCLC. This report has been updated by the authors for this edition.

  9. Maternal concerns about children overeating among low-income children

    OpenAIRE

    Pesch, Megan H.; Rizk, Monika; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Miller, Alison; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Addressing overeating is essential to obesity treatment and prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate maternal concern for child overeating, to identify associated participant characteristics and to determine if concern for child overeating is associated with maternal feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N = 289) of children (mean age 70.8 months) participated in a semi-structured interview. Themes of maternal concern for child overeating were identified and a coding sche...

  10. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and chan...

  11. Oral Health in Low-Income Older Adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Hur, Jung-Yi; Yang, Kyeongra

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases among older adults are prevalent and a major public health problem, but public attention regarding this matter is quite limited. Many older adults experience limited access to oral care services. The study aimed to describe characteristics of oral health conditions, perceived oral health status, and oral health practices and to examine factors related to living status and accessibility to dental health care among 9,660 low-income older adults living in a suburban city in Korea. Approximately 42% of low-income older adults lived alone; 68% perceived their oral health as either excellent or good; and 31% reported difficulty accessing dental services. Lack of accessibility to oral care services was significantly more common in older adults with low incomes, living alone, having poor oral conditions, poor self-perceived oral health, and poor tooth-brushing behavior. Strategies to promote access to dental care services for underserved older adults should be developed to prevent further oral problems and their impact on overall health conditions.

  12. Unpacking the parallel effects of parental alcohol misuse and low income on risk of supervisory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Margaret H; Kepple, Nancy Jo

    2017-07-01

    Although low income status and parent alcohol misuse are considered critical risk factors for child neglect, little is known about the mechanisms of this association. No known research has assessed the parallel effect of each on occurrence of child neglect. This study aimed to explore the direct and indirect effects of parent alcohol misuse and low family income on risk of supervisory neglect through mediating factors such as parent depressive symptoms and low social support. The study used a sample of 2990 parents of children under 13 years old who completed a listed telephone survey conducted in 50 mid-sized cities within California during 2009. We used a structural equation model to estimate the direct and indirect effects of parent alcohol misuse (defined as heavy drinking frequency) and low family income on supervisory neglect toward a focal child, as well as the indirect effect via parental depressive symptoms and low social support. Mediation analysis to capture direct, indirect, and total effects of these two independent variables was also conducted. Results revealed a significant direct effect of low family income on likelihood of supervisory neglect. Low income also exhibited an indirect effect via increased depressive symptoms and low social support. Annual frequency of heavy drinking showed no direct effect on supervisory neglect likelihood, but an indirect effect was observed via increased depressive symptoms and decreased social support. Parent low income and high frequency heavy drinking likely increase risks for supervisory neglect through distinct pathways. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm the pathways identified within this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Model for Service Delivery for Developmental Disorders in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Usman; Minhas, Fareed Aslam; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Atif

    2015-12-01

    As in many low-income countries, the treatment gap for developmental disorders in rural Pakistan is near 100%. We integrated social, technological, and business innovations to develop and pilot a potentially sustainable service for children with developmental disorders in 1 rural area. Families with developmental disorders were identified through a mobile phone-based interactive voice response system, and organized into "Family Networks." "Champion" family volunteers were trained in evidence-based interventions. An Avatar-assisted Cascade Training and information system was developed to assist with training, implementation, monitoring, and supervision. In a population of ∼30,000, we successfully established 1 self-sustaining Family Network consisting of 10 trained champion family volunteers working under supervision of specialists, providing intervention to 70 families of children with developmental disorders. Each champion was responsible for training and providing ongoing support to 5 to 7 families from his or her village, and the families supported each other in management of their children. A pre-post evaluation of the program indicated that there was significant improvement in disability and socioemotional difficulties in the child, reduction in stigmatizing experiences, and greater family empowerment to seek services and community resources for the child. There was no change in caregivers' well-being. To replicate this service more widely, a social franchise model has been developed whereby the integrated intervention will be "boxed" up and passed on to others to replicate with appropriate support. Such integrated social, technological, and business innovations have the potential to be applied to other areas of health in low-income countries. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. THE IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE OF URBAN FAMILIES FOR ITS STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Igebaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an attempt to study the way a family depends on the nature and intensity of demographic processes, to identify relationship between reproduction and family behavior, its way of life (including reproductive behavior and stability. A specific status of a family as a social unit and a social institution in the population reproduction process is determined. Family functioning is considered in terms of overall reproduction process with its social meaning being as lifestyle reproduction and specific way of activities and behavior of different families in certain social conditions. There is analysis of changes in the nature of marriage and family relations as well as revealed factors that influence urban family life and marriage and divorce level. The article calls attention to the problem of stabilization and destabilization of urban families and the ways to regulate family relations. We offer a thesis on necessary measures to influence social opinion in order to make it healthier as well as public and social institutions to pay more attention at family issues and population reproduction. The paper is based on the results of the target sociological survey of two-parent families conducted by the author. 

  15. "Like a Mexican wedding": psychosocial intervention needs of predominately Hispanic low-income female co-survivors of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine A; Weihs, Karen L; Larkey, Linda K; Badger, Terry A; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Curran, Melissa A; Pedroza, Rosa; García, Francisco A R

    2011-08-01

    Although recent work has recognized that the influence and consequences of cancer extend beyond the individual receiving the diagnosis, no studies have focused on the specific psychosocial intervention needs of female co-survivors in low-income populations. In this qualitative study, the co-survivors, 16 women, representing 10 low-income families and predominately Hispanic, were interviewed about their experience of having someone in their family diagnosed with cancer. Several themes emerged from the data, including family stress, lack of skill in coping with the effects of cancer (e.g., depression of their loved one), a need for financial help, a willingness to share with others, and reliance on faith to see them through the cancer experience. Whereas no agreement existed as to where and how to provide an intervention, participants reported that tailoring an intervention to family needs and delivering it in a way that was accessible to them was important. © The Author(s) 2011

  16. Stability Analysis and Design of Impulsive Control Lorenz Systems Family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongbin; Zhang Fengli; Zhang Hongbin; Yu Juebang; Liao Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Lorenz systems family unifying Lorenz system, Chen system and Lue system is a typical chaotic family. In this paper, we consider impulsive control Lorenz chaotic systems family with time-varying impulse intervals. By establishing an effective tool of a set of inequalities, we analyze the asymptotic stability of impulsive control Lorenz systems family and obtain some new less conservative conditions. Based on the stability analysis, we design a novel impulsive controller with time-varying impulse intervals. Illustrative examples are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. The obtained results not only can be used to design impulsive control for Lorenz systems family, but also can be extended to other chaotic systems. (general)

  17. [Individual determinants of dental care utilization among low-income adult and elderly individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Márcia Helena; Brito, Wanessa Hoffmann; Lawder, Juliana Aparecida de Campos; Mendes, Yasmine Bittencourt Emílio; da Silva, Francilene de Fátima Marcondes; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    The utilization of dental care services results from the interaction of biological determinants with sociocultural, family and community variables, as well as from some characteristics of health systems. The objective of this study was to assess the individual factors associated with the use of dental care services among low-income adult and elderly individuals living in the catchment area of the Family Health Strategy, in Ponta Grossa, PR. The sample included 246 individuals, aged 35 years or over, who answered a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, perceived needs, and access to dental care services. Data analysis was performed according to a conceptual framework based on Andersen's Behavioral Model. Non-recent use of dental care services was considered as the dependent variable in the logistic regression analysis models. There were high prevalences of self-reported oral health diseases and teeth loss. About 40% of the adults and 67% of the elderly had not made any dental visit in the past 3 years. Individuals without ownership of the family home, with inadequate oral hygiene habits and who wore complete dentures had higher odds of having gone to the dentist longer ago. The fact of having a regular source of dental care was identified as a protective factor in the analysis. The conceptual framework confirmed the presence of social and psychosocial inequalities in the use of dental services among low-income adult and elderly individuals.

  18. Using qualitative methods to design a culturally appropriate child feeding questionnaire for low-income, Latina mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katrina Mucha; Greaney, Mary; Wang, Monica L; Davis, Rachel; Peterson, Karen E

    2012-05-01

    Obesity rates remain high among children in the United States (US), but children of low-income, minority families are at particularly high risk. Latinos are the largest and most rapidly growing US population group. Effective strategies will require attention to a wide array of culturally mediated variables that influence child feeding practices through the social contexts in which behaviors take place. This paper presents the design and implementation of a qualitative study examining low-income, Latina mothers' perceptions of child weight status and feeding practices, and their associations with the development of overweight in children. Guided by the social ecologic model and social contextual model on the role of the family in mediating health behavior, the Latina Mother Child Feeding Practices (LMCFP) study provided a systematic exploration of the influence of social class, culture, and environmental factors associated with mothers' perceptions of child overweight on feeding practices and behaviors. The design for this qualitative study consisted of three sequential phases: focus groups, in-depth interviews and cognitive interviews with Latina mothers conducted by Spanish-speaking researchers. Results showed the important role of socio-cultural factors in influencing Latina mothers' child feeding practices. In the short-term, this research yielded information to develop a child-feeding questionnaire appropriate for low-income, Latina mothers. Findings have important implications in developing nutrition education strategies for child health promotion that account for the social and cultural context of minority, low-income caregivers.

  19. Using Qualitative Methods to Design a Culturally Appropriate Child Feeding Questionnaire for Low-Income, Latina Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, AC; Sussner, KM; Greaney, ML; Wang, ML; Davis, RE; Peterson, KE

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Obesity rates remain high among children in the United States (US), but children of low-income, minority families are at particularly high risk. Latinos are the largest and most rapidly growing US population group. Effective strategies will require attention to a wide array of culturally mediated variables that influence child feeding practices through the social contexts in which behaviors take place. This paper presents the design and implementation of a qualitative study examining low-income, Latina mothers’ perceptions of child weight status and feeding practices, and their associations with the development of overweight in children. Guided by the social ecologic model and social contextual model on the role of the family in mediating health behavior, the Latina Mother Child Feeding Practices (LMCFP) study provided a systematic exploration of the influence of social class, culture, and environmental factors associated with mothers’ perceptions of child overweight on feeding practices and behaviors. Methods The design for this qualitative study consisted of three sequential phases: focus groups, in-depth interviews and cognitive interviews with Latina mothers conducted by Spanish-speaking researchers. Results Results showed the important role of socio-cultural factors in influencing Latina mothers’ child feeding practices. In the short-term, this research yielded information to develop a child-feeding questionnaire appropriate for low-income, Latina mothers. Conclusion Findings have important implications in developing nutrition education strategies for child health promotion that account for the social and cultural context of minority, low-income caregivers. PMID:21512780

  20. Housing ownership and affordability among low-income society in the poorest sub-district of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingrum, Lulut

    2017-03-01

    The Government has intervened to deal with various affordable public housing programs, as well as financing programs for Low Income society in Indonesia. The characteristics of this society in each region are so diverse, that made the housing programs for this social segment uneasy in reaching the right target. Regulation of Housing and Settlement No. 2/2001 has mandated that the State are obliged to implement a habitable public housing for people, especially for the low income society. The purpose of this study is exploring the low-income residents' preferences and affordability of home ownership for their families in the poorest sub-district of Semarang. Aspects of studies include family conditions, financing, location, housing type and price. The research used a descriptive method to analyze a set of questionnaire data, distributed to low income residents in Sub district Tanjungmas, which isthe poorest sub district in Semarang. The results showed that the respondents developed a vision of home ownership by saving their money for the allocated housing budget and taking a bank installment. They tended to plan to get a house in their current neighborhood or nearby or anywhere else with the same price range. They really understood that, in order to get a better home and neighborhood they have to pay for higher prices. Therefore, their housing criteria or standards were set based on the quality of life in their current residential area, and should be located in a township (kampung).

  1. Do low-income lone mothers compromise their nutrition to feed their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Glanville, N Theresa; Raine, Kim D; Dayle, Jutta B; Anderson, Bonnie; Battaglia, Noreen

    2003-03-18

    Women who live in disadvantaged circumstances in Canada exhibit dietary intakes below recommended levels, but their children often do not. One reason for this difference may be that mothers modify their own food intake to spare their children nutritional deprivation. The objective of our study was to document whether or not low-income lone mothers compromise their own diets to feed their children. We studied 141 low-income lone mothers with at least 2 children under the age of 14 years who lived in Atlantic Canada. Women were identified through community organizations using a variety of recruitment strategies. The women were asked weekly for 1 month to recall their food intake over the previous 24 hours; they also reported their children's (n = 333) food intake. Mothers also completed a questionnaire about "food insecurity," that is, a lack of access to adequate, nutritious food through socially acceptable means, during each interview. Household food insecurity was reported by 78% of mothers during the study month. Mothers' dietary intakes and the adequacy of intake were consistently poorer than their children's intake overall and over the course of a month. The difference in adequacy of intake between mothers and children widened from Time 1, when the family had the most money to purchase food, to Time 4, when the family had the least money. The children experienced some improvement in nutritional intake at Time 3, which was possibly related to food purchases for them associated with receipt of the Child Tax Benefit Credit or the Goods and Services Tax Credit. Our study demonstrates that low-income lone mothers compromise their own nutritional intake in order to preserve the adequacy of their children's diets.

  2. Child dental fear in low-income and non-low-income families: A school-based survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Lin

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Previous negative dental experiences learned by children or from others were found to be associated with children's dental fear. The findings suggest that pediatric dentists attempting by gentle care to reduce children's level of dental fear at their first dental visit may have a positive influence.

  3. A critical analysis of UK public health policies in relation to diet and nutrition in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attree, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    Diet and nutrition, particularly among low-income groups, is a key public health concern in the UK. Low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption, and obesity, especially among children, have potentially severe consequences for the future health of the nation. From a public health perspective, the UK government's role is to help poorer families make informed choices within healthy frameworks for living. However, the question is - to what extent are such policies in accordance with lay experiences of managing diet and nutrition on a low-income? This paper critically examines contemporary public health policies aimed at improving diet and nutrition, identifying the underlying theories about the influences on healthy eating in poor families, and exploring the extent to which these assumptions are based on experiential accounts. It draws on two qualitative systematic reviews - one prioritizing low-income mothers' accounts of 'managing' in poverty; and the other focusing on children's perspectives. The paper finds some common ground between policies and lay experiences, but also key divergencies. Arguably, the emphasis of public health policy on individual behaviour, coupled with an ethos of empowered consumerism, underplays material limitations on 'healthy eating' for low-income mothers and children. Health policies fail to take into account the full impact of structural influences on food choices, or recognize the social and emotional factors that influence diet and nutrition. In conclusion, it is argued that while health promotion campaigns to improve low-income families' diets do have advantages, these are insufficient to outweigh the negative effects of poverty on nutrition.

  4. The social production of altruism: motivations for caring action in a low-income urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Jacqueline S; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Grayman, Nyasha; Bonacci, Meredith; Brennan, William; Cowie, Sheri-Ann; Ladyzhenskaya, Lina; So, Sara

    2009-03-01

    Contemporary social science paints a bleak picture of inner-city relational life. Indeed, the relationships of low-income, urban-residing Americans are represented as rife with distress, violence and family disruption. At present, no body of social scientific work systematically examines the factors that promote loving or selfless interactions among low-income, inner-city American individuals, families and communities. In an effort to fill that gap, this ethnographic study examined the motivations for altruism among a sample of adults (n = 40) who reside in an economically distressed housing community (i.e., housing project) in New York City. Content analyses of interviews indicated that participants attributed altruism to an interplay between 14 motives that were then ordered into four overarching categories of motives: (1) needs-centered motives, (2) norm-based motives deriving from religious/spiritual ideology, relationships and personal factors, (3) abstract motives (e.g., humanism), and (4) sociopolitical factors. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Sleep Quality and Quantity in Low-Income Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jennifer J; Szabo, Aniko; Goyal, Deepika; Babler, Elizabeth

    To describe and explore patterns of postpartum sleep, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in low-income urban women. In this descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental study, participants were recruited from an inpatient postpartum unit. Subjective measures were completed by 132 participants across five time points. Objective sleep/wake patterns were measured by 72-hour wrist actigraphy at 4 and 8 weeks. Mean sample age was 25 years, high school educated with 3.1 children. Over half the sample reported an annual income less than 50% of the federal poverty level. Objectively, total nighttime sleep was 5.5 hours (week 4) and 5.4 hours (week 8). Subjectively, 85% met criteria for "poor sleep quality" at week 4, and nearly half were persistently and severely fatigued through 8 weeks postpartum. The majority (65%) of women in this study met the definition of "short sleep duration," defined as sleeping ≤ 6 hours per night. Adverse effects of this short sleep on physical and mental health as well as safety and functioning, especially within the context of poverty, may be profound. There is an urgent need for further research on sleep in low-income underrepresented women to identify interventions that can improve sleep and fatigue as well as discern the implications of sleep deprivation on the safety and physical and mental health of this population.

  6. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population.

  7. Factors affecting low-income women's food choices and the perceived impact of dietary intake and socioeconomic status on their health and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2009-01-01

    To investigate factors affecting food choice and health beliefs among low-income women in the context of their weight and socioeconomic status. Two researchers conducted 14 90-minute focus groups, which were audiotaped. Libraries, homeless shelters, and a community center. Ninety-two low-income women (18-65 years) with at least 1 child aged 9-13 years in the household. Food choice and health beliefs of low-income women. Transcripts were coded and reconciled; common themes and subthemes were identified. Over 75% of participants were overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25), and most were in charge of purchasing and preparing food for their families. Health concerns included diabetes, hypertension, and overweight/obesity, and most felt their health status had genetic or metabolic origins. Although many would like to regularly consume healthful food (eg, fresh fruits and vegetables), such food was perceived as unaffordable. A disconnect between diet and health among low-income women calls for nutrition interventions that educate low-income families on inexpensive, healthful eating in a structured environment, and diet-disease relationships. Changes at a policy level should be considered to increase affordability and accessibility of healthful food in low-income neighborhoods and through federal food assistance programs.

  8. Supportive Practices among Low-Income Parents of Academically Successful Elementary Students in Even Start Programs = Practicas Efectivas que Apoyan el Exito Academico en Ninos Hispanos a Traves de la Participacion de sus Padres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebener, Richard; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.

    This study (reported in separate English and Spanish versions) used a qualitative approach to identify the supportive parental behaviors of academically successful children from low income families in Even Start programs, from the parents', teachers', and children's perspectives. The sample contained 12 low income parents who had one or more…

  9. A procedure for analysing energy savings in multiple small solar water heaters installed in low-income housing in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, Thalita; Lamberts, Roberto; Barbosa, Miriam; Urbano, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Due to government subsidies, Brazil has witnessed an increase in the installation and use of small solar water heating systems in low-income housing projects. Although the initiative has reduced the load curve during peak times due to the reduced use of electric showerheads, measurement and verification (M and V) are needed to validate the savings. M and V procedures should take into account the social and economic variability of low-income housing developments. To improve M and V in low-income housing projects, this paper presents a methodology for identifying homogeneous subgroups based on their energy-saving potential. This research strategy involved a cluster analysis designed to improve the understanding of what energy savers and other influencing factors exist. A case study in Londrina Brazil was undertaken with 200 low-income families. Five clusters, created based on savings potential, were defined. The results showed that only two clusters demonstrated good electricity savings, representing 47% of families. However, two clusters, or 37%, did not provide satisfactory savings, and the other 16% did not provide any consumption history due to previous use of illegal city electricity connection practices. Therefore, studies confirm the need for a detailed measurement of the representative subgroups to assess the influence of human behaviour on potential SWHS-induced savings. - Highlights: • M and V is necessary to improve solar collector-area-based subsidy programmes. • M and V in large-scale sample should contemplate the social and economic variability. • Samples with homogeneous subgroups contribute to a consistent energy-saving M and V. • Solar Water Heaters in some cases may not offer energy saving in a low-income context. • SWH performance decreases with low educational level and difficulty of operation

  10. Psychosocial Determinants of Food Acquisition and Preparation in Low-Income, Urban African American Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, JaWanna L; Trude, Angela C B; Surkan, Pamela J; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Hopkins, Laura C; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2018-03-01

    Psychosocial factors are important determinants of health behaviors and diet-related outcomes, yet relatively little work has explored their relation to food-purchasing and preparation behaviors in low-income populations. To evaluate the psychosocial factors associated with food-related behaviors. Cross-sectional data collected from 465 low-income African American adult caregivers in the baseline evaluation of the B'more Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. Questionnaires were used to assess household sociodemographic characteristics, food sources frequently used, and food preparation and food acquisition behaviors. Multiple linear regression models explored the associations between caregiver psychosocial variables and food-related behaviors, controlling for caregivers' age, sex, household income, household size, and food assistance participation. Caregivers purchased prepared food at carry-outs on average 3.8 times (standard deviation [ SD] = 4.6) within 30 days. Less healthy foods were acquired 2 times more frequently than healthier foods ( p intention and self-efficacy scores were positively associated with healthier food acquisition (β = 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.09, 1.4]; β = 0.04; 95% CI [0.02, 0.06]) and negatively associated with frequency of purchasing at prepared food sources (β = -0.4; 95% CI [-0.6, -0.2]; β = -0.5; 95% CI [-0.7, -0.3]), respectively. Higher nutrition knowledge was associated with lower frequency of purchasing food at prepared food venues (β = -0.7; 95% CI: [-1.2, -0.2]). Our findings indicate a positive association between psychosocial determinants and healthier food acquisition and food preparation behaviors. Interventions that affect psychosocial factors (i.e., food-related behavioral intentions and self-efficacy) may have the potential to increase healthier food preparation and food-purchasing practices among low-income African American families.

  11. Postpartum contraception utilization among low-income women seeking immunization for infants in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Sheila K; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Raj, Anita; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan; Naik, D D; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to examine postpartum contraception utilization among Indian women seeking immunization for their infants in three low-income communities in Mumbai, India. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire of low-income postpartum women seeking immunization for their infants at three large urban health centers in Mumbai. Contraceptive utilization data were collected as part of a larger study focused on the impact of postpartum domestic violence on maternal and infant health. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to describe and identify predictors of postpartum contraceptive utilization. Postpartum women aged 17-45 years (N=1049) completed the survey; 44.5% (n=467) reported resuming sexual relations with their husbands. Among these women, the majority (65.3%; n=305) reported not currently using contraception. In multivariate analyses, women who did not discuss postpartum family planning with their husbands, had not used contraception previous to the recent birth, and had experienced physical violence or forced sex were more likely to not use postpartum contraception (adjusted odds ratios=1.47-1.77). Among the 162 women using contraception, the most common time to initiation of contraception was 5 weeks postpartum, and the most common method used was condoms 77.8% (n=126). Contraception nonuse was common among urban, low-income postpartum women in India. This study highlights the importance of developing interventions to increase use of highly effective contraceptive methods postpartum, and that spousal violence and lack of marital communication may present barriers to postpartum contraception utilization. Infant immunization may represent an opportunity for provision of contraceptives and contraceptive counseling. This original research study is a unique contribution to the literature because it presents data regarding the nonuse of postpartum contraception among women seeking immunizations for their infants in urban centers

  12. Neighborhood perceptions and hypertension among low-income black women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliyhah Al-Bayan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women’s perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Methods Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N’Vivo 10 software. Results Three major themes emerged: (1 social connectedness, (2 stress factors, and (3 availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Conclusions Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women’s risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise, in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in

  13. Low-Income Urban High School Students' Use of the Internet to Access Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Kristan M.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the Web-based resources available to low-income students as they build their perceptions, make their decisions, and engage in financial aid activities. Data are gathered from the results of six focus groups with low-income high school students attending urban high schools. Findings suggest that low-income students do have…

  14. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J; Efrat, Merav W; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J; Plunkett, Scott

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low-income children's after-school physical activity levels. An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary-school-age children (n = 130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the 4-month intervention (postintervention), and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included (1) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment, and long-term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs and (2) moderate to vigorous physical activity. The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low-income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at postintervention or follow-up. The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low-income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure.

  15. Women's Employment and Family Stability In Nigeria: A Survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the experiences of working women in Ibadan metropolis and its impact on family stability. A total of 156 working women, both in the formal and informal sectors of the economy, participated in the study. Since the majority of Nigerian women are engaged in the informal sector, a larger proportion of ...

  16. Expecting to work, fearing homelessness: The possible selves of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J; Oyserman, Daphna

    2009-06-04

    We explored the content of possible selves of low-income mothers and the strategies they have to work on their possible selves. Positive, expected possible selves focused on getting a job, making ends meet and caregiving. Negative, to-be-avoided possible selves focused on failing to make ends meet, losing (or not getting) jobs, and problems with mental health. Immediate social context, rather than demographic characteristics or global work-family variables, were associated with content of possible selves. Controlling for demographic and work-family variables, job-focused possible selves (and strategies to attain them) were more salient and caregiving and mental health-related possible selves (and relevant strategies) less salient to mothers in job-training programs vs. welfare offices.

  17. Parenting stress and child physical health among a low-income sample: The moderating role of child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Van Dyk, Tori

    2015-11-01

    This study examined child anxiety as a potential moderator of the relationship between parenting stress and child physical health. Low-income youth (N = 109, M = 9.51 years old) and their parents completed measures of anxiety, health-related quality of life, and parenting stress in an outpatient clinic. As an objective measure of physical health, medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Parenting stress was associated significantly with worse health-related quality of life and higher service utilization. Child anxiety moderated the relationship between stress and health. Health psychologists should target both family stress and child anxiety in promoting better health outcomes among low-income families. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Does higher quality early child care promote low-income children's math and reading achievement in middle childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A

    2009-01-01

    Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.

  19. Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D

    1992-06-01

    Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.

  20. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  1. Abortion Stigma Among Low-Income Women Obtaining Abortions in Western Pennsylvania: A Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Amanda; Rosenfeld, Elian A; Nikolajski, Cara; Freedman, Lori R; Steinberg, Julia R; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-03-01

    Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania. Transcripts from interviews with 19 participants who were planning to terminate a pregnancy or had had an abortion in the last two weeks were examined through content analysis to identify the range of attitudes they encountered that could contribute to or reflect abortion stigma, the sources of these attitudes and women's responses to them. Women commonly reported that partners, family members and they themselves held antiabortion attitudes. Such attitudes communicated that abortion is morally reprehensible, a rejection of motherhood, rare and thus potentially deviant, detrimental to future fertility and an irresponsible choice. Women reacted to external and internal negative attitudes by distinguishing themselves from other women who obtain abortions, experiencing negative emotions, and concealing or delaying their abortions. Women's reactions to antiabortion attitudes may perpetuate abortion stigma. Further research is needed to inform interventions to address abortion stigma and improve women's abortion experiences. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  2. A qualitative study of parenting stress, coping, and discipline approaches among low-income traumatized mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistin, Caroline J; Radesky, Jenny; Diaz-Linhart, Yaminette; Tompson, Martha C; OʼConnor, Erin; Silverstein, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The use of harsh discipline is a risk factor for child maltreatment and is more common among families in which mothers have previously experienced trauma. We sought to understand the stressors experienced by low-income traumatized mothers and the perceived impact of those stressors on their discipline approaches. We conducted 30 in-depth qualitative interviews with low-income mothers with a history of trauma. We triangulated the results with experts in behavioral health, and with a subset of the informants themselves, to ensure data reliability. We identified the following themes: (1) Repetitive child behaviors are the most stressful. (2) Mothers commonly cope by taking time away; this can result in prolonged unsupervised periods for children. (3) Harsh discipline is used deliberately to prevent future behavior problems. (4) Mothers relate their children's negative behaviors to their own past experiences; in particular, those who have suffered domestic violence fear that their children will be violent adults. Our findings suggest that trauma-informed interventions to promote positive discipline and prevent child maltreatment should help mothers predict and plan for stressful parent-child interactions; identify supports that will allow them to cope with stress without leaving their children for prolonged periods; and explicitly address long-term goals for their children and the impact of different discipline approaches.

  3. Poverty and mental disorders: breaking the cycle in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; De Silva, Mary; Plagerson, Sophie; Cooper, Sara; Chisholm, Dan; Das, Jishnu; Knapp, Martin; Patel, Vikram

    2011-10-22

    Growing international evidence shows that mental ill health and poverty interact in a negative cycle in low-income and middle-income countries. However, little is known about the interventions that are needed to break this cycle. We undertook two systematic reviews to assess the effect of financial poverty alleviation interventions on mental, neurological, and substance misuse disorders and the effect of mental health interventions on individual and family or carer economic status in countries with low and middle incomes. We found that the mental health effect of poverty alleviation interventions was inconclusive, although some conditional cash transfer and asset promotion programmes had mental health benefits. By contrast, mental health interventions were associated with improved economic outcomes in all studies, although the difference was not statistically significant in every study. We recommend several areas for future research, including undertaking of high-quality intervention studies in low-income and middle-income countries, assessment of the macroeconomic consequences of scaling up of mental health care, and assessment of the effect of redistribution and market failures in mental health. This study supports the call to scale up mental health care, not only as a public health and human rights priority, but also as a development priority. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Challenges and opportunities to improve autism services in low-income countries: lessons from a situational analysis in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tekola, B.; Baheretibeb, Y.; Roth, I.; Tilahun, D.; Fekadu, A.; Hanlon, C.; Hoekstra, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little has been reported about service provision for children with autism in low-income countries. This study explored the current service provision for children with autism and their families in Ethiopia, the existing challenges and urgent needs, and stakeholders’ views on the best approaches to further develop services.Methods. A situational analysis was conducted based on (i) qualitative interviews with existing service providers; (ii) consultation with a wider group of stakeho...

  5. Organized Sports and Unstructured Active Play as Physical Activity Sources in Children From Low-Income, Chicago Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Li, Hong

    2016-08-01

    This study tested associations of organized sports participation and unstructured active play with overall moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in low-income children and examined factors associated with participation frequency. Research staff visited 88 low-income Chicago households with children ages 6-13 years. MVPA was assessed through 7-day accelerometry. Researchers documented the home availability of physical activity equipment. Caregivers reported on child participation in organized sports and unstructured active play, family support for physical activity, perceived neighborhood safety, and access to neighborhood physical activity venues. Despite similar participation in organized sports and unstructured active play, boys accumulated more MVPA than girls. MVPA was predicted by an interaction between gender and unstructured active play. Boys accumulated 23-45 additional minutes of weekday MVPA and 53-62 additional minutes of weekend MVPA through unstructured active play, with no such associations in girls. Higher reported neighborhood safety and family support for physical activity were associated with engagement in unstructured active play for both genders, and with participation in organized sports for girls. Physical activity interventions for low-income, urban children should emphasize unstructured active play, particularly in boys. Fostering family support for physical activity and safe play environments may be critical intervention components.

  6. Financial barriers to care among low-income children with asthma: health care reform implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Vicki; Graetz, Ilana; Galbraith, Alison; Hamity, Courtnee; Huang, Jie; Vollmer, William M; Hsu, John; Wu, Ann Chen

    2014-07-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes subsidies that reduce patient cost sharing for low-income families. Limited information on the effects of cost sharing among children is available to guide these efforts. To examine the associations between cost sharing, income, and care seeking and financial stress among children with asthma. A telephone survey in 2012 about experiences during the prior year within an integrated health care delivery system. Respondents included 769 parents of children aged 4 to 11 years with asthma. Of these, 25.9% of children received public subsidies; 21.7% were commercially insured with household incomes at or below 250% of the federal poverty level (FPL) and 18.2% had higher cost-sharing levels for all services (e.g., ≥$75 for emergency department visits). We classified children with asthma based on (1) current receipt of a subsidy (i.e., Medicaid or Children's Health Insurance Program) or potential eligibility for ACA low-income cost sharing or premium subsidies in 2014 (i.e., income ≤250%, 251%-400%, or >400% of the FPL) and (2) cost-sharing levels for prescription drugs, office visits, and emergency department visits. We examined the frequency of changes in care seeking and financial stress due to asthma care costs across these groups using logistic regression, adjusted for patient/family characteristics. Switching to cheaper asthma drugs, using less medication than prescribed, delaying/avoiding any office or emergency department visits, and financial stress (eg, cutting back on necessities) because of the costs of asthma care. After adjustment, parents at or below 250% of the FPL with lower vs higher cost-sharing levels were less likely to delay or avoid taking their children to a physician's office visit (3.8% vs. 31.6%; odds ratio, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.01-0.39]) and the emergency department (1.2% vs. 19.4%; 0.05 [0.01-0.25]) because of cost; higher-income parents and those whose children were receiving public

  7. Birth outcomes among low-income women- documented and undocumented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bich Ngoc; Van Dessel, Louise; Hanke, June; Hilliard, Margo A

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, Texas expanded the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to include perinatal care for the unborn children of undocumented low-income women and certain documented women ineligible for Medicaid or CHIP because of income or residency status. CHIP Perinatal includes coverage for undocumented women and provides a glimpse into the birth outcomes of this difficult-to-reach population. Community Health Choice (CHC) is the largest health maintenance organization provider of CHIP Perinatal in Texas, and we sought to determine preterm and low-birth-weight rates among women enrolled in CHC CHIP Perinatal and compare them with women of similar low-income status enrolled in Medicaid. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women enrolled in the CHC CHIP Perinatal and Medicaid plans and who delivered between January 1 and August 31, 2008. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of poor birth outcome, and analyses were adjusted for maternal age. The CHC cohort included 10,763 pregnant women enrolled in CHIP Perinatal and 4614 pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid. Those in the Medicaid group are significantly more likely to have preterm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.4) and low-birth-weight infants (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.9-2.6) than those in the CHIP Perinatal group. Within the Medicaid population, Hispanic women have the lowest preterm and low-birth-weight rates (6.6% and 5.8%, respectively), and non-Hispanic black women have the highest preterm and low-birth-weight rates (11.3% and 12.4%, respectively). However, Hispanic women enrolled in Medicaid are more likely to have preterm (aOR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and low-birth-weight infants (aOR = 1.6; 95% CI ,1.3-2.0) than their mostly Hispanic CHIP Perinatal counterparts. Women enrolled in CHC CHIP Perinatal have significantly lower prematurity rates than women of similar economic status enrolled in Medicaid, despite receiving less comprehensive medical benefits

  8. Development of state social support benefits in the Czech Republic from 1995 to 2014 and their impact on low-income households economic status

    OpenAIRE

    Lukeš, Jáchym

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the influence of state social benefits on income and natality of low-income families in Czech Republic. The years in which significant changes in government welfare benefits occured, based on the legislative changes, are examined in the paper. These years are, with use of model families, analyzed in terms of the ratio of potential income from state social security and subsistence minimum of families. The paper shows that this income can be the main income for the families...

  9. The Emergence of Social Capital in Low-Income Latino Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Megan N.; Haskins, Anna R.; Rangel, David E.; Sorensen, Kia N.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars suggest that racial/ethnic and class disparities in school-based social capital contribute to educational inequalities. Previous studies demonstrate that social capital (relations of trust, mutual expectations, and shared values) between parents and schools supports children's development. Yet we know little about the emergence of social capital, that is, the processes through which it develops. In this study, we explore mechanisms of social capital emergence in predominantly low-income Latino school communities. We draw data from an experimental study that manipulated social capital through an after-school family engagement program. Based on interviews and focus groups with participating parents, teachers, and program staff in two elementary schools, we identified four types of interactions that act as mechanisms of social capital emergence: (1) responsive communication; (2) reciprocal communication; (3) shared experiences; and (4) institutional linkage. The article connects these mechanisms to theoretically linked sources of social capital and discusses implications for theory and practice. PMID:25246729

  10. Involvement with Children and Low-Income Fathers’ Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Low income men are at risk for depressive symptoms and reduced father involvement. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2,703), we examined reciprocal associations between father involvement and depressive symptoms, and the moderating effect of relationship quality, for resident and nonresident fathers. Higher father involvement was associated with lower depressive symptoms two years later across the full sample of fathers. However, nonresidence functioned as a risk; higher nonresident father involvement with toddlers was associated with greater depressive symptoms two years later. Greater resident father involvement with toddlers was associated with fewer depressive symptoms two years later in low quality couple relationships. Across the full sample, the association between depressive symptoms and lower involvement was weak. PMID:25614731

  11. Involvement with Children and Low-Income Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    Low income men are at risk for depressive symptoms and reduced father involvement. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2,703), we examined reciprocal associations between father involvement and depressive symptoms, and the moderating effect of relationship quality, for resident and nonresident fathers. Higher father involvement was associated with lower depressive symptoms two years later across the full sample of fathers. However, nonresidence functioned as a risk; higher nonresident father involvement with toddlers was associated with greater depressive symptoms two years later. Greater resident father involvement with toddlers was associated with fewer depressive symptoms two years later in low quality couple relationships. Across the full sample, the association between depressive symptoms and lower involvement was weak.

  12. Exploring Health Implications of Disparities Associated with Food Insecurity Among Low-Income Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Coffey, Nancy; Moore, Emily

    2015-09-01

    A focus group process, conducted by a community-academic partnership, qualitatively assessed food insecurity perspectives of parents and community staff assisting families with food assistance. Food insecurity was reported to affect all aspects of their life, increasing stress and reducing coping abilities. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality encourages research with priority populations, including low-income populations. This research supports the body of knowledge correlating relationships between poverty, food insecurity, and chronic health conditions. Perspectives of food-insecure people are often missing from policy and advocacy interventions. Nurses can use lessons learned and recommendations from this research to address food-insecurity-related health disparities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-income housing policy and socioeconomic inequalities in women's health: the importance of nursing inquiry and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Dinah; Kneipp, Shawn

    2005-11-01

    Decent, affordable housing is the building block of healthy neighborhoods. Housing characteristics not only shape the quality of life in communities but also affect individual and family health. The structural and social aspects of housing have a significant impact on the health of individuals and populations. Early public health nursing pioneers such as Lillian Wald and Jane E. Hitchcock understood the adverse impact of substandard housing on population health and incorporated advocacy for housing and other social policy reforms as an integral aspect of their nursing interventions. Contemporary nursing literature, however, is lacking in its critical examination of relationships between housing and health. This article presents historical and current issues in low-income housing policy, discusses how low-income housing policy has contributed to social inequalities in health, and advocates for the importance and inherent value of nursing inquiry and intervention in this area.

  14. Technology use and interest among low-income parents of young children: differences by age group and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by interaction of ethnicity and age was nonsignificant. However, main effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The moderating role of brands for low income luxury consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Santino Bizarrias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The value of luxury is a multidimensional construct that assesses how consumers consider the various dimensions of luxury in their consumption relations. The consumption of luxury is not a trivial activity for most people, but brings a certain fascination and is part of the imaginary of the lower classes in emerging markets. The social identity of these consumers is changing because they aspire a new social position. But luxury consumption hurts the standards of this consumer profile. At the same time the self esteem is observed as an important element of people self-confirmation. For consumers, specifically, self-esteem is an important antecedent of consumption decisions. A sample of low income students was analyzed in this study to describe their relationship with luxury, and its influence on self-esteem when moderated by brand expressiveness. Through structural equation modeling this study found that the expression of the brand moderates the relationship of the value of luxury with self-esteem, allowing consumers of lower classes to observe a significant role of luxury in their lives.

  16. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Da-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

  17. CFD Simulations to Improve Ventilation in Low-Income Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rosemond; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Quality of housing plays an important role in public health. In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the leading causes of death include tuberculosis, lower respiratory infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, so improving home ventilation could potentially mitigate these negative health effects. The goal of this project is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the relative effectiveness of different ventilation strategies for Dhaka homes. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD model of a standard Dhaka home with apertures of different sizes and locations was developed to predict air exchange rates. Our initial focus is on simulating ventilation driven by buoyancy-alone conditions, which is often considered the limiting case in natural ventilation design. We explore the relationship between ventilation rate and aperture area to determine the most promising configurations for optimal ventilation solutions. Future research will include the modeling of wind-driven conditions, and extensive uncertainty quantification studies to investigate the effect of variability in the layout of homes and neighborhoods, and in local wind and temperature conditions. The ultimate objective is to formulate robust design recommendations that can reduce risks of respiratory illness in low-income housing.

  18. Xerostomia Among Older Adults With Low Income: Nuisance or Warning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Moreno, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of xerostomia and related factors among low-income older adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional, population-based study. Using data from the Home Healthcare Service Project, a population-based interview survey with home healthcare service, a total of 9,840 adults 65 years of age and older were assessed for the presence of xerostomia in association with aspects of health lifestyles, chronic disease, oral conditions, and oral function. Overall, 40% of participants reported experiencing xerostomia. Multivariate regression analysis indicated xerostomia was more likely to be reported by women having symptoms of gingival bleeding/pain, having difficulty swallowing liquid or chewing solid food, and having multiple chronic diseases. Interestingly, older adults who live alone and drink alcohol (two or more times per week) reported fewer problems with xerostomia. Increased focus on the detrimental health consequences of xerostomia would make treatment a higher priority. Improved assessment of at-risk populations, particularly among the elderly, could lead to earlier preventative interventions, lessening the negative impact on quality of life. Health professionals along with the general public need increased knowledge about the detrimental effects of xerostomia on overall health. There is a need for earlier assessment and treatment to facilitate optimal health promotion and disease prevention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Childhood cancer epidemiology in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Scott C; Metzger, Monika L; Wilimas, Judith A; Quintana, Yuri; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Ribeiro, Raul C

    2008-02-01

    Global studies of childhood cancer provide clues to cancer etiology, facilitate prevention and early diagnosis, identify biologic differences, improve survival rates in low-income countries (LIC) by facilitating quality improvement initiatives, and improve outcomes in high-income countries (HIC) through studies of tumor biology and collaborative clinical trials. Incidence rates of cancer differ between various ethnic groups within a single country and between various countries with similar ethnic compositions. Such differences may be the result of genetic predisposition, early or delayed exposure to infectious diseases, and other environmental factors. The reported incidence of childhood leukemia is lower in LIC than in more prosperous countries. Registration of childhood leukemia requires recognition of symptoms, rapid access to primary and tertiary medical care (a pediatric cancer unit), a correct diagnosis, and a data management infrastructure. In LIC, where these services are lacking, some children with leukemia may die before diagnosis and registration. In this environment, epidemiologic studies would seem to be an unaffordable luxury, but in reality represent a key element for progress. Hospital-based registries are both feasible and essential in LIC, and can be developed using available training programs for data managers and the free online Pediatric Oncology Networked Data Base (www.POND4kids.org), which allows collection, analysis, and sharing of data.

  20. Maternal concerns about children overeating among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Rizk, Monika; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Addressing overeating is essential to obesity treatment and prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate maternal concern for child overeating, to identify associated participant characteristics and to determine if concern for child overeating is associated with maternal feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N=289) of children (mean age 70.8months) participated in a semi-structured interview. Themes of maternal concern for child overeating were identified and a coding scheme was reliably applied. Maternal feeding practices were measured by questionnaire and videotaped eating interactions. Logistic regressions were used to test the associations of participant characteristics with the presence of each theme, and bivariate analyses were used to test the associations of the presence of each theme with feeding practices. Three themes were identified: 1) mothers worry that their child does overeat, 2) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because they manage their child's eating behavior, and 3) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because of characteristics inherent to the child. Child obesity predicted the themes; mothers of obese and overweight children are more likely to be concerned about overeating. Themes were associated with lower levels of observed pressure to eat. Only Theme 2 was associated with greater restrictive feeding practices. Interventions that provide parents' practical, healthy ways to prevent child overeating may be helpful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  2. Low-Income Community Solar: Utility Return Considerations for Electric Cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this short report is to identify project structures that make low-income community solar projects more cost-effective, replicable, and scalable, for electric cooperative and municipal utilities. This report explores the tradeoffs between providing energy bill savings for low-income subscribers and utility project returns, as well as some of the key lessons learned from existing successful low-income community solar pilot projects.

  3. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  4. Looking for solutions: gender differences in relationship and parenting challenges among low-income, young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-12-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  5. Food Choices of Minority and Low-Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Barraclough, Susan J.; Thorndike, Anne N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective strategies are needed to address obesity, particularly among minority and low-income individuals. Purpose To test whether a two-phase point-of-purchase intervention improved food choices across racial, socioeconomic (job type) groups. Design A 9-month longitudinal study from 2009 to 2010 assessing person-level changes in purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods following sequentially introduced interventions. Data were analyzed in 2011. Setting/participants Participants were 4642 employees of a large hospital in Boston MA who were regular cafeteria patrons. Interventions The first intervention was a traffic light–style color-coded labeling system encouraging patrons to purchase healthy items (labeled green) and avoid unhealthy items (labeled red). The second intervention manipulated “choice architecture” by physically rearranging certain cafeteria items, making green-labeled items more accessible, red-labeled items less accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of green- (or red-) labeled items purchased by an employee. Subanalyses tracked beverage purchases, including calories and price per beverage. Results Employees self-identified as white (73%), black (10%), Latino (7%), and Asian (10%). Compared to white employees, Latino and black employees purchased a higher proportion of red items at baseline (18%, 28%, and 33%, respectively, p0.05 for interaction between race or job type and intervention). Mean calories per beverage decreased similarly over the study period for all racial groups and job types, with no increase in per-beverage spending. Conclusions Despite baseline differences in healthy food purchases, a simple color-coded labeling and choice architecture intervention improved food and beverage choices among employees from all racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:22898116

  6. Low-income countries' orthopaedic information needs: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Kathryn; Rothman, Linda; Johnston, Luke; Le, Kim; Wu, Joanna; Howard, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    The Internet should, in theory, facilitate access to peer-reviewed scientific articles for orthopaedic surgeons in low-income countries (LIC). However, there are major barriers to access, and most full-text journal articles are available only on a subscription basis, which many in LIC cannot afford. Various models exist to remove such barriers. We set out to examine the potential, and reality, of journal article access for surgeons in LIC by studying readership patterns and journal access through a number of Internet-based initiatives, including an open access journal ("PLoS Medicine"), and programs from the University of Toronto (The Ptolemy Project) and World Health Organization (WHO) (Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative [HINARI]). Do Internet-based initiatives that focus on peer-reviewed journal articles deliver clinically relevant information to those who need it? More specifically: (1) Can the WHO's program meet the information needs of practicing surgeons in Africa? (2) Are healthcare workers across the globe aware of, and using, open access journals in a manner that reflects global burden of disease (GBD)? We compared actual Ptolemy use to HINARI holdings. We also compared "PLoS Medicine" readership patterns among low-, middle-, and high-income regions. Many of the electronic resources used through Ptolemy are not available through HINARI. In contrast to higher-income regions, "PLoS Medicine" readership in Africa is proportional to both the density of healthcare workers and the GBD there. Free or low-cost Internet-based initiatives can improve access to the medical literature in LIC. Open access journals are a key component to providing clinically relevant literature to the regions and healthcare workers who need it most.

  7. Resource allocation decisions in low-income rural households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, D L; Harrell, M W

    1985-05-01

    This paper is based on the theory that a society's nutritional well-being is both a cause and a consequence of the developmental process within that society. An approach to the choices made by poor rural households regarding food acquisition and nurturing behavior is emerging from recent research based on the new economic theory of household production. The central thesis of this approach is that household decisions related to the fulfillment of basic needs are strongly determined by decisions on the allocation of time to household production activities. Summarized are the results of the estimation of a model of household production and consumption behavior with data from a cross-sectional survey of 30 rural communities in Veraguas Province, Panama. The struture of the model consists of allocation of resources to nurturing activities and to production activities. The resources to be allocated are time and market goods, and in theory, these are allocated according to relative prices. The empirical results of this study are generally consistent with the predictions of the neoclassical economic model of household resource allocation. The major conclusions that time allocations and market price conditions matter in the determination of well-being in low-income rural households and, importantly, that nurturing decisions significantly affect the product and factor market behavior of these households form the basis for a discussion on implucations for agricultural and rural development. Programs and policies that seek nutritional improvement should be determined with explicit recognition of the value of time and the importance of timing in the decisions of the poor.

  8. A usual source of care: supplement or substitute for health insurance among low-income children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Petering, Ryan; Krois, Lisa

    2008-10-01

    To examine the separate and combined effects of having health insurance and a usual source of care (USC) on access to healthcare for low-income children and to determine if one or the other is superior in ensuring better access to necessary services. We conducted cross-sectional, multivariable analyses of data from a mail-return survey of Oregon's food stamp program. Results from 2681 completed surveys were weighted back to a population of 84,087 families with adjustments for oversampling techniques and nonresponse. Among low-income Oregon children, those with health insurance and a USC reported the best access to healthcare. In multivariable comparisons to this reference group, insured children without a USC had higher rates of unmet medical need [odds ratio (OR) = 2.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-3.73]; no doctor visits in 12 months (OR = 6.77; 95% CI: 3.80-12.06); and problems obtaining specialty care (OR = 4.12; 95% CI: 1.59-10.68). Similarly, having a USC but not health insurance was associated with an even higher likelihood of unmet medical needs (OR = 4.33; 95% CI: 2.85-6.57); as well as unmet prescription needs (OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.77-3.94), and problems obtaining dental care (OR = 4.83; 95% CI: 3.31-7.06). Incremental policy solutions are being proposed that focus on either health insurance coverage for children or expanded access to primary care. However, neither approach displaces the need for the other. The effects of a USC and health insurance, together, are additive predictors of the likelihood that children have optimal access to necessary healthcare services.

  9. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  10. Depression Improvement and Parenting in Low Income Mothers in Home Visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Altaye, Mekibib; Putnam, Frank W.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Zou, Yuanshu; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Research on older children and high resource families demonstrates that maternal improvement in depression often leads to parallel changes in parenting and child adjustment. It is unclear if this association extends to younger children and low income mothers. This study examined if In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT), a treatment for depressed mothers participating in home visiting programs, contributes to improvements in parenting and child adjustment. Methods Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2–10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n=47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and subsequent of MDD diagnosis. Measures of depression, parenting stress, nurturing parenting, and child adjustment were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and three month follow-up. Results Results indicated that there were no differences between IH-CBT and controls on parenting and child adjustment. Low levels of depression were associated with decreased parenting stress and increased nurturing parenting. There was no association between maternal depression and child adjustment. Conclusions Improvement in depression was related to changes in parenting in low income mothers participating in home visiting programs. IH-CBT was not independently associated with these improvements, although to the extent that treatment facilitated improvement there were corresponding benefits to parenting. Child adjustment was not associated with maternal depression, a finding possibly attributed to the benefits of concurrent home visiting or measurement limitations. Future research should focus on longer term follow-up, implications of relapse, and child adjustment in later years. PMID:25369906

  11. The New Reality for Suburban Schools: How Suburban Schools Are Struggling with Low-Income Students and Students of Color in Their Schools. Counterpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Jessica T.

    2016-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the population of people of color and of poor families in the suburbs has been rapidly increasing, making these areas far more diverse than they were a generation ago. Along with the increase in diversity has come re-segregation, leaving some schools with very high concentrations of low-income students and students of color,…

  12. A Comparison of Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Success among High-Ability Students from High- and Low-Income Groups: Exposing Poverty of a Different Kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jennifer Riedl; Frazier, Andrea Dawn; Kim, Mihyeon; Cross, Tracy L.

    2018-01-01

    In 14 focus group interviews, sixth- to eighth-grade high-ability students from high- (n = 36) and low-income (n = 45) families were asked to describe the barriers they perceived to their academic success. Three themes were identified through the qualitative analysis: "Constraining Environments, Integration versus Isolation," and…

  13. Beating the Odds: A Longitudinal Investigation of Low-Income Dual-Language and Monolingual Children's English Language and Literacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myae; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Meacham, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the language and early literacy development of a sample of dual-language learners (DLLs) and monolingual English speakers from low-income families who received an Early Reading First intervention during their Head Start preschool year. A total of 62…

  14. Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and weight status in low-income preschool children: How do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety respo...

  15. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  16. Federally Funded Education and Job Training Programs for Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2011-01-01

    With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…

  17. A Portrait of Low-Income Young Adults in Education. Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This brief takes a broad look at low-income young adults in an effort to contribute to the national discussion on improving degree completion by increasing participation among all disadvantaged populations--especially those who attempt to succeed in postsecondary settings under financial stress. Understanding the linkages between low-income young…

  18. Do No-Loan Policies Change the Matriculation Patterns of Low-Income Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Glen R.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether there is discernable variation in the matriculation patterns of low-income students at public flagship institutions around changes in institutional financial-aid policies that target resident, low-income students with need-based aid. Overall, our results suggests that need is not being met on the extensive margin and that…

  19. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  20. Access to dental care for low-income adults: perceptions of affordability, availability and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bruce B; Macentee, Michael I

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore access to dental care for low-income communities from the perspectives of low-income people, dentists and related health and social service-providers. The case study included 60 interviews involving, low-income adults (N = 41), dentists (N = 6) and health and social service-providers (N = 13). The analysis explores perceptions of need, evidence of unmet needs, and three dimensions of access--affordability, availability and acceptability. The study describes the sometimes poor fit between private dental practice and the public oral health needs of low-income individuals. Dentists and low-income patients alike explained how the current model of private dental practice and fee-for-service payments do not work well because of patients' concerns about the cost of dentistry, dentists' reluctance to treat this population, and the cultural incompatibility of most private practices to the needs of low-income communities. There is a poor fit between private practice dentistry, public dental benefits and the oral health needs of low-income communities, and other responses are needed to address the multiple dimensions of access to dentistry, including community dental clinics sensitive to the special needs of low-income people.

  1. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  2. Urban agriculture, food security and nutrition in low income areas of the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboganie-Mwangi, A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and

  3. TANF's Impact on Low-Income Mothers Raising Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Andrews, Megan E.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of America's Families, this study assesses the success of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) goals to increase employment, enhance family stability through marriage promotion, and reduce welfare reliance. In the period prior to TANF implementation, during implementation, and from 1 to 4 years after…

  4. Determinants of physical activity and low-fat diet among low income African American and Hispanic middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenn, Marilyn; Malin, Shelly; Villarruel, Antonia M; Slaikeu, Kimberly; McCarthy, Stephanie; Freeman, Joan; Nee, Erinn

    2005-01-01

    African Americans, Hispanics, and those with low income experience disproportionate health problems that can be prevented by physical activity and a lower fat diet. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, antecedents of diet and exercise within the Health Promotion/Transtheoretical Model were examined among low-income African American and Hispanic seventh-grade students (n = 127). Total support was associated with higher physical activity for girls. African Americans perceived greater social support for activity than Hispanics. Family models and support for physical activity and low-fat diet were greater as family income increased. However, higher family role models and lower dietary fat were found among the lowest income Hispanic students' residing ZIP code with a higher concentration of Hispanics and greater availability of Hispanic foods and culture. A school-based approach may be useful to build peer support for physical activity and lower dietary fat. Parish nurse or clinic settings may be most appropriate for building family role models and support. Living in a neighborhood with traditional Hispanic culture and foods appears to have ameliorated the harmful effects of lower income, although further study with larger samples followed over time is needed.

  5. Obesity-related behaviors of US- and non-US-born parents and children in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M; McDonald, Julia; Haines, Jess; Bottino, Clement J; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-10-01

    To examine differences in obesity-related behaviors by parental US-born status among low-income, minority families participating in Healthy Habits, Happy Homes, an intervention trial to improve household routines for childhood obesity prevention. Evidence suggests lower obesity risk among adult immigrants, but research is inconclusive regarding the influence of having a non-US-born parent on childhood obesity. We sampled 57 US-born and 64 non-US-born families of children aged 2 to 5.9 years living in the Boston area. At baseline, parents reported their own screen time, physical activity, diet, and sleep as well as their children's behaviors. We used linear and logistic regression to examine the association of parental US-born status with obesity-related behaviors. Mean (SD) body mass index z score was 0.94 (1.16), and it did not differ between the groups. After adjusting for parental education and child race/ethnicity, children of non-US-born (vs US-born) parents had later bedtimes (0.81 hours later; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.25) and wake-up times (0.56 hours later; 95% CI, 0.16-0.95) and engaged in less active play (0.15 fewer hr/d; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.01). Non-US-born (vs US-born) parents had less screen exposure. In this cross-section of low-income, urban families, having a parent born outside the United States was associated with a profile of risk and protective behavior; adjustment for education and race/ethnicity removed the protective associations of parental nativity with child behavior. Obesity-related differences in behaviors and home environments should be considered when designing interventions targeting low-income communities with a high proportion of non-US-born participants.

  6. A organização familiar para o cuidado dos filhos: percepção das mães em uma comunidade de baixa renda La organización familiar para el cuidado de los hijos: percepción de las madres en una comunidad de baja renta Family organization regarding children care: mothers perception in a low income community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Barrére Martin

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos compreender a percepção que mães de uma comunidade de baixa renda da cidade de São Paulo, têm sobre o significado do seu papel na estrutura familiar, em relação ao cuidado dos filhos e as estratégias utilizadas para desempenhar esse cuidado. A análise etnográfica nos possibilitou reconhecer 6 domínios culturais e resultados reveladores de que a mãe ocupa lugar central na família e é responsável pela educação, criação e socialização dos filhos. A adaptação do seu papel caracteriza-se pelo atendimento às necessidades de sobrevivência dos filhos, entretanto com o crescimento das crianças, demonstra insegurança frente à isso.El estudio tuvo como objetivos comprender la percepción que madres de una comunidad de baja renta de la ciudad de São Paulo tienen sobre el significado de su papel en la estructura familiar, con relación al cuidado de los hijos y las estrategias que utilizan para desempeñar ese cuidado. El análisis etnográfico posibilitó reconocer 6 dominios culturales y resultados reveladores de que la madre ocupa lugar central en la familia, es responsable por la educación, crianza y socialización de los hijos. La adaptación de su papel se caracteriza por el cubrimiento de las necesidades de supervivencia de los hijos, pero con el crecimiento de los hijos la madre demuestra inseguridad en su desempeño.The purposes of this study are to understand the perception that the mothers from a low income community in São Paulo city have about the meaning of their role in the family structure, concerning children care and the strategies used in family organization to carry out this care. The ethnographic analysis allowed us to identify 6 cultural domains and results showed that the mother have a main role in the family. They are the great responsible for the education, raising and socialization of the children. The adaptation of their role is characterized by their attention

  7. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups.

  8. Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M age =4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An explanatory model of the dental care utilization of low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, P; Mancl, L; King, B; Weinstein, P; Wells, N; Jeffcott, E

    1998-04-01

    Factors related to the utilization of dental care by 5- to 11-year-old children from low-income households were investigated using a comprehensive multivariate model that assessed the contribution of structure, history, cognition, and expectations. The influence of dentist-patient interactions, psychosocial and health beliefs, particularly fear of the dentist, on utilization were investigated. Children were chosen randomly from public schools, and 895 mothers were surveyed and their children were interviewed in the home. Utilization was studied during the 1991-1992 school year, including a 6-month follow-up period after the interview. The overall utilization rate was 63.2%, and the rate for nonemergent (preventive) visits was 59.9%. Utilization was unrelated to actual oral health status. Race and years the guardian lived in the United States were predictive of an episode of care. Preventive medical visits and perceived need were strong predictors of a visit to the dentist, as were beliefs in the efficacy of dental care. Mothers who were satisfied with their own care and oral health and whose children were covered by insurance were more likely to utilize children's dental care. In contrast, child dental fear and absences from school for family problems were associated with lower rates of utilization. Mutable factors that govern the use of care in this population were identified. These findings have implications for the design of dental care delivery systems for children and their families.

  10. Perceived parent financial burden and asthma outcomes in low-income, urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Brown, Randall W; Clark, Noreen M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics of low-income parents who perceive financial burden in managing their child's asthma and related associations with their children's asthma outcomes and clinical characteristics. We hypothesized that (1) identifiable differences between parents who do and do not report burden; (2) regardless of access to care, asthma outcomes would be worse for children whose parents perceive financial burden in obtaining care for their child's condition. Baseline data from a randomized trial evaluating the effect of a school-based asthma intervention were analyzed for this research. Eight hundred thirty-five parents were interviewed by telephone regarding their child's asthma management. Associations between demographic and clinical factors and perception of financial burden were examined using bivariate analysis. Multivariate regression analyses were used to examine associations between perceptions of financial burden and asthma outcomes, including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and missed school days. Perceived financial burden was evident in 10% (n = 79) of parents. Female heads of household (χ2 (3) = 7.41; p income levels (χ2 (3) = 12.14; p income, and having a usual source of asthma care, parents who perceived financial burden were more likely to have children who had at least one emergency department visit (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.15 to 3.29), hospitalization (OR = 3.99; 95% CI = 2.03 to 7.82), or missed school days due to asthma (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.60 to 6.67) in the previous year. Our results supported our hypotheses. Among low-income parents of children with asthma, the majority do not perceive financial burden to obtaining care. However, among parents that do perceive burden, urgent care use and missed school days due to asthma for their child were significantly higher, regardless of family income and having a usual source of asthma care

  11. Low-Income Urban Mothers' Experiences with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Sarah; Ettinger, Anna K; Keefe, Carolyn; Riley, Anne; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    Food insecurity remains a public health concern in the United States, particularly among low-income urban ethnically diverse families, even with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Limited phenomenologic data exist to capture how programmatic changes to SNAP address the needs of users and why a gap in SNAP use may exist. The primary aim of this study was to examine the experiences of low-income, Baltimore, MD, mothers in applying for and maintaining access to SNAP. Secondary aims included understanding participants' perspectives on the influence of changes in SNAP over a 3-year period and how SNAP fits into the overall system of social services for families. In this qualitative, phenomenologic study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 mothers and three focus groups with 20 mothers, for a total sample of 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits. Ten mothers participated in the first round of data collection (January to May 2010), and 23 in the second round (February to May 2013). Participants were 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore SNAP users' experiences with applying for and maintaining access to SNAP, as well as with program changes to the SNAP program. Data were analyzed using an iterative emergent design and phenomenologic approach. A constructivist perspective was implemented throughout the coding process. SNAP functioned as a valuable support system within the broader social safety net for mothers living in poverty, yet participants expressed frustration about the processes of applying for and maintaining benefits due to communication problems and poor integration of services. In applying for and accessing SNAP, positive interactions with caseworkers and previous knowledge of the SNAP program were important for maintaining benefits. Interviews and focus group discussions revealed the need for additional outreach and education about the implemented program changes to build trust and improve access to SNAP

  12. EARLY CHILDHOOD PREDICTORS OF LOW-INCOME BOYS' PATHWAYS TO ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE, AND EARLY ADULTHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. A seven-year investigation of marital expectations and marriage among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Agostini, Wendy R Miller; Houston, Avril Melissa; Black, Maureen M

    2010-02-01

    Welfare reform has targeted marriage promotion among low-income women. This study explores patterns of marital expectations and marriage among 181 urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their mothers. Using PROC TRAJ to analyze developmental trajectories of adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality over 24 months, we categorized relationships as either high or low support. We examined the effects of intergenerational marriage models and adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality on marital expectations and marriage over the first 7 years postpartum. At 24 months, half (52%) of adolescent mothers expected to marry, but marital expectations did not predict marriage. Marital expectations were associated with concurrent involvement in a romantic relationship, not intergenerational marriage models or a supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationship. After 7 years, 14% of adolescent mothers were married. Married mothers lived in families characterized by the joint effects of intergenerational marriage models and supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships. They were older and had more children than did single mothers, suggesting that they were in a family formation phase of life. Policies that promote the education and employment opportunities necessary to support a family are needed.

  14. Factors associated With Medicaid providers' recommendation of the HPV vaccine to low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Staras, Stephanie A S; Malo, Teri L; Giuliano, Anna R; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States remains a public health challenge with vaccine rates of 50%. Although health care providers can facilitate HPV vaccination, several factors may impede their ability to universally recommend the vaccine. To maximize the potential of HPV vaccines, it is important to understand challenges providers face in the clinical environment. The study sought to identify factors associated with recommendation of the HPV vaccine for low-income adolescents in the early (9-10), target (11-12), early adolescent catch-up (13-14), and late adolescent catch-up (15-17) vaccination groups. Surveys were mailed between October 2009 and April 2010 to a random sample of Florida-based physicians serving Medicaid-enrolled adolescents. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among early adolescents, discomfort discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with teens (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75), difficulty ensuring vaccine completion (OR = .73), and discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .44) were associated with recommendation. For target adolescents, discomfort discussing STIs with teens (OR = 2.45), time constraints (OR = .70), vaccine efficacy concerns (OR = .65), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .33), obstetrics/gynecology (OR = .25) and family medicine (OR = .24) specialty, and non-Hispanic black patient (OR = .15) were associated with recommendation. In early catch-up adolescents, concerns that teens will practice riskier behaviors (OR = .57), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .47), and family medicine specialty (OR = .20) were associated with recommendation. For late catch-up adolescents, family medicine specialty (OR = .13) was associated with recommendation. Modifiable factors that impede or influence provider recommendations of HPV vaccines can be addressed through intervention. Overall, findings suggest that efforts should focus on sexuality communication and family medicine specialty

  15. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benjamín Puertas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. METHODS: An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income. These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. RESULTS: A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  16. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, E Benjamín; Arósquipa, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income). These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  17. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody

    2014-02-07

    Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated with negative mental health amongst

  18. Stability for trajectories of periodic evolution families in Hilbert spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Barbu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let $q$ be a positive real number and let $A(\\cdot$ be a $q$-periodic linear operator valued function on a complex Hilbert space $H$, and let $D$ be a dense linear subspace of $H$. Let $\\mathcal{U}=\\{U(t, s: t\\ge s\\ge 0\\}$ be the evolution family generated by the family $\\{A(t\\}$. We prove that if the solution of the well-posed inhomogeneous Cauchy Problem $$\\displaylines{ \\dot{u}(t = A(tu(t+e^{i\\mu t}y, \\quad t>0, \\cr u(0 = 0, }$$ is bounded on ${\\mathbb{R}}_+$, for every $y\\in D$, and every $\\mu\\in\\mathbb{R}$, by the positive constant $K\\|y\\|$, $K$ being an absolute constant, and if, in addition, for some $x\\in D$, the trajectory $U(\\cdot, 0x$ satisfies a Lipschitz condition on the interval $(0, q$, then $$ \\sup_{z\\in \\mathbb{C}, |z|=1}\\sup_{n\\in\\mathbb{Z}_+} \\|\\sum_{k=0}^nz^kU(q, 0^kx\\|:=N(x<\\infty. $$ The latter discrete boundedness condition has a lot of consequences concerning the stability of solutions of the abstract nonautonomous system $\\dot u(t=A(tu(t$. To our knowledge, these results are new. In the special case, when $D=H$ and for every $x\\in H $, the map $U(\\cdot, 0x$ satisfies a Lipschitz condition on the interval $(0, q$, the evolution family $\\mathcal{U}$ is uniformly exponentially stable. In the autonomous case, (i.e. when $U(t, s=U(t-s, 0$ for every pair $(t, s$ with $t\\ge s\\ge 0$, the latter assumption is too restrictive. More exactly, in this case, the semigroup $\\mathbf{T}:=\\{U(t, 0\\}_{t\\ge 0}$, is uniformly continuous.

  19. The conceptual mismatch: transportation stressors and experiences for low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Physical access to jobs has long been identified as a barrier to employment and earnings, with prior : research identifying the spatial mismatch between suburban entry-level jobs and low-income workers. : However, existing transportation resear...

  20. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tract (QCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — It allows to generate tables for Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tracts (QCT) and for Difficult Development Areas (DDA). LIHTC Qualified...

  1. 78 FR 33154 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2014 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    .... Examples of qualifying organizations include: (1) A clinical program at an accredited law, business or accounting school whose students represent low income taxpayers in tax controversies with the IRS, (2) an...

  2. 77 FR 25787 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2013 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... a grant. Examples of qualifying organizations include: (1) A clinical program at an accredited law, business or accounting school whose students represent low income taxpayers in tax controversies with the...

  3. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  4. Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Low-income ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    MENA). This project will pilot the application and adaptation of the World Health Organization's 2005 Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in low-income urban settings in three developing countries in the Middle ...

  5. "I'm Happy with My Mommy": Low-Income Preschoolers' Causal Attributions for Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined low-income African American and European American preschoolers' socioemotional causal attributions. Results indicate that younger preschoolers, particularly young African Americans, may need help articulating emotions. Adults can support children's emotional reasoning through scaffolding. (Author)

  6. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2009-06-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas.

  7. Parenting and attachment among low-income African American and Caucasian preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A; Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M; Beeghly, Marjorie; Barnett, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    Despite a plethora of research on parenting and infant attachment, much less is known about the contributions of parenting to preschool attachment, particularly within different racial groups. This study seeks to build on the extant literature by evaluating whether similar associations between parenting and attachment can be observed in African American and Caucasian families, and whether race moderates them. Seventy-four primary caregivers and their preschool children (51% African American, 49% Caucasian, 46% male) from similar urban, low-income backgrounds participated in two visits 4 weeks apart when children were between 4 and 5 years of age. Attachment was scored from videotapes of the Strange Situation paradigm using the preschool classification system developed by Cassidy, Marvin, and the MacArthur Working Group. Parenting was assessed using a multimethod, multicontext approach: in the child's home, in the laboratory, and via parent-report. Seventy-three percent of the children were classified as securely attached. Warm, responsive parenting behavior (but not race) predicted attachment. Although parents of African American and Caucasian children demonstrated some significant differences in parenting behaviors, race did not moderate the relationship between parenting and child attachment. These findings highlight the direct role that parenting plays over and above race in determining attachment security during the preschool period. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  8. A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luciana Barreto Vieira; Caldas, Maria de Paula; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the regression method for determining vertebral age developed by Caldas et al. (2007) by testing this method in children from low-income families of the rural zone. The sample comprised cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 76 boys and 64 girls aged 7.0 to 14.9 years living in a medium-sized city in the desert region of the northeastern region of Brazil, with an HDI of 0.678. C3 and C4 vertebrae were traced and measured on cephalometric radiographs to estimate the bone age. The average age, average hand-wrist age and average error estimated for girls and boys were, respectively, 10.62 and 10.44 years, 11.28 and 10.57 years, and 1.42 and 1.18 years. Based on these results, the formula proposed by Caldas et al. (2007) was not applicable to the studied population, and new multiple regression models were developed to obtain the children's vertebral bone age accurately.

  9. Phosphorus budget in the low-income, peri-urban area of Kibera in Nairobi (Kenya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, P; Koech, D K; Gumbo, B; O'Keeffe, J

    2009-01-01

    Kibera, located in Nairobi, Kenya is one of the largest (235,000 inhabitants) low-income areas in East Africa. Surface waters in Kibera show high pollution levels with respect to SRP (soluble reactive phosphorus; range: 2-10 mg P/L), coming from the uncontrolled wastewater discharges in the area. The different P production and consumption values in Kibera were estimated using interviews (155 interviewed) as well as detailed P house-keeping for five representative families. The results show that highest P consumption comes from food, in particular cereals. Highest P production came from urine (55% of the total) and faeces (31%), with relatively lower contributions from grey water and solid wastes. The overall P budget in Kibera amounted to around 9 x 10(3) kg P/month. This is equivalent to 0.47 g P/person yr, both for P production and consumption, with a relative error of 20%. Comparing with the estimated P outflows via the Kibera surface waters, around 65% of the P produced in Kibera will leave the area. In future ECOSAN techniques such as urine separation could well be applied for efficient recycling of these waste sources.

  10. Learning from "Knocks in Life": Food Insecurity among Low-Income Lone Senior Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Lapierre, Rebecca J; Williams, Patricia L; Glanville, N Theresa; Norris, Deborah; Hunter, Heather C; Watt, Cynthia G

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women's experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors' personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered.

  11. Learning from “Knocks in Life”: Food Insecurity among Low-Income Lone Senior Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-LaPierre, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Glanville, N. Theresa; Norris, Deborah; Hunter, Heather C.; Watt, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women's experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors' personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered. PMID:22997580

  12. Learning from “Knocks in Life”: Food Insecurity among Low-Income Lone Senior Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Green-LaPierre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS, Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women’s experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors’ personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered.

  13. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Results Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8% of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9% with healthy babies (p = Conclusions This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  14. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Moran, Allisyn C; Ali, Mohammed; Ryder, David; Fisher, Colleen; Koblinsky, Marge

    2011-06-09

    In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8%) of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9%) with healthy babies (p = death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  15. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American mothers ( n = 77) with a past year diagnosis of a depressive disorder and one of their children (ages 8-14) completed self-report measures of positive parenting skills, social skills, kinship support, and depression in a cross-sectional design. Regression analyses demonstrated that there was a significant interaction effect of positive parenting skills and child social skills on child depression symptoms. Specifically, parent report of child social skills was negatively associated with child depression symptoms for children exposed to poorer parenting skills; however, this association was not significant for children exposed to more positive and involved parenting. Kinship support did not show a moderating effect, although greater maternal depression severity was correlated with more child-reported kinship support. The study findings have implications for developing interventions for families with maternal depression. In particular, parenting and child social skills are potential areas for intervention to prevent depression among African American youth.

  16. Low income, community poverty and risk of end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Deidra C; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Fedewa, Stacey A; Luthi, Jean-Christophe; Shoham, David; Judd, Suzanne E; Powe, Neil R; McClellan, William M

    2014-12-04

    The risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increased among individuals with low income and in low income communities. However, few studies have examined the relation of both individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) with incident ESRD. Among 23,314 U.S. adults in the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study, we assessed participant differences across geospatially-linked categories of county poverty [outlier poverty, extremely high poverty, very high poverty, high poverty, neither (reference), high affluence and outlier affluence]. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of annual household income and geospatially-linked county poverty measures with incident ESRD, while accounting for death as a competing event using the Fine and Gray method. There were 158 ESRD cases during follow-up. Incident ESRD rates were 178.8 per 100,000 person-years (105 py) in high poverty outlier counties and were 76.3 /105 py in affluent outlier counties, p trend=0.06. In unadjusted competing risk models, persons residing in high poverty outlier counties had higher incidence of ESRD (which was not statistically significant) when compared to those persons residing in counties with neither high poverty nor affluence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.54, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.75-3.20]. This association was markedly attenuated following adjustment for socio-demographic factors (age, sex, race, education, and income); HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.46-2.00. However, in the same adjusted model, income was independently associated with risk of ESRD [HR 3.75, 95% CI 1.62-8.64, comparing the income group to the >$75,000 group]. There were no statistically significant associations of county measures of poverty with incident ESRD, and no evidence of effect modification. In contrast to annual family income, geospatially-linked measures of county poverty have little relation with risk of ESRD. Efforts to mitigate

  17. Challenges and opportunities to improve autism services in low-income countries: lessons from a situational analysis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, B; Baheretibeb, Y; Roth, I; Tilahun, D; Fekadu, A; Hanlon, C; Hoekstra, R A

    2016-01-01

    Little has been reported about service provision for children with autism in low-income countries. This study explored the current service provision for children with autism and their families in Ethiopia, the existing challenges and urgent needs, and stakeholders' views on the best approaches to further develop services. A situational analysis was conducted based on (i) qualitative interviews with existing service providers; (ii) consultation with a wider group of stakeholders through two stakeholder workshops; and (iii) information available in the public domain. Findings were triangulated where possible. Existing diagnostic and educational services for children with autism are scarce and largely confined to Ethiopia's capital city, with little provision in rural areas. Families of children with autism experience practical and psychosocial challenges, including severe stigma. Informants further raised the lack of culturally and contextually appropriate autism instruments as an important problem to be addressed. The study informants and local stakeholders provided several approaches for future service provision expansion, including service decentralisation, mental health training and awareness raising initiatives. Services for children with autism in Ethiopia are extremely limited; appropriate care for these children is further impeded by stigma and lack of awareness. Ethiopia's plans to scale up mental healthcare integrated into primary care provide an opportunity to expand services for children with autism and other developmental disorders. These plans, together with the additional strategies outlined in this paper can help to address the current service provision gaps and may also inform service enhancement approaches in other low-income countries.

  18. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Addressing barriers: Lower Mainland low-income households and energy efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This study uses focus groups and in-depth interviews to explore why some and not other low-income British Columbia residents use compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), generating policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of low-income households. Study results indicate affordability, lack of awareness or poor product knowledge, not having a BC Hydro account, and CFL mercury content are significant barriers to increasing CFL uptake. After evaluating five possible policy options accord...

  20. Revenue Forecasting—How is it done? Results from a Survey of Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Annette J Kyobe; Stephan Danninger

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes stock of revenue forecasting practices in low-income countries, and provides a comprehensive and condensed account of the revenue forecasting process. Based on a new dataset on 34 low-income countries, it catalogues forecasting practices and procedures from inception until budget submission, focusing primarily on institutional aspects and processes. The paper also synthesizes three key characteristics of forecasting practices, formality, organizational simplicity, and transpa...

  1. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women

    OpenAIRE

    Le?n-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmer?n, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L.; Thrasher, James F.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico?s early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women?s perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income ...

  2. The impact of insurance lapse among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Soman, Laurie A

    2004-12-01

    Children living in poverty not only have disproportionately more health problems, but also have disproportionately lower health care service utilization. Change, whether in health care delivery system or in family living situation, may interfere with or jeopardize insurance status and thereby influence access to health care services. We hypothesized that children who have maintained Medicaid insurance compared to those who have not will be more likely to have preventive care visits and less likely to have emergency room visits. We further hypothesized that transient situations such as homeless episodes, foster care placement, and living in more than one location in the same 1-year period will contribute to loss in Medicaid coverage. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at an urban children's hospital outpatient clinic at which 210 family respondents were recruited over a 1-year period. An in-person interview containing several standardized instruments was administered to the caregiver. In addition, children's medical records were retrospectively abstracted from point of study entry to first contact. Findings indicated that children who lost Medicaid coverage, compared to others, had significantly fewer preventive care health visits. There were no differences in emergency room visits. Transient situations did not appear to influence preventive or emergency room care. In addition, the change into a managed-care delivery system also increased loss of coverage. Loss of coverage may be a barrier to preventive care services. To ensure optimal preventive care services, the onus is on the providers and plans to facilitate continued insurance coverage.

  3. Legislated changes to federal pension income in Canada will adversely affect low income seniors' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, J C Herbert; Fleisch, Valerie C; McIntyre, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    This study uses a population health intervention modeling approach to project the impact of recent legislated increases in age eligibility for Canadian federally-funded pension benefits on low income seniors' health, using food insecurity as a health indicator. Food insecurity prevalence and income source were assessed for unattached low income (pension plans constituted the main source of income for the majority (79.4%) of low income seniors aged 65-69 years, in contrast to low income seniors aged 60-64 years who reported their main income from employment, employment insurance, Workers' Compensation, or welfare. The increase in income provided by federal pension benefits for low income Canadians 65 and over coincided with a pronounced (50%) decrease in food insecurity prevalence (11.6% for seniors ≥65 years versus 22.8% for seniors pension seniors' benefits in Canada from 65 to 67 years will negatively impact low income seniors' health, relegating those who are food insecure to continued hardship. © 2013.

  4. A realist review to explore how low-income pregnant women use food vouchers from the UK's Healthy Start programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohly, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; Dykes, Fiona; Lowe, Nicola; Hall-Moran, Victoria

    2017-04-21

    To explore how low-income pregnant women use Healthy Start food vouchers, the potential impacts of the programme, and which women might experience these impacts and why. A realist review. Primary or empirical studies (of any design) were included if they contributed relevant evidence or insights about how low-income women use food vouchers from the Healthy Start (UK) or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) programmes. The assessment of 'relevance' was deliberately broad to ensure that reviewers remained open to new ideas from a variety of sources of evidence. A combination of evidence synthesis and realist analysis techniques was used to modify, refine and substantiate programme theories, which were constructed as explanatory 'context-mechanism-outcome'-configurations. 38 primary studies were included in this review: four studies on Healthy Start and 34 studies on WIC. Two main outcome strands were identified: dietary improvements (intended) and financial assistance (unintended). Three evidence-informed programme theories were proposed to explain how aspects of context (and mechanisms) may generate these outcomes: the 'relative value' of healthy eating (prioritisation of resources); retailer discretion (pressure to 'bend the rules'); the influence of other family members (disempowerment). This realist review suggests that some low-income pregnant women may use Healthy Start vouchers to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables and plain cow's milk, whereas others may use them to reduce food expenditure and save money for other things. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. At Issue: The Relationship between Student Loans and Low-Income Students' Baccalaureate Attainment: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The study conducts a review on the linkage between student loans and low-income students' baccalaureate degree achievement. Specifically, this study synthesizes literature on low-income students' borrowing patterns, low-income students' baccalaureate degree achievement, as well as the relationship between these two topics. Future research should…

  6. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  7. Overcoming Obesity: A Mixed Methods Study of the Impact of Primary Care Physician Counseling on Low-Income African American Women Who Successfully Lost Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Elaine Seaton; Herring, Sharon J; Hurley, Katelyn E; Puskarz, Katherine; Yebernetsky, Kyle; LaNoue, Marianna

    2018-02-01

    Low-income, African American women are disproportionately impacted by obesity. Little is known about the interactions between low-income, African American women who successfully lost weight and their primary care physicians (PCPs). Mixed methods, positive deviance study. Urban university-based family medicine practice. The positive deviance group comprised low-income, African American women who were obese, lost 10% body weight, and maintained this loss for 6 months. The PCP- and patient-reported weight-related variables collected through the electronic medical record (EMR), surveys, and interviews. Logistic regression of quantitative variables. Qualitative analysis using modified grounded theory. The EMR documentation by PCPs of dietary counseling and a weight-related medical problem were significant predictors of positive deviant group membership. Qualitative analyses of interviews revealed 5 major themes: framing obesity in the context of other health problems provided motivation; having a full discussion around weight management was important; an ongoing relationship with the physician was valuable; celebrating small successes was beneficial; and advice was helpful but self-motivation was necessary. The PCP counseling may be an important factor in promoting weight loss in low-income, African American women. Patients may benefit from their PCPs drawing connections between obesity and weight-related medical conditions and enhancing intrinsic motivation for weight loss.

  8. [Contraception in the Roma population living in two low-income neighborhoods of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Alba; Nebot, Laia; Estruga, Lluïsa; Perez, Glòria; Diez, Èlia

    2018-02-22

    To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods and health services in the Roma population (Kale/Spanish Gitanos) of two low-income neighbourhoods of Barcelona (2011-2015). Mixed. Community setting. 1) Descriptive cross-sectional study. We interviewed with a questionnaire a sample of residents of childbearing age. We compared the knowledge and use of contraception and services by ethnic self-identification and sex with adjusted logistic regression models to obtain adjusted odds ratio (ORa) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). 2) Qualitative descriptive study with ethnographic method. We interviewed 10 Roma residents and three health professionals to explore aspects of contraception, family and roles. We performed a narrative analysis of discourse from the recorded texts. 834 people participated, with an 11.8% self-identified Roma population. With regard to the non-Roma population, more Roma women used tubal ligation (ORa: 3.0; 95%CI: 1.3-7)] and implant (ORa:4.9; 95%CI: 3.1-72), and had better knowledge of IUD (ORa: 2,4; 95%CI: 1,4-4,1), tubal obstruction (ORa: 3,3; 95%CI: 1,1-9,9) and injectables (ORa: 2,4; 95%CI: 1.3-4.4). Roma men used withdrawal more frequently (ORa: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.3-10), a practice confirmed in the qualitative study. Both communities used emergency contraception and health services. In the Roma population, contraception and reproduction are in the hands of women. As abortion is culturally penalized in the Roma population, women use it, but they face it alone. Gender emerged as a cross-cutting determinant in all issues explored. In the Roma population reproductive control and contraception remain the responsibility of women. Once the family is complete, Roma women use long-term contraception. Both populations use health services. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M

    2010-12-01

    Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Head Computed Tomography Scan in Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury in a Low-Income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Armel Flavien; Ouedraogo, Aziz; Ki, Kélan Bertille; Traore, Salah Seif Idriss; Traore, Ibrahim Alain; Bougouma, Cheik Tidiane Hafiz; Arnaudovski, Darko; Diallo, Ousseini; Zabsonre, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Nazinigouba; Augustin, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    Head computed tomography scan (HCTS) is the cornerstone of the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The impact of performing a HCTS in TBI has been scarcely investigated in low-income countries (LICs). Furthermore, the cost of a HCTS is a burden for family finances. A prospective observational study was conducted in Burkina Faso. All consecutive patients with isolated TBI needing a HCTS were included. Result and impact of HCTS were evaluated. There were 183 patients prescribed a HCTS for an isolated TBI. Mild, moderate, and severe TBIs represented 55%, 31%, and 14% of the cases, respectively. In 72 patients, HCTS was not performed because of economic barrier. Among the 110 HCTSs performed, there were intracranial lesions in 81 (74%) patients. Among the 110 performed HCTS, 34 (31% [22.3%-39.5%]) HCTSs altered the management of TBI, with 16 (15%) cases of surgical indications, and 20 (18%) cases of modification of the medical treatment. In patients without neurologic signs, the rate of alteration of management was 28%. The realization of the HCTSs was associated with the presence of neurologic signs and income level. In-hospital mortality was 11% (n = 21). Among the 162 patients discharged alive from the hospital, 27 (20%) were discharged with a severe disability state (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤3). The rate of return to work was 77%. No modification of guidelines can be advocated from this study. However, given the financial burden on family of performing HCTS, research may identify criteria allowing for avoiding HCTS. Guidelines specific to LICs are needed to get closer to the best interest of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Group Couples' Intervention to Improve Sexual Health Among Married Women in a Low-Income Community in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Shubhada; Schensul, Stephen L; Hallowell, Benjamin D; Brault, Marie A; Nastasi, Bonnie K

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a group couples' intervention focused on improving women's sexual health as a component of a multilevel community, clinical, and counseling intervention project conducted in association with a gynecological service in a municipal urban health center in a low-income community in Mumbai, India. The group couples' intervention involved four single-gender and two mixed-gender sessions designed to address the dynamics of the marital relationship and establish a more equitable spousal relationship as a means to improve women's sexual and marital health. Involvement of men presented a major challenge to couple's participation. For those couples that did participate, qualitative findings revealed significant changes in couple and family relations, sexual health knowledge, and emotional well-being. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. Leadership's Role in Recruitment and Retention of First Generation, Low-Income Latino Students into STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eliseo A.

    Fostering resiliency and educational success in students that are faced with adversity is not a simple task. The gap in educational success and achievement among low-income, first generation, traditionally marginalized students continues to be significant. California's educational system needs to stop the hemorrhaging from its educational pipeline, also known as the P-20 pipeline, of all students, especially those groups of students with larger gaps in educational attainment. One potential path towards fixing California's educational pipeline for all students is to form and keep partnerships with programs such as Upward Bound, AVID, and Math Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). In 2010-11, the California Department of Education (CDE) reported that over 51% of students enrolled in California's school system and 51% of all California high school seniors were Latino were Latino. Of the 231,231 Latino high school seniors, 79%, graduated. However, of those that graduated, only 26%, met University of California/California State University (UC/CSU) college entrance requirements. Even though 79% of Latinos graduated, 74% did not qualify to apply to a UC or CSU. If the majority of Latino students continue to fall through holes in the educational pipeline, companies will continue to look abroad to fill STEM jobs that remain unfilled by American workers (California Department of Education [CDE], 2012). Alongside the U.S.'s current economic woes, the lack of college preparedness and knowledge by parents and students has led to a decrease in first generation, low-income Latino students' higher education enrollment (Camacho & Lord, 2011). With strong and positive leadership from family, supplemented by the MESA program, these youths can exert their resiliency, face adversity, and overcome extraordinary barriers. Leaders in education such as teachers, coordinators, advisers, administrators, and parents are in the best position to teach students about resilience (Ginsburg, 2007

  13. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    undermined by other adults in the family, and 3 having bad memories from childhood that made it hard to deny children’s food requests. Conclusions Although the primary aspirations of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children were not focused on children’s weight, these aspirations were compatible with obesity prevention strategies to limit children’s portion sizes and their intake of solid fats and/or added sugars.

  14. Effects of simplifying outreach materials for energy conservation programs that target low-income consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Canfield, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Critics have speculated that the limited success of energy conservation programs among low-income consumers may partly be due to recipients having insufficient literacy to understand the outreach materials. Indeed, we found outreach materials for low-income consumers to require relatively high levels of reading comprehension. We therefore improved the Flesch–Kincaid readability statistics for two outreach brochures, by using shorter words and shorter sentences to describe their content. We examined the effect of that simplification on low-income consumers′ responses. Participants from low-income communities in the greater Pittsburgh area, who varied in literacy, were randomly assigned to either original communications about energy conservation programs or our simplified versions. Our findings suggest that lowering readability statistics successfully simplified only the more straightforward brochure in our set of two, likely because its content lent itself better to simplification. Findings for this brochure showed that simplification improved understanding of its content among both low-literacy and high-literacy recipients, without adversely affecting their evaluation of the materials, or their intention to enroll in the advertised programs. We discuss strategies for improving communication materials that aim to reach out to low-income populations. - Highlights: • Brochures about energy programs for low-income consumers can be too hard to read. • We made brochures easier to read by using shorter words and shorter sentences. • Simplifying a straightforward brochure improved the understanding of all recipients. • However, simplifying a complex brochure had no effect on understanding. • We suggest strategies for improving outreach to low-income consumers

  15. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  16. Maternal Beliefs and Parenting Practices Regarding Their Preschool Child's Television Viewing: An Exploration in a Sample of Low-Income Mexican-Origin Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Susan L; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-08-01

    To explore maternal beliefs about television (TV) viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of TV content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; De Moraes, Augusto Cesar F; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Moreno, Luis A; Gomes Carneiro, André Luiz; dos Reis, Victor Manuel M; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure in a sample of adolescents from a low-income city in Brazil and to estimate the relationship with the socioeconomic status of the family, the education level of the family provider and the type of school. This cross-sectional study randomly sampled 1,014 adolescents (54.8% girls), between 14-19 years of age, attending high school from Imperatriz (MA). The outcomes of this study were: obesity and overweight, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure (systolic and/ or diastolic). The independent variables were: socioeconomic status (SES) of the family, education level of the family provider (ELFP) and type of school. The confounding variables were: gender, age and physical activity level. Prevalence was estimated, and the association between the endpoints and the independent variables was analyzed using a prevalence ratio (PR), with a 95% confidence interval, estimated by Poisson regression. The overall prevalence of obesity was 3.8%, overweight, 13.1%, abdominal obesity, 22.7% and high blood pressure, 21.3%. The adjusted analysis indicated that girls with high SES showed an increased likelihood to be overweight (PR=1.71 [95% IC: 1.13-2.87]), while private school boys had an increased likelihood of obesity (PR=1.79 [95% CI: 1.04-3.08]) and abdominal obesity (PR =1.64 [95% CI: 1.06-2.54]). The prevalence of CVDR is high in adolescents from this low-income region. Boys from private schools are more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity, and girls with high SES are more likely to be overweight. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Stanford GEMS phase 2 obesity prevention trial for low-income African-American girls: design and sample baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N; Kraemer, Helena C; Matheson, Donna M; Obarzanek, Eva; Wilson, Darrell M; Haskell, William L; Pruitt, Leslie A; Thompson, Nikko S; Haydel, K Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Varady, Ann; McCarthy, Sally; Watanabe, Connie; Killen, Joel D

    2008-01-01

    African-American girls and women are at high risk of obesity and its associated morbidities. Few studies have tested obesity prevention strategies specifically designed for African-American girls. This report describes the design and baseline findings of the Stanford GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies) trial to test the effect of a two-year community- and family-based intervention to reduce weight gain in low-income, pre-adolescent African-American girls. Randomized controlled trial with measurements scheduled in girls' homes at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 month post-randomization. Low-income areas of Oakland, CA. Eight, nine and ten year old African-American girls and their parents/caregivers. Girls are randomized to a culturally-tailored after-school dance program and a home/family-based intervention to reduce screen media use versus an information-based community health education Active-Placebo Comparison intervention. Interventions last for 2 years for each participant. Change in body mass index over the two-year study. Recruitment and enrollment successfully produced a predominately low-socioeconomic status sample. Two-hundred sixty one (261) families were randomized. One girl per family is randomly chosen for the analysis sample. Randomization produced comparable experimental groups with only a few statistically significant differences. The sample had a mean body mass index (BMI) at the 74 th percentile on the 2000 CDC BMI reference, and one-third of the analysis sample had a BMI at the 95th percentile or above. Average fasting total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were above NCEP thresholds for borderline high classifications. Girls averaged low levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, more than 3 h per day of screen media use, and diets high in energy from fat. The Stanford GEMS trial is testing the benefits of culturally-tailored after-school dance and screen-time reduction interventions for obesity prevention in low-income, pre

  19. Utilizing Behavioral Economics to Understand Adherence to Physical Activity Guidelines Among a Low-Income Urban Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Si, Xia; Nguyen, Binh; Leonard, Tammy

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral economics studies have found that individuals with more patient time preferences (ie, greater willingness to forgo current costs for future benefits) are more likely to save money. Although research has observed significant relationships between time preferences and health-promoting behaviors, scant evidence exists with physical activity as an outcome. We examined the association between monetary saving behaviors and physical activity among adults of low-income who reside in an urban community. Specifically, we assessed the relationship between saving behaviors (checking/saving account, monthly savings, and planning family finances), and future orientation to physical activity as a dichotomous (meeting guidelines) and continuous (total and domain specific) endpoint. In multivariable regression, being future-oriented and having a checking/saving account were related to a 1.3 and 2.1 times higher (respectively) likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines (P < .05). When examining physical activity continuously, all measures were significantly related to leisure-time activity (P < .05). Our study findings establish a relationship between future time preferences and increased levels of physical activity among low-income adults. Future research should prospectively explore the efficacy of various schemes that help individuals overcome impatient time preferences to determine a causal relationship.

  20. Primary Care Parenting Intervention Effects on Use of Physical Punishment Among Low-Income Parents of Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Caitlin F.; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Huberman, Harris S.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Legano, Lori A.; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Seery, Anne; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives As part of a large randomized controlled trial, we assessed the impact of two early primary care parenting interventions—the Video Interaction Project (VIP) and Building Blocks (BB)—on the use of physical punishment among low-income parents of toddlers. We also determined whether the impact was mediated through increases in responsive parenting and decreases in maternal psychosocial risk. Methods Four hundred thirty-eight mother-child dyads (161 VIP, 113 BB, 164 Control) were assessed when children were 14 and/or 24 months. Mothers were asked about their use of physical punishment as well as their responsive parenting behaviors, depressive symptoms, and parenting stress. Results VIP was associated with lower physical punishment scores at 24 months, as compared with BB and Controls. In addition, fewer VIP parents reported ever using physical punishment as a discipline strategy. Significant indirect effects were found for both responsive parenting and maternal psychosocial risk, indicating that VIP affects these behaviors and risk factors, and this is an important pathway through which VIP affects parents’ use of physical punishment. Conclusion The results support the efficacy of VIP, and the role of pediatric primary care, in reducing the use of physical punishment among low-income families by enhancing parent-child relationships. In this way, the findings support the potential of VIP to improve developmental outcomes for at-risk children. PMID:26375804

  1. Primary Care Parenting Intervention and Its Effects on the Use of Physical Punishment Among Low-Income Parents of Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Caitlin F; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn B; Huberman, Harris S; Dreyer, Benard P; Legano, Lori A; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Seery, Anne; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2015-10-01

    As part of a large randomized controlled trial, the authors assessed the impact of 2 early primary care parenting interventions-the Video Interaction Project (VIP) and Building Blocks (BB)-on the use of physical punishment among low-income parents of toddlers. They also determined whether the impact was mediated through increases in responsive parenting and decreases in maternal psychosocial risk. Four hundred thirty-eight mother-child dyads (161 VIP, 113 BB, 164 Control) were assessed when the children were 14 and/or 24 months old. Mothers were asked about their use of physical punishment and their responsive parenting behaviors, depressive symptoms, and parenting stress. The VIP was associated with lower physical punishment scores at 24 months, as compared to BB and controls. In addition, fewer VIP parents reported ever using physical punishment as a disciplinary strategy. Significant indirect effects were found for both responsive parenting and maternal psychosocial risk, indicating that the VIP affects these behaviors and risk factors, and that this is an important pathway through which the VIP affects the parents' use of physical punishment. The results support the efficacy of the VIP and the role of pediatric primary care, in reducing the use of physical punishment among low-income families by enhancing parent-child relationships. In this way, the findings support the potential of the VIP to improve developmental outcomes for at-risk children.

  2. Increasing Outreach, Connection, and Services to Low-Income Non-Custodial Fathers: How Did We Get Here and What Do We Know

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Hunter, Bronwyn; Woods, LaKeesha N.; Tinney, Barbara; Bostic, Blannie; Malone, Sherman; Kimbro, Germano; Greenlee, Dolores; Fabish, Sarah; Harris, Kenneth; Smith, Amos

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents a model for outreaching, connecting, and serving low-income, ethnically diverse, non-custodial fathers. Men are engaged “where they are” by building their strengths and addressing their needs. The Male Involvement Network’s (MIN) collaborative model was created in Connecticut to help fathers become positive and healthy role models by increasing their attachment to their children and families (Smith, 2003). This clinically informed, case management model addresses their ph...

  3. Low-income families' perceptions on the use of drugs by one of their members Percepciones de familias con bajos ingresos sobre el consumo de drogas por um miembro de su familia Percepções de famílias de baixa renda sobre o uso de drogas por um de seus membros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Families who are socially excluded are vulnerable to problems related to the use of psychoactive substances. This study aimed to identify the perception regarding drugs use among families that lived in extreme poverty and participated in a social-educational group in the suburbs of a city in the interior of São Paulo State. A survey-like quantitative study was conducted involving 70 members of families who participated in the social-educational groups of the Program for Integral Assistance to the Family. Results indicated that 67 (95.7% of the subjects were married, at an average age of 37, most of them had not completed grade school, and were unemployed. Fifty five (78.6% had a family member who used alcohol, fifty two (74,3% smoked, and twenty three (32.9% used some kind of illicit drug. The results also showed that living with a relative who was a drug user was perceived as problem that elicited feelings resentment, but also conformism on the part of other family members.En la actualidad, la familia ha sido valorada como un contexto de desarrollo fundamental para la adopción de comportamientos que pueden generar bienestar y promoción de la salud. Familias que son excluidas socialmente son vulnerables a presentar problemas relacionados al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas. El objetivo de ese estudio fue identificar la percepción que los familiares tienen sobre el consumo de drogas. Familias que viven en situación de pobreza extrema. Participantes de un grupo socio-educativo de los alrededores de una ciudad del interior del Estado de São Paulo. El tipo de estudio realizado fue tipo survey, con enfoque cuantitativo. Participaron 70 familiares de los grupos socio-educativos del Programa de Atención Integral a la Familia. Para la interpretación de los datos se utilizó la teoría del desarrollo basado en el curso de vida. Los resultados muestran que 67 (95.7% son casados, con edad promedio de 37 años y la mayoría tiene estudios

  4. Travel patterns and characteristics of low-income subpopulation in New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, Hyeonsup [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that people residing in poverty face more mobility challenges in their daily travels as compared to those living in higher income households. In many cities, the lack of a public transportation systems and investments in low-income areas are making it difficult for those living in poverty to access jobs, goods, and services (schools, groceries, health cares, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of the travel behaviors and identify patterns and trends of the low-income residents within NYS. The 2009 National Household Travel Survey data was used as the primary information source to analyze subjects associated with poverty and mobility, as well as to address questions such as are there differences in traveler demographics between the low-income population and those of others who live in various NYS regions (e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS)? How do they compare with the population at large (e.g., rest of the country) or with findings from previous years (i.e., trend)? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the low-income group? Through this study, various key findings on low-income population sizes, household characteristics, travel patterns, and mobility limitations were identified and summarized in this report.

  5. Opportunities for Prevention: Assessing Where Low-Income Patients Seek Care for Preventable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar A; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Bernet, Patrick; Moises, James

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has many aspects that are aimed at improving health care for all Americans, including mandated insurance coverage for individuals, as well as required community health needs assessments (CHNAs), and reporting of investments in community benefit by nonprofit hospitals in order to maintain tax exemptions. Although millions of Americans have gained access to health insurance, many--often the most vulnerable--remain uninsured, and will continue to depend on hospital community benefits for care. Understanding where patients go for care can assist hospitals and communities to develop their CHNA and implementation plans in order to focus resources where the need for prevention is greatest. This study evaluated patient care-seeking behavior among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Florida in 2008--analyzed in 2013--to assess whether low-income patients accessed specific safety net hospitals for treatment or received care from hospitals that were geographically closer to their residence. This study found evidence that low-income patients went to hospitals that treated more low-income patients, regardless of where they lived. The findings demonstrate that hospitals-especially public safety net hospitals with a tradition of treating low-income patients suffering from CAD-should focus prevention activities where low-income patients reside.

  6. Longitudinal network structure of depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Schwartz, Todd A; Beeber, Linda; Fried, Eiko I

    2018-01-01

    Maternal depression was recently conceptualized as a network of interacting symptoms. Prior studies have shown that low self-efficacy, as an index of maternal functioning, is one important source of stress that worsens depression. We have limited information, however, on the specific relationships between depression symptoms and self-efficacy. In this study, we used regularized partial correlation networks to explore the multivariate relationships between maternal depression symptoms and self-efficacy over time. Depressed mothers (n = 306) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale at four time points, between four and eight weeks apart. We estimated (a) the network structure of the 20 CES-D depression symptoms and self-efficacy for each time point, (b) determined the centrality or structural importance of all variables, and (c) tested whether the network structure changed over time. In the resulting networks, self-efficacy was mostly negatively connected with depression symptoms. The strongest relationships among depression symptoms were 'lonely-sleep difficulties' and 'inability to get going-crying'. 'Feeling disliked' and 'concentration difficulty' were the two most central symptoms. In comparing the network structures, we found that the network structures were moderately stable over time. This is the first study to investigate the network structure and their temporal stability of maternal depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low-income depressed mothers. We discuss how these findings might help future research to identify clinically relevant symptom-to-symptom relationships that could drive maternal depression processes, and potentially inform tailored interventions. We share data and analytical code, making our results fully reproducible.

  7. Maternal depressive symptoms and physical activity in very low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Ozer, Emily J; Neufeld, Lynnette M; DiGirolamo, Ann M

    2008-10-01

    To test the contribution of maternal depression during late infancy to physical activity in children 5 years later. Children (n = 168) from very low-income households in semiurban Mexico were assessed as toddlers (15 months, Time 1) and at pre-school age (4-6 years, Time 2). Child low activity level (report at Time 1 was the primary independent variable. Covariates tested included child age, sex, BMI percentile, television viewing and behavior (Behavior Problem Index subscales), current maternal depressive symptoms, age, BMI and physical activity level, and family socioeconomic status; all covariates were assessed at Time 2 except for socioeconomic status. At 4 to 6 years old, 27.5% of children were categorized with low activity level. Exposure to high maternal depressive symptoms at child age 15 months was associated with an increased risk of having a low activity level at age 4 to 6 years (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.05-5.40); results were unchanged with the inclusion of current maternal depressive symptoms. High child TV viewing was significantly associated with low activity level (OR, 5.44; 95% CI, 2.06-14.3), but did not change the effect of maternal depressive symptoms in early childhood. Tests of mediation revealed that current child internalizing behavior, but not externalizing behavior, significantly attenuated the association between early high maternal depressive symptoms and later childhood activity level. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms in late infancy is a risk factor for low activity level in later childhood and the association may be mediated by child internalizing factors.

  8. Trauma history and depression predict incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapies in a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Kathryn; Shirey, Kristen; Pence, Brian Wells; Yao, Jia; Thielman, Nathan; Whetten, Rachel; Adams, Julie; Agala, Bernard; Ostermann, Jan; O'Donnell, Karen; Hobbie, Amy; Maro, Venance; Itemba, Dafrosa; Reddy, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV becomes increasingly available in low and middle income countries (LMICs), understanding reasons for lack of adherence is critical to stemming the tide of infections and improving health. Understanding the effect of psychosocial experiences and mental health symptomatology on ART adherence can help maximize the benefit of expanded ART programs by indicating types of services, which could be offered in combination with HIV care. The Coping with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania (CHAT) study is a longitudinal cohort study in the Kilimanjaro Region that included randomly selected HIV-infected (HIV+) participants from two local hospital-based HIV clinics and four free-standing voluntary HIV counselling and testing sites. Baseline data were collected in 2008 and 2009; this paper used data from 36 month follow-up interviews (N = 468). Regression analyses were used to predict factors associated with incomplete self-reported adherence to ART. Incomplete art adherence was significantly more likely to be reported amongst participants who experienced a greater number of childhood traumatic events: sexual abuse prior to puberty and the death in childhood of an immediate family member not from suicide or homicide were significantly more likely in the non-adherent group and other negative childhood events trended toward being more likely. Those with incomplete adherence had higher depressive symptom severity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In multivariable analyses, childhood trauma, depression, and financial sacrifice remained associated with incomplete adherence. This is the first study to examine the effect of childhood trauma, depression and PTSD on HIV medication adherence in a low income country facing a significant burden of HIV. Allocating spending on HIV/AIDS toward integrating mental health services with HIV care is essential to the creation of systems that enhance medication adherence and maximize the potential of expanded

  9. Trauma history and depression predict incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapies in a low income country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Whetten

    Full Text Available As antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV becomes increasingly available in low and middle income countries (LMICs, understanding reasons for lack of adherence is critical to stemming the tide of infections and improving health. Understanding the effect of psychosocial experiences and mental health symptomatology on ART adherence can help maximize the benefit of expanded ART programs by indicating types of services, which could be offered in combination with HIV care.The Coping with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania (CHAT study is a longitudinal cohort study in the Kilimanjaro Region that included randomly selected HIV-infected (HIV+ participants from two local hospital-based HIV clinics and four free-standing voluntary HIV counselling and testing sites. Baseline data were collected in 2008 and 2009; this paper used data from 36 month follow-up interviews (N = 468. Regression analyses were used to predict factors associated with incomplete self-reported adherence to ART.Incomplete art adherence was significantly more likely to be reported amongst participants who experienced a greater number of childhood traumatic events: sexual abuse prior to puberty and the death in childhood of an immediate family member not from suicide or homicide were significantly more likely in the non-adherent group and other negative childhood events trended toward being more likely. Those with incomplete adherence had higher depressive symptom severity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In multivariable analyses, childhood trauma, depression, and financial sacrifice remained associated with incomplete adherence.This is the first study to examine the effect of childhood trauma, depression and PTSD on HIV medication adherence in a low income country facing a significant burden of HIV. Allocating spending on HIV/AIDS toward integrating mental health services with HIV care is essential to the creation of systems that enhance medication adherence and maximize the potential of

  10. Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jeanne; Chung, Joyce Y; Green, Bonnie L; Krupnick, Janice; Siddique, Juned; Revicki, Dennis A; Belin, Tom

    2003-07-02

    Impoverished minority women experience a higher burden from depression than do white women because they are less likely to receive appropriate care. Little is known about the effectiveness of guideline-based care for depression with impoverished minority women, most of whom do not seek care. To determine the impact of an intervention to deliver guideline-based care for depression compared with referral to community care with low-income and minority women. A randomized controlled trial conducted in the Washington, DC, suburban area from March 1997 through May 2002 of 267 women with current major depression, who attended county-run Women, Infants, and Children food subsidy programs and Title X family planning clinics. Outcomes Hamilton Depression Rating Scale measured monthly from baseline through 6 months; instrumental role functioning (Social Adjustment Scale) and social functioning (Short Form 36-Item Health Survey) measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned to an antidepressant medication intervention (trial of paroxetine switched to buproprion, if lack of response) (n = 88), a psychotherapy intervention (8 weeks of manual-guided cognitive behavior therapy) (n = 90), or referral to community mental health services (n = 89). Both the medication intervention (P<.001) and the psychotherapy intervention (P =.006) reduced depressive symptoms more than the community referral did. The medication intervention also resulted in improved instrumental role (P =.006) and social (P =.001) functioning. The psychotherapy intervention resulted in improved social functioning (P =.02). Women randomly assigned to receive medications were twice as likely (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-4.27; P =.057) to achieve a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 7 or less by month 6 as were those referred to community care. Guideline-concordant care for major depression is effective for these ethnically diverse and impoverished patients

  11. Patient access to health care and medicines across low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Divya; McGuire, Alistair

    2015-05-01

    This study explores the issue of demand for health care and medicines in low-income country settings. Using the World Health Survey, multivariate analysis of cross-sectional household data from 35 low-income countries found that when ill, patient demand for health care to visit a clinic or hospital is inelastic ranging from -0.19 to 0.11. The main determinants of health seeking behaviour include having insurance, having a chronic condition, high household expenditure, and marital status. Women, the educated and those living in urban settings are more likely to seek care in a clinic. These findings suggest low-income patients will experience access problems, raising important policy implications to improve access to health care and medicines in these settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tailoring science education graduate programs to the needs of science educators in low-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; van den Berg, Euwe

    Science education graduate programs in high-income countries frequently enroll students from low-income countries. Upon admission these students have profiles of knowledge, skills, and experiences which can be quite different from those of students from the host high-income countries. Upon graduation, they will normally return to work in education systems with conditions which differ greatly from those in high-income countries. This article attempts to clarify some of the differences and similarities between such students. It offers suggestions for making graduate programs more responsive to the special needs of students from low-income countries and to the opportunities they offer for enhancing cross-cultural sensitivity. Many of the suggestions can be incorporated within existing programs through choices of elective courses and topics for papers, projects, and research. Many references are provided to relevant literature on cultural issues and on science education in low-income countries.

  13. Intensive care unit capacity in low-income countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Murthy

    Full Text Available Access to critical care is a crucial component of healthcare systems. In low-income countries, the burden of critical illness is substantial, but the capacity to provide care for critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs is unknown. Our aim was to systematically review the published literature to estimate the current ICU capacity in low-income countries.We searched 11 databases and included studies of any design, published 2004-August 2014, with data on ICU capacity for pediatric and adult patients in 36 low-income countries (as defined by World Bank criteria; population 850 million. Neonatal, temporary, and military ICUs were excluded. We extracted data on ICU bed numbers, capacity for mechanical ventilation, and information about the hospital, including referral population size, public accessibility, and the source of funding. Analyses were descriptive.Of 1,759 citations, 43 studies from 15 low-income countries met inclusion criteria. They described 36 individual ICUs in 31 cities, of which 16 had population greater than 500,000, and 14 were capital cities. The median annual ICU admission rate was 401 (IQR 234-711; 24 ICUs with data and median ICU size was 8 beds (IQR 5-10; 32 ICUs with data. The mean ratio of adult and pediatric ICU beds to hospital beds was 1.5% (SD 0.9%; 15 hospitals with data. Nepal and Uganda, the only countries with national ICU bed data, had 16.7 and 1.0 ICU beds per million population, respectively. National data from other countries were not available.Low-income countries lack ICU beds, and more than 50% of these countries lack any published data on ICU capacity. Most ICUs in low-income countries are located in large referral hospitals in cities. A central database of ICU resources is required to evaluate health system performance, both within and between countries, and may help to develop related health policy.

  14. The Effectiveness Of Rental Housing Finance For Low-Income Households In Sombo Rental Flats Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fullfilment for the needs of housing is a priority that cannot be suspended especially in urban areas of developing country whose population continues to increase because of the rapid urbanization. Indonesia as the developing country still has a fairly high backlog approximately at 7.6 millions unit house in 2014 most of them are low income people. The Government has several plan in striving for the scarcity of housing. One of them is the development of rental flats which have goals for the social housing fulfillment for low income people and increase their housing affordability by lowering the rental rates. The intention is to assist the low income people save their money to buy their own homes. But in facts there are several constraints related to this rental flats finance such as late payment by the residents uncontroled right transfer and the tariff adjusted to the ability of the inhabitants can not cover the cost of the physical building management and maintanance. This study aims to evaluate Sombo rental flat finance for for low income people in which the data are collected through in depth interview observation and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analysis show that the effectiveness of rental flat financing in the aspect of the purpose and goal to facilitating low income community needs of housing is quiet accomplished. Beside that the organization is also well structured and have the efficient human resources. But Sombo rental flats effectivenes is relatively low in the aspect of profit ability rental financing program and in the enforcement of rules and regulation. The main problem is in the arrears of residents rental payment and the deficiency for maintanance cost so it has to depend on the city government subsidies. The rental finance constraint are caused by several factors which are historic factors residents factors and the vision and commitment of the city government to facilitate housing for low

  15. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  16. Testing and developing the health promotion model in low-income, Korean elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Kang, Younhee; Park, Hyo Jung; Cho, Myoung Ok; Heitkemper, Margaret

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to test Pender's health promotion model in low-income, Korean elderly women. A total of 389 low-income, Korean elderly women completed the interviews focused on the concepts in health promotion model. Seventy-three percent of the variance in health-promoting behaviors was accounted for by prior health-related behavior, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, environmental influences, commitment to a plan of action, and health-promoting behavior variables in a modified health promotion model. Findings from this study may support the conceptual framework for future nursing practice and research studies in this vulnerable population.

  17. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  18. Homelessness and its relation to the mental health and behavior of low-income school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, J C; Bassuk, E L; Weinreb, L F; Brooks, M G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between housing status and depression, anxiety, and problem behaviors among children age 6 and older who were members of low-income, single-parent, female-headed families. Participants were 80 homeless and 148 never homeless children living in Worcester, Massachusetts. Children in both groups had recently been exposed to various severe stressors. Mother-reported problem behaviors were above normative levels for both homeless and poor housed youths but self-reported depression and anxiety were not. Controlling for other explanatory variables, housing status was associated with internalizing problem behaviors but not with externalizing behaviors. Among homeless youths, internalizing behavior problems showed a positive but curvilinear relationship with number of weeks having lived in a shelter. Housing status was not associated with self-reported depression and anxiety. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for programmatic interventions and in light of recent welfare reform.

  19. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  20. Evaluation of the Factor Structure of the Obstacles to Engagement Scale with Low-income African American Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Winders Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parenting anticipatory guidance is one way to promote optimal child health and development and minimize disparities between children from lower socio-economic status families and their higher income peers. However, low rates of attendance at and completion of parenting programs has been demonstrated. Understanding barriers to participation has important implications. The Obstacles to Engagement Scale (OES has been used in some populations, but it has not been evaluated for use with low-income African American samples. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the factor structure of the OES with a sample of low-income, African American parents.Method: Parents or legal guardians with children aged 3-8 years completed a survey in the waiting room of a primary care pediatric academic practice in an urban location in the southern United States of America (N = 114. Almost 87% had < 12th grade education and 93% of the children received Medicaid services. The OES was one measure from a larger study and only participants with complete data on the OES were included in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA.Results: The EFA did not support the previous 4-factor solution (intervention demands, personal or family stressors or obstacles, relevance of or trust in intervention, and time and scheduling demands. Instead, a 3-factor statistical solution emerged, but not all items held together conceptually.Conclusions: The current study supports the necessity for evaluating study instruments for use with specific populations. Larger samples are needed to disentangle the effects of educational and poverty status from race and ethnicity and to develop and validate instruments that are appropriate for the study population.

  1. Challenges to parent nutrition education: a qualitative study of parents of urban children attending low-income schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, Wendelin; Prelip, Michael; Kinsler, Janni; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Thai, Chan; Neumann, Charlotte

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to learn more about parents' (i) knowledge regarding healthy foods, factors associated with food purchasing and preparation, and current nutrition education resources, (ii) barriers to and promoters for establishing healthy eating habits for children and families, and (iii) interest in participating in nutrition interventions. Focus group interviews were conducted with parents of low-income children from the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). LAUSD Title 1 elementary schools where 50 % or more of students are eligible for free/reduced-price meals. Sixty-four parents (93 % female; 84 % Hispanic/Latino) of elementary-school students. The most common barriers to eating healthy foods were cost, difficulty in getting children to eat healthier foods and easy access to fast food. Parents had a basic knowledge about what foods are healthy and received most of their nutrition education through the media. Parents expressed a desire for nutrition classes and almost all of them said they would attend a nutrition programme at their child's school. Topic areas of interest included what to purchase, how to cook healthier foods, how to encourage their children to eat healthier and how to read food labels. Parents also requested classes that engage the whole family, especially fathers. Parents in our study were interested in participating in nutrition education programmes. The information from these focus groups was used to design a parent nutrition education programme especially designed to respond to the needs of the LAUSD parents, the majority of whom are low-income and Hispanic/Latino.

  2. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  3. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) Program: Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Kathleen; Reeves, Cynthia; Hallberg, Kelly; Hinojosa, Trisha

    2009-01-01

    The Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) program is part of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that was authorized under Title VI, Part B of the "Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"). The RLIS program provides additional funds…

  4. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Rural and Low-Income School Program: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Kathleen; Hallberg, Kelly; Hinojosa, Trisha; Reeves, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) program is part of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that was authorized under Title VI, Part B of the "Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"). The RLIS program provides additional funds…

  5. Risk factors for first-time homelessness in low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Erika R; Kass, Philip H; Drake, Christiana M; Nichols, Sara B

    2007-01-01

    Determinants of first-time homelessness were evaluated in Sacramento, California and Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania. First-time homeless women had more cumulative risks for homelessness than low-income never-homeless women, even with the putative advantage of higher levels of education. Solutions to homelessness should address more than one dimension of risk.

  6. Academically Resilient, Low-Income Students' Perspectives of How School Counselors Can Meet Their Academic Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph; Steen, Sam; Albert, Tracy; Dely, Betty; Jacobs, Brian; Nagel, Chelsea; Irick, Anese

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined a national sample of academically resilient, low-income middle school students' (N = 24) perspectives of what school counselors can do to promote their academic achievement. Three main themes and nine subthemes were identified: build meaningful relationships, build on the cultural wealth of…

  7. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  8. Relationship Education for Low Income Couples and Individuals: New Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study implemented and evaluated an adapted version of the Within Our Reach program called FRAME. Participants were 173 low-income couples in committed relationships and caring for at least one child together. Participating couples were randomly assigned to one of the four study conditions (couples group, female group, male group, or…

  9. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  10. Evaluation of DOE's Partnership in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Lee, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    In July 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded competitive grants to five states to conduct pilot projects to establish partnerships and use resource leveraging to stimulate support for low-income residential energy retrofits. The projects were conducted under DOE's Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. These projects have been monitored and analyzed through a concurrent process evaluation conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This study reports the findings of that evaluation. The overriding goal of the PILIRR Program was to determine whether the states could stimulate support for low-income residential energy improvements from non-federal sources. The goal for the process evaluation was to conduct an assessment of the processes used by the states and the extent to which they successfully established partnerships and leveraged resources. Five states were selected to participate in the program: Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington. Each state proposed a different approach to promote non-federal support for low-income residential weatherization. Three of the five states--Florida, Iowa, and Washington--established partnerships that led to retrofits during the monitoring period (October 1986--October 1988). Kentucky established its partnership during the monitoring period, but did not accomplish its retrofits until after monitoring was complete. Oklahoma completed development of its marketing program and had begun marketing efforts by the end of the monitoring period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  12. The Summer Flood: The Invisible Gap among Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Karen; Fleming, Shezwae; DeAnda, Mario; Castleman, Benjamin; Wartman, Katherine Lynk

    2009-01-01

    Despite national calls to conceptualize education as a continuous P-16 system, most high schools cease to serve their students at the point of graduation. For their part, colleges provide relatively few students with formal bridge programs during the summer transition between secondary and postsecondary education. Even among low-income students…

  13. Experiential Cooking Programs for Low-Income Adults: Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Karen; Vineyard, Michelle; Olson, Ann; Peterson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Experiential cooking classes for low-income adults can help improve healthy nutrition behaviors. However, nutrition educators and Extension professionals can face challenges in successful implementation of these programs such as difficulties recruiting and retaining participants. Drawing upon lessons learned from a cooking intervention with…

  14. World food prices and human development: Policy simulations for archetype low-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, world food prices have increased and fluctuated widely. This paper explores the impact of international food prices and domestic policies on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and macro indicators for two archetype low-income countries, a net food exporter and a net food importer, using Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS), a Computable General Equilibrium model. The simulat...

  15. Characterizing Air Pollution in Two Low-Income Neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of urban population growth in the world, with a large number of urban residents living in low-income “slum” neighborhoods. We conducted a study for an initial assessment of the levels and spatial and/or temporal patterns of multiple polluta...

  16. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  17. Low-Income, Single-Parent Francophone Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Julie; Gaudet, Jeanne d'Arc; Godin, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study focused on single-parent, low-income francophone mothers' relationships with the educational and cultural achievement of their children attending French-speaking schools in Anglo-dominant settings in New Brunswick (Canada). We conducted individual (N = 8) semi-structured interviews to solicit information about the…

  18. Predictors of Low-income, Obese Mothers' Use of Healthful Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Brown, Roger; Baumann, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of personal and environmental factors on healthful weight management behaviors mediated through self-efficacy among low-income obese mothers. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Wisconsin. Participants: Two hundred eighty-four obese…

  19. Low Income, First Generation Community College Students: Reflections on Their Success and Their Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ramona Marie

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the factors that supported low-income first-generation (LIFG) transfer graduates of four-year institutions in their persistence at the community college level. Specifically, this study focused on students who started at a community college in a Mid-Western State and…

  20. A Mobile Farmers' Market Brings Nutrition Education to Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…

  1. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  2. Strategies and Models for Promoting Adolescent Vaccination for Low-Income Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine M.; Martin, Laurie T.; Lurie, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Sanofi Pasteur asked RAND Health, a division of the RAND Corporation, to study the current climate for adolescent immunization in the United States, to recommend broad strategies for immunizing low-income adolescents (through age 18), and to identify promising "on the ground" practices consistent with the proposed strategic…

  3. Exploring How School Counselors Position Low-Income African American Girls as Mathematics and Science Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Shure, Lauren; Pringle, Rose; Adams, Thomasenia; Lewis, Dadria; Cholewa, Blaire

    2010-01-01

    The underrepresentation of low-income African American girls in science-related careers is of concern. Applying the concept of positionality, the authors explored how three school counselors at low-resourced schools view this population of learners to either support or discourage mathematics and science careers. The results of this study suggest…

  4. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  5. The impact of diarrhoea in infants on the quality of life of low-income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    newly developed vaccine against rotavirus through national immunisation programmes. The objective of the study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the impact of severe diarrhoea in babies on the quality of life of a selected group of low-income households. Methods: The study was qualitative, explorative ...

  6. 75 FR 15352 - Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... document in the Federal Register on Monday, September 24, 2007 (72 FR 54214), revising Commission rules... Universal Service low-income support. That document inadvertently deleted a sentence from 47 CFR 54.417(a... inadvertently omitted a sentence from 47 CFR 54.417(a). This error needs to be corrected. List of Subjects in 47...

  7. The feasibility of a Paleolithic diet for low-income consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzgar, Matthew; Rideout, Todd C.; Fontes-Villalba, Maelan; Kuipers, Remko S.

    Many low-income consumers face a limited budget for food purchases. The United States Department of Agriculture developed the Thrifty Food Plan to address this problem of consuming a healthy diet given a budget constraint. This dietary optimization program uses common food choices to build a

  8. Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

  9. Suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemmi, Valentina; Bantjes, Jason; Coast, Ernestina; Channer, Kerrie; Leone, Tiziana; McDaid, David; Palfreyman, Alexis; Stephens, Bevan; Lund, Crick

    2016-08-01

    Suicide is the 15th leading cause of death worldwide, with over 75% of suicides occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. Nonetheless, evidence on the association between suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries is scarce. We did a systematic review to understand the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries. We included studies testing the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries using bivariate or multivariate analysis and published in English between January, 2004, and April, 2014. We identified 37 studies meeting these inclusion criteria. In 18 studies reporting the association between completed suicide and poverty, 31 associations were explored. The majority reported a positive association. Of the 20 studies reporting on the relationship between non-fatal suicidal ideations and behaviours and poverty, 36 associations were explored. Again, almost all studies reported a positive association. However, when considering each poverty dimension separately, we found substantial variations. These findings show a consistent trend at the individual level indicating that poverty, particularly in the form of worse economic status, diminished wealth, and unemployment is associated with suicidal ideations and behaviours. At the country level, there are insufficient data to draw clear conclusions. Available data show a potential benefit in addressing economic poverty within suicide prevention strategies, with particular attention to both chronic poverty and acute economic events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Promoting Access to Postsecondary Education for Low-Income Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaus, Joseph W.; Grigal, Meg; Hughes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Few students with disabilities from high-poverty backgrounds attend college. We discuss the effects of disability and growing up in poverty on expectations for postsecondary education attendance. We describe the limiting effects of attending high-poverty high schools on student achievement followed by challenges faced by low-income students with…

  11. Escaping Poverty: Rural Low-Income Mothers' Opportunity to Pursue Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michelle; Mammen, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Using human capital theory, this paper identifies the factors that may affect the opportunity for rural low-income mothers to pursue post-secondary education or training in order to escape poverty. Dependent variables used in the logistic regression model included micro-level household variables as well as the effects of state-wide welfare…

  12. Growth in Means-Tested Programs and Tax Credits for Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…

  13. Voluntary, Randomized, Student Drug-Testing: Impact in a Rural, Low-Income, Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Kyle D.

    2008-01-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student …

  14. Situation analysis as indicator of food security in low-income rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic malnutrition was identified in a low-income rural Qwa-Qwa community. To verify the situation in the broader region, socio-demographic and economic determinants, dietary intake, and nutritional status were investigated as indicators of household and individual food security in three additional communities.

  15. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  16. Making Growth Work for Women in Low-income Countries (GrOW ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In addition, better living conditions for women, such as access to health care or child care services, can expand women's choices in the labour market. ... evidence generated will help decision-makers in low-income countries to amplify the positive effects and mitigate the negative effects of globalization and urbanization.

  17. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  18. Dual-Language Education for Low-Income Children: Preliminary Evidence of Benefits for Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is an initial examination of possible enhancement of executive function through a dual-language (50:50) education model. The ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 120 children from Grades K, 2, and 4 consisted of approximately equal numbers of children enrolled in dual-language and traditional classrooms. Dual-language…

  19. Physician Satisfaction in a Cancer Prevention Program for Low-Income Women in Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Cochran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians and health care organizations that provide services to low-income patients are valuable partners in improving health care access for the uninsured and medically underserved. In this pilot study, we explored physicians' needs and factors for satisfaction in the Women's Health Connection (WHC, a breast and cervical cancer-screening program for low-income women in Nevada. Of the 126 physicians in the WHC program, 50 physicians completed a needs-and-satisfaction questionnaire. Survey data were subjected to factor analysis using Varimax rotation. The results yielded three components, which accounted for 65% of the variance. The three components or dimensions for physician satisfaction were: (1 appropriate administrative support and documentation, (2 availability of support for medical management, and (3 timeliness of diagnostic reports. Amount of reimbursement was not a significant factor. The respondents serving in this cancer prevention program for low-income women were satisfied in their involvement in the program. Further attention should be given on the identified issues for satisfaction among physicians, which could lead to quality improvement and serve as a model for other programs that serve low-income patients in cancer prevention.

  20. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…