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Sample records for stabilization lowered pollutant

  1. Carbonate stability in the reduced lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Susannah M.; Badro, James; Nabiei, Farhang; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Cantoni, Marco; Gillet, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Carbonate minerals are important hosts of carbon in the crust and mantle with a key role in the transport and storage of carbon in Earth's deep interior over the history of the planet. Whether subducted carbonates efficiently melt and break down due to interactions with reduced phases or are preserved to great depths and ultimately reach the core-mantle boundary remains controversial. In this study, experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) on layered samples of dolomite (Mg, Ca)CO3 and iron at pressure and temperature conditions reaching those of the deep lower mantle show that carbon-iron redox interactions destabilize the MgCO3 component, producing a mixture of diamond, Fe7C3, and (Mg, Fe)O. However, CaCO3 is preserved, supporting its relative stability in carbonate-rich lithologies under reducing lower mantle conditions. These results constrain the thermodynamic stability of redox-driven breakdown of carbonates and demonstrate progress towards multiphase mantle petrology in the LHDAC at conditions of the lowermost mantle.

  2. Core stability training on lower limb balance strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of core stability training on lower limbs' muscular asymmetries and imbalances in team sport. Twenty footballers were divided into two groups, either core stability or control group. Before each daily practice, core stability group (n = 10) performed a core stability training programme, while control group (n = 10) did a standard warm-up. The effects of the core stability training programme were assessed by performing isokinetic tests and single-leg countermovement jumps. Significant improvement was found for knee extensors peak torque at 3.14 rad · s(-1) (14%; P core stability group. The jump tests showed a significant reduction in the strength asymmetries in core stability group (-71.4%; P = 0.02) while a concurrent increase was seen in the control group (33.3%; P core exercises for optimal lower limbs strength balance development in young soccer players.

  3. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Local dynamic stability of lower extremity joints in lower limb amputees during slope walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Ling; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Lower limb amputees have a higher fall risk during slope walking compared with non-amputees. However, studies on amputees' slope walking were not well addressed. The aim of this study was to identify the difference of slope walking between amputees and non-amputees. Lyapunov exponents λS was used to estimate the local dynamic stability of 7 transtibial amputees' and 7 controls' lower extremity joint kinematics during uphill and downhill walking. Compared with the controls, amputees exhibited significantly lower λS in hip (P=0.04) and ankle (P=0.01) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.01) of the prosthetic limb during uphill walking, while they exhibited significantly lower λS in knee (P=0.02) and ankle (P=0.03) joints of the sound limb, and hip joints (P=0.03) of the prosthetic limb during downhill walking. Compared with amputees level walking, they exhibited significantly lower λS in ankle joints of the sound limb during both uphill (P=0.01) and downhill walking (P=0.01). We hypothesized that the better local dynamic stability of amputees was caused by compensation strategy during slope walking.

  5. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jary, Hannah; Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. CRD42015028042.

  6. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jary

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities.Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms.From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis.A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults.CRD42015028042.

  7. Stability analysis of lower dimensional gravastars in noncommutative geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Ayan [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Hansraj, Sudan [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    The Banados et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett 69:1849, 1992), black hole solution is revamped from the Einstein field equations in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime, in a context of noncommutative geometry (Phys. Rev. D 87:084014, 2013). In this article, we explore the exact gravastar solutions in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space given in the same geometry. As a first step we derive BTZ solution assuming the source of energy density as point-like structures in favor of smeared objects, where the particle mass M, is diffused throughout a region of linear size √(α) and is described by a Gaussian function of finite width rather than a Dirac delta function. We matched our interior solution to an exterior BTZ spacetime at a junction interface situated outside the event horizon. Furthermore, a stability analysis is carried out for the specific case when χ < 0.214 under radial perturbations about the static equilibrium solutions. To give theoretical support we are also trying to explore their physical properties and characteristics. (orig.)

  8. Quantifying pollution transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ploeger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollution transport from the surface to the stratosphere within the Asian monsoon circulation may cause harmful effects on stratospheric chemistry and climate. Here, we investigate air mass transport from the monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere using a Lagrangian chemistry transport model. We show how two main transport pathways from the anticyclone emerge: (i into the tropical stratosphere (tropical pipe, and (ii into the Northern Hemisphere (NH extratropical lower stratosphere. Maximum anticyclone air mass fractions reach around 5 % in the tropical pipe and 15 % in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere over the course of a year. The anticyclone air mass fraction correlates well with satellite hydrogen cyanide (HCN and carbon monoxide (CO observations, confirming that pollution is transported deep into the tropical stratosphere from the Asian monsoon anticyclone. Cross-tropopause transport occurs in a vertical chimney, but with the pollutants transported quasi-horizontally along isentropes above the tropopause into the tropics and NH.

  9. Slow VO₂ kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise as markers of lower metabolic stability and lower exercise tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Bruno; Porcelli, Simone; Salvadego, Desy; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2011-03-01

    An analysis of previously published data obtained by our group on patients characterized by markedly slower pulmonary VO₂ kinetics (heart transplant recipients, patients with mitochondrial myopathies, patients with McArdle disease) was carried out in order to suggest that slow VO₂ kinetics should not be considered the direct cause, but rather a marker, of impaired exercise tolerance. For a given ATP turnover rate, faster (or slower) VO₂ kinetics are associated with smaller (or greater) muscle [PCr] decreases. The latter, however, should not be taken per se responsible for the higher (or lower) exercise tolerance, but should be considered within the general concept of "metabolic stability". Good muscle metabolic stability at a given ATP turnover rate (~power output) is associated with relatively smaller decreases, compared to rest, in [PCr] and in the Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis, as well as with relatively smaller increases in [Pi], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)], and [IMP(free)], metabolites directly related to fatigue. Disturbances in muscle metabolic stability can affect muscle function in various ways, whereas good metabolic stability is associated with less fatigue and higher exercise tolerance. Smaller [PCr] decreases, however, are strictly associated with a faster VO₂ kinetics. Thus, faster VO₂ kinetics may simply be an "epiphenomenon" of a relatively higher metabolic stability, which would then represent the relevant variable in terms of fatigue and exercise tolerance.

  10. Characterization and dynamics of air pollutants in the Lower Rio Grande Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia-Velazquez, G.M.; Sheya, S.A.; Dworzanski, J.; Rodriguez-Gallegos, M.; Tejeda-Honstein, D.D.; Cardona-Carrizalez, J.M.; Meuzelaar, H.L.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) has become a region of increasing interest because of its rapid economic development and the increased international border crossing traffic, as well as for its extensive agricultural activities. Over the past few years air pollution problems in the region have been reported by the population. However, very few air quality studies have been performed in the area. In this paper some results of a study to demonstrate the feasibility of a comprehensive (criteria pollutant + VOC/SVOC + PM{sub FINE}) air pollutant dynamics characterization and modeling study in the LRGV are presented and discussed. The study involved both sides of the US/Mexican border and used. A highly mobile monitoring station equipped with a broad array of physical and chemical samplers and sensors was used in the study in two periods in December, 1995 and March,1998. PM10/PM2.5 and NO{sub x} (the latter only in the March 1998 study) concentrations were measured in Reynosa, Rio Bravo and Matamoros, Mexico, as well as Hidalgo, Brownsville and along the Freeway between Brownsville and McAllen on Texas. The photochemical model predicted peak ozone concentrations that reached, and on some days exceeded, air quality standards. The concurrent PM10/PM2.5 study involved both physical (size distributed counting) and time-resolved (2-hourly) organic chemical (VOC/SVOC type PM{sub FINE} adsorbates) characterization methods. Recently completed multivariate data analysis results from a December 1995 study at one of the sites (Hidalgo international bridge) are being presented to illustrate the capabilities of the time-resolved PM{sub FINE} characterization approach. The results of this work show that the LRGV region does not appear to have grave air pollution problems yet. However, with the increase in traffic activities over the next few years, air quality is likely to deteriorate.

  11. Short-term Elevation of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Benjamin D; Joy, Elizabeth A; Hofmann, Michelle G; Gesteland, Per H; Cannon, John B; Lefler, Jacob S; Blagev, Denitza P; Korgenski, E Kent; Torosyan, Natalie; Hansen, Grant I; Kartchner, David; Pope Iii, C Arden

    2018-04-13

    Nearly 60% of U.S. children live in counties with PM2.5 concentrations above air quality standards. Understanding the relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and health outcomes informs actions to reduce exposure and disease risk. To evaluate the association between ambient PM2.5 levels and healthcare encounters for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Using an observational case-crossover design, subjects (N=146,397) were studied if they had an ALRI diagnosis and resided on Utah's Wasatch Front. PM2.5 air pollution concentrations were measured using community-based air quality monitors between 1999 and 2016. Odds ratios (OR) for ALRI healthcare encounters were calculated after stratification by ages 0-2, 3-17, and 18+ years. Approximately 77% (n=112,467) of subjects were 0-2 years of age. The odds of ALRI encounter for these young children increased within 1 week of elevated PM2.5 and peaked after 3 weeks with a cumulative 28-day OR= 1.15 per +10 μg/m3 (95% CI= 1.12, 1.19). ALRI encounters with diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed RSV and influenza increased following elevated ambient PM2.5 levels. Similar elevated odds for ALRI were also observed for older children, although the number of events and precision of estimates were much lower. In this large sample of urban/suburban patients, short-term exposure to elevated PM2.5 air pollution was associated with greater healthcare utilization for ALRI in both young children, older children, and adults. Further exploration is needed of causal interactions between PM2.5 and ALRI.

  12. Stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes by lower hybrid wave in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuley, Animesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    A gyrokinetic formalism has been developed to study lower hybrid wave stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes, responsible for anomalous ion transport in the inner region of tokamak. The parametric coupling between lower hybrid and drift waves produce lower hybrid sideband waves. The pump and the sidebands exert a ponderomotive force on electrons, modifying the eigenfrequency of the drift wave and influencing the growth rate. The longer wavelength drift waves are destabilized by the lower hybrid wave while the shorter wavelengths are suppressed. The requiste lower hybrid power is in the range of ∼900 kW at 4.6 GHz.

  13. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    water and can be used as a soil amendment to decrease the mobility of CCA in contaminated soil. Stabilization with Fe-WTR was tested at the Collstrop site in Hillerød, Denmark. The site has been polluted with a wide range of wood impregnation agents including CCA during 40 years of wood impregnating...... of contaminants. Arsenic, chromium and copper cannot be degraded and existing methods for cleaning the soil are rarely used as they are expensive and technically demanding. Chemical stabilization of polluted soil is an alternative method for soil remediation, especially metal contamination, and consists in adding...... or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...

  14. Spatial risk modelling for water shortage and nitrate pollution in the lower Jordan valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the spatial risk modeling activities (work package WP-4.4, 'GIS Risk Modeling') of the INCO-DC project 'Developing Sustainable Water Management in the Jordan Valley'. The project was funded by European Commission's INCO-DC research program. The main objective of the project was to develop the scientific basis for an integral management plan of water resources and their use in the Lower Jordan Valley. The outputs of the project were expected to allow a better understanding of the water management situation, and to provide a sound basis for a better future water management - not only separately in the three countries, but in the overall valley region. The risk modeling was done by the ARCS Seibersdorf research (ARCS), based on information and data provided by the regional partners from Israel (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, HUJ), Palestine (Applied Research Institute, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, ARIJ) and Jordan (EnviroConsult Office, Amman, ECO). The land use classification has been established through a cooperation between ARCS and the Yale University Center for Earth Observation (YUCEO). As a result of the work, the spatial patterns of agricultural and domestic water demand in the Lower Jordan Valley were established, and the spatial dimension of driving forces for water usage and water supply was analyzed. Furthermore, a conceptual model for nitrate leakage (established by HUJ) was translated into a GIS system, and the risks for nitrate pollution of groundwater were quantified. (author)

  15. The existence and the stability of solutions for equilibrium problems with lower and upper bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congjun Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a class of equilibrium problems with lower and upper bounds. We obtain some existence results of solutions for equilibrium problems with lower and upper bounds by employing some classical fixed-point theorems. We investigate the stability of the solution sets for the problems, and establish sufficient conditions for the upper semicontinuity, lower semicontinuity and continuity of the solution set mapping $S:Lambda_1imesLambda_2o2^{X}$ in a Hausdorff topological vector space, in the case where a set $K$ and a mapping $f$ are perturbed respectively by parameters $lambda$ and $mu.$

  16. Acute effects of ambient air pollution on lower respiratory infections in Hanoi children: An eight-year time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Schindler, Christian; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2018-01-01

    Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam. We explored the impact of age, gender and season on these associations. Daily ambient air pollution concentrations and hospital admission counts were extracted from electronic databases received from authorities in Hanoi for the years 2007-2014. The associations between outdoor air pollution levels and hospital admissions were estimated for time lags of zero up to seven days using Quasi-Poisson regression models, adjusted for seasonal variations, meteorological variables, holidays, influenza epidemics and day of week. All ambient air pollutants were positively associated with pneumonia hospitalizations. Significant associations were found for most pollutants except for ozone and sulfur dioxide in children aged 0-17. Increments of an interquartile range (21.9μg/m 3 ) in the 7-day-average level of NO 2 were associated with a 6.1% (95%CI 2.5% to 9.8%) increase in pneumonia hospitalizations. These associations remained stable in two-pollutant models. All pollutants other than CO were positively associated with hospitalizations for bronchitis and asthma. Associations were stronger in infants than in children aged 1-5. Strong associations between hospital admissions for lower respiratory infections and daily levels of air pollution confirm the need to adopt sustainable clean air policies in Vietnam to protect children's health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Lower Bounds on the Price of Stability of Undirected Network Design Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilò, Vittorio; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Fanelli, Angelo; Monaco, Gianpiero

    Bounding the price of stability of undirected network design games with fair cost allocation is a challenging open problem in the Algorithmic Game Theory research agenda. Even though the generalization of such games in directed networks is well understood in terms of the price of stability (it is exactly H n , the n-th harmonic number, for games with n players), far less is known for network design games in undirected networks. The upper bound carries over to this case as well while the best known lower bound is 42/23 ≈ 1.826. For more restricted but interesting variants of such games such as broadcast and multicast games, sublogarithmic upper bounds are known while the best known lower bound is 12/7 ≈ 1.714. In the current paper, we improve the lower bounds as follows. We break the psychological barrier of 2 by showing that the price of stability of undirected network design games is at least 348/155 ≈ 2.245. Our proof uses a recursive construction of a network design game with a simple gadget as the main building block. For broadcast and multicast games, we present new lower bounds of 20/11 ≈ 1.818 and 1.862, respectively.

  18. Pollution indicators in groundwater of two agricultural catchments in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Lidia; Modelska, Magdalena; Staśko, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the content and source of mineral nitrogen compounds in groundwater, based on the data collected in two river catchments in two series (spring and autumn 2014). The study area comprises two catchments located in Lower Silesia, Poland - Cicha Woda and Sąsiecznica. Both catchments are characterised agricultural character of development. In the both researched areas, the points of State Environmental Monitoring (SEM) are located but only the Cicha Woda area is classified as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). To analyse and compare the contamination of Quaternary and Neogene aquifers, the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and potassium ions was measured primarily. Results showed the exceedance of nitrogen mineral forms of shallow groundwater Quaternary aquifer in both basins. The concentration of nitrates range from 0.08 to 142.12 mgNO3 -/dm3 (Cicha Woda) and from 2.6 to 137.65 mg NO3 -/dm3 (Sąsiecznica). The major source of pollution is probably the intensive agriculture activity. It causes a degradation of the shallow groundwater because of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, phosphates and ammonium contents. There was no observed contamination of anthropogenic origin in the deeper Neogene aquifer of Cicha Woda catchment.

  19. Investigation of elastic stability of the lower part of drill pipe string (dynamic problems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griguletskii, V.G.

    1981-12-01

    Based on V.V. Bolotin's results, the problem of dynamic stability of the lower part of a string of drill pipes in a vertical well is formulated (and solved in the first approximation). An investigation of the phenomena during the interaction between lengthwise and transverse oscillations of the bottom part of the drill pipe string is carried out. Excitation conditions are determined and the mechanism of the onset of parametric oscillations is explained. 20 refs.

  20. Short-term effects of air pollution on lower respiratory diseases and forecasting by the group method of data handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjin; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhang, Wenyu; Sun, Donghuai

    2012-05-01

    Risk of lower respiratory diseases was significantly correlated with levels of monthly average concentration of SO2; NO2 and association rules have high lifts. In view of Lanzhou's special geographical location, taking into account the impact of different seasons, especially for the winter, the relations between air pollutants and the respiratory disease deserve further study. In this study the monthly average concentration of SO2, NO2, PM10 and the monthly number of people who in hospital because of lower respiratory disease from January 2001 to December 2005 are grouped equidistant and considered as the terms of transactions. Then based on the relational algebraic theory we employed the optimization relation association rule to mine the association rules of the transactions. Based on the association rules revealing the effects of air pollutants on the lower respiratory disease, we forecast the number of person who suffered from lower respiratory disease by the group method of data handling (GMDH) to reveal the risk and give a consultation to the hospital in Xigu District, the most seriously polluted district in Lanzhou. The data and analysis indicate that individuals may be susceptible to the short-term effects of pollution and thus suffer from lower respiratory diseases and this effect presents seasonal.

  1. Air pollution tracer studies in the lower atmosphere (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Jan 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    The cited reports cover research on the use of tracers to study lower atmospheric air pollution movements. The tracer used include sulfur hexafluoride, krypton 85, carbon 14, and other radioactive isotopes. The studies cite the results and techniques used, tracer movement from nuclear power plants, industrial stacks, urban areas, and the detectors used in their measurement

  2. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  3. Seasonal variations in composite riverbank stability in the Lower Jingjiang Reach, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Zong, Quanli; Deng, Shanshan; Xu, Quanxi; Lu, Jinyou

    2014-11-01

    Bank erosion is a key process in a fluvial system in the context of river dynamics and geomorphology. Since the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), the Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR) below the dam has experienced continuous channel degradation, with the phenomenon of bank erosion occurring frequently in local reaches. Therefore it is necessary to quantitatively investigate seasonal variations in the stability of composite riverbanks along the reach in order to better understand the fluvial processes in the reach. Laboratory tests were conducted for the sampled soils at six riverbanks during a field survey, with various bank soil properties being presented for the first time. These test results show that: the cohesive bank soils are relatively loose due to the high water contents of 28.5-40.0% and the low dry densities of 1.31-1.47 tonnes/m3; and the cohesion or angle of internal friction generally decreases with an increase in water content of the cohesive soil. Based on the measured cross-sectional profiles and interpolated hydrological data, the near-bank hydrodynamic conditions and soil parameters of two typical composite riverbanks were then determined during the 2007 hydrological year. An improved method was proposed for calculating the stability at the mode of cantilever failure for the overhanging block of a composite riverbank, and the stability degrees of these two riverbanks were calculated at different stages. These results reveal that: (i) the incipient velocity of the non-cohesive lower bank had a magnitude of 0.4 m/s, less than the mean near-bank velocity of about 1.0 m/s, which led to intensive basal erosion especially during the flood season; (ii) the cohesive upper bank before failure had sufficient strength to resist direct fluvial erosion, but the failed soil mass deposited in the near-bank zone was disintegrated easily with the submerged immersion and was then transported downstream by fluvial entrainment; (iii) the degree of bank

  4. Application of tethered balloon for studying vertical distribution of air pollutants within lower tropsphere of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Wang, D.; Fu, Q.; Xiu, G.; Duan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Tethered balloon-based measurement campaign of particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the range of 15.7-661.2 nm was conducted within the lower troposphere of 1000 m in Shanghai, a Chinses megacity, in December 2015. The meteorological condition, PNC, and PNSD were synchronous measured at ground-based station as well as on the tethered balloon. Overall, the mixing layer height (MLH) showed a peak at about LST 14:00-15:00. On ground level, the 88.2 nm particles had the highest number concentration. The Pearson correlation analysis based on the ground level data shows the Pearson correlation coefficient between PNC and NO2was 0.774. The synchronous measurement of PNC and PNSD on ground level and on the tethered balloon showed the 15.7-200 nm particles had higher PNC on ground level, but the PNC of 200-661.2 nm particles are higher at 400 m. And the wind condition showed a strong influence on PNC.The vertical profiles of meteorological parameters and air pollutants was observed. The particle mass concentration, ozone concentration, temperature, and humidity all showed a quick change when the balloon across the atmosphere boundary layer. One episodic haze event (Dec 22nd-Dec 23rd) was selected with specific focus on the variation of PNSD and PNC vertical profiles. Before the haze, the PNC at ground was 9281 cm-3. The MaxDm (the particle diameter with the highest number concentration) was 53.3 nm at that time. Due to the shallow MLH, the MaxDm changed rapidly to 126.3 nm at 321 m. During the haze, the MaxDm and the PNC on ground level was 126.3 nm and 18515 cm-3 respectively. And a quick drop of PNC was observed at 553 m. This may due to the change of wind direction, temperature, and relative humidity. At the end of haze, the MaxDm and the PNC on ground level was 126.3 nm and 10711 cm-3 respectively. The highest MaxDm during those three launches all appeared at a high altitude, usually above 300 m. This result is consisted

  5. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  6. Vertical characteristics of VOCs in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain during pollution periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Yuesi; Wu, Fangkun; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yinghong; Yang, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, photochemical smog and gray haze-fog have frequently appeared over northern China. To determine the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during a pollution period, tethered balloon flights were conducted over a suburban site on the North China Plain. Statistical analysis showed that the VOCs concentrations peaked at the surface, and decreased with altitude. A rapid decrease appeared from the surface to 400 m, with concnetrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and halocarbons decreasing by 48.0%, 53.3%, 43.3% and 51.1%, respectively. At heights in the range of 500-1000 m, alkenes concnetrations decline by 40.2%; alkanes and halocarbons concnetrations only decreased by 24.8% and 6.4%, respectively; and aromatics increased slightly by 5.5%. High concentrations VOCs covered a higher range of height (400 m) on heavy pollution days due to lacking of diffusion power. The VOCs concentrations decreased by 50% at 200 m on light pollution days. The transport of air mass affected the composition and concentration of high-altitude VOCs, especially on lightly polluted days. These air masses originated in areas with abundant traffic and combustion sources. Reactive aromatics (k OH >20,000 ppm -1  min -1 and k OH <20,000 ppm -1  min -1 ) were the main contributor to the ozone formation, accounting for 37%, on the surface on light pollution days. The contribution increased to 52% with pollution aggravated, and increased to 64% with height. The contributions of reactive aromatics were influenced by the degree of air mass aging. Under the umbrella of aging air mass, the contribution of reactive aromatics increased with height. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Risk assessment and source analysis of soil heavy metal pollution from lower reaches of Yellow River irrigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyan; Qin, Chengzhe; Hong, Xin; Kang, Guohua; Qin, Mingzhou; Yang, Dan; Pang, Bo; Li, Yanyan; He, Jianjian; Dick, Richard P

    2018-08-15

    The level of concentration of heavy metal in soil is detrimental to soil quality. The Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation area in the lower-reach of Yellow River irrigation, as home to a large population and a major site to agricultural production, is vulnerable to heavy metal pollution. This study examined soil quality in Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation areas of Kaifeng, China. Pollution in soil and potential risks introduced by heavy metal accumulation were assessed using Nemerow, Geoaccumulation, and Hakanson's ecological risk indices. Statistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to model and present the spatiotemporal changes of the pollution sources and factors affecting the levels of pollution. The heavy metals found in the sampled soil are Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg. Among them, Cd is more concentrated than the others. The southwestern region of the studied area confronts the most serious heavy metal pollution. There exist spatial disparities of low concentrations of different heavy metals in the study area. Hg and Cd are found to pose the highest potential ecological risks. However, their risk levels are not the same across the study area. Levels concentration of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg in soil are highly correlated. In combination, they post an additional threat to the ecological environment. Transportation, rural settlements, and water bodies are found to be the major sources of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg pollution in the soil; among the major sources, transportation is the most significant factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The IPAC-NC field campaign: a pollution and oxidization pool in the lower atmosphere over Huabei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, regional air pollution characterized by photochemical smog and grey haze-fog has become a severe environmental problem in China. To investigate this, a field measurement campaign was performed in the Huabei region, located between 32–42° N latitude in eastern China, during the period 2 April–16 May 2006 as part of the project "Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China" (IPAC-NC. It appeared that strong pollution emissions from urban and industrial centers tend to accumulate in the lower atmosphere over the central area of Huabei. We observed widespread, very high SO2 mixing ratios, about 20–40 ppbv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude and 10–30 ppbv at 1.5–3.0 km altitude. Average CO mixing ratios were 0.65–0.7 ppmv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude, and very high CO around 1 ppmv was observed during some flights, and even higher levels at the surface. We find the high pollution concentrations to be associated with enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals, calculated with a chemical box model constrained by the measurements. In the upper part of the boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere, high CO and SO2 compete with relatively less NO2 in reacting with OH, being efficiently recycled through HO2, preventing a net loss of HOx radicals. In addition to reactive hydrocarbons and CO, the oxidation of SO2 causes significant ozone production over Huabei (up to ~13% or 2.0 ppbv h−1 at 0.8 km altitude. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere over Huabei is not only strongly polluted but also acts as an oxidation pool, with pollutants undergoing very active photochemistry over this part of China.

  9. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  10. Pollutant dispersal and stability in a severely polluted floodplain: A case study in the Litavka River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Tereza; Kotková, Kristýna; Elznicová, J.; Strnad, L.; Engel, Z.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 156, SEP (2015), s. 131-144 ISSN 0375-6742 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Anthropogenic alluvium * Fluvial sediments * Heavy metals * Secondary pollution from mining Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.147, year: 2015

  11. Ra-226 concentrations in the Lower Weser region in the vicinity of a pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Near Nordenham at the lower Weser Ra-containing waste water is discharged from a fertilizer factory. The measurements are restricted to Ra-analysis and the Ra in fish, sediment, and river water samples (Ra-226). (DG) [de

  12. On the relationship between low cloud variability and lower tropospheric stability in the Southeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine marine low cloud cover variability in the Southeast Pacific and its association with lower-tropospheric stability (LTS across a spectrum of timescales. On both daily and interannual timescales, LTS and low cloud amount are very well correlated in austral summer (DJF. Meanwhile in winter (JJA, when ambient LTS increases, the LTS–low cloud relationship substantially weakens. The DJF LTS–low cloud relationship also weakens in years with unusually large ambient LTS values. These are generally strong El Niño years, in which DJF LTS values are comparable to those typically found in JJA. Thus the LTS–low cloud relationship is strongly modulated by the seasonal cycle and the ENSO phenomenon. We also investigate the origin of LTS anomalies closely associated with low cloud variability during austral summer. We find that the ocean and atmosphere are independently involved in generating anomalies in LTS and hence variability in the Southeast Pacific low cloud deck. This highlights the importance of the physical (as opposed to chemical component of the climate system in generating internal variability in low cloud cover. It also illustrates the coupled nature of the climate system in this region, and raises the possibility of cloud feedbacks related to LTS. We conclude by addressing the implications of the LTS–low cloud relationship in the Southeast Pacific for low cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change.

  13. The lysosomal stability as a biomarker for the determination of pollution in aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Loreto Nazar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects caused by five different formulae of gasoline on the stability of the lysosomes isolated from the liver of the tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus. The functional integrity of the lysosomal membranes was evaluated via the acid phosphatase activity. The results showed that there were significant changes in the stability of the lysosomes exposed to the presence of the hydrocarbons in the environment. Therefore, considering the method's simplicity, the sensitivity of the responses and its low cost the assessment of the lysosomal activity could be an important tool for the study of the effects of pollution in the aquatic environments.A procura de biomarcadores de agentes poluidores, mais simples e menos custosos, tem levado ao estudo dos lisossomos, isolados de animais componentes da biota nos ambientes contaminados, principalmente por poluentes com características lipofílicas, a exemplo dos hidrocarbonetos policíclicos e seus derivados. Este trabalho estudou os efeitos provocados por 05 diferentes formulações de gasolina sobre a estabilidade de lisossomos, isolados de fígado de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus. A integridade funcional das membranas lisossômicas foi avaliada através da atividade da fosfatase ácida, expressa em mU/mg de proteínas totais. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que existem alterações significativas na estabilidade dos lisossomos isolados de fígado de tilápias submetidas aos efeitos de hidrocarbonetos presentes no meio ambiente. Portanto, levando em conta a simplicidade, a sensibilidade de resposta e o baixo custo, os autores recomendam a avaliação da atividade lisossômica, como uma importante ferramenta para o estudo dos efeitos da poluição dos meios aquáticos.

  14. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...... analytical and environmental techniques. Ferrihydrite was formed initially but transformed upon thermal treatment to more stable and crystalline iron oxides (maghemite and hematite). For some metals leaching studies showed more substantial binding after thermal treatment, while other metals either....... Thermal treatment of the stabilized residues produced structures with an inherently better iron oxide stability. However, the concentration of metals in the leachate generally increased as a consequence of the decreased solubility of metals in the more stable iron oxide structure....

  15. The Effect of Lower Body Stabilization and Different Writing Tools on Writing Biomechanics in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Lien, Yueh-Ju; Yu, Yu-Chun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Wu, David Bin-Chia

    2013-01-01

    A high percentage of children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty keeping up with the handwriting demands at school. Previous studies have addressed the effects of proper sitting and writing tool on writing performance, but less on body biomechanics. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lower body stabilization and pencil…

  16. Stabilization of nanosized titanium dioxide by cyclodextrin polymers and its photocatalytic effect on the degradation of wastewater pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Tamás Zoltán; Puskás, István; Varga, Erzsébet; Molnár, Mónika; Fenyvesi, Éva

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are considered highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of organic pollutants. Among AOP techniques, photocatalysis has recently been the most widely studied. Our aims were to investigate how the dispersion of nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO 2 ) applied in photodegradation-based procedures can be stabilized with cyclodextrins in order to obtain a new, more efficient photocatalyst for the purification of waters polluted by xenobiotics applying UV irradiation. During our work, on the one hand, we studied the behavior and stability of nanoTiO 2 in cyclodextrin solutions. On the other hand, we used various monomer and polymer cyclodextrin derivatives, and assessed the options for nanoTiO 2 stabilization in the presence of various salts and tap water on the basis of turbidity tests. The physical stability of nanoTiO 2 dispersions is diminished in the presence of the salts found in tap water (and occurring also in surface waters and ground water) and they are precipitated immediately. This colloidal instability can be improved by cyclodextrin derivatives. Based on the results of our studies we have selected carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrin polymer (CMBCD-P) for stabilization of nanoTiO 2 dispersions. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and ibuprofen as model organic pollutants in various media (distilled water, NaCl solution and tap water) has been studied using nanoTiO 2 as catalyst stabilized by CMBCD-P. CMBCD-P itself showed a catalytic effect on the UV degradation of methylene blue. In addition to enhancing the colloid stability of nanoTiO 2 CMBCD-P showed also synergistic effects in catalyzing the photodecomposition process of the dye. On the other hand, ibuprofen as a model pharmaceutical, a pollutant of emerging concern (EP), was protected by CMBCD-P against the photocatalytic degradation showing that inclusion complex formation can result in opposite effects depending on the structure of the

  17. Stabilization of nanosized titanium dioxide by cyclodextrin polymers and its photocatalytic effect on the degradation of wastewater pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Zoltán Agócs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs are considered highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of organic pollutants. Among AOP techniques, photocatalysis has recently been the most widely studied. Our aims were to investigate how the dispersion of nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 applied in photodegradation-based procedures can be stabilized with cyclodextrins in order to obtain a new, more efficient photocatalyst for the purification of waters polluted by xenobiotics applying UV irradiation. During our work, on the one hand, we studied the behavior and stability of nanoTiO2 in cyclodextrin solutions. On the other hand, we used various monomer and polymer cyclodextrin derivatives, and assessed the options for nanoTiO2 stabilization in the presence of various salts and tap water on the basis of turbidity tests. The physical stability of nanoTiO2 dispersions is diminished in the presence of the salts found in tap water (and occurring also in surface waters and ground water and they are precipitated immediately. This colloidal instability can be improved by cyclodextrin derivatives. Based on the results of our studies we have selected carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrin polymer (CMBCD-P for stabilization of nanoTiO2 dispersions. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and ibuprofen as model organic pollutants in various media (distilled water, NaCl solution and tap water has been studied using nanoTiO2 as catalyst stabilized by CMBCD-P. CMBCD-P itself showed a catalytic effect on the UV degradation of methylene blue. In addition to enhancing the colloid stability of nanoTiO2 CMBCD-P showed also synergistic effects in catalyzing the photodecomposition process of the dye. On the other hand, ibuprofen as a model pharmaceutical, a pollutant of emerging concern (EP, was protected by CMBCD-P against the photocatalytic degradation showing that inclusion complex formation can result in opposite effects depending on the structure

  18. The pH-dependent long-term stability of an amorphous manganese oxide in smelter-polluted soils: implication for chemical stabilization of metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Tomášová, Zdeňka; Komárek, Michael; Mihaljevič, Martin; Šebek, Ondřej; Michálková, Zuzana

    2015-04-09

    An amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) and a Pb smelter-polluted agricultural soil amended with the AMO and incubated for 2 and 6 months were subjected to a pH-static leaching procedure (pH 3-8) to verify the chemical stabilization effect on metals and metalloids. The AMO stability in pure water was pH-dependent with the highest Mn release at pH 3 (47% dissolved) and the lowest at pH 8 (0.14% dissolved). Secondary rhodochrosite (MnCO3) was formed at the AMO surfaces at pH>5. The AMO dissolved significantly less after 6 months of incubation. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that "labile" fraction of As, Pb and Sb in soil significantly decreased after AMO amendment. The pH-static experiments indicated that no effect on leaching was observed for Cd and Zn after AMO treatments, whereas the leaching of As, Cu, Pb and Sb decreased down to 20%, 35%, 7% and 11% of the control, respectively. The remediation efficiency was more pronounced under acidic conditions and the time of incubation generally led to increased retention of the targeted contaminants. The AMO was found to be a promising agent for the chemical stabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling the potential health benefits of lower household air pollution after a hypothetical liquified petroleum gas (LPG) cookstove intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Kyle; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Kirby, Miles; Peel, Jennifer; Clark, Maggie; Checkley, Will; Chang, Howard H; Clasen, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Improved biomass and advanced fuel cookstoves can lower household air pollution (HAP), but levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) often remain above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended interim target of 35μg/m 3 . Based on existing literature, we first estimate a range of likely levels of personal PM 2.5 before and after a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) intervention. Using simulations reflecting uncertainty in both the exposure estimates and exposure-response coefficients, we estimate corresponding expected health benefits for systolic blood pressure (SBP) in adults, birthweight, and pneumonia incidence among children LPG stove intervention would decrease personal PM 2.5 exposure from approximately 270μg/m 3 to approximately 70μg/m 3 , due to likely continued use of traditional open-fire stoves. We estimate that this decrease would lead to a 5.5mmHg lower SBP among women over age 50, a 338g higher birthweight, and a 37% lower incidence of severe childhood pneumonia. We estimate that decreased SBP, if sustained, would result in a 5%-10% decrease in mortality for women over age 50. We estimate that higher birthweight would reduce infant mortality by 4 to 11 deaths per 1000 births; for comparison, the current global infant mortality rate is 32/1000 live births. Reduced exposure is estimated to prevent approximately 29 cases of severe pneumonia per year per 1000 children under 2, avoiding approximately 2-3 deaths/1000 per year. However, there are large uncertainties around all these estimates due to uncertainty in both exposure estimates and in exposure-response coefficients; all health effect estimates include the null value of no benefit. An LPG stove intervention, while not likely to lower exposure to the WHO interim target level, is still likely to offer important health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability and stability of immobilization remediation of Cd polluted soils using sepiolite under pot and field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yi; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xuefeng; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness and persistence are two important criterias to evaluate alternative remediation technology of heavy metal polluted soils. Pot and field studies showed addition of sepiolite was effective in immobilizing Cd in polluted soils, with significant reduction in TCLP extracts (0.6%–49.6% and 4.0%–32.5% reduction in pot and field experiments, respectively) and plant uptake (14.4%–84.1% and 22.8%–61.4% declines in pot and field studies, correspondingly). However, the applications of sepiolite offered a limited guarantee for the safety of edible vegetables in Cd-polluted soils, depending on the soil type, the Cd pollution type and level, and the dose and application frequency of chemical amendments. Bioassays, such as plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and microbial community diversity, indicated a certain degree of recovery of soil metabolic function. Therefore, sepiolite-assisted in situ remediation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and technically applicable, and can be successfully used to reduce Cd enter into the food chain on field scale. - Highlights: • Sepiolite has reliability and stability for remediation of contaminated Cd. • Sepiolite significantly decreases Cd bioavailability in soil and uptake in plant. • The treatment of sepiolite improves soil quality. - Sepiolite not only decreased soil Cd bioavailability and plant Cd uptake, but also improved soil quality.

  1. Quantitative estimations of the efficiency of stabilization and lowering of background in gamma-spectrometry of environment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, O.M.; Stets, M.V.; Maslyuk, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a gamma-spectrometric complex of IEP of the NAS of Ukraine, where a passive multilayer external defense is used (complex has been made in 1989). We have developed and investigated a system of stability and lowering of background in the gamma-spectrometric complex. As metrological coefficients, the efficiency factor of defense are considered, the calculation and analysis of which show that their values are different for different energies of gamma-quanta and gamma-active nuclides

  2. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-02-01

    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meta-analysis of biochar potential for pollutant immobilization and stabilization in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Marsz, Aleksandra; Fristak, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is the pyrolysis product of biomass, preferably from agricultural and forestry residues and waste materials. Characterized by a polyaromatic structure rich in carbon, it offers a microporous structure with a high specific surface area and active functional groups as binding sites. Because of the high sorption capacity for organic and inorganic soil pollutants biochar is an interesting tool for in-situ soil remediation. Especially if the reduction of contaminant bioavailability and the protection of groundwater from pollutants in the vadose zone are the most relevant issues for remediating a polluted site without excavation and removal of the soil, an in-situ application of biochar may offer a promising remediation strategy. The resulting interest of deploying biochar as sorbent for soil contaminants has stimulated a wealth of studies to develop successful applications for environmental technology. However, the existing studies do not always agree on the efficacy for different pollutants and on the most relevant char and soil characteristics that determine the rate of success when using biochar as sorbent. This makes it necessary to apply advanced literature assessment techniques to allow for the recognition of the extent and the significance of the efficacy of a given pollutant treatment technique. A meta-analysis is a study assessment technique that allows extracting a harmonized answer to a specific research question that has been studied more often than one time, even if the results are partially conflicting. Such a technique also allows getting an overview about the degree of consensus or contradiction in the answers to the question if biochar can be applied successfully for immobilizing certain soil contaminants. The meta-analysis results can also be used to quantify the average extent of effects of a certain treatment, depending on the characteristics of the sorbent and on the application rate. By checking 104 published papers in the peer

  4. Air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children in Ningbo, China: A time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pei-Wen; Wang, Jian-Bing; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Shen, Peng; Chai, Peng-Fei; Li, Die; Jin, Ming-Juan; Tang, Meng-Ling; Lu, Huai-Chu; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are main causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Air pollution has been recognized as an important contributor to development and exacerbation of respiratory infections. However, few studies are available in China. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of air pollution on hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children under 15 years in Ningbo, China. Poisson generalized models were used to estimate the associations between air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections adjusted for temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects. We found that four pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and SO 2 ) were significantly associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections. The effect estimates for acute upper respiratory infections tended to be higher (PM 2.5 ER = 3.46, 95% CI 2.18, 4.76; PM 10 ER = 2.81, 95% CI 1.93, 3.69; NO 2 ER = 11.27, 95% CI 8.70, 13.89; SO 2 ER = 15.17, 95% CI 11.29, 19.19). Significant associations for gaseous pollutants (NO 2 and SO 2 ) were observed after adjustment for particular matter. Stronger associations were observed among older children and in the cold period. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections in Ningbo.

  5. Heavy Metal Pollution of Lakes along the Mid-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China: Intensity, Sources and Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu

    2013-01-01

    Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Geo-accumulation index (Ig) analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes. PMID:23442559

  6. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  7. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  8. Stability of strong species interactions resist the synergistic effects of local and global pollution in kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Falkenberg

    Full Text Available Foundation species, such as kelp, exert disproportionately strong community effects and persist, in part, by dominating taxa that inhibit their regeneration. Human activities which benefit their competitors, however, may reduce stability of communities, increasing the probability of phase-shifts. We tested whether a foundation species (kelp would continue to inhibit a key competitor (turf-forming algae under moderately increased local (nutrient and near-future forecasted global pollution (CO(2. Our results reveal that in the absence of kelp, local and global pollutants combined to cause the greatest cover and mass of turfs, a synergistic response whereby turfs increased more than would be predicted by adding the independent effects of treatments (kelp absence, elevated nutrients, forecasted CO(2. The positive effects of nutrient and CO(2 enrichment on turfs were, however, inhibited by the presence of kelp, indicating the competitive effect of kelp was stronger than synergistic effects of moderate enrichment of local and global pollutants. Quantification of physicochemical parameters within experimental mesocosms suggests turf inhibition was likely due to an effect of kelp on physical (i.e. shading rather than chemical conditions. Such results indicate that while forecasted climates may increase the probability of phase-shifts, maintenance of intact populations of foundation species could enable the continued strength of interactions and persistence of communities.

  9. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Krishnamoorthi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. ► Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. ► The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. ► Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  10. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India); Krishnamoorthi, S., E-mail: dr.skmoorthi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  11. Atmospheric stability analysis and its relationship with the atmospheric pollution in Salamanca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidalgo, M.R.; Garmendia, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the relationship between the sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter concentrations and the atmospheric stability in Salamanca over 4 year (1978-1982). Of the various indices cited in the bibliography for estimating stratification stability, two were used. First, the Pasquill categories and later a method based on Montgomery's potential, which was the one that gave the best results. (Author)

  12. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (''D'') Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ''D'' pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels

  13. Experimental investigation of the stability of Fe-rich carbonates in the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, E.; Menguy, N.; Auzende, A.; Benzerara, K.; Bureau, H.; Antonangeli, D.; Corgne, A.; Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Perrillat, J.; Guyot, F. J.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonates are the main C-bearing minerals that are transported deep in the Earth's mantle via subduction of the oceanic lithosphere [1]. The fate of carbonates at mantle conditions plays a key role in the deep carbon cycle. Decarbonation, melting or reduction of carbonates will affect the extent and the way carbon is recycled into the deep Earth. To clarify the fate of carbonates in the deep mantle, high-pressure high-temperature experiments were carried out up to 105 GPa and 2850 K on oxide assemblages of (Mg,Fe)O + CO2. The presence of Fe(II) in starting materials induces redox reactions from which Fe(II) is oxidized and a part of the carbon is reduced. This leads to an assemblage of magnetite, diamonds, and carbonates or, pressure depending, their newly discovered Fe(III)-bearing high-pressure polymorphs based on a silicate-like chemistry with tetrahedrally coordinated carbon [2]. Our results show the possibility for carbon to be recycled in the lowermost mantle and provide evidence of a possible coexistence of reduced and oxidized carbon at lower mantle conditions. [1] Sleep, N. H., and K. Zahnle (2001) J. Geophys. Res.-Planets 106(E1), 1373-1399. [2] Boulard et al. (2011) PNAS, 108, 5184-5187.

  14. Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks: On relationships between Arctic clouds, sea ice, and lower tropospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.; Boeke, R.; Hegyi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence other important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these Arctic climate system elements creating the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks, we quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE). In addition, we quantify the covariability between surface CRE and sea ice concentration (SIC). This paper builds on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, a statistically insignificant covariability is found between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, we find a statistically significant increase in the average surface longwave CRE at lower SIC values in fall. Specifically, a +3-5 W m-2 larger longwave CRE is found over footprints with 0% versus 100% SIC. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m-2 are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume, under certain meteorological conditions. Our results also suggest that a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  15. Stability of iron-rich magnesiowüstite in Earth's lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, K.; Fujino, K.; Kuwayama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Shimizu, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    At ambient conditions, MgO periclase and FeO wüstite form a solid solution (Mg1-xFex)O, named ferropericlase (x ≤ 0.5) and magnesiowüstite (x > 0.5). (Mg1-xFex)O ferropericlase is considered to be a major component of Earth's lower mantle, and may play an important role for its structure and dynamics. Iron-rich magnesiowüstite also needs to be considered because of possible iron enrichment at the core-mantle boundary region [e.g., Nomura et al., 2011]. Recent laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments on FeO revealed that NaCl-type (B1) structured FeO underwent an insulator-metal transition at about 70 GPa and 1800 K without any structural transformation [Fischer et al., 2011; Ohta et al., 2012]. These results imply that the metallic B1 FeO would require a two-phase field for the MgO-FeO binary system due to different chemical bonding between insulating MgO and metallic FeO. We performed simultaneous electrical conductivity and x-ray diffraction measurements on (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O and (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O magnesiowüstite up to 140 GPa and 2100 K, and then examined recovered samples by using analytical transmission electron microprobe. We obtained some evidences for the dissociation of (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O into lighter and heavier phases than starting material occurring above 70 GPa and 1900 K, which is most likely due to the metallization of FeO component. On the other hand, we did not observe such dissociation and metallization in (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O. Observed dissociation in (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O might contribute to the heterogeneity in seismic wave and electrical conductivity at the Earth's core-mantle boundary region.

  16. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  17. A research on the postural stability of a person wearing the lower limb exoskeletal robot by the HAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Minsu; Kim, Yeongmin; Lee, Yoseph; Jeon, Doyoung

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a method of detecting the postural stability of a person wearing the lower limb exoskeletal robot with the HAT(Head-Arm-Trunk) model. Previous studies have shown that the human posture is stable when the CoM(Center of Mass) of the human body is placed on the BoS(Base of Support). In the case of the lower limb exoskeletal robot, the motion data, which are used for the CoM estimation, are acquired by sensors in the robot. The upper body, however, does not have sensors in each segment so that it may cause the error of the CoM estimation. In this paper, the HAT(Head-Arm-Trunk) model which combines head, arms, and torso into a single segment is considered because the motion of head and arms are unknown due to the lack of sensors. To verify the feasibility of HAT model, the reflecting markers are attached to each segment of the whole human body and the exact motion data are acquired by the VICON to compare the COM of the full body model and HAT model. The difference between the CoM with full body and that with HAT model is within 20mm for the various motions of head and arms. Based on the HAT model, the XCoM(Extrapolated Center of Mass) which includes the velocity of the CoM is used for prediction of the postural stability. The experiment of making unstable posture shows that the XCoM of the whole body based on the HAT model is feasible to detect the instance of postural instability earlier than the CoM by 20-250 msec. This result may be used for the lower limb exoskeletal robot to prepare for any action to prevent the falling down.

  18. Nitrate pollution of groundwater around a sewage stabilization pond, Kerala India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Shahul Hameed, A.; Velayudhan, K.T.; Jacob, S.; Mathew, M.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the influence of the sewage stabilisation pont of the Calicut Medical College on the quality of water in the open dug wells which are situated in and around the stabilisation pond. The study revealed that domestic wells are becoming increasingly polluted with nitrate in spite of heavy rainfall in the region. The level of nitrate in the observation wells was found to be vary widely during different seasons: from 1.1 to 49.8, 0.7 to 19.5 and from 2.1 to 38.3 mg/l during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. One well had nitrate exceeding the maximum permissible limit specified for drinking water by Bureau of Indian Standards. The problem is more pronounced in summer when the level of nitrate is observed to be on the higher side. (author)

  19. Silent and thrifty. Higher efficiency and lower pollution - a new technology for aircraft traffic; Fluesternde Asketen. Mehr Leistung bei geringerer Umweltbelastung - neue Technik fuer den Flugverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewe, T

    1997-05-01

    Within the next 15 to 20 years, the capacity of aircraft traffic must be doubled to meet the demand. Researchers and developers are now working on passenger jets with reduced pollution levels: Lower noise, lower emissions, and very low fuel consumption will be necessary to meet the demands of the future. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den naechsten 15 bis 20 Jahren muss die Lufttransport-Leistung sich gegenueber heute glatt verdoppeln. Forscher und Entwickler tuefteln an drastisch umweltvertraeglicheren Passagier-Jets: Leiser, schadstoffaermer im Abgas, geradezu spartanisch im Spritverbrauch. Ein Muss - sonst erstickt der Flugverkehr bald an seinem Zuwachs. (orig.)

  20. The use of indigenous plant species and calcium phosphate for the stabilization of highly metal-polluted sites in southern Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kucharski, R.; Sas-Nowosielska, A.; Malkowski, E.; Japenga, J.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Pogrzeba, M.; Krzyzak, J.

    2005-01-01

    Highly metal-polluted (Pb, Cd, Zn) soil from a non-ferrous mine and smelter site in southern Poland, further referred to as Waryski soil, was used to test indigenous plant species for stabilization effectiveness of heavy metals in soils. Results of pilot investigations with commercially available

  1. Wearing a safety harness during treadmill walking influences lower extremity kinematics mainly through changes in ankle regularity and local stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Leslie M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wearing a harness during treadmill walking ensures the subject's safety and is common practice in biomedical engineering research. However, the extent to which such practice influences gait is unknown. This study investigated harness-related changes in gait patterns, as evaluated from lower extremity kinematics during treadmill walking. Findings Healthy subjects (n = 10 walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3 minutes with and without wearing a harness (LiteGait®, Mobility Research, Inc.. In the former condition, no weight support was provided to the subjects. Lower extremity kinematics was assessed in the sagittal plane from the mean (meanRoM, standard deviation (SDRoM and coefficient of variation (CoVRoM of the hip, knee, and ankle ranges of motion (RoM, as well as from the sample entropy (SampEn and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE of the joints' angles. Wearing the harness increased the meanRoM of the hip, the SDRoM and the CoVRoM of the knee, and the SampEn and the LyE of the ankle. In particular, the harness effect sizes for both the SampEn and the LyE of the ankle were large, likely reflecting a meaningful decline in the neuromuscular stabilizing control of this joint. Conclusions Wearing a harness during treadmill walking marginally influences lower extremity kinematics, resulting in more or less subtle changes in certain kinematic variables. However, in cases where differences in gait patterns would be expressed through modifications in these variables, having subjects walk with a harness may mask or reinforce such differences.

  2. Stabilized chitosan/Fe(0)-nanoparticle beads to remove heavy metals from polluted sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Sun, Y; Wang, Z L

    2016-01-01

    Sediment contamination by heavy metals has become a widespread problem that can affect the normal behaviors of rivers and lakes. After chitosan/Fe(0)-nanoparticles (CS-NZVI) beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GLA), their mechanical strength, stability and separation efficiency from the sediment were obviously improved. Moreover, the average aperture size of GLA-CS-NZVI beads was 20.6 μm and NZVI particles were nearly spherical in shape with a mean diameter of 40.2 nm. In addition, the pH showed an insignificant effect on the removal rates from the sediment. Due to the dissolution of metals species into aqueous solutions as an introduction of the salt, the removal rates of all heavy metals from the sediment were increased with an increase of the salinity. The competitive adsorption of heavy metals between the sediment particles and GLA-CS-NZVI beads became stronger as the sediment particles became smaller, leading to decreased removal rates. Therefore, the removal efficiency could be enhanced by optimizing experimental conditions and choosing appropriate materials for the target contaminants.

  3. Relationships between lower tropospheric stability, low cloud cover, and water vapor isotopic composition in the subtropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that govern the relationships between lower tropospheric stability and low-cloud cover is crucial for improved constraints on low-cloud feedbacks and for improving the parameterizations of low-cloud cover used in climate models. The stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor is a sensitive recorder of the balance of moistening and drying processes that set the humidity of the lower troposphere and may thus provide a useful framework for improving our understanding low-cloud processes. In-situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition collected at the NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, along with twice-daily soundings from Hilo and remote sensing of cloud cover, show a clear inverse relationship between the estimated inversion strength (EIS) and the mixing ratios and water vapor δ -values, and a positive relationship between EIS, deuterium excess, and Δ δ D, defined as the difference between an observation and a reference Rayleigh distillation curve. These relationships are consistent with reduced moistening and an enhanced upper-tropospheric contribution above the trade inversion under high EIS conditions and stronger moistening under weaker EIS conditions. The cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, and cloud-top pressure were all found to be higher under low EIS conditions. Inverse modeling of the isotopic data for the highest and lowest terciles of EIS conditions provide quantitative constraints on the cold-point temperatures and mixing fractions that govern the humidity above the trade inversion. The modeling shows the moistening fraction between moist boundary layer air and dry middle tropospheric air 24±1.5% under low EIS conditions is and 6±1.5% under high EIS conditions. A cold-point (last-saturation) temperature of -30C can match the observations for both low and high EIS conditions. The isotopic composition of the moistening source as derived from the inversion (-114±10‰ ) requires moderate

  4. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  5. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin stabilizes lipid-rich coronary plaques. Evaluation using dual-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Tsunenari; Uemura, Shiro; Okayama, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies using invasive modalities have reported that statin therapy stabilizes coronary plaque vulnerability. The serial changes of lipid-rich coronary plaques (LRCPs) during rosuvastatin treatment were evaluated non-invasively in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). A total of 11 consecutive ACS patients, and 13 LRCPs were serially evaluated on DSCT before and 24 weeks after rosuvastatin treatment. Compared with the baseline, there was no change in post-treatment minimal lumen diameter, lumen volume, or longitudinal length of LRCPs. By contrast, the ratio of lipid core volume to plaque volume significantly decreased from 48.0±9.9% to 43.7±10.6% (P=0.04), and plaque volume decreased from 144.5±85.5 mm 3 to 119.8±78.0 mm 3 (P=0.07). The remodeling index of target LRCPs significantly decreased from 1.16±0.10 to 1.06±0.12 (P=0.02). Percent reduction of plaque volume was significantly greater in patients with a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein (L/H ratio ≤1.5) at follow-up than patients with higher L/H ratio (>1.5; median -31.7% vs. -6.8%, P=0.03). Rosuvastatin therapy reduced the volume of lipid cores and LRCPs and increased the CT attenuation value of LRCPs. DSCT is an effective modality for the non-invasive evaluation of LRCPs in patients with ACS. (author)

  6. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: A freshwater bivalve study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: rcompany@ualg.pt; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Shepherd, T.J.; Pearson, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Science Labs., Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  7. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: a freshwater bivalve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Cravo, A; Shepherd, T J; Pearson, G; Bebianno, M J

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  8. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: A freshwater bivalve study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A.; Shepherd, T.J.; Pearson, G.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 /Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance

  9. Tissue sensitivity of the rat upper and lower extrapulmonary airways to the inhaled electrophilic air pollutants diacetyl and acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Joseph A; Smith, Gregory J; Morris, John B

    2014-11-01

    The target site for inhaled vapor-induced injury often differs in mouth-breathing humans compared with nose-breathing rats, thus complicating the use of rat inhalation toxicity data for assessment of human risk. We sought to examine sensitivity of respiratory/transitional nasal (RTM) and tracheobronchial (TBM) mucosa to two electrophilic irritant vapors: diacetyl and acrolein. Computational fluid dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was coupled with biomarker assessment to establish delivered dose-response relationships in RTM and TBM in male F344 rats following 6 h exposure to diacetyl or acrolein. Biomarkers included glutathione status, proinflammatory and antioxidant gene mRNA levels, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Modeling revealed that 0.0094-0.1653 μg acrolein/min-cm(2) and 3.9-21.6 μg diacetyl/min-cm(2) were deposited into RTM/TBM. Results indicate RTM and TBM were generally of similar sensitivity to diacetyl and acrolein. For instance, both tissues displayed induction of antioxidant and proinflammatory genes, and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 after electrophile exposure. Hierarchical cellular response patterns were similar in RTM and TBM but differed between vapors. Specifically, diacetyl exposure induced proinflammatory and antioxidant genes concomitantly at low exposure levels, whereas acrolein induced antioxidant genes at much lower exposure levels than that required to induce proinflammatory genes. Generally, diacetyl was less potent than acrolein, as measured by maximal induction of transcripts. In conclusion, the upper and lower extrapulmonary airways are of similar sensitivity to inhaled electrophilic vapors. Dosimetrically based extrapolation of nasal responses in nose-breathing rodents may provide an approach to predict risk to the lower airways of humans during mouth-breathing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All

  10. Stability and spatio-temporal structure in fish assemblages of two floodplain lagoons of the lower Orinoco River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirson González

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage structure and variability were analyzed in two floodplain lagoons (Las Arhuacas and Los Cardonales along the lower Orinoco over a hydrological cycle. Every three months during continuous three-day sampling, experimental gill nets (5 to 12.5 cm of mesh opening and 1 mm-mesh seine nets were utilized according to the types of habitats presents. A total of 133 fish species were found in Las Arhuacas and 95 species in Cardonales. Fifty five and 17 species were exclusive to Las Arhuacas and Los Cardonales respectively, and 77 were common to both lagoons. In Las Arhuacas, the most speciesrich orders were Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes and Gymnotiformes and in Los Cardonales, the most species-rich orders were Characiformes, Siluriformes, Clupeiformes and Perciformes. The richness, abundance and biomass were significantly higher (p < 0.001 in Arhuacas than in Cardonales. In general, the fishes assemblage was highly variable during the high water phase and moderately stable during low water phase in both lagoons, with more stability or less variability in Cardonales than Arhuacas. Also, there were significant differences in the fish assemblages between the two lagoons, mainly during low waters (ANOSIM; p < 0.001. The species that contributed most to the mean dissimilarity between the lagoons were Hypostomus argus, Aphanotorulus ammophilus, Potamorhina altamazonica, Prochilodus mariae, Loricaria gr. cataphracta, Oxydoras sifontesi, Hydrolycus armatus, Hyphopthalmus edentatus and Pterodoras rivasi. The last four species were more commonly collected in Los Cardonales. Also, the species of small size (mainly SL < 5 cm such as Rhinosardinia amazonica, Moenkhausia sp. 1 "lepidura", Moenkhausia sp. 2, Aphyocharax alburnus, Characidium sp. 1, Moenkhausia sp. 3, Exodon paradoxus and Roeboides dientonito contributed to the mean dissimilarity among the beach and aquatic vegetation habitats. The patterns of the species assemblage

  11. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 2: Leaching characteristics of bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bergfeldt, Brita; Vehlow, Jürgen; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    With the perspective of generating only one solid residue from waste incineration, co-feeding of municipal solid waste and air pollution control residues stabilized by the Ferrox process was investigated in the TAMARA pilot plant incinerator as described in Bergfeldt et al. (Waste Management Research, 22, 49-57, 2004). This paper reports on leaching from the combined bottom ashes. Batch leaching test, pH-static leaching tests, availability tests and column leaching tests were used to characterize the leaching properties. The leaching properties are key information in the context of reuse in construction or in landfilling of the combined residue. In general, the combined bottom ashes had leaching characteristics similar to the reference bottom ash, which contained no APC residue. However, As and Pb showed slightly elevated leaching from the combined bottom ashes, while Cr showed less leaching. The investigated combined bottom ashes had contents of metals comparable to what is expected at steady state after continuous co-feeding of APC residues. Only Cd and Pb were partly volatilized (30-40%) during the incineration process and thus the combined bottom ashes had lower contents of Cd and Pb than expected at steady state. Furthermore, a major loss of Hg was, not surprisingly, seen and co-feeding of Ferrox-products together with municipal solid waste will require dedicated removal of Hg in the flue gas to prevent a build up of Hg in the system. In spite of this, a combined single solid residue from waste incineration seems to be a significant environmental improvement to current technology.

  12. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  13. Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.

    2003-01-01

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization

  14. Pollution control costs of a transboundary river basin: Empirical tests of the fairness and stability of cost allocation mechanisms using game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Ming; Wang, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-07-15

    With rapid economic growth, transboundary river basin pollution in China has become a very serious problem. Based on practical experience in other countries, cooperation among regions is an economic way to control the emission of pollutants. This study develops a game theoretic simulation model to analyze the cost effectiveness of reducing water pollutant emissions in four regions of the Jialu River basin while considering the stability and fairness of four cost allocation schemes. Different schemes (the nucleolus, the weak nucleolus, the Shapley value and the Separable Cost Remaining Benefit (SCRB) principle) are used to allocate regionally agreed-upon water pollutant abatement costs. The main results show that the fully cooperative coalition yielded the highest incremental gain for regions willing to cooperate if each region agreed to negotiate by transferring part of the incremental gain obtained from the cooperation to cover the losses of other regions. In addition, these allocation schemes produce different outcomes in terms of their fairness to the players and in terms of their derived stability, as measured by the Shapley-Shubik Power Index and the Propensity to Disrupt. Although the Shapley value and the SCRB principle exhibit superior fairness and stabilization to the other methods, only the SCRB principle may maintains full cooperation among regions over the long term. The results provide clear empirical evidence that regional gain allocation may affect the sustainability of cooperation. Therefore, it is implied that not only the cost-effectiveness but also the long-term sustainability should be considered while formulating and implementing environmental policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Number of test trials needed for performance stability and interrater reliability of the one leg stand test in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Nielsen, Anni Østergaard; Madsen Topp, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST in patie......Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST...... in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and (3) to provide a test procedure....

  16. Effect of ion entry acceptance conditions on the performance of a quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in upper and lower stability regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.; Taylor, S.; Gibson, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Computer simulation of ion motion in a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been used to examine the effect of initial ion conditions on performance when operated in the first and third zones of the Mathieu stability diagram. Commercial instruments frequently use round electrodes instead of the better-performing hyperbolic electrodes because the cost of manufacturing is lower. However, adverse features are seen when using round electrodes. Here further insight is provided and a possible method of correction is suggested. For the first time, ion origin for the first stability region for a round electrode quadrupole has been reported

  17. Effect of Jaw Clenching on Balance Recovery: Dynamic Stability and Lower Extremity Joint Kinematics after Forward Loss of Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eRinghof

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Postural control is crucial for most tasks of daily living, delineating postural orientation and balance, with its main goal of fall prevention. Nevertheless, falls are common events and have been associated with deficits in muscle strength and dynamic stability. Recent studies reported on improvements in rate of force development and static postural control evoked by jaw clenching activities, potentially induced by facilitation of human motor system excitability. However, there are no studies describing the effects on dynamic stability. The present study, therefore, aimed investigated the effects of submaximum jaw clenching on recovery behavior from forward loss of balance. Participants were twelve healthy young adults, who were instructed to recover balance from a simulated forward fall by taking a single step while either biting at a submaximum force or keeping the mandible at rest. Bite forces were measured by means of hydrostatic splints, whereas a 3D motion capture system was used to analyze spatiotemporal parameters and joint angles, respectively. Additionally, dynamic stability was quantified by the extrapolated CoM concept, designed to determine postural stability in dynamic situations. Paired t-tests revealed that submaximum biting did not significantly influence recovery behavior with respect to any variable under investigation. Therefore, reductions in postural sway evoked by submaximum biting are obviously not transferable to dynamic stability. It is suggested that these contradictions are the result of different motor demands associated with the abovementioned tasks. Furthermore, floor effects and the sample size might be discussed as potential reasons for the absence of significances. Notwithstanding this, the present study also revealed that bite forces under both conditions significantly increased from subjects’ release to touchdown of the recovery limb. Clenching the jaw, hence, seems to be part of a common physiological

  18. The potential role of cAMP as a pollution biomarker of terrestrial environments using the land snail Eobania vermiculata: Correlation with lysosomal membrane stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itziou, A.; Dimitriadis, V.K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Biology

    2009-09-15

    The present study investigates the role of the signal transduction molecule cAMP, and the lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), as biomarkers of terrestrial environmental pollution using the land snail Eobania vermiculata. Snails were exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Ca, Pb and Cu) and organic pollutants (chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl and PAHs) in laboratory conditions for 25 days. In addition, snails were collected from various sites located at different distances away from two polluted areas in northern Greece (the road Agiou Dimitriou in Thessaloniki city and a lignite power station in the district of Kozani). The results of the current investigation showed significantly increased levels of cAMP in the digestive gland of snails, as well as decreased LMS values in all experimental groups compared to control animals. In support of our data, cAMP levels were significantly negatively correlated with the conventional biomarker LMS, thus encouraging the use of cAMP as a new potential stress index in terrestrial pollution biomonitoring studies.

  19. Effect of Jaw Clenching on Balance Recovery: Dynamic Stability and Lower Extremity Joint Kinematics after Forward Loss of Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Ringhof, Steffen; Stein, Thorsten; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans J.; Potthast, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Postural control is crucial for most tasks of daily living, delineating postural orientation and balance, with its main goal of fall prevention. Nevertheless, falls are common events, and have been associated with deficits in muscle strength and dynamic postural stability. Recent studies reported on improvements in rate of force development and static postural control evoked by jaw clenching activities, potentially induced by facilitation of human ...

  20. The significance of lower jaw position in relation to postural stability. Comparison of a premanufactured occlusal splint with the Dental Power Splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, D; Riegel, M; Lin Chung, T; Kopp, S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on postural stability of two different lower jaw positions held in place by splints with eyes open and eyes closed. The postural stability in 21 healthy adult volunteers was investigated using two different sets of occlusal conditions with the lower jaw being at rest either with the eyes opened or closed. Two occlusal splints (standard splint and DPS splint) were used in order to maintain this lower jaw position. The balance behaviour was recorded using a balance platform. In a comparison of the habitual occlusion with the two occlusal splints, the balance posturographic values with the eyes opened fell between 7-9% and those for weight distribution with the eyes closed between 22-26% (with greater improvement being achieved with DPS) with the result that the variability in the range of fluctuations was reduced. The level of positioning accuracy deteriorated with the wearing of a splint between 13% with the DPS splint and 30% with the standard splint. Gender-specific differences of minor importance in relation to the positioning accuracy were recorded, with there being significant differences in the female participants (P≤0.00). An occlusal change in the stomatognathic system impacts on postural stability. Balance deficits seem to correlate with deteriorated body sway, which, according to the results, can be improved by a myocentric bite position using a DPS splint. This is more the case with the eyes closed than with the eyes opened.

  1. Reliability and stability of immobilization remediation of Cd polluted soils using sepiolite under pot and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yi; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xuefeng; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness and persistence are two important criterias to evaluate alternative remediation technology of heavy metal polluted soils. Pot and field studies showed addition of sepiolite was effective in immobilizing Cd in polluted soils, with significant reduction in TCLP extracts (0.6%-49.6% and 4.0%-32.5% reduction in pot and field experiments, respectively) and plant uptake (14.4%-84.1% and 22.8%-61.4% declines in pot and field studies, correspondingly). However, the applications of sepiolite offered a limited guarantee for the safety of edible vegetables in Cd-polluted soils, depending on the soil type, the Cd pollution type and level, and the dose and application frequency of chemical amendments. Bioassays, such as plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and microbial community diversity, indicated a certain degree of recovery of soil metabolic function. Therefore, sepiolite-assisted in situ remediation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and technically applicable, and can be successfully used to reduce Cd enter into the food chain on field scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  3. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  4. Stabilization / solidification of polluted marine dredged sediment of port en Bessin France, using hydraulic binders and silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Ernesto

    2017-09-01

    A large amount of sediment is dredged in France every year. Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments, environmentally reuse of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The first objective of this study is to find an application for reuse of marine dredged sediments materials, as new material for road construction. Hence, serial tests need to be realized to identify if marine dredged sediment could be utilized for road construction. The second goal is to enhance the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of the mix, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the identification of the mechanical characteristics measured on the mixes is compatible with their use as a base course material. The results show that the treatment by hydraulics binders could satisfy the needed mechanical characteristics. The present of Silica Fume is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. However, the proportion of hydraulics binders and silica fume needed to meet prescribed specification is important, so the reuse of the marine dredged sediments of Port-en-Bessin, France in road construction, as an alternative material could be achieved. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shown as expected than the study to identify the chemical characteristic realized. To evaluate the environmental impacts of the used material, leaching test is performed. The leaching test was performed to verify the predicted release of pollutants based on total dissolution. And for the final part, the test results show that the polluted marine dredged sediments could be safely used (in term of environmental impact) as a new material in road construction.

  5. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D.; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita; Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200 g portion per week contributing 3.2 g or 2.8 g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250 mg/day or 1.75 g/week). - Highlights: • A comprehensive study of contaminants and nutrients in farmed- and wild Atlantic salmon. • Wild salmon had higher levels of persistent organic pollutants and mercury than farmed salmon. • Farmed salmon had higher levels of omega-6 fatty acids than wild salmon. • Farmed- and wild salmon had comparable

  6. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine, E-mail: aha@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D.; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S. [Institute of Marine Research,, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2017-05-15

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200 g portion per week contributing 3.2 g or 2.8 g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250 mg/day or 1.75 g/week). - Highlights: • A comprehensive study of contaminants and nutrients in farmed- and wild Atlantic salmon. • Wild salmon had higher levels of persistent organic pollutants and mercury than farmed salmon. • Farmed salmon had higher levels of omega-6 fatty acids than wild salmon. • Farmed- and wild salmon had comparable

  7. Examination of regional pollutant structure in the lower troposphere--some results of the diagnostic atmospheric cross-section experiment (DACSE-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Shannon, J.D.; Hales, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The diurnal variation of the structure of pollutant transport and diffusion in the Ohio River Valley is examined by combining meteorological cross sections with vertical profiles of several air pollutants. An increased frequency of rawinsonde releases from NWS stations at Salem, Dayton and Pittsburgh during the period 1--10 August 1977 was supplemented on 5 and 6 August by vertical profiles taken along the cross-section line by an aircraft. The data on 5 August, a day without convective activity to complicate analyses, merit special study. Analyses of the b/sub scat/ structure superimposed on the meteorological cross sections lend support to the theory of horizontal transport of polluted layers above the nocturnal inversion or developing mixed layer without significant dilution. The effect of the daily breathing of the planetary boundary layer on the vertical structure of pollutants can be seen in the sequence of cross sections

  8. Comparison of the Efficiencies of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles and Stabilized Iron Nanoparticles for Nitrate Reduction from Polluted Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nooralivand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVIN for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, bare zero-valent iron nanoparticles (bare-ZVIN and CMC-ZVIN were synthesized using the borohydride reduction method and their morphological characteristics were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The effects of pH of the aqueous solution, initial nitrate concentration, ZVIN concentration, and contact time on nitrate reduction were investigated as operational parameters and the kinetics of nitrate reduction was studied in batch experiments. The results showed that 93.65% of nitrate was removed by stabilized nanoparticles at pH=6 while non-stabilized nanoparticles at pH=2 were able to remove 85.55% of the nitrate.Furthermore, nitrate reduction was enhanced by increasing ZVIN concentration and contact time while it was decreased as a result of increasing initial nitrate concentration. The major product of nitrate reduction at an acidic pH was found to be ammonium; at an alkaline pH, however, nitrate was converted to nitrogen and nitrite production dropped to less than 2%. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that denitrification of nitrate by the nanoparticles fitted well with first-order and second-order reaction models. The results also demonstrated that the stabilized ZVI nanoparticles were more effective than bare-ZVIN for nitrate reduction in aqueous solutions.

  9. Impact of pozzolanic binder addition on stabilization of polluted dredged sediments on its potential reuse as a new material resource for road construction in Basse Normandie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, E.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments (MDS) and the cost of managing the disposal site is very high, a reutilization of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The primary goal of this research is to find a domain for reuse of MDS materials as a new material regarding the environmental issues, and other requirement needed. In this study, the MDS was used as replacement material in road construction. Hence, various tests need to be realized to identify if MDS could achieve the requirement needed in this domain. The secondary objective is to enhance the geotechnical characteristic and to reduce the pollution content of the MDS, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the geotechnical characteristic. The geotechnical test result shows that the stabilization by hydraulics binders improve the geotechnical characteristic and could fulfil the requirement needed. The present of Fly Ash and Silica Fume in this study is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shows as expected then the study to identify the chemical characteristic was realized. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts, leaching test was performed. The Leaching test result shows that with 7% of Silica Fume and 10% of Fly Ash capable to fulfil the criteria needed, hence, the use of MDS is consider safe in term of geotechnical and environmental impact, as a new material in road construction

  10. The lower-temperature-pressure stability of pyrope in the presence of quartz in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, N.; Jenkins, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) is the dominant component in garnets from type A eclogites. Determining the lower-pressure-temperature (P-T) stability of pyrope in the presence of quartz helps put constraints on the stability of quartz-bearing eclogites and therefore the depths to which crustal rocks in high pressure/ultra-high pressure (HP/UHP) terranes can be transferred. It also defines the lower-pressure stability of the nearly pure pyrope-bearing quartzites of the Dora Maira massif of the Western Alps (Chopin, 1984, Contrib. Min. Pet.). Aside from the approximate boundary proposed by Hensen & Essene (1971, Contrib. Min. Pet.), there has been no detailed study of the lower P-T stability of pyrope + quartz. A reversed determination of the reaction 3 enstatite + 2 kyanite = 2 pyrope + 2 quartz has been done in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 over the P-T range of 900-1100 °C and 1.6-2.5 GPa for durations of 24 hours. Double capsules, one using pure enstatite and the other Al-rich (10 wt% Al2O3) enstatite in the starting mixtures, were used to obtain reversals on the Al content in the orthopyroxene (Opx). Experiments were done using a ½-inch diameter piston-cylinder press and NaCl-pyrex-MgO pressure media. Run products were analyzed using powder XRD and electron microprobe. Reaction direction was readily determined from peak height changes on XRD patterns. The reaction has been bracketed at 1.65 GPa at 1100 °C with > 12 wt% Al2O3 in Opx; 2.05 GPa at 1000 °C with 10 wt% Al2O3 in Opx; and 2.4 GPa at 930 °C with 5 wt% Al2O3 in Opx. The reaction boundary is slightly curved to higher P with increasing T caused by increasing Al in Opx. The boundary observed in this study is about 100 °C or 0.4 GPa higher than previously proposed by Hensen & Essene (1971) and 70-170 °C or 0.6-0.7 GPa higher than the boundary calculated in this system using THERMOCALC ds6.22 (Holland & Powell, 2011, J. Meta. Geol.) and about 1-4 wt% higher Al2O3 contents in Opx. Higher pressure runs in the field

  11. Tests of regional elemental tracers of pollution aerosols. 1. Distinctness of regional signatures, stability during transport, and empirical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.H.; Wunschel, K.R.; Rahn, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The two major requirements for a successful regional tracer system are distinctness of signatures and stability of signatures during transport. Dissimilarity of the five regional signatures from eastern North America is shown by collinearity diagnostics and by apportionment of synthetic samples generated randomly. Stability of regional signatures during transport is shown first by use of tracer elements in coarse and fine aerosol to predict the maximum possible change of ratios from particle-size effects alone and then by examination of actual changes in signatures during transport from the Midwest to Underhill, VT. Two recent empirical validations of the tracer system are presented: qualitative agreement of pulses of mid-western aerosol in Vermont with pulses of perfluorocarbon tracer gas released in Ohio during CAPTEX '83 and reproduction of our three major northeastern and mid-western signatures by other investigators. The tracer system currently uses the seven elements As, Se, Sb, Zn, In, noncrustal Mn, and noncrustal V as measured by instrumental neutron activation

  12. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  13. Fabrication of Z-scheme Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability for organic pollutant degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chaosheng; Zhang, Lu; Jiang, Bo; Zheng, Jingtang; Hu, Ping; Li, Sujuan; Wu, Mingbo; Wu, Wenting

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 composite photocatalysts were prepared by precipitation method. • The composites showed enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The photocorrosion of Ag 3 PO 4 was inhibited due to the introduction of MoS 2 . • Z-scheme mechanism was proposed to explain the enhanced photoactivity. - Abstract: In this study, highly efficient visible-light-driven Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 composite photocatalysts with different weight ratios of MoS 2 were prepared via the ethanol-water mixed solvents precipitation method and characterized by ICP, XRD, HRTEM, FE-SEM, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL analysis. Under visible-light irradiation, Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 composites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The optimal composite with 0.648 wt% MoS 2 content exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity, which can degrade almost all MB under visible-light irradiation within 60 min. Recycling experiments confirmed that the Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 catalysts had superior cycle performance and stability. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 photocatalysts can be mainly ascribed to the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers and the stronger oxidation and reduction ability through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and MoS 2 , in which Ag particles act as the charge separation center. The high photocatalytic stability is due to the successful inhibition of the photocorrosion of Ag 3 PO 4 by transferring the photogenerated electrons of Ag 3 PO 4 to MoS 2 . The evidence of the Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism of the composite photocatalysts could be obtained from the active species trapping experiments and the photoluminescence technique.

  14. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  15. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and/or improve health in homes using solid fuel in lower and middle income countries: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Reginald; Ochieng, Caroline A; Semple, Sean; Juvekar, Sanjar; Emina, Jacques; Armah, Frederick Ato; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-03-04

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) interventions are widely promoted as a means of reducing indoor air pollution/health from solid fuel use; and research addressing impact of these interventions has increased substantially in the past two decades. It is timely and important to understand more about effectiveness of these interventions. We describe the protocol of a systematic review to (i) evaluate effectiveness of IAP interventions to improve indoor air quality and/or health in homes using solid fuel for cooking and/or heating in lower- and middle-income countries, (ii) identify the most effective intervention to improve indoor air quality and/or health, and (iii) identify future research needs. This review will be conducted according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported following the PRISMA statement. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS, and PubMed searches were conducted in September 2013 and updated in November 2014 (and include any further search updates in February 2015). Additional references will be located through searching the references cited by identified studies and through the World Health Organization Global database of household air pollution measurements. We will also search our own archives. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment of all included papers will be conducted independently by five reviewers. The study will provide insights into what interventions are most effective in reducing indoor air pollution and/or adverse health outcomes in homes using solid fuel for cooking or heating in lower- or middle-income countries. The findings from this review will be used to inform future IAP interventions and policy on poverty reduction and health improvement in poor communities who rely on biomass and solid fuels for cooking and heating. The review has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42014009768 ).

  16. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in the lower troposphere of the North-and South-Atlantic Ocean. Studies of global baseline pollution. Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreitmueller, J.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified in air samples of the tropospheric boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples were taken on the German research vessel 'Polarstern' during north-south cruises across the Atlantic Ocean (1990, 1991), and on the Capo Verde islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (1992). Values for the sum of PCB were between 48 pg/m 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [ in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 1.3; PCB 52: 5.0; PCB 101: 3.0; PCB 118: ≤0.5; PCB 138: 1; PCB 153: 1; PCB 180: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.3; PCB 52: 3.4; PCB 101: ≤0.5; PCB 118: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.6; PCB 52: 11.7; PCB 101: 28.4; PCB 118: 9; PCB 138: 21; PCB 153: 18; PCB 180: 5.5) were measured of the coast of South Patagonia. A difference depending on latitude and on terrestrial influenced air masses between the lower and the higher chlorinated congeners was observed. The levels of three- and tetrachlorinated congeners were highest in the Trade Wind regions. The contents of the higher chlorinated congeners had maxima in samples influenced by continental air masses. A correlation of the levels of the lower chlorinated congeners in air over the South Atlantic with the surface water temperature and thus with the temperature dependent gas/water partition coefficient K gw was observed. (orig.)

  17. Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nakivubo wetland, which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years, is ecologically stressed by agricultural and infrastructural developments. Field studies were carried out to assess the hydraulic loading, pollution profile, stability and water quality of this wetland. The upper and lower ...

  18. Lower levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Lock, Erik-Jan; Rasinger, Josef D; Nøstbakken, Ole Jakob; Hannisdal, Rita; Karlsbakk, Egil; Wennevik, Vidar; Madhun, Abdullah S; Madsen, Lise; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Ørnsrud, Robin

    2017-05-01

    Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). PBDE, endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, cadmium and lead levels were low and comparable in both wild and farmed fish, and there was no significant difference in the marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. The total fat content was significantly higher in farmed than wild salmon due to a higher content of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a higher content of omega-6 fatty acids. The omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio was considerably lower in farmed than wild salmon due to the high level of omega-6 fatty acids. Contaminant concentrations in Atlantic salmon were well below maximum levels applicable in the European Union. Atlantic salmon, both farmed and wild, is a good source of EPA and DHA with a 200g portion per week contributing 3.2g or 2.8g respectively, being almost twice the intake considered adequate for adults by the European Food Safety Authority (i.e. 250mg/day or 1.75g/week). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  20. dispersion characteristics of settleable and dissolvable pollutants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implication of this in waste stabilization pond design was also discussed. KEYWORDS: Dispersion, settleable pollutants, waste stabilization ponds. INTRODUCTION. A waste ...... and Soil Pollution 52, 237-245. Agunwamba, J. C., 1991.

  1. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Lowered quality of life in mood disorders is associated with increased neuro-oxidative stress and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and use of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Caroline Sampaio; Maes, Michael; Roomruangwong, Chutima; Moraes, Juliana Brum; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Anderson, George; de Melo, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli; Drozdstoj, Stoyanov; Moreira, Estefania; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-04-17

    Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-BREF scale was used to assess 4 QoL subdomains. Peripheral blood malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products, paraoxonaxe/CMPAase activity, a composite index of nitro-oxidative stress, and basal TSH were measured. In the total WHOQoL score, 17.3% of the variance was explained by increased advanced oxidation protein products and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity and male gender. Physical HRQoL (14.4%) was associated with increased MDA and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity. Social relations HRQoL (17.4%) was predicted by higher nitro-oxidative index and TSH values, while mental and environment HRQoL were independently predicted by CMPAase activity. Finally, 73.0% of the variance in total HRQoL was explained by severity of depressive symptoms, use of anticonvulsants, lower income, early lifetime emotional neglect, MDA levels, the presence of mood disorders, and suicidal ideation. These data show that lowered HRQoL in major affective disorders could at least in part result from the effects of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, lowered antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher levels of TSH. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Lowering data retention voltage in static random access memory array by post fabrication self-improvement of cell stability by multiple stress application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new version of the post fabrication static random access memory (SRAM) self-improvement technique, which utilizes multiple stress application. It is demonstrated that, using a device matrix array (DMA) test element group (TEG) with intrinsic channel fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) six-transistor (6T) SRAM cells fabricated by the 65 nm technology, the lowering of data retention voltage (DRV) is more effectively achieved than using the previously proposed single stress technique.

  5. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  6. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Wibowo, Firmanul Catur; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-01-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research and Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator. (paper)

  7. The Effect of Local Fatigue Induced at Proximal and Distal Muscles of Lower Extremity in Sagittal Plane on Visual Dependency in Quiet Standing Postural Stability of Healthy Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Soleymani-Far

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of local muscle fatigue induced at proximal and distal segments of lower extremity on sagittal plane mover on visual dependency in quiet standing postural stability. Materials & Methods: In this Quasi–experimental study (before – after comparison sagittal plane prime movers of the ankle and hip musculature were fatigued using isokinetic contractions at two test sessions with a randomized order and one week interval. Twenty five healthy young female students were َselected by using non probability selection and sample of convenience and asked to maintain single leg upright posture as immobile as possible. RMS and SD of Center of Pressure displacements were assessed in 30 seconds and consequently, the eyes were closed after 15 seconds. A analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures was used to analyze the effect of the following factors over two periods of 5 seconds immediately before and after eye closure: (1 fatigue, (2 vision, (3 segment of fatigue. Results: The main effects of each within-subject factors (fatigue, vision and segment of fatigue were significant (P<0.05. The analysis of RMS and SD of Center of Pressure demonstrated a significant interaction between fatigue and vision, and fatigue and segment of fatigue so that the effects of Fatigue on Proximal segment and eye closed conditions were increased. Conclusion: The visual dependency for control of postural stability incremented following muscle fatigue. Proximal muscle fatigue lead to exaggeration of visual dependency for control of postural stability. Based on the present results, emphasis on the proprioception of proximal segment of lower extremity may be recommended for postural stability training.

  8. Using Stable Isotopes in Water Vapor to Diagnose Relationships Between Lower-Tropospheric Stability, Mixing, and Low-Cloud Cover Near the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, are merged with soundings from Hilo to show an inverse relationship between the estimated inversion strength (EIS) and isotopically derived measures of lower-tropospheric mixing. Remote sensing estimates of cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, and cloud top pressure were all found to be higher (lower) under low (high) EIS. Inverse modeling of the isotopic data corresponding to terciles of EIS conditions provide quantitative constraints on the last-saturation temperatures and mixing fractions that govern the humidity above the trade inversion. The mixing fraction of water vapor transported from the boundary layer to Mauna Loa decreases with respect to EIS at a rate of about 3% K-1, corresponding to a mixing ratio decrease of 0.6 g kg-1 K-1. A last-saturation temperature of 240 K can match all observations. This approach can be applied in other settings and may be used to test models of low-cloud climate feedbacks.

  9. Effects of Volitional Spine Stabilization and Lower-Extremity Fatigue on the Knee and Ankle During Landing Performance in a Population With Recurrent Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddas, Ram; Sawyer, Steven F; Sizer, Phillip S; Brooks, Toby; Chyu, Ming-Chien; James, C Roger

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent lower back pain (rLBP) and neuromuscular fatigue are independently thought to increase the risk of lower extremity (LE) injury. Volitional preemptive abdominal contraction (VPAC) is thought to improve lumbar spine and pelvis control in individuals with rLBP. The effects of VPAC on fatigued landing performance in individuals with rLBP are unknown. To determine the effects of VPAC and LE fatigue on landing performance in a rLBP population. Cross-sectional pretest-posttest cohort control design. A clinical biomechanics laboratory. 32 rLBP (age 21.2 ± 2.7 y) but without current symptoms and 33 healthy (age 20.9 ± 2.3 y) subjects. (i) Volitional preemptive abdominal contraction using abdominal bracing and (ii) fatigue using submaximal free-weight squat protocol with 15% body weight until task failure was achieved. Knee and ankle angles, moments, electromyographic measurements from semitendinosus and vastus medialis muscles, and ground reaction force (GRF) were collected during 0.30 m drop-jump landings. The VPAC resulted in significantly earlier muscle onsets across all muscles with and without fatigue in both groups (mean ± SD, 0.063 ± 0.016 s earlier; P ≤ .001). Fatigue significantly delayed semitendinosus muscle onsets (0.033 ± 0.024 s later; P ≤ .001), decreased GRF (P ≤ .001), and altered landing kinematics in a variety of ways. The rLBP group exhibited delayed semitendinosus and vastus medialis muscle onsets (0.031 ± 0.028 s later; P ≤ .001) and 1.8° less knee flexion at initial contact (P ≤ .008). The VPAC decreases some of the detrimental effects of fatigue on landing biomechanics and thus may reduce LE injury risk in a rLBP population.

  10. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  11. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  12. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  13. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  14. The structure evolution of biochar from biomass pyrolysis and its correlation with gas pollutant adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingquan; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2017-12-01

    Biochar is carbon-rich, porous and with a great potential in gas pollutant controlling. The physical-chemical structure of biochar is important for the application. This paper firstly reviewed the evolution behavior of physical-chemical structure for biochar during pyrolysis. At lower temperature (700°C), it may transit into a "graphite microcrystalline structure", the porosity and functional groups were diminished correspondingly. The modification of biochar and its application as sorbent for gas pollutant were also reviewed. Activation and doping can significantly increase the porosity and special functional groups in biochar, which is favorable for gas pollutant adsorption. With a higher porosity, the adsorption capacity of gas pollutant is bigger, however, the functional groups determined the sorption stability of gas pollutant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  16. V.I. Vernadskiy study of biochemical cycles and role of biocenoses trophic structure in their stabilization under background conditions and at chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezel, V.S.; Bel'skij, E.A.; Bel'skaya, E.A.; Zhujkova, T.V.; Mukhacheva, S.V.; Nesterkov, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    In the present report the participation of different trophic belonging organisms in biogeochemical cycles at the pollution of the environment by aerogenic emissions of metallurgical enterprises are discussed. Investigation in and around southern taiga of Middle Ural in liable to heavy metals contamination areas was made. Several areas with different level of soil contamination from background uncontaminated (at a distance 20-30 km from emission source) to buffer (4-7 km) and impact (1-2 km) were separated out. Mechanism of chemical elements accumulation by different components of terrestrial ecosystems that the aggregate of trophic levels present: depository environment (soil), producers (plants), consumers of several levels (phytophages, zoophages) was studied. Accumulation of chemical elements was considered in biomass of trophic levels both with content of chemical elements in the soil on a regional background level and by their intensive contamination. The findings enable to evaluate the quantity of chemical elements involved in biogenic cycles by different trophic belonging organisms

  17. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  18. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  19. Chemical and biological assessment of Cd-polluted sediment for land use: The effect of stabilization using chitosan-coated zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-15

    Disposal of dredged sediment contaminated with heavy metals on site or in landfills inevitably causes leaching of metals that generate new environmental problems. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of stabilizing heavy metal Cd in sediment taken from Dongting Lake, China, using a chitosan-coated zeolite, and assessed the feasibility of reusing the stabilized sediment in river bank soil based on chemical and biological analyses. Results showed that the addition of chitosan-coated zeolite significantly reduced acid-exchangeable Cd by 8% in the dredged sediment and 7% in a sediment-soil mixture. Cadmium leachability was greatly reduced in the amended sediment or sediment-soil mixture. Toxicity bioassay using Eisenia fetida showed the mortality rate of worms reduced by 16% in sediment-soil mixture with a Cd concentration of 550 mg/kg and by 17% under a Cd concentration of 250 mg/kg, both with the addition of modified zeolite. Moreover, assimilation of Cd in the earthworms was decreased by a maximum of 36 mg/kg in the sediment-soil mixture with zeolite amendment. These results indicate that the reuse of Cd-contaminated sediment following chitosan-coated zeolite modification is a feasible option for treating the dredged sediment, and could thus benefit both aquatic and terrestrial systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  1. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  2. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  3. Recent changes (1973-2014 versus 1903-1972) in the flow regime of the Lower Paraná River and current fluvial pollution warnings in its Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F; Borús, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in flow regimes of large rivers may originate or increase risks to ecosystems and humans. The Paraná River basin (South America) undergoes human pressures (e.g., heavy damming in the upper basin, deforestation, and mixed pollution) that may affect the water quantity and quality of its terminal Delta (Argentina). In this study, after applying univariate and multivariate change-point detection and trend analyses to the daily data series of flows incoming to the Delta (Paraná-Santa Fe section), flow characteristics were compared by Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Environmental Flow Components (EFC). Some flood characteristics were also compared from hydrometric levels in the middle Delta (San Pedro station). Chemical and microbiological water variables in the main rivers of the "Paraná Delta" Biosphere Reserve were examined during two extreme hydrologic years (October 2008 to July 2010) to detect potential risk factors in association with hydrologic conditions. In the Lower Paraná River, a historical period (1903-1972) and two more altered periods (1973-1999 wet period and 2000-2014 dry period) were identified. Flow duration curves evidenced different changes in both altered periods, reflecting the joint effect of climatic variability and human influence. The most evident alterations in the flow regime were the lack of record of the extreme-low-flow component, the attenuation of monthly flow seasonality, and the increase in the number of reversals (dry period) and in the variability of maximum and minimum flow dates. These alterations are consistent with the monthly and daily flow regulation by upstream dams evidenced by available data from the current dry period. In the middle Delta, the marked monthly seasonality in flood days decreased only in the wet period. The proportion between the number of flood days exceeding the evacuation level and that of those exceeding the warning level doubled in the wet period but decreased only

  4. Turbines, a manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of pollutant emissions in turbines lower than 10 MW; Turbines, proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    In order to comply with the new French regulations concerning 2-to-20 MW turbines and with regulations in other countries, Turbomeca is already proposing engines with water or steam injection allowing for a 40 pc to 80 pc decrease in NOx emissions. Turbomeca is developing new combustion chambers with lean pre-mixing and low pollutant emissions (NOx inferior to 75 mg/Nm{sup 3} and CO inferior to 50 mg/Nm{sup 3}) that can be adapted to existing engines or installed on developing ones. Turbomeca is also studying catalytic combustion chambers with very low pollutant emission levels (NOx and CO inferior to 20 mg/Nm{sup 3})

  5. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  6. 33 CFR 155.240 - Damage stability information for oil tankers and offshore oil barges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... that their vessels have prearranged, prompt access to computerized, shore-based damage stability and...

  7. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  8. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  9. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  10. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  11. A manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of polluting emissions from turbines with a power lower than 10 MW; Turbines. Proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the industrial turbines manufactured by Turbomeca company and with the way to reduce the pollutant emissions in agreement with the French regulation on combustion and environment. After a recall of the functioning conditions and the performances requested in turbines combustion chamber, the paper analyzes the different existing solutions used for the reduction of pollutants emissions (water injection, weak, rich and dry low NOx combustion, catalytic combustion) and their cost/performance ratio. Then Turbomeca`s applied research on combustion chambers is described (conventional chambers with water injection, specific low emission chamber of Eurodyn turbines and adaptable to other existing engines, 2D numerical simulation of combustion kinetics, low pre-mixed combustion chambers, catalytic combustion chambers). (J.S.)

  12. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  13. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  14. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  15. Mining-related nonpoint-source pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Gorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the effects of increased mining activity on surface and groundwater. The topics covered include pollutant sources, contaminant transport and fate, trace element toxicity, pollution control and abatement, treating acid mine drainage, modern constructed wetlands and site reclamation including site stabilization, refuse burial and sludge application

  16. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  17. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  19. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  1. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  2. Dispersion and transport of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslik, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the physical mechanisms that govern the dispersion and transport of air pollutant; the influence of the state of the 'carrying fluid', i.e. the role of meteorology; and finally, outlines the different techniques of assessing the process. Aspects of physical mechanisms and meteorology covered include: fate of an air pollutant; turbulence and dispersion; transport; wind speed and direction; atmospheric stability; and the role of atmospheric water. Assessment techniques covered are: concentrations measurements; modelling meteorological observations; and tracer releases. It is concluded that the only way to reduce air pollution is to pollute less. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  4. Classification,Hazards and Countermeasures of Agricultural Environmental Pollution Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; CHUAI; Haixia; ZHOU; Jianping; ZHAO; Shubo; CHENG; Jiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural environmental pollution emergencies have become a hot research topic because of the high incidence and influence depth.This paper introduces classification and features of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies:by pollutant type,it falls into organic pollution emergencies and inorganic pollution emergencies;by the approach of entering agricultural environment,it falls into water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies and non-water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies.Hazards of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies are analyzed from 4 perspectives:personal security,indirect loss,ecological environment and social stability.In view of the hazards,countermeasures are given to deal with the pollution emergencies as(i)establishing a risk evaluation mechanism for agricultural environment;(ii)enhancing the capacity of handling agricultural environmental pollution emergencies;(iii)introducing new management concepts for environmental emergencies,and cultivating keen emergency management consciousness.

  5. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  7. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  8. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1996-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  9. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  10. Characteristics and classification of PM2.5 pollution episodes in Beijing from 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqi; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Hanyu; Lv, Zhe

    2018-01-15

    During the period of 2013-2015, a total of 34 PM 2.5 pollution episodes occurred in Beijing, each of which remained for at least 2days. Among that, 28 times occurred in winter half year with the average concentration of 243.1μg/m 3 and summer half year with the average concentration of 194.1μg/m 3 . These episodes were mainly associated with lower wind speed and lower visibility as well as higher relative humidity, indicating that they belonged to heavy pollution under static stability. The PM 2.5 pollution was classified into two categories according to the back trajectory analysis and meteorological background field. Category I, accounting for 22 times among all the pollution episodes, was due to air mass transport from Beijing's southern regions with north-south direction pressure gradient and sparse isopiestic. And category II was mainly led by northwestern air masses accompanied with a large area of uniform pressure field. Then, a typical case study was conducted for each category to recognize the sub-region contribution to Beijing's PM 2.5 pollution based on WRF-CAMx modeling system, and the simulation results indicated that local emission source contribution decreased significantly during the accumulation phase for category I, but increased during that of category II, with an average contribution of 47.3% and 77.1% during the entire pollution period of each category, respectively. Two red alerts of air pollution occurred in December 2015 were also analyzed based on the episode classification. It was found that the second red alert pollution episode belonged to category II. The emission control measures in Beijing worked more obviously with the reduction effect ratio of 15.4% compared to the first red alert period (9.7%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  12. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Steyn, Douw G.

    2011-01-01

    formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate

  13. Reducing Air Pollution from Passenger Cars and Trucks (Text Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the text explanation of an infographic about reducing air pollution viaTier 3 Vehicles & fuel standards. Tier 3 vehicle and fuel standards will provide substantial pollution reduction at lower cost.

  14. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  15. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  16. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  17. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  18. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  19. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  20. Cable Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottura, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  1. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  3. Controlling the monopolistic polluter: nihilism or eclecticism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.

    1981-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the consequences of pollution control when the polluter is a monopolist who can choose between abating pollution by reducing output and by adopting a less-polluting technology. It is suggested that the risk of welfare losses resulting from control policy is lower when technology is flexible than when it is rigid. Nevertheless some risk does remain, so the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible use of selective control instruments to keep the risk to a minimum. 11 references, 1 figure.

  4. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  5. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  6. Polluted soils with heavy metals. Stabilization by magnesium oxide. Ex-situ and in-situ testings; Suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Estabilizacion con oxido de magnesio. Ensayos ex situ-in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenoz, S.; Hernandez, J.; Gangutia, N.

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the use of Low-Grade MgO as a stabiliser agent for polluted soil reclaim. Low-Grade MgO may be an economically feasible alternative in the stabilisation of heavy metals from heavily contaminated soils. The effectiveness of Low-Grade MgO has been studied in three ex-situ stabilisation of heavily polluted soils contaminated by the flue-dust of pyrite roasting. LG-MgO provides an alkali reservoir guaranteeing long-term stabilisation without varying the pH conditions. The success of the ex-situ stabilisation was corroborated with the analysis of heavy metals in the leachates collected from the landfill o ver a long period of time. The study also includes the results obtained in an in-situ pilot scale stabilisation of contaminated soil. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. Light pollution : working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Stefan; Arns, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is one of the fastest growing and most pervasive of environmental pollution (Chepesiuk, 2009). In the last couple of years, a lot of research has been done about the effects of light pollution. The interest in light pollution has been growing in many fields of science, extending from

  8. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  9. Analysis of smoke trailers at individual classes of atmosphere stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carach, V.; Macala, J.

    2007-01-01

    At the present most endangered element of the environment is currently atmosphere and its pollution that rapidly accrue. Pollutants are emitted from air pollution sources. The output of pollutant from air pollution source is creating so-called smoke screen. Smoke screens can be observed from point sources of air pollution - smokestacks, up-cast. The purpose of this article was to build theoretical models of smoke screens rise from point source at different meteorological conditions characterized with fifth classes of atmosphere stability. (authors)

  10. An Optimal Lower Eigenvalue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal lower eigenvalue system is studied, and main theorems including a series of necessary and suffcient conditions concerning existence and a Lipschitz continuity result concerning stability are obtained. As applications, solvability results to some von-Neumann-type input-output inequalities, growth, and optimal growth factors, as well as Leontief-type balanced and optimal balanced growth paths, are also gotten.

  11. The Dynamic Evolution of Firms’ Pollution Control Strategy under Graded Reward-Penalty Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The externality of pollution problem makes firms lack enough incentive to reduce pollution emission. Therefore, it is necessary to design a reasonable environmental regulation mechanism so as to effectively urge firms to control pollution. In order to inspire firms to control pollution, we divide firms into different grades according to their pollution level and construct an evolutionary game model to analyze the interaction between government’s regulation and firms’ pollution control under graded reward-penalty mechanism. Then, we discuss stability of firms’ pollution control strategy and derive the condition of inspiring firms to control pollution. Our findings indicate that firms tend to control pollution after long-term repeated games if government’s excitation level and monitoring frequency meet some conditions. Otherwise, firms tend to discharge pollution that exceeds the stipulated standards. As a result, in order to effectively control pollution, a government should adjust its excitation level and monitoring frequency reasonably.

  12. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed.

  13. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  14. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  15. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  16. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  17. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  18. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m 3 for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Renewable Resources, Environmental Pollution, and International Migration

    OpenAIRE

    KENJI KONDO

    2013-01-01

    We develop a two-country model with two industries: the smokestack manufacturing industry, which generates pollution, and the transboundary renewable resource industry. With no trade, migration occurs from the foreign country, with lower manufacturing productivity, to the home country. If the gap in pollution abatement technology, which is superior in the home country, dominates the productivity gap, both countries gain from migration. Under a free trade equilibrium, we also show that if the ...

  20. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  2. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such pollutants ... spheric transport processes. In rural regions ... response of redox potential: those which are fixed in reducing conditions ... pollution in urban areas of northern Britain in the eighteenth .... adjusting the desired flame condition, the instrument is cali-.

  3. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  5. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  6. Microbial control of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J C; Gadd, G M; Herbert, R A; Jones, C W; Watson-Craik, I A [eds.

    1992-01-01

    12 papers are presented on the microbial control of pollution. Topics covered include: bioremediation of oil spills; microbial control of heavy metal pollution; pollution control using microorganisms and magnetic separation; degradation of cyanide and nitriles; nitrogen removal from water and waste; and land reclamation and restoration.

  7. Air pollution and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  8. Meteorological conditions during a severe, prolonged regional heavy air pollution episode in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xueliang; Cao, Weihua; Huo, Yanfeng; Yang, Guanying; Yu, Caixia; He, Dongyan; Deng, Weitao; Fu, Wei; Ding, Heming; Zhai, Jing; Cheng, Long; Zhao, Xuhui

    2018-03-01

    A severe, prolonged and harmful regional heavy air pollution episode occurred in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017. In this paper, the pollutant characteristics and the meteorological formation mechanism of this pollution event, including climate anomalies, surface weather conditions, planetary boundary layer structure and large-scale circulation features, were analysed based on observational pollution data, surface meteorological data, sounding data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results are as follows. (1) Five pollution stages were identified in eastern China. The two most severe episodes occurred from December 27, 2016 to January 4, 2017 and from January 8 to 12 2017. During these two pollution episodes, fine mode particles were major contributors, and hourly PM2.5 concentrations often exceeded 150 μg/m3, reaching a maximum of 333 μg/m3 at Fuyang station. Gaseous pollutants were transformed into secondary aerosols through heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PM2.5. (2) Compared with the same period over the years 2000-2016, 2017 presented meteorological field climate anomalies in conjunction with unfavourable surface conditions (weak winds, high relative humidity, fewer hours of sunshine, high cloud cover) and adverse atmospheric circulation (weak East Asian winter monsoon and an abnormal geopotential height of 500 hPa), which caused poorer visibility in 2017 than in the other analysed years. (3) During the development of heavy pollution event, unfavourable surface weather conditions, including poorer visibility, weaker pressure, higher relative humidity, lower wind speed with unfavourable wind direction and less precipitation suppressed the horizontal diffusion ability of air pollutants. Furthermore, the unfavourable structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was the key cause of the rapid PM2.5 increase. The deep, strong temperature inversion layer and weak vertical wind velocity could have suppressed vertical motion and enhanced

  9. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  10. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  11. Bioremediation of soil and water: application to chemical and nuclear pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavasseur, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Bioremediation is a branch of biotechnology that uses natural or diverted biological mechanisms to address environmental problems. The biological agents can be simple organic molecules, such as DNA or antibodies, or live or dead organisms (bacteria, microalgae, fungi, higher algae and plants). Phyto-remediation refers more specifically to using plants to decontaminate polluted soil, water, or air. Unlike organic pollutants such as PCBs1, TNT2, TCE3, which can be metabolized by soil microorganisms and plant roots, radionuclides - like most heavy metals - cannot be degraded. Thus, bioremediation strategies for radionuclides will consist into: - stabilization/mineralization to reduce their bioavailability through a change in their redox state; - for soil, their extraction using the plant nutrition mechanisms; - for polluted solutions, their extraction using the 'cation traps' properties of plant cell walls. Compared to physicochemical methods conventionally used to decontaminate soils but which lead to a sharp decline in fertility and productivity, bioremediation is considered a friendly environmental technology. An important advantage of this technique is its cost, much lower than traditional remediation techniques. By cons, bioremediation cannot be applied in an emergency, because processing times are spread over several years - even decades - depending on the degree of pollution. Therefore current research focuses on optimizing the processing time. We present in this paper several examples of in situ bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides, and we discuss in conclusion the negative and positive aspects of this technique. (author)

  12. Enhanced air pollution via aerosol-boundary layer feedback in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T; Järvi, L; Kerminen, V-M; Ding, A J; Sun, J N; Nie, W; Kujansuu, J; Virkkula, A; Yang, X-Q; Fu, C B; Zilitinkevich, S; Kulmala, M

    2016-01-12

    Severe air pollution episodes have been frequent in China during the recent years. While high emissions are the primary reason for increasing pollutant concentrations, the ultimate cause for the most severe pollution episodes has remained unclear. Here we show that a high concentration of particulate matter (PM) will enhance the stability of an urban boundary layer, which in turn decreases the boundary layer height and consequently cause further increases in PM concentrations. We estimate the strength of this positive feedback mechanism by combining a new theoretical framework with ambient observations. We show that the feedback remains moderate at fine PM concentrations lower than about 200 μg m(-3), but that it becomes increasingly effective at higher PM loadings resulting from the combined effect of high surface PM emissions and massive secondary PM production within the boundary layer. Our analysis explains why air pollution episodes are particularly serious and severe in megacities and during the days when synoptic weather conditions stay constant.

  13. Infecção pós-estabilização intramedular das fraturas diafisárias dos membros inferiores: protocolo de tratamento Post-stabilization infection of lower limbs' shaft fractures: a treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsander Guillaumon Pereira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento das infecções pós-estabilização intramedular das fraturas dos membros inferiores apresenta uma grande variedade de opções, desde a limpeza cirúrgica com manutenção da haste até a retirada da haste e colocação de fixador externo. O espaçador diafisário ainda é uma técnica pouco utilizada para o tratamento desse tipo de infecção, existindo poucos relatos na literatura sobre sua aplicação. No IOT HCFMUSP, esta técnica vem sendo empregada de maneira crescente e, no presente trabalho, temos o objetivo de descrever o protocolo de tratamento utilizado em nossa instituição, bem como a apresentação de nossa casuística inicial. O protocolo consiste na antibioticoterapia endovenosa, retirada da haste intra-medular, desbridamento cirúrgico do canal medular e colocação do espaçador diafisário. Revisamos retrospectivamente o prontuário de 11 pacientes com 13 fraturas, sendo cinco femorais e oito tibiais, submetidos à técnica apresentada. O tempo de seguimento variou de 6 a 36 meses, média de 14,27 meses, com resultados satisfatórios ocorridos em dez das treze fraturas estudadas, representando uma taxa de eficácia de 76,93%. Concluímos que o método representa uma boa alternativa para o tratamento destes casos, necessitando ainda novos trabalhos comparativos para a avaliação de suas vantagens e para difundir o uso do método.Treatment of infection following intramedullary nailing of lower limbs present a large variety of options, that goes from debridement and maintenance of the nail up to the its removal and external fixation of the limb. The cement rod is an unusual technique employed for treating this kind of infection, although little is found in literature about its application. At the IOT HC-FMUSP, this technique has been increasingly employed and the purpose of this article is to describe the treatment protocol used in our institution. The protocol consists in intravenous antibiotic therapy, removal

  14. Characteristics of Turbulent Transfer during Episodes of Heavy Haze Pollution in Beijing in Winter 2016/17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Zheng, Shuwen; Wei, Wei; Wu, Bingui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Cai, Xuhui; Song, Yu

    2018-02-01

    We analyzed the structure and evolution of turbulent transfer and the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer in relation to aerosol concentrations during an episode of heavy haze pollution from 6 December 2016 to 9 January 2017. The turbulence data were recorded at Peking University's atmospheric science and environment observation station. The results showed a negative correlation between the wind speed and the PM2.5 concentration. The turbulence kinetic energy was large and showed obvious diurnal variations during unpolluted (clean) weather, but was small during episodes of heavy haze pollution. Under both clean and heavy haze conditions, the relation between the non-dimensional wind components and the stability parameter z/ L followed a 1/3 power law, but the normalized standard deviations of the wind speed were smaller during heavy pollution events than during clean periods under near-neutral conditions. Under unstable conditions, the normalized standard deviation of the potential temperature σ θ /| θ *| was related to z/ L, roughly following a -1/3 power law, and the ratio during pollution days was greater than that during clean days. The three-dimensional turbulence energy spectra satisfied a -2/3 power exponent rate in the high-frequency band. In the low-frequency band, the wind velocity spectrum curve was related to the stability parameters under clear conditions, but was not related to atmospheric stratification under polluted conditions. In the dissipation stage of the heavy pollution episode, the horizontal wind speed first started to increase at high altitudes and then gradually decreased at lower altitudes. The strong upward motion during this stage was an important dynamic factor in the dissipation of the heavy haze.

  15. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  16. PHYTOREMEDIATION: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ELIMINATE POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto Garcia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation consists of a set of technologies that exploit the ability of some plants to absorb, accumulate, metabolize, volatilize or stabilize pollutants that are present in soil, air, water or sediments such as: heavy metals, radioactive metals, organic compounds, and compounds derived from petroleum. Phytoremediation offers numerous advantages in relation to the physicochemical methods that are used nowadays, for example, its wide applicability and low cost. This review provides an overview of the various phytocorrective techniques employed for remediation of polluted soil and water; as well as the potencial that offers the use of transgenic plants.

  17. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  18. Stabilizing Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    international intervention in Niger. Their main objective is to secure their own strategic, economic and political interests by strengthening the Nigerien authorities through direct intervention and capacity building activities. For western states reinforcing state security institutions and stabilizing elite...

  19. Healthy neighborhoods: walkability and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-11-01

    The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O(3)) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O(3) was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. All three attributes exhibit an urban-rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O(3) concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O(3) concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O(3)). "Sweet-spot" neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident's exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.

  20. Advances in Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-01

    Pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO)), sulphur dioxide (SO2), sulphur trioxide (SO3), carbon dioxide (CO2), mercury (Hg) and particulate matter (PM), are formed when coal is combusted in a power plant boiler. With the concern over the environmental and health consequences of these pollutants, legislation and regulations have been implemented limiting the amounts that can be emitted to the atmosphere. Emission control systems on conventional coal-fired power plants typically employ technologies designed to remove one specific pollutant.These are then combined, in series, to remove several pollutants in order to meet the emission regulations. This report discusses multi-pollutant systems which remove two or more of the principal regulated pollutants (SO2, NOx, mercury, particulate matter and CO2) in a single reactor or a single system designed for the purpose. The emphasis is on commercial or near commercial processes, and those that are under active development. Ways to improve the co-benefit removal of oxidised mercury in conventional limestone wet scrubbers, spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers are also included. Multi-pollutant systems can have lower capital and operating costs than a series of traditional systems to remove the s ame number of pollutants. Nevertheless, many of the multi-pollutant technologies rely on by-product sales to be economically competitive. Their footprint is often smaller than conventional single pollutant counterparts treating a similar volume of flue gas, making them easier to install in retrofit applications. Some of the systems use modular designs that ensures easy scalability for larger boilers.

  1. Stability of a novel synthetic amorphous manganese oxide in contrasting soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komárek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Bordas, F.; Mihaljevič, M.; Klementová, Mariana; Šebek, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 214, FEB (2014), s. 2-9 ISSN 0016-7061 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Amorphous manganese oxide * Stability * Soils * Chemical stabilization * Pollution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2014

  2. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  3. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  4. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.

  5. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, S

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Chandrasekhar's book received high praise when it first appeared in 1961 as part of Oxford University Press' International Series of Monographs on Physics. Since then it has been reprinted numerous times in its expensive hardcover format. This first lower-priced, sturdy paperback edition will be welcomed by graduate physics students and scientists familiar with Dr. Chandrasekhar's work, particularly in light of the resurgence of interest in the Rayleigh-Bénard problem. This book presents a most lucid introduction to the Rayleigh-Bénard problem: it has also been applauded for its thorough, clear coverage of the theory of instabilities causing convection. Dr. Chandrasekhar considers most of the typical problems in hydromagnetic stability, with the exception of viscous shear flow; a specialized domain deserving a book unto itself. Contents include: Rotation; Stability of More General Flows; Bénard Problem; Gravitational Equilibrium and Instability; Stability of a Magnetic Field; Thermal Instability of a L...

  7. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Perspective of environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argent, B.B.; Thompson, D. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Engineering Materials, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Edyvean, R.G.J. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Spears, D.A. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    This article aims to stimulate interest in pollution problems that are associated with the minerals industries. Because this subject is so broad, this study has concentrated on a limited number of topics that have been studied by the authors. After a brief survey indicating major sources of pollution through gaseous emissions, contamination of waterways and land fill sites, attention is focused on some of the methods of predicting, monitoring and limiting emissions together with remediation of polluted sites. (Author)

  9. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.

  10. Light Pollution | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education » Light Pollution Light Pollution Preserving Dark Skies: Efforts to measure light pollution and work with the local

  11. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  12. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  13. Air pollution and respiratory infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J W.B.; Waller, R E

    1966-01-01

    Air pollution, as estimated by domestic coal consumption was categorized into 4 groups; very low, low, moderate, and high. The predicted pollution categories were later compared with measured smoke and SO/sub 2/ concentrations and found to be as expected. The smoke concentration was found to be 67, 138, 217, and 281 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ while the SO/sub 2/ concentration was 90, 130, 191, and 257 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ in the very low, low, moderate, and high pollution groups respectively. These values excluded the greater London area which had somewhat lower smoke but similar SO/sub 2/ concentrations. The air pollution had no effect on upper-respiratory illness in British children but had a highly significant effect on lower-respiratory illness. The percent of children experiencing the first lower-respiratory tract infection during the first 9 months of life in the 4 pollution groups were 7.2 in the very low, 11.4 in the low, 16.5 in the moderate and 17.1 in the high.

  14. Bunched beam longitudinal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.

    1991-05-01

    Instabilities driven by narrow-band impedances can be stabilized by Landau damping arising from the synchrotron frequency spread due to the nonlinearity of the rf wave-form. We calculate stability diagrams for various phase space distributions. We find that distributions without tails are unstable in the 'negative mass' regime (inductive impedance below transition or capacitive impedance above transition). We also find that longitudinal instability thresholds of the (usually neglected) higher order radial modes are lower than expected. For example, the next to lowest dipole mode has a lower threshold than the lowest sextupole mode even though the latter has the larger growth rate in the absence of Landau damping. (Author) 5 refs., 5 figs

  15. Aerodynamic modeling of the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis , we present a study dealing with the basic meteorology concepts commonly used in air pollution. The pollutant motion in the atmosphere together with its basic mathematical concepts have been reviewed. This review includes; atmospheric forces acting on a particle, atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric stability and the most widely used atmospheric diffusion models. The resistance for pollutant transfer for different atmospheric stability classes has been derived in terms of both wind velocity profile parameters and diffusion coefficients. Therefrom, the residence time of a pollutant in the atmosphere is obtained. The dust particle trajectory and deposition in case of neutral atmosphere is formulated mathematically adopting particle Gaussian distribution. An analytical treatment for the diffusion equation with extension of the boundary conditions to include the ground surface absorption of pollutants and presence of elevated inversion layer, has been presented . The concept of decay distance is introduced and applied in a sample calculation for the dispersion of pollutants over growing wheat field

  16. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  17. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability

  18. mathematical modelling of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    the main objectives of this thesis are dealing with environmental problems adopting mathematical techniques. in this respect, atmospheric dispersion processes have been investigated by improving the analytical models to realize the realistic physical phenomena. to achieve these aims, the skeleton of this work contained both mathematical and environmental topics,performed in six chapters. in chapter one we presented a comprehensive review study of most important informations related to our work such as thermal stability , plume rise, inversion, advection , dispersion of pollutants, gaussian plume models dealing with both radioactive and industrial contaminants. chapter two deals with estimating the decay distance as well as the decay time of either industrial or radioactive airborne pollutant. further, highly turbulent atmosphere has been investigated as a special case in the three main thermal stability classes namely, neutral, stable, and unstable atmosphere. chapter three is concerned with obtaining maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant. the variable effective height of pollutants has been considered throughout the mathematical treatment. as a special case the constancy of effective height has been derived mathematically and the maximum ground level concentration as well as its location have been established

  19. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  1. Stabilized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.

    1975-01-01

    The stable, high field, high current composite wire comprises multiple filaments in a depleted bronze matrix, each filament comprising a type II superconducting, beta-tungsten structure, intermetallic compound layer jacketing and metallurgically bonded to a stabilizing copper core, directly or via an intermediate layer of refractory metal

  2. Chernobyl pollution in forest biogeocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, E.; Bettoli, M.G.; Tubertini, O.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl pollution on forest biogeocenoses are described. Spruce, scotch pine, larch, beech, lichens and soils samples were analysed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry. In the established tree organs radioactivity was related to their structural and physiological features, as well as to their surface/dry weight ratios. In the developing organs growth dilution and translocation caused a lower radioactivity. Lichens retained remarkable amounts of radionuclides. The abnormal 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios in the organic soils were explained by analysing the 'before Chernobyl' soils sampled in the same area. (orig.)

  3. Lower hybrid current drive in shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A time dependent lower hybrid current drive tokamak simulation code has been developed. This code combines the BALDUR tokamak simulation code and the Bonoli/Englade lower hybrid current drive code and permits the study of the interaction of lower hybrid current drive with neutral beam heating in shaped cross-section plasmas. The code is time dependent and includes the beam driven and bootstrap currents in addition to the current driven by the lower hybrid system. Examples of simulations are shown for the PBX-M experiment which include the effect of cross section shaping on current drive, ballooning mode stabilization by current profile control and sawtooth stabilization. A critical question in current drive calculations is the radial transport of the energetic electrons. The authors have developed a response function technique to calculate radial transport in the presence of an electric field. The consequences of the combined influences of radial diffusion and electric field acceleration are discussed

  4. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  5. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  6. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  7. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  8. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  9. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  10. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  11. ITER lower port systems integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesy, B., E-mail: bruno.levesy@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baker, D.; Boussier, B.; Bryan, S.; Cordier, J.J.; Dremel, M.; Dell' Orco, G.; Daly, E.; Doshi, B.; Jeannoutot, T.; Friconneau, J.P.; Gliss, C.; Le Barbier, R.; Lachevre, F.; Loughlin, M.; Martin, A.; Martins, J.P.; Maruyama, S.; Palmer, J.; Reichle, R. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The lower port systems are installed inside the vacuum vessel lower ports and in the adjacent port cells. The vacuum vessel ports and penetrations are allocated as follow: -4 ports dedicated to remote handling of the divertor cassettes, contain diagnostics racks and divertor cooling pipes. -5 ports connecting the main vessel to the torus cryopumps, contain divertor cooling pipes, pellet and gas injection pipes and vertical stabilization coil feeders. -3 penetrations connecting torus cryopumps are connected to the vacuum vessel by branch pipes. -Specific penetrations for divertor cooling lines, in-vessel viewing and glow discharge systems. The general layout of the port systems has been revised recently to improve the cryopump (8 t weight, 1.8 m diameter and 2.5 m long) maintenance scheme with remote handling tools and integrate the in-vessel vertical stabilization coil feeders. The port allocation, the pumping ports design, and interfaces in-between ports and cryostat and in-between cryopumps and cryostat have been up-dated. The integration inside the 18 port cells (11 m x 4 m each) has been reviewed to avoid clashes in between systems and to fix the openings in the port cell concrete walls. The new layout integrates safety and neutron-shielding requirements as well as remote handling and maintenance compatibility for the different systems. The paper presents the up-dated integration of the lower port systems inside the ports and the port cells. Interfaces of the port systems with the vacuum vessel, the cryostat and the port cells are described.

  12. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  13. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  14. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  15. Regional air pollution at a turning point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grennfelt, Peringe; Hov, Oystein

    2005-02-01

    The control of transboundary air pollution in Europe has been successful. Emissions of many key pollutants are decreasing and there are signs of improvements in damaged ecosystems. The strategies under development within the CAFE programme under the European Commission and the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), aim to take regional air pollution control a large step further, in particular with respect to small particles. In this paper we highlight the new strategies but look primarily at socioeconomic trends and climate change feedbacks that may have a significant influence on the outcome of the strategies and which so far have not been considered. In particular, we point out the influence on air quality of increased summer temperatures in Europe and of increasing emissions including international shipping, outside of Europe. Taken together the further emissions reductions in Europe and the increasing background pollution, slowly cause a greying of the Northern Hemisphere troposphere rather than the traditional picture of dominant emissions in Europe and North America ('black') with much lower emission intensities elsewhere ('white'). A hemispheric approach to further combat air pollution will become necessary in Europe and elsewhere.

  16. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to indoor air pollution from household ... To estimate the burden of respiratory ill health in South African children and adults in ... Mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from acute lower ...

  17. Lower-Conductivity Ceramic Materials for Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming

    2006-01-01

    Doped pyrochlore oxides of a type described below are under consideration as alternative materials for high-temperature thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). In comparison with partially-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is the state-of-the-art TBC material now in commercial use, these doped pyrochlore oxides exhibit lower thermal conductivities, which could be exploited to obtain the following advantages: For a given difference in temperature between an outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface, the coating could be thinner. Reductions in coating thicknesses could translate to reductions in weight of hot-section components of turbine engines (e.g., combustor liners, blades, and vanes) to which TBCs are typically applied. For a given coating thickness, the difference in temperature between the outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface could be greater. For turbine engines, this could translate to higher operating temperatures, with consequent increases in efficiency and reductions in polluting emissions. TBCs are needed because the temperatures in some turbine-engine hot sections exceed the maximum temperatures that the substrate materials (superalloys, Si-based ceramics, and others) can withstand. YSZ TBCs are applied to engine components as thin layers by plasma spraying or electron-beam physical vapor deposition. During operation at higher temperatures, YSZ layers undergo sintering, which increases their thermal conductivities and thereby renders them less effective as TBCs. Moreover, the sintered YSZ TBCs are less tolerant of stress and strain and, hence, are less durable.

  18. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  19. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  20. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  1. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  2. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  3. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  4. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  5. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  6. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  7. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  8. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  9. Dangers of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental pollution is ever increasing. Protection of the environment must not be neglected for economic reasons. Damage to health due to environmental effects is hard to determine epidemiologically as there are nearly always several causes to consider at the same time. Still, the increase in environmental pollution results in increased damage to humans, animals, and plants. The many dangers to health can be illustrated by the example of energy demand and the different ways to meet it. It is highly necessary to create environmental laws which aim at a reduction of environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  10. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  11. Lower Churchill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, B. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the Lower Churchill Hydroelectric Generation Project in Newfoundland Labrador. The project is of national interest as it creates jobs and benefits across Canada. It provides inter provincial electricity grid integration, provides significant contribution to lower emissions and enables development of other renewable generation.

  12. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  13. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Before Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja

    2013-01-01

    of the communication about innovations in information and communication technology (ICT), and to contribute to an understanding of how different visions promise particular future configurations of workflows, communication processes, politics, economic models and social relations. Hereby, the paper adds...... to the literature on the relationship between ICTs and organizing, but with a distinct focus on innovation communication and distributed innovation processes taking place before ICTs are stabilized, issues which cannot be captured by studies of diffusion and adaptation of new ICTs within single organizations....

  15. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO 2 , anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  16. Fine dust, a new challenge in air pollution abatement?; Feinstaub - Neue Herausforderung fuer saubere Luft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Dusts with particle size smaller than 2.5 {mu}m are hazardous to human health. Pollution sources are industrial processes, furnaces, power plants and traffic. Pollution limits will be lowered in ther European Union in 2005. Reduction of particulate emissions in Bavaria should be achieved by pollution control equipment in power plants and automobiles. (uke)

  17. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  18. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  19. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  20. Sources of pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Sources of pollution. Domestic wastewater (Sewage). Organic matter; Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pathogens, viruses, …. Agricultural runoff. Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pesticides; Industrial effluents; Organics (oil &grease, pigments, phenols, organic matter ….) Heavy ...

  1. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  2. Fate of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapta, S.C.; Boyer, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A literature review is presented of the fate of pollutants in sediment and water systems. Topics of discussion include the following: modeling, observations, and general studies; chlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; nonchlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; pesticides; heavy metals; and radionuclides

  3. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  4. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  5. Air pollution and bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, J; Goldberg, C

    1954-01-01

    Bronchitis mortality in males and females 45 to 65 or over 65 years of age was compared with air pollution in the county boroughs of England and Wales in 1950 to 1952. There was significant association between SO/sub 2/ and bronchitis mortality for men but only occasionally significant for women. Association between particulate matter and bronchitis was less consistent. Socio-economic class had no association with pollutant levels suggesting this factor does not affect bronchitis mortality significantly.

  6. Radioisotope dust pollution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepke, R.; Harasimczuk, J.; Dobrowiecki, J.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring principles and specification of two dust monitors: station-type AMIZ and portable-type PIK-10 for ambient air pollution are presented. The first one, a fully automatic instrument is destined for permanent monitoring of air pollution in preset sampling time from .25 to 24 hours. The second one was developed as a portable working model. Both instruments display their results in digital form in dust concentration units. (author)

  7. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  8. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  9. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  10. Environmental pollution and allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, H; Inoue, K

    2017-01-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to wor...

  11. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  12. Atmospheric stability and atmospheric circulation in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synodinou, B.M.; Petrakis, M.; Kassomenos, P.; Lykoudis, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the evaluation and study of atmospheric pollution reference is always made to the stability criteria. These criteria, usually represented as functions of different meteorological data such as wind speed and direction, temperature, solar radiation, etc., play a very important role in the investigation of different parameters that affect the build up of pollution episodes mainly in urban areas. In this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the atmospheric stability criteria based on measurements obtained from two locations in and nearby Athens. The atmospheric stability is then examined along with the other meteorological parameters

  13. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  14. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  15. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  16. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G

    1968-01-01

    There are indications that the fluorine analyses of the leaf tips of tulips grown in glasshouses supply more reliable information about the intensity of HF air pollution than those of the tulips grown in the open. Tomato plants were fumigated just at the start of flowering with ethylene in concentrations of about 0.1-0.2 ppm during 14 days. The plants reacted mainly with flower drop; only a slight epinasty occurred. Continuous attention is paid to the air pollution of an aluminium factory causing leaf injury to trees and shrubs in the surroundings of the industry. Agricultural crops were not affected. Dust and soot deposits on fruit in orchards, originating respectively from the stacks of a cement factory and the stacks of heavy oil heated glasshouses were also investigated. The deposit of these materials caused a lower quality of the fruit, respectively at great distance and in the vicinity of the sources of the air pollution.

  17. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  18. Fractional kalman filter to estimate the concentration of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Oktaviana, Yessy; Apriliani, Erna; Khusnul Arif, Didik

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution problem gives important effect in quality environment and quality of human’s life. Air pollution can be caused by nature sources or human activities. Pollutant for example Ozone, a harmful gas formed by NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from various sources. The air pollution problem can be modeled by TAPM-CTM (The Air Pollution Model with Chemical Transport Model). The model shows concentration of pollutant in the air. Therefore, it is important to estimate concentration of air pollutant. Estimation method can be used for forecast pollutant concentration in future and keep stability of air quality. In this research, an algorithm is developed, based on Fractional Kalman Filter to solve the model of air pollution’s problem. The model will be discretized first and then it will be estimated by the method. The result shows that estimation of Fractional Kalman Filter has better accuracy than estimation of Kalman Filter. The accuracy was tested by applying RMSE (Root Mean Square Error).

  19. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  20. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  1. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  2. Dendroanalysis: A tool for biomonitoring environmental pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabais, C.; Freitas, H.; Hagemeyer, J.

    2000-01-01

    Trees of temperate regions usually form visible annual growth rings, which can be dated accurately. It is then possible to collect wood samples of different age and analyse its heavy metal content in order to get a chronological record of trace element pollution in the tree environment. A basic assumption of dendroanalysis is the stability of the mineral distribution patterns, i.e., no significant mobility of the elements should occur once storaged. Additionally, neighbouring trees growing in the same environment should present a similar radial pattern. While some studies showed a good correlation between radial distribution of heavy metals in tree rings and temporal records of pollution from industry and traffic, others failed in using dendroanalysis as a chronological record of pollution. Probably some elements can move at a certain rate in radial direction through the ray parenchyma cells. Growth rates of tree rings can also influence the concentration of elements in wood. During periods of declining growth higher concentrations of elements can be found. Radial distribution patterns of heavy metals in wood rings should be carefully used as a tool for chronological record of environmental pollution. (author)

  3. Arctic pollution: How much is too much

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An overview is presented of the problems of pollution in the Arctic. Pollution from lower latitudes is carried into the Arctic by atmospheric circulation and ocean currents. Contamination of snow, waters and organisms with imported pollutants has appeared in the past few decades and appears to be increasing. Arctic ecosystems show indications of being much more susceptible to biological damage at low levels of pollutants than higher-energy ecosystems in temperate latitudes, and many Arctic organisms become accumulators and concentrators of organic pollutants and toxic metals. Arctic haze is 20 to 40 times as high in winter as in summer and has been found to consist of particles of largely industrial origin, mostly soot, hydrocarbons and sulphates. Dramatic declines in stratospheric ozone have been apparent over Antarctica, and a similar but less intense depletion is appearing over the Arctic. Toxic compounds, particularly organochlorines and some heavy metals, have been found in worrying amounts in snow, water and organisms in Arctic North America, Greenland and Svalbard. Radioactive contamination was widespread during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1960s and 1970s, and the comparatively small amount of radiation released by the Chernobyl accident had greatest effect in northern Scandinavia. 4 figs.

  4. Predicting life-history adaptations to pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Animals may adapt to pollutant stress so that individuals from polluted environments are less susceptible than those from unpolluted environments. In addition to such direct adaptations, animals may respond to pollutant stress by life-history modifications; so-called indirect adaptations. This paper will demonstrate how, by combining life-history theory and toxicological data, it is possible to predict stress-induced alterations in reproductive output and offspring size. Pollutant-induced alterations in age-specific survival in favor of adults and reductions in juvenile growth, conditions are predicted to select for reduced investment in reproduction and the allocation of this investment into fewer, larger offspring. Field observations on the freshwater crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus pulex, support these predictions. Females from metal-polluted sites had lower investment in reproduction and produced larger offspring than females of the same species from unpolluted sites. Moreover, interpopulation differences in reproductive biology persisted in laboratory cultures indicating that they had a genetic basis and were therefore due to adaptation rather than acclimation. The general applicability of this approach will be considered.

  5. The size of stable international environmental agreements in the case of stock pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.; de Zeeuw, A.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the literature on stability of International Environmental Agreements is essen- tially static and can therefore not identify changes in the size of the stable coalition in connection with changes in the stock of pollutants. This is a relevant issue because most global pollution problems are

  6. Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Armenta, Bianca; Nourian, Maziar; Assasnik, Nushean; Nourian, Kimiya; Chernenko, Alla

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured) environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576). South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.

  7. Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576. Results South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Conclusions Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.

  8. A Summary of Best Management Practices for Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    and concrete block material, and structures and systems for soil stabilization including erosion checks, revetments , retaining structures, and...industrial storage areas, and coal/ slag piles. Rural NPS pollution includes runoff from Some of the above sources plus runoff from agriculture...water quality. The effectiveness of detention ponds is reduced, however, when maintenance is neglected. Common problems include blocked outlets

  9. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  10. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung development in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Insa; Ramsey, Kathryn; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has also been linked to decreased lung function in infancy and childhood, increased respiratory symptoms, and the development of childhood asthma. In addition, impaired lung development contributes to infant mortality. The mechanisms of how prenatal air pollution affects the lungs are not fully understood, but likely involve interplay of environmental and epigenetic effects. The current epidemiological evidence on the effect of air pollution during pregnancy on lung function and children's respiratory health is summarized in this review. While evidence for the adverse effects of prenatal air pollution on lung development and health continue to mount, rigorous actions must be taken to reduce air pollution exposure and thus long-term respiratory morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  12. Lichens as pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, F

    1970-01-01

    Although lichens are generally considered to be of little use to man, their sensitivity to air pollution makes them good biological indicators. The author describes how this feature can help to establish relative degrees of air pollution. He notes areas where lichens are reduced in number and vigor, and some in which they have disappeared altogether. He challenges the idea that dryness is responsible, since they have also disappeared from damp woodland areas. Experimental work supports the view that sulfur dioxide is the major factor rather than smoke, although there is no definitive proof. Lichen damage correlates best with mean winter levels of air pollution by SO/sub 2/. 16 references, 1 figure.

  13. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the particular concern of many biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. It brings together contributions from many experts in this field and includes much previously unpublished data, as well as up-to-date review chapters. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to critical laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various air pollutants on the living tissues of lichens. The action of such pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. It is the editors' intention that the book be both a reference volume and an encouragement for further wor

  14. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  15. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  16. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  17. The price of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Davidson, M.D.; Wit, R.

    1998-06-01

    The market does not create a price for environmental pollution for the simple reason that there is no market for the environment. What can be done is to calculate shadow prices for environmental pollution, which is achieved by calculating the price that would arise if there would be a market for the environment. In applying this method, it generally proves to be necessary to base calculations on government environmental targets. Using available research data, the method is used to calculate shadow prices for a number of key pollutants. The present report is based on the CE studies 'Schaduwprijzen Prioriterings Methodiek (SPM)' (1997), commissioned by ICI Holland BV, and 'De prijs van Milieuvervuiling' (1997), commissioned by KNP BT Packaging

  18. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise

  19. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  20. Radiative absorption enhancement of dust mixed with anthropogenic pollution over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The particle mixing state plays a significant yet poorly quantified role in aerosol radiative forcing, especially for the mixing of dust (mineral absorbing and anthropogenic pollution (black carbon absorbing over East Asia. We have investigated the absorption enhancement of mixed-type aerosols over East Asia by using the Aerosol Robotic Network observations and radiative transfer model calculations. The mixed-type aerosols exhibit significantly enhanced absorbing ability than the corresponding unmixed dust and anthropogenic aerosols, as revealed in the spectral behavior of absorbing aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, and imaginary refractive index. The aerosol radiative efficiencies for the dust, mixed-type, and anthropogenic aerosols are −101.0, −112.9, and −98.3 Wm−2 τ−1 at the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA; −42.3, −22.5, and −39.8 Wm−2 τ−1 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA; and 58.7, 90.3, and 58.5 Wm−2 τ−1 in the atmosphere (ATM, respectively. The BOA cooling and ATM heating efficiencies of the mixed-type aerosols are significantly higher than those of the unmixed aerosol types over the East Asia region, resulting in atmospheric stabilization. In addition, the mixed-type aerosols correspond to a lower TOA cooling efficiency, indicating that the cooling effect by the corresponding individual aerosol components is partially counteracted. We conclude that the interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollution not only represents a viable aerosol formation pathway but also results in unfavorable dispersion conditions, both exacerbating the regional air pollution in East Asia. Our results highlight the necessity to accurately account for the mixing state of aerosols in atmospheric models over East Asia in order to better understand the formation mechanism for regional air pollution and to assess its impacts on human health, weather, and climate.

  1. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  2. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  3. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  4. Lower pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-01-01

    In an Extrap pinch there is a superimposed magnetic octupole field which forms a magnetic separatrix with the field generated by the pinch current. Earlier experiments have shown that the octupole field has a stabilizing influence on the plasma. Regardless of the details of this stabilizing mechanism, it is expected that the influence of the octupole field should become negligible for a sufficiently small ratio between the characteristic pinch and separatrix radii. In other words, there should exist a lower limit of this ratio below which the system approaches the state of an ordinary unstabilized Z-pinch. The present paper presents an extended version of an earlier theoretical model of this lower limit, and its relation to the corresponding critical ratio between the external conductor and pinch currents. This ratio is found to vary substantially with the plasma parameters. (authors)

  5. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Christensen, G.M.; Tucker, J.H.; Benoit, D.A.; Lewis, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of pollution effects on fishes are reviewed under the following headings: methodology; water quality; pesticide pollutants; industrial pollutants; domestic pollutants; radioactive pollutants; and other pollutants. A table is presented to show acute and chronic toxicity of inorganic and organic pollutants to freshwater fish. (U.S.)

  6. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  7. Heavy metal pollution and soil enzymatic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, G

    1974-01-01

    The activity of hydrolytic soil enzymes was studied on spruce mor, polluted with Cu and Zn from a brass foundry in Sweden. Approximately straight regression lines were obtained between enzymatic activity or respiration rate and log Cu + Zn concentration, with highly significant negative regression coefficients for urease and acid phosphatase activity as well as respiration rate, whereas US -glucosidase activity was not measurably lower at high concentrations of Cu + Zn. 17 references, 5 figures.

  8. Effects of Ecohydraulic Bank Stabilization Structures on Bank Stability and Macroinvertebrate Community in Surabaya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Setyo Rini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There were 18 accelerated erosion sites identified along 7 km of Surabaya River Fishery Sanctuary Area. A model of ecohydraulic bank stabilization was applied to reduce bank erosion in Surabaya River at Gresik Regency Indonesia. The model is combination of reprofiled and revegetated bank with rock toe reinforcement and  addition of log groynes. Various native plant species were planted and naturally grown to establish multi-strata littoral vegetation structure. This study assessed effects of ecohydraulic bank stabilization on bank morphology, near bank velocity and littoral macroinvertebrate community during September 2014 to August 2016. The study found that rock toe enforcement, log groynes and reprofiled bank slope could stabilized the eroded bank, and littoral vegetation formation reduced near bank velocity at restored sites. There were 31 families of macroinvertebrate found in Surabaya River with high abundance of moderately pollution sensitive taxa Atyidae and pollution tolerant taxa Corixidae, Chironomidae and Tubificidae. The taxa richness, diversity index and abundance of sensitive and moderately sensitive macroinvertebrate group were increased after application of ecohydraulic bank stabilization at restored area. The results shown that ecohydraulic bank stabilization structure provides multi-benefits in improving bank stabilization against erosion and providing new micro-habitats for biotic community. Keywords:  ecohydraulic bank stabilization, macroinvertebrates, riparian restoration

  9. Polluted soil leaching: unsaturated conditions and flow rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chourouk Mathlouthi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples are extracted from a polluted site at different depths. Soils texture and pollutant presence are different with depth. Preliminary analyzes showed pollution by heavy metals. To simulate soil leaching operation in static condition, a series of leaching tests are conducted in laboratory column under conditions of upflow unsaturated soil. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements on the recovered leachate are performed. Different flow rates are tested. Comparison of different profiles shows that the dissolved pollutants are concentrated in the upper soil levels and disperse weakly in the lower parts which confirm the nature of anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals. Water mobilizes a high amount of dissolved ionic substances up to 80% of the initial concentration. The increase in flow rate requires more pore volume injected to achieve the maximum clearance rate. The down flow condition extracts a small amount of dissolved substances.

  10. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lianjun; Maruya, Keith A.; Snyder, Shane A.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. - Highlights: ► Levels of POPs in China's aquatic systems were generally at the high end of the global range. ► New inputs of DDTs, likely related to the use of dicofol and anti-fouling paints, were found. ► Occurrence of PCBs and DDTs in some water bodies pay pose potential human health risk. ► Long-term monitoring of POPs in China's waters is needed to fill data gaps. - Occurrence, potential sources and ecological and human health risk of persistent organic pollutants in China's waters are reviewed.

  11. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  12. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  13. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  14. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  15. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  16. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  18. Problem of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H

    1964-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  19. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  20. Pollution and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhoja, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    If no body can dispute the fact that technological progress favours production, comfort and the economy of time, nobody can deny either that the same progress is at the origin of a pollution that puts earth's natural resources in jeopardy. Pollution is physical, but it has a moral aspect as well. In the first case, it spoils water, the soil, the sea, the air and the vegetation. In the second case, it deals a hard blow to man's intelectual and spiritual life. Pollution is natural and biological and, in this case, it is not the result of man's activity, but that of bacteria and viruses which are responsible for various illnesses and epidemics. It could also be the result of toxicity due to volcanic eruptions, solar explosions, or electric charges liberated by clouds. Pollution can also result from harmful waste of chemical and other industries, from the various usages of chemical products, from cars and engines' exhaust, from thermal activities or radioactive spills. Today, it is radioactivity which constitutes the most serious threat to human life.(author)

  1. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  2. Engines, fuels and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The article points out the close relationship among engines, fuels and polluting emissions, and outlines an overall picture of future trends. The technical trade literature shows that diesel engines may undergo strong future development, due to their more favourable energy converting and less polluting characteristics. With regard to petrol injection engines, their improved construction under extremely close tolerances will result in a severe tightening-up of fuel specifications (with or without lead), so as to prevent the deposition of residues at the inlet (manifolds, injectors, valves, and combustion chamber), and their ensuing adverse effects on vehicle handling especially during the 'warm-up' stage. Recent checkups and tests run in the USA have evidenced that automotive engine-derived pollution in towns is in fact considerably more severe than that derived from mathematical models based on 'average emission factors' determined on a laboratory scale (roller bench tests, vaporization tests etc.). The entire body of regulations issued so far becomes questionable, and supplementary studies based on road-tests have been proposed. The paper's discussion is concluded with statistical data showing traffic pollution caused by VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

  3. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  4. Noise pollution resources compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  5. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  6. National pollutants emission limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Pawelec, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  7. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  8. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  9. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  10. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  11. Stability monitoring of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Stability monitoring is of great importance for optimal plant performance. Decay ratios for several operating conditions show that the Dodewaard BWR is very stable and that pressure lowering, power increase and flux peaking lead to a higher decay ratio (worse stability). 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref

  12. Comparative discussion on some measurements of the atmospheric natural radioactivity and pollution with coal smoke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measuring the natural radioactivity and coal smoke pollution are discussed for two sites in an industrial town, as well as for two heights at the same site, in connection with large scale and local atmospheric stability. The effects of the radiation fog upon the radon daughters acumulation near the ground are examined in some detail. By comparing the pollutant diurnal variations during two periods of similar atmospheric stability in autumn, respectively in winter, the contribution from the dwelling coal heating has been estimated to be about half of the total pollution in the town. (author)

  13. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  14. What is causing the pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Elshout, S.; Ameling, M.; Wester, B.; Molenaar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is usually the most important source of air pollution in the Netherlands, but may be different for local air pollution. This article offers a spatial analysis of all NO2 sources in the Dutch Rijnmond area. [nl

  15. Air pollution and tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurfield, G

    1960-01-01

    The problem of air pollution is reviewed with emphasis on its origin and its effects on trees and shrubs. These effects are described from two points of view: the effects of general air pollution, and also the effects of specific pollutants. The considerable mixing, dilution and interaction that pollutants undergo in the air often renders it exceedingly difficult to assign pollution damage to any specific chemical or physical entity. Moreover, it is often impossible to assign responsibility for damage to any particular source. The constituents of general air pollution may be subdivided into those potentially incapable, and those potentially capable, of entering the plant either through the leaf stomata or indirectly by way of the soil. Specific pollutants cause damage directly, as well as indirectly from the chemical reactions that occur in the polluted atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is discussed in detail in relation to tree and shrub damage, with numerous examples of plant injuries.

  16. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  18. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S.; Williams, Leah R.; Lewis, David K.; Magoon, Gregory R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Kaminsky, Michael L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jayne, John T.

    2017-09-01

    The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ), measurements must be fast (real time), scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time). Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA) air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC) sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ): [CO] = 231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84-1706 ppb), [NO] = 6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0-209 ppb), [NO2] = 11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0-71 ppb), and [O3] = 23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0-99 ppb). Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR), we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature = 23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity = 50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8-79.9 %) can be effectively modeled for the Alphasense CO-B4, NO-B4, NO2-B43F, and Ox-B421 sensors, yielding (5 min average) root

  20. Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, A.A.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Professor Joao David Ferreira Lima, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)

  1. Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

  2. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  3. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  4. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  5. A study of the physical factors affecting air pollution dispersion in Helwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution is considered as one of the most important environmental problems facing the humanity. Cement industry, usually, is responsible for building high levels of pollutants. The present research focused on the study of air pollution control of cement industry using mathematical modeling. A mathematical dispersion model was developed based on Gaussian distribution where the dispersion parameters increase with increasing atmospheric turbulence. The Gaussian equation takes in consideration the effect of emission rates. stack height, buoyant plume rise, weather and meteorological parameters. The model was tested for different stack heights, wind speeds. And atmospheric stability classes. Maximum ground level concentration of cement pollutants were measured in different locations of Helwan, south Cairo around the cement factories. Analysis of results shows that the ground level of pollutants concentrations are inversely proportional to wind speed and atmospheric stability classes. Stack height also affects the behaviour of deposition of cement particulates. The model results show satisfactory agreement with the measured concentrations. 6 figs

  6. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desirability of subsidies for abatement technology. We find a more robust recommendation for upstream subsidies than for downstream subsidies. Downstream subsidies tend to increase global abatement technology prices, reduce pollution abatement abroad and increase emission leakage. On the contrary, upstream subsidies reduce abatement technology prices, and hence also emissions leakage.(Author)

  7. Wind energy systems solutions for power quality and stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Mohd Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases--and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering

  8. Effects of air pollution on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasadle, J K.A.

    1959-01-01

    The environment for plant growth is affected in three ways by the presence of coal smoke (1) by a reduction in the amount of light available to the plants, (2) by an alteration in soil conditions, and (3) by the contamination of the air by foreign gases. The smoke haze in or near industrial areas reduced the light available to plants for photosynthesis, thus reducing their growth rate. The tarry deposit on leaves further reduced the light available to the plant, and lowered the assimilation rate. It was generally thought that rain falling in or near industrial areas dissolved the predominantly acidic polluting gases from the air and leached bases from the soil. Rainwater collected showed a reduced number of soil bacteria, resulting in a reduction in the availability of plant nutrients. The most common and abundant gaseous pollutant in Britain was sulfur dioxide formed from the sulfur contained in coal. Concentrations of 0.5 parts per million induced symptoms of leaf scorch in many species. Results showed the yield of Aberystwyth 523 ryegrass was reduced when plants were grown continuously in air polluted with coal smoke. This affected the processes involving cell division. Coal smoke and sulfur also increased the rate of leaf senescence. This rate increased as the concentration of sulfur dioxide increased, or as the length of exposure per day to a standard concentration was increased. The leaves of evergreen trees and shrubs also aged more rapidly in conditions of pollution. 14 references.

  9. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  10. Lower dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant

  11. Tevatron lower temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilacker, J.C.

    1994-07-01

    This year saw the completion of three accelerator improvement projects (AIP) and two capital equipment projects pertaining to the Tevatron cryogenic system. The projects result in the ability to operate the Tevatron at lower temperature, and thus higher energy. Each project improves a subsystem by expanding capabilities (refrigerator controls), ensuring reliability (valve box, subatmospheric hardware, and compressor D), or enhancing performance (cold compressors and coldbox II). In January of 1994, the Tevatron operated at an energy of 975 GeV for the first time. This was the culmination, of many years of R ampersand D, power testing in a sector (one sixth) of the Tevatron, and final system installation during the summer of 1993. Although this is a modest increase in energy, the discovery potential for the Top quark is considerably improved

  12. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  13. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  14. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  15. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  17. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  18. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  19. Interaction of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustueva, K A; Sanotsky, I V

    1975-01-01

    In evaluating the health effects of chemical and physical factors, it is of great importance to know the possible interactions between different pollutants. The biological effects of interactions, when present, may be synergistic, antagonistic or additive. Each type of interaction calls for a different evaluation and different practical measures. As yet the understanding of such effects is not clear, probably because of differing definitions of terminology. For example, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide and particulates is interpreted as a synergistic effect; in the author's opinion, this is an aggravating effect. The type of interaction depends on the levels of concentration observed, for example, the synergism shown at high levels of concentration is not always demonstrated for low levels of concentration. In fact there is little evidence of synergistic effects from ambient air pollutant; the more common type of interaction is additive in effect. 12 references.

  20. Understanding metals pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, H.; Bollinger, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Either from natural or anthropic origin, be it normal or accidental (Tchernobyl), metallic elements are found everywhere in our environment. After a presentation of their repartition and mobility in water, sediments or soils, the mechanisms allowing their dispersion or their concentration are shown. Finally, transfers between environmental compartments are presented, before evoking the case of polluted sites: diagnostic, remediation and long-time management. (authors)

  1. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  2. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  3. Olfactometric pollution of air

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Haraslínová

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the olfactometric assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted by coating films.It describes the measurements of concentration, intensity, hedonic tone and character of odor caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOCs’ emitted in to the small-space chamber with capacity of 1 m3 were tested by dynamic olfactometric method. Paper also contains a comparison of olfactometric air pollution of two different types of coating films. The work is aimed to determine ...

  4. The polluted globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.; Kohout, F.; Malunat, B.M.; Merk, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is but a sweeping and determined both national and international environmental policy taking account of all socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-political concerns, which is able to thwart a further increasing pollution. The publication discusses the political conditions, implications and consequences of an efficient international environmental policy both complying with and setting the standards of national environmental policies. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  6. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental pollution and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies. For example, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which are an agglomeration of particles and a wide array of chemical substances, aggravate asthma, primarily due to the principle organic chemical components of DEPs. In addition, environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters, which are commonly used as plasticizers in plastic products, also aggravate atopic dermatitis. It has also become evident that extremely small nanomaterials and Asian sand dust particles can enhance allergic inflammation. While the underlying mechanisms that cause such aggravation are becoming clearer at the cellular and molecular levels, methods to easily and quickly evaluate (screen) the ever-increasing amount of environmental pollutants for exacerbating effects on allergies are also under development. To eliminate and control allergic diseases, medical measures are necessary, but it is also essential to tackle this issue by ameliorating environmental changes.

  8. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  9. Modelling pollutant emissions in diesel engines, influence of biofuel on pollutant formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranović, Zvonimir; Bešenić, Tibor; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the harmful effect on the environment, European Union allowed using the biofuel blends as fuel for the internal combustion engines. Experimental studies have been carried on, dealing with the biodiesel influence on the emission concentrations, showing inconclusive results. In this paper numerical model for pollutant prediction in internal combustion engines is presented. It describes the processes leading towards the pollutant emissions, such as spray particles model, fuel disintegration and evaporation model, combustion and the chemical model for pollutant formation. Presented numerical model, implemented in proprietary software FIRE ® , is able to capture chemical phenomena and to predict pollutant emission concentration trends. Using the presented model, numerical simulations of the diesel fuelled internal combustion engine have been performed, with the results validated against the experimental data. Additionally, biodiesel has been used as fuel and the levels of pollutant emissions have been compared to the diesel case. Results have shown that the biodiesel blends release lower nitrogen oxide emissions than the engines powered with the regular diesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric pollution in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, G.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with all the activities of humans. It is becoming a serious problem in coming years so it is relevant to find out how seriously our atmosphere is being polluted and how this pollution affects human and plant life in our environment. Not only the human activities are the source of our pollution but nature causes more pollution. Air pollution that is due to the pressure of foreign substances in air, effects the quality and concentration of air substances. It is not only injurious to property, but also to vegetation and animal life. Air pollution is one of our most serious environmental problems. The sources vary from smoke-stacks and automobiles to noise and foreon containing aerosols. (orig./A.B.)

  11. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  12. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  13. On site selection of thermoelectric power plants in polluted environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impact of combined heat-power plants. The selection of the site of these plants depends on the spatial distribution law of pollutants and their chemical interaction with environment. The solutions of a diffusion equation describing a system of chemically interacting pollutants are given and discussed. The environmental impacts are described in terms of wind and atmosphere stability, effective and built stack height and the source distance parameters. The optimal constructive solutions are judged upon the concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen oxides at the ground level which must be kept under the maximum admissible limit. (author). 8 figs

  14. Stability in designer gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertog, Thomas; Hollands, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We study the stability of designer gravity theories, in which one considers gravity coupled to a tachyonic scalar with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. We construct Hamiltonian generators of the asymptotic symmetries using the covariant phase space method of Wald et al and find that they differ from the spinor charges except when W = 0. The positivity of the spinor charge is used to establish a lower bound on the conserved energy of any solution that satisfies boundary conditions for which W has a global minimum. A large class of designer gravity theories therefore have a stable ground state, which the AdS/CFT correspondence indicates should be the lowest energy soliton. We make progress towards proving this by showing that minimum energy solutions are static. The generalization of our results to designer gravity theories in higher dimensions involving several tachyonic scalars is discussed

  15. Exercises in Heavy Lowering

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Driving up to Point 5, one can't help but notice the impressively enormous red structure climbing up and over Building 3585. This unusual bridge-like construction is CMS'new crane, otherwise known as 'the gantry'. CMS'impressive "gantry" was recently installed at Building 3585. The 'gantry'was constructed by VSL, a Swiss company that is used to building such uniquely designed cranes used for major construction jobs, including lifting the roofs of various stadiums and the huge Airbus A380 assembly hall in Toulouse or bridge foundation caissons. CMS's crane was custom-built to sustain up to 2000 tonnes of machinery and detectors and slowly lower them down into the experimental cavern. The feature of two towers, one on either side of the building, each 24 m high, is the reason behind the nickname of this amazing crane. Two large beams, 28 m long and 3.4 m high, run along the width of the roof and four openings, each 5 m long, in the ceiling will allow the cables to pass through into the gallery. Unlike typic...

  16. Estuarine characteristics of the lower reaches of the River Periyar (Cochin backwater)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Varma, P.U.; Balachandran, K.K.; Pylee, A.; Joseph, T.

    Lower reaches of river Periyar were studied to assess longitudinal extent of salt water intrusion into the system during different seasons and also its effect on the flushing of pollutants introduced by the industries. During SW monsoon season due...

  17. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  18. Trapped particle stability for the kinetic stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, H. L.; Pratt, J.

    2011-08-01

    A kinetically stabilized axially symmetric tandem mirror (KSTM) uses the momentum flux of low-energy, unconfined particles that sample only the outer end-regions of the mirror plugs, where large favourable field-line curvature exists. The window of operation is determined for achieving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability with tolerable energy drain from the kinetic stabilizer. Then MHD stable systems are analysed for stability of the trapped particle mode. This mode is characterized by the detachment of the central-cell plasma from the kinetic-stabilizer region without inducing field-line bending. Stability of the trapped particle mode is sensitive to the electron connection between the stabilizer and the end plug. It is found that the stability condition for the trapped particle mode is more constraining than the stability condition for the MHD mode, and it is challenging to satisfy the required power constraint. Furthermore, a severe power drain may arise from the necessary connection of low-energy electrons in the kinetic stabilizer to the central region.

  19. Pasvik River Watercourse, Barents Region: Pollution Impacts and Ecological Responses. Investigations in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traaen, T; Moiseenko, T; Sandimirov, S and others

    1994-12-31

    The Pasvik River is one of the largest rivers in the Northern Fennoscandia and constitutes the border between Norway and Russia, with catchment area in Finland, Norway and Russia. Besides being strongly regulated for hydroelectric power production, the river is polluted by the smelter in Nikel and other industrial activities and by domestic sewage from the settlements on both sides of the border. This document discusses the pollution of the river and the ecological responses. The two main areas of concern are heavy metals and eutrophication. Very high content of heavy metals in water, lake sediments, macrophytes and fish was found in Kuetsyarvi. Extensive toxic effects were documented on the fish population in the lake. The toxic effects are less than expected from the concentration of heavy metals, which is due to high calcium content, organic matter and eutrophication. Eutrophication is due to the domestic sewage from settlements within the water catchment. Kuetsyarvi has eutrophic status, the lower parts of the Pasvik River have oligo-mesotrophic status according to phosphorus concentrations, and the composition of the planktonic and benthic communities. Because of increased and stabilized water level from hydroelectric power regulations, increased abundance of macrophytes and zoobenthos in shallow areas also have occurred. 77 refs., 32 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  1. Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling of Abadan oil Refinery Using SCREEN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Rad, F.; Salman-Mahini, A.; Mirkarimi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem that has been recognized throughout the world. Refineriers normally create environmental pollution through emissions of pollutants gaseous from a variety of sources. Analysing air pollution distribution and dispersion can help in reducing the negative effects. In this study NO_X and SO_2 emissions and distributions were investigated for Abadan oil refinery using SCREEN3 software. In this softweare, wind speed and direction, air temperature, location and physical characteristics of chimnies and atmospheric stability were taken into consideration.The concentration of pollutants in different distances from the stacks in the range 25 km were predicted and mapped in Idrisi software. The output from software SCREEN3 for emissions from stacks were also examined and compared with the standard output of the refineries. According to our results, the concentration of pollutants in summer and autumn seasons exceeds of the environmental standards.

  2. Air Pollution In The Mountain - Urban Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, I.; Pehnec, G.; Vadjic, V.; Marovic, G.; Suric Mihic, M.; Sencar, J.; Godec, R.; Davila, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of the environment is characterized, among others, by ionizing radiation burden and air pollution. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is operational quantity for area monitoring due to ionizing radiation exposure. One of air pollution sources is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the most commonly measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is used as an indicator of carcinogenic hazard in polluted environments. PAHs are widely distributed in the atmosphere and were among the first pollutants identified as potential carcinogens. PAHs are products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. More than 500 PAHs have so far been identified in the air. Sampling of airborne particles PM10 was carried out in a mountain area in Gorski Kotar, Croatia during 60 days in the winter and 60 days in the summer period of the year. During the sampling of airborne particles, the ambient dose equivalent rate was also measured using an electronic dosemeter ALARA device. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was used for BaP analysis. BaP concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. During winter, the average BaP concentrations were significantly higher (5.46 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.06 ng/m3). Ambient dose equivalent rate in winter period was a little higher than in summer. Ambient dose equivalent was calculated on a yearly base. Yearly ambient dose equivalent was 860 micro Sv which is slightly lower than the average value for Croatia (890 micro Sv). (author).

  3. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  4. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  5. Future climate impact on unfavorable meteorological conditions for the dispersion of air pollution in Brussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troch, Rozemien; Berckmans, Julie; Giot, Olivier; Hamdi, Rafiq; Termonia, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Belgium is one of the several countries in Europe where air quality levels of different pollutants such as ozone, NOx, and Particulate Matter (PM) still exceed the prescribed European norms multiple times a year (EEA, 2014). These pollution peaks have a great impact on health and environment, in particular in large cities and urban environments. It is well known that observed concentrations of air pollutants are strongly influenced by emissions and meteorological conditions and therefore is sensitive to climate change. As the effects of global climate change are increasingly felt in Belgium, policy makers express growing interest in quantifying its effect on air pollution and the effort required to meet the air quality targets in the next years and decennia (Lauwaet et al., 2014). In this study, two different stability indices are calculated for a 9-year period using present (1991-1999) and future (2047-2055) climate data that has been obtained from a dynamically downscaling of Global Climate Model data from the Arpège model using the ALARO model at 4 km spatial resolution. The ALARO model is described in detail in previous validation studies from De Troch et al. (2013) and Hamdi et al. (2013). The first index gives a measure of the horizontal and vertical transport of nonreactive pollutants in stable atmospheric conditions and has been proposed and tested by Termonia and Quinet (2004). It gives a characteristic length scale l which is the ratio of the mean horizontal wind speed and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. In this way low values for l in the lower part of the boundary layer during an extended time span of 12 hours, correspond to calm situations and a stable atmosphere and thus indicate unfavorable conditions for the dispersion of air pollution. This transport index is similar to an index used in an old Pasquill-type scheme but is more convenient to use to detect the strongest pollution peaks. The well known Pasquill classes are also calculated in order to

  6. Buddha's birthplace (Lumbini, Nepal) is polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Naja, Manish; Panday, Arnico; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Mahata, Khadak; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of the Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. Measurements of the ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (BC, PM, CO, O3) were conducted in Lumbini, first of its kind in Lumbini, during an intensive measurement period of three months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). Hourly average concentrations were: BC: 4.9±3.8 (0.3-29.9) μg/m3; CO: 344.1±160.3 (124.9-1429.7) ppbv; O3: 46.6±20.3 (0.85-118.1) ppbv; PM10: 128.8±91.9 (10.5-603.9) μg/m3; and PM2.5: 53.1±35.1 (6.1-272.2) μg/m3. These levels are comparable to heavily polluted sites in the region. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations frequently (94% and 85%, respectively, of the sampled period) exceeded the WHO guideline, which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. Clear diurnal cycles were observed for the pollutants. Occurrences of peak concentrations during the study period were due to regional forest fires and meteorological conditions conducive of transport to Lumbini. The WRF-STEM model was used to simulate the meteorology and the pollution concentration, and showed the model concentration to be lower by a factor of ~1.4-5, even though the model was able to capture the observed variability. Regionally tagged CO tracers and the chemical composition of fine mode PM2.5 was obtained from the model. The aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained from Lumbini indicated presence of BC from both biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, with more than half of the ambient BC attributable to fossil fuel

  7. Towards sustainable pollution management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, N. G. W.

    2017-03-01

    It is often overlooked pollution control itself may not be entirely free from adverse impact on the environment if considered from a more holistic perspective. For example mechanised wastewater treatment is energy intensive and so has a carbon footprint because of the need to move air to supply oxygen to the aerobic treatment process. The aerobic treatment process then results in excess bio-sludge which requires disposal and if such is not appropriately performed, then there is risk of surface and groundwater contamination. This presentation explores the changes which have been investigated and are beginning to be implemented in wastewater, sludge, and agro-industrial wastes management which are more environmentally benign. Three examples shall be used to illustrate the discussion. The first example uses the conventional sewage treatment system with a unit process arrangement which converts carbonaceous pollutants from soluble and colloidal forms to particulate forms with an aerobic process before attempting energy recovery with an anaerobic process. Such an arrangement does, however, result in a negative energy balance. This is not withstanding the fact there is potentially more energy in sewage than is required to treat it if that energy can be effectively harvested. The latter can be achieved by removing the carbonaceous pollutants before the aerobic process and thereby using the aerobic process for polishing instead of treating. The carbonaceous pollutants so recovered then becomes the feed for the anaerobic process. Unfortunately conventional anaerobic sludge digestion only removes 35-45% of the organic material fed. Since biogas production (and hence energy recovery) is linked to the amount of organic material which can be degraded anaerobically, the effectiveness of the anaerobic digestion process needs to be improved. Contrary to a commonly held belief wherein methanogenesis is the “bottleneck” in anaerobic processes, hydrolysis is in sludge digestion

  8. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  9. An interprovincial cooperative game model for air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhao, Laijun; Fan, Longzhen; Qian, Ying

    2015-07-01

    The noncooperative air pollution reduction model (NCRM) that is currently adopted in China to manage air pollution reduction of each individual province has inherent drawbacks. In this paper, we propose a cooperative air pollution reduction game model (CRM) that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distribute the economic benefit of the cooperation (i.e., pollution reduction cost saving) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CRM to the case of SO2 reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China. The results, based on the data from 2003-2009, show that cooperation helps lower the overall SO2 pollution reduction cost from 4.58% to 11.29%. Distributed across the participating provinces, such a cost saving from interprovincial cooperation brings significant benefits to each local government and stimulates them for further cooperation in pollution reduction. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed using the year 2009 data to test the parameters' effects on the pollution reduction cost savings. China is increasingly facing unprecedented pressure for immediate air pollution control. The current air pollution reduction policy does not allow cooperation and is less efficient. In this paper we developed a cooperative air pollution reduction game model that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distributes the cooperation gains (i.e., cost reduction) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. The empirical case shows that such a model can help improve efficiency in air pollution reduction. The result of the model can serve as a reference for Chinese government

  10. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  12. Environmental pollution. Uni-Taschenbuecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odzuck, W

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the future development of the environmental pollution.

  13. Phasing Out a Polluting Input

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Clas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores economic policies related to the potential conflict between economic growth and the environment. It applies a model with directed technological change and focuses on the case with low elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty inputs in production. New technology is substituted for the polluting input, which results in a gradual decline in pollution along the optimal long-run growth path. In contrast to some recent work, the era of pollution and environmental polic...

  14. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  15. Radiation pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benalashhar, Hanan Ali

    2006-01-01

    This paper interested in the topic of environmental pollution by radioactive materials due to several human activities. The meaning of human activities are nuclear tests and extraction of raw uranium, waste and reactor accidents, nuclear fuel and radon gas, and the peaceful uses of radiation. This paper points out the effects of environmental pollution by radiation and the means of reduction, and also illustrate the radiation pollution in the Arab region. (author)

  16. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  17. Lead pollution in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Khatoon, N.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-01-01

    Lead pollution of urban area emanating from the vehicular exhaust alone is being labeled as one of the worst form of environmental degradation attracting our attention for remediation. For factual assessment samples were collected from different areas of Islamabad. These samples consisted of tree scrapings / peelings, which were dried and ground before undertaking analysis for the lead content. The samples were digested with an acid mixture to remove the organic matter and analyzed using GFAAS technique. A total of 81 samples have been analyzed. The results sowed a lead content varying in the range of 8-474 Mu g g/sup -1/) and 23 samples with Pb content <50 Mu g g-1 (8.0-50.0 Mu g g/sup -1/). Most of the samples also contained some growth which consisted of bacterial, algae and fugal cells and the results have been explained on the basis of Pb absorption by these cells. The procedure followed in this study is recommended for evaluation of lead pollution in urban areas. (author)

  18. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaranello, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  19. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  20. A NONLINEAR MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ASTHMA: EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARESHA RAM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore a nonlinear mathematical model to study the spread of asthma due to inhaled pollutants from industry as well as tobacco smoke from smokers in a variable size population. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equations and computer simulation. It is shown that with an increase in the level of air pollutants concentration, the asthmatic (diseased population increases. It is also shown that along with pollutants present in the environment, smoking (active or passive also helps in the spread of asthma. Moreover, with the increase in the rate of interaction between susceptibles and smokers, the persistence of the spread of asthma is higher. A numerical study of the model is also performed to see the role of certain key parameters on the spread of asthma and to support the analytical results.

  1. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  2. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  3. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies. PMID:29673227

  4. Atmospheric pollution and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasdale, J K.A.

    1952-03-01

    Although sulfur dioxide is the most common and usually the most abundant polluting agent, experiments with this gas have shown that, under the conditions employed, there is no effect on yield unless the concentration is high enough to cause leaf injury. S23 ryegrass was grown in beds in greenhouses. Treatment with purified air gave, with one exception, a dry weight considerably higher than treatment with polluted air. No sign of leaf damage could be detected in the greenhouse with polluted air. This fact would seem to indicate that pollution decreases the growth rate, even in the absence of visible injury.

  5. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Ma, Xuejiao; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-04-17

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  6. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  7. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  8. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  9. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  10. heavy metal pollution asse al pollution assessment in the sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Sediments were collected from Dumba and to assess the pollution statusof the sedim. Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu. (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were analysed using concentration of heavy metals varies bet with standard average shale to assess pollution in Dumba and KwataYobe sedi assessed ...

  11. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare

  12. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksi, S. [Department of Economics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada); Ray Chaudhuri, A. [Department of Economics, CentER, TILEC, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare.

  13. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  14. Plant as an index of smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruston, A G

    1921-01-01

    An early (1921) treatment of the effects of air pollution on plants is presented. The author notes variations in tolerance to air pollution between species, and draws correlations between morphology and pollution resistance. Air pollution effects on various species' reproductive success and metabolism are also examined, and the use of plants as bioindicators of air pollution is suggested.

  15. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a... pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on behalf of the lessee and the pollution damages...

  17. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating activities...

  18. Radon: an environmental pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiological concerns with the disposal and use of mining and milling residues have heightened to the point that federal agencies are asking or being asked to formulate new regulactions for controlling radon daughters from a variety of sources - radioactivity previously considered to be part of our natural environment. Based on information derived from epidemiologic studies of underground miners, particularly uranium miners, the health impact on the general public is being projected. Depending on the assumptions made, these projections vary widely. Because of these variations in health risks, decisions on control measures have even wider implications on economic and social considerations. Thus the question: is radon an environmental pollutant. While not fully answering the question, recognizing the uncertainties in assessing and controlling radon daughters can put the question in better perspective

  19. Sanitation without pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, U

    2000-01-01

    The most effective way of protecting drinking water resources from domestic sewage is to use technologies that do not produce sewage. This paper gives an overview of emerging alternatives in the form of ecological sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas. A key feature of ecological sanitation is that it regards human excreta as a resource to be recycled rather than as waste to be disposed of. Examples given include ecological sanitation systems based on dehydration and decomposition from Mexico, El Salvador, Sweden, India and Vietnam. These systems need neither water for flushing, nor pipelines for transport, nor treatment plants and arrangements for the disposal of toxic sludge. Large scale application of ecological sanitation would lead to less environmental pollution, reduced water consumption, considerable savings on sewers and treatment plants and increased employment. In addition it would provide valuable resources for food production and wasteland development.

  20. Indoor biological pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2000-01-01

    Inside buildings - besides the umpteen toxic substances emanating from materials and appliances used daily for the most assorted activities - there are may be a number of different pathogenic micro-organisms able to cause diseases and respiratory system infections. Indoor pollution caused by biological agents may be due not only to living microorganisms, but also to dead ones or to the produce of their metabolism as well as to allergens. The most efficient precautionary measure against biological agents is to ventilate the rooms one lives in. In case of air-conditioning, it's good rule to keep air pipes dry and clean, renewing filters at regular intervals in order to avoid fungi and bacteria from settling in [it

  1. Pollution of living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Eržen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on cancer causation has come from investigation of the patterns of cancer in human populations and the induction of tumours in experimental animals following treatment with cancer-causing agents. It has been proven that genetic susceptibility may significantly alter the risk from environmental exposures. The most important human carcinogens include tobacco, asbestos, aflatoxins and ultraviolet light. Almost 20 % of cancers are associated with chronic infections, the most significant ones being hepatitis viruses (HBV, HCV, papillomaviruses (HPV and Helicobacter pylori. Pollution of air, water and soil is estimated to account for 4–7 % of all cancers in developed world. A small proportion of lung cancer (< 5 % is attributable to outdoor air pollution by industrial effluent, engine exhaust products and other toxins. Chlorofluorocarbons cause destruction of the ozone layer and enhance the risk of skin cancer through increased ultraviolet radiation. Contamination of drinking water is not a general carcinogenic hazard, but high levels of arsenic and chlorination by-products in some communities carry a risk. Food may be contaminated by natural or man-made toxins, including substances shown to be carcinogenic in experimental animals and, in some cases, in humans. Naturallyoccurring carcinogens include mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, which contribute to causation of liver cancer. Food can be contaminated by residual pesticides.Conclusions: Means to reduce and, in some cases, eliminate risk of cancer include elimination of carcinogenic factor (asbestos enforced by regulation and reduction of exposure or use of preventive and prophylactic measures (Hepatitis B, HPV vaccination, avoiding of sun.

  2. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  3. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  4. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  5. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  6. Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hyman, Marvin H.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities

  7. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  8. Air Pollution Tracking using PDEs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they can be used to predict the impact of polluting industrial plants on, e.g., ... describes where the pollutant material is generated and its power. Besides the time .... where [ , ], is a vector (or vector valued function) representing the wind- speed ...

  9. Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  10. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  11. Stability of Dolos Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael; Burcharth, Hans F.; Larsen, Torben

    The stability of dolos armour blocks against wave attack has been investigated in wave model studies.......The stability of dolos armour blocks against wave attack has been investigated in wave model studies....

  12. Leaf cuticle variations in amaranthus spinousus as indicators of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoide, J.E.; Kayode, J.

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of the leaf epidermal characteristics of Amaranthus spinosus from polluted and non-polluted populations revealed that the stomatal pores of the leaves of the plants of the polluted areas were closed whereas those of the non-polluted areas were open. Mean length x mean width of stomatal pores on the upper leaf surface were 0.86 micro x 0.43 micro and 1.23 micro x 0.45 micro on the lower leaf surface of the non polluted microhabitats. Also, the leaves of the polluted population were smaller than those of the non-polluted population. The average leaf area of the plants of the Polluted population was 7.64 cm/sub -2/ against 12.13 cm/sub 2/ of the plants of the non-polluted areas. The results were attributed to the combined effects of air pollutant that predominated roadsides from where the samples were taken. Thus it is inferred that this plant could serve as bio-indicator of air pollution. (author)

  13. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  14. Air pollution - health and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, W; Runca, E; Suess, M J [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of a joint workshop of the World Health Organization and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis are presented. The workshop was to review the interaction between man's industrial and urban activities and the environment, and the relationship between ambient air quality and human health, and to examine the effectiveness of proper management on the control and abatement of air pollution. The discussion topics included atmospheric processes and respective modelling, air pollution impact on human health, effects of air pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, air pollution episode cycles and management of control. A selected list of 11ASA and WHO/EURO publications related to air pollution is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this book.

  15. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R

    2012-01-01

    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  17. Evaluation of Pollutant Loads: Organic and Inorganic in River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the organic and inorganic pollutant loads in River Ukoghor of the Lower Benue Basin. Grab water samples were collected from the outlet of the River into River Benue, twice a month in three replications for a period of eight months (April November, 2002) using sterilized one-litre ...

  18. The Mathematical modelling of environmental pollution using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper environmental pollution has been modeled mathematically using the Freundlich non-linear contaminant transport formulation. An analytical solution of lower order perturbation of the concentration C(x,f) is obtained. Flow profiles for various values of molecular diffusion D and the velocity U are studied and the ...

  19. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  20. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The BWR Stability Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to supply general information about Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) stability. The main concerned topics are: phenomenological aspects, experimental database, modelling features and capabilities, numerical models, three-dimensional modelling, BWR system performance during stability, stability monitoring and licensing aspects.

  2. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas

  3. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  4. Pollution Status of Dioxins Persistent Organic Pollutants in Guangxi and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hua; Fan Yongji; Feng Bo; Chen Zhiming; Mo Zhaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Production and pollution control situations of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi were introduced.Pollution status of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi was understood,and the existing problems in pollution control were analyzed,and finally pollution control countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.

  5. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportisse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  6. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Hari Mohan, E-mail: rai.2208@gmail.com; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Indore –452017 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM- Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur – 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab. (CNTL), ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior – 474015 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  7. Principais impactos nas margens do Baixo Rio Bodocongó - PB, decorrentes da irrigação com águas poluídas com esgoto Principal impacts of irrigation with polluted sewerage waters on the banks of Lower Bodocongó - PB, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilana F. Magalhães

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do Rio Bodocongó se situa na região Sudoeste do Estado da Paraíba e é contribuinte da bacia do Médio Rio Paraíba, receptor da maior parte dos esgotos brutos e do efluente final da Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos (ETE da cidade de Campina Grande. O trecho situado à jusante da ETE, aqui chamado Baixo Bodocongó, tem 50 km de extensão e suas águas são usadas para irrigação irrestrita, destacando-se forrageiras e hortaliças (alface, repolho, tomates e para recreação de contato primário, dentre outros. Neste trabalho analisaram-se parâmetros sanitários, físicos e químicos de suas águas, os impactos causados pelo uso na qualidade sanitária de duas culturas irrigadas (capim e repolho e na salinização dos solos. Verificou-se que essas águas são impróprias para irrigação irrestrita e que em nenhum dos pontos amostrados sua qualidade atende simultaneamente aos dois critérios da OMS para irrigação: coliformes fecais The lower basin of Bodocongó River is located in the Southwest region of the State of Paraíba and is part of watershed of Paraíba River. The river receives several diffuse sewage contributions and the final effluent of the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP of Campina Grande city. The distance between the WTP and the river end, here called as Lower Bodocongó, has about 50 km of extension and its water is used for unrestricted irrigation of forage and vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes, and for recreation (primary contact purposes among others. In the present study an evaluation is made of the physical, chemical and sanitary parameters of water and the impacts of its use on the sanitary quality of the irrigated crops (elephant grass and cabbage and soil salinization. The water of the Lower Bodocongó was found to be inappropriate for unrestricted irrigation. At none of the points sampled, water conformed simultaneously to two standards recommended by WHO for unrestricted irrigation: fecal coliforms

  8. Water Pollution Search | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Pollution Search within the Water Pollutant Loading Tool gives users options to search for pollutant loading information from Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data.

  9. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Overview Learn about pollutants from vehicles and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Key issues, ...

  10. Responses of plants to air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudd, J. Brian; Kozlowski, T. T

    1975-01-01

    .... KOZLOWSKI Pollution, 1975 ELROY L. RICE. Allelopathy, (Eds.). Fire and Ecosystems, 1974 (Eds.). Responses of Plants to Air Responses of Plants to Air PollutionRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO AIR POLLUTION E...

  11. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.M.; Anderson, R.L.; Benoit, D.A.; Spehar, R.L.; Stokes, G.N.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish are reviewed. Subjects include: inorganic industrial pollutants, man-made disturbances and radioactive pollutants. Topics include uptake distribution, retention, mortality, and lethal doses

  12. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  13. Evaluation of stabilization-solidification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubier, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that among the techniques applied to treat polluting residue in France for the past ten years has been the mixing of pollutants with reactive agents in order to fix the contaminants and to give them a solid consistency. The first applications of these stabilization/solidification processes occurred in 1978 in the treatment of oil residues from the AMOCO CADIZ spill. They have also been used for the treatment of a mayor dump site for petroleum residues, for the disposal of mineral sludges of a detoxication plant, and for the rehabilitation of sites contaminated by various industrial residues, specially acid tars generated by oil refining plants. Although from the beginning these techniques appeared to be able to transform filthy lagoons into solid and apparently safe areas, it was necessary to evaluate their efficiency and to determine the conditions and limits of application

  14. Socioeconomic Drivers of Environmental Pollution in China: A Spatial Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the environmental pollution and its impacts in China using prefecture-level cities and municipalities data. Moran’s I, the widely used spatial autocorrelation index, provides a fairly strong pattern of spatial clustering of environmental pollution and suggests a fairly high stability of the positive spatial correlation. To investigate the driving forces of environmental pollution and explore the relationship between fiscal decentralization, economic growth, and environmental pollution, spatial Durbin model is used for this analysis. The result shows that fiscal decentralization of local unit plays a significant role in promoting the environmental pollution and the feedback effect of fiscal decentralization on environmental pollution is also positive, though it is not significant. The relationship of GDP per capita and environmental pollution shows inverted U-shaped curve. Due to the scale effect of secondary industry, the higher the level of secondary industry development in a unit is, the easier it is to attract the secondary industry in adjacent units, which mitigates the environmental pollution in adjacent units. Densely populated areas tend to deteriorate local environment, but environmental regulation in densely populated areas is often tighter than other areas, which reduces environmental pollution to a certain extent.

  15. Total free radical species and oxidation equivalent in polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Jia, Shiming; Niu, Xiuli; Tian, Haoqi; Liu, Yanrong; Chen, Xuefu; Li, Lan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Shi, Gaofeng

    2017-12-31

    Free radicals are the most important chemical intermediate or agent of the atmosphere and influenced by thousands of reactants. The free radicals determine the oxidizing power of the polluted air. Various gases present in smog or haze are oxidants and induce organ and cellular damage via generation of free radical species. At present, however, the high variability of total free radicals in polluted air has prevented the detection of possible trends or distributions in the concentration of those species. The total free radicals are a kind of contaminants with colorless, tasteless characteristics, and almost imperceptible by human body. Here we present total free radical detection and distribution characteristics, and analyze the effects of total free radicals in polluted air on human health. We find that the total free radical values can be described by not only a linear dependence on ozone at higher temperature period, but also a linear delay dependence on particulate matter at lower temperature period throughout the measurement period. The total free radical species distribution is decrease from west to east in Lanzhou, which closely related to the distribution of the air pollutants. The total free radical oxidation capacity in polluted air roughly matches the effects of tobacco smoke produced by the incomplete combustion of a controlled amount of tobacco in a smoke chamber. A relatively unsophisticated chromatographic fingerprint similarity is used for indicating preliminarily the effect of total free radicals in polluted air on human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic Savings from Using Economic Incentives for Environmental Pollution Control (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic incentives, such as emission taxes, effluent trading, deposit refund systems, information reporting requirements, liability for harm caused by pollution, and voluntary programs have the potential to achieve environmental objectives at lower cost.

  17. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  18. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  19. RCRA facility stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The RCRA Facility Stabilization Initiative was developed as a means of implementing the Corrective Action Program's management goals recommended by the RIS for stabilizing actual or imminent releases from solid waste management units that threaten human health and the environment. The overall goal of stabilization is to, as situations warrant, control or abate threats to human health and/or the environment from releases at RCRA facilities, and/or to prevent or minimize the further spread of contamination while long-term remedies are pursued. The Stabilization initiative is a management philosophy and should not be confused with stabilization technologies

  20. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2006-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  1. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  2. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  3. Hygiene evaluation of the air conditions in the Lower Main region by means of higher and lower plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steubing, L; Klee, R; Kirschbaum, U

    1974-06-01

    By using the distribution patterns of natural growths of epiphytic lichens, three lichen zones can be distinguished in the Lower Main region of FRG. Each zone corresponds to different degrees of injury to lichens, and each zone is characterized by a particular pollutant load. Damage to plants is functionally correlated with the destruction of chlorophyll. Primary production, dust covering, sulfur content and conductivity of higher plants in two of the lichen zones confirm the data from test stations.

  4. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  6. Introduction to pollution and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Y

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism of photosynthesis, environmental conditions, and the chemical and biological significance of photosynthetic bacteria are discussed. Photosynthetic bacteria, which are extremely useful and important in the ecological system, can become a cause of pollution when excessively proliferated. The idea that pollution could be solved by planting vegetation is also a misconcept. Carbon dioxide is not the major source of pollution, and local increases of CO/sub 2/ partial pressure do not affect the environment in general. More important, green plants are sensitive to air pollutants and react faster than any other living things to pollutants such as fluorides, nitrate, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and sulfur dioxide. Only 1-3% of solar energy is used for photosynthesis. The use must be increased to maximum by effective planning of plant formation, density, and arrangements. Through genetic studies, production and proliferation of useful plants should be planned and developed. Pollution control must be programmed ecologically, suitable ecological systems must be developed in various geographical areas, in addition to the effort to eliminate pollution sources.

  7. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  8. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  10. Epiphytic lichens and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, T

    1978-01-01

    The WHEN workgroup has made an inventory of the epiphytic lichens on freestanding trees in The Netherlands, using a 5 km square-grid as a basis. On the basis of the number of lichen species per tree species per square, the squares were divided into six classes of epiphyte richness. The data for the west of the country were analyzed in more detail, resulting in a zone map. It appeared possible to construct a descriptive model of the correlation between SO/sub 2/ concentrations and epiphyte richness. At median winter SO/sub 2/ concentrations higher than 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ only a few insensitive species occur. At lower concentrations winter peak values (98 percentile) are more important than median ones. The extent to which a species is restricted to epiphyte-rich squares is used as a measure for ranking the species according to sensitivity. The more sensitive species have disappeared from large areas of The Netherlands. Comparison of the present situation with data from around 1950 reveals a decline almost everywhere in the country. The southern and western parts of the country are impoverished, the area between Rotterdam and Den Haag and the area between Arnhem and Nijmegen in particular have become very poor. A further decline of the epiphytic lichen vegetation, in particular of the relatively rich areas, is expected. In fumigation experiments, using HF, SO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, O/sub 3/ and O/sub 3/ combined with SO/sub 2/ at realistic concentrations and prolonged exposition it was found that these air pollutants cause (under glasshouse conditions) significant morphological damage to all or some of the tested lichen species.

  11. Estimation of seasonal atmospheric stability and mixing height by using different schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.; Embaby, M.; Mubarak, F.; Kamel, I.

    2007-01-01

    Different atmospheric stability schemes were used to characterize the plume growth (dispersion coefficients σ) in the lateral and vertical directions to determine the concentration distribution of pollutants through the PBL. The PBL is the region in which surface friction has a large effect on the mixing of pollutants. It is also suffer large fluctuation in temperature and wind and its depth (mixing depth) changes over a diurnal cycle. In this study, four months of surface meteorological parameters were used (to represent different seasons) to determine seasonal stability, classification. Five different stability schemes were estimated based on temperature gradient, standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction fluctuation, gradient and Bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov length. Friction velocity, (u * ) for each stability scheme was estimated for characterizing the hourly, mixing height for each stability class. Also, plume rise was estimated for each stability class depending on the availability of meteorological parameters

  12. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  13. The Role of Different Agricultural Plant Species in Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, P.; Miller, D.; Shivers, S.; Pusede, S.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this research project is to use remote sensing data to study the relationship between different plant species and the pollutants in the air. It is known that chemical reactions within plants serve as both sources and sinks for different types of Volatile Organic Compounds. However, the species-specific relationships have not been well studied. Through the better characterization of this relationship, certain aspects of air pollution may be more effectively managed. For this project, I used Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and trace gas measurements from instruments on board the NASA DC-8 to assess the relationship between different plant species and the pollutants in the air. I used measurements primarily from the agricultural land surrounding Bakersfield, CA. I created a map of the crop species in this area using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) on the AVIRIS imagery, and matched this to trace gas measurements taken on the DC-8. I used a Hysplit matrix trajectory to account for the air transport over the vegetation and up to contact with the plane. Finally, I identified correlations between the plant types and the concentration of the pollutants. The results showed that there were significant relationships between specific species and pollutants, with lemons and grapes contributing to enhanced pollution, and tree nuts reducing pollution. Specifically, almonds produced significantly lower levels of O3 , NO, and NO2. Lemons and grapes had high O3 levels, and lemons had high levels of isoprene. In total, these data show that it may be possible to mitigate airborne pollution via selective planting; however, the overall environmental effects are much more complicated and must be analyzed further.

  14. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengolahan air di Cikokol (Tangerang dan Serpong, masing-masing sebanyak lima dan tiga lokasi. Sebanyak 21 parameter dianalisis, kemudian dihitung Individual Index (II dan Pollution Index (PI - nya. Hasil yang diperoleh, yang menggambarkan kualitas pencemaran air sungai Cisadane pada saat itu, adalah sebagai berikut : Tangerang PI=1891. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan II- 110 dan lemak & minyak, dengan II = 2670.Serpong, PI=574. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan 11 = 810 Parameter lain yang mempunyai II > 1 adalah oksigen terlarut, fosfat, zat besi, fecal coli, nitrat, COD dan zat padat tersuspensi. Hasil tersebut menggambarkan baliwa sungai Cisadane telah tercemar oleh limbah industri dan rumah tangga, serta mungkin pula telah tercemar oleh limbah pertanian, peternakan dan perbengkelan.

  15. Herbicides in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Haq, A.; Maqbool, U.

    1997-01-01

    Herbicide effectiveness on the most pernicious weeds including cyperus rotundus may be limited because spray droplets are not well retained or because penetration and/or translocation is restricted. As a result, chemical pollute the environment and is hazardous to the human health. Monitoring studies ad undertaken to check that the flate and environmental effects of herbicides under field condition are consistent with prediction. Studies on /sup 14/-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus using radiotracer methods indicated that out of five formulations studies formulation No.3 was the best from penetration point of view of the chemical whereas formulation No. 4 with the high dose showed effective retention and uniform translocation of the chemical after five days of the treatment. Cuticular penetration and translocation of glyphosate in the formulations with or without surfactants have also been studied in C. rotundus. It is also concluded that synperonic surfactants, diesel oil or glycerol did not influence the translocation of glyphosate within the weed. The translocation mainly occurred down swards and accumulated in the plant parts located below the treated zone. (author)

  16. Association of Stability Parameters and Yield Stability of Sesame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of Stability Parameters and Yield Stability of Sesame ( Sesamum ... Information on phenotypic stability is useful for the selection of crop varieties as well as for ... as an alternative to parametric stability measurements is important.

  17. Impact of air pollution on vitamin D deficiency and bone health in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizabad, Elham; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ramezani, Majid; Hashemian, Roxana; Moattari, Syamak

    2017-12-01

    The association between air pollution and bone health was evaluated in adolescents in the city of Tehran. This study is essentially ecological. Vitamin D deficiency among adolescents has been reported at higher rates in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. Additionally, residence in polluted areas is associated with lower levels of bone alkaline phosphatase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and bone turnover in adolescents and to compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between polluted and non-polluted areas of Tehran. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 325 middle- and high-school students (both girls and boys) in Tehran in the winter. During the study period, detailed daily data on air pollution were obtained from archived data collected by Tehran Air Quality Control Company (AQCC). Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25(OH) vitamin D, osteocalcin, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), total protein, albumin, and creatinine were obtained from the study group. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. After adjustment for age and sex, residence in the polluted area showed a statistically significant positive association with vitamin D deficiency and a statistically significant negative association with bone turnover. Interestingly, high calcium intake (>5000 mg/week) protects against the effects of air pollution on bone turnover. Air pollution is a chief factor determining the amount of solar UVB that reaches the earth's surface. Thus, atmospheric pollution may play a significant independent role in the development of vitamin D deficiency.

  18. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  19. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  20. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  1. Land cover and air pollution are associated with asthma hospitalisations: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Ian; White, Mathew; Cherrie, Mark; Wheeler, Benedict; Taylor, Jonathon; McInnes, Rachel; Otte Im Kampe, Eveline; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Sarran, Christophe; Soyiri, Ireneous; Fleming, Lora

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing policy interest in the potential for vegetation in urban areas to mitigate harmful effects of air pollution on respiratory health. We aimed to quantify relationships between tree and green space density and asthma-related hospitalisations, and explore how these varied with exposure to background air pollution concentrations. Population standardised asthma hospitalisation rates (1997-2012) for 26,455 urban residential areas of England were merged with area-level data on vegetation and background air pollutant concentrations. We fitted negative binomial regression models using maximum likelihood estimation to obtain estimates of asthma-vegetation relationships at different levels of pollutant exposure. Green space and gardens were associated with reductions in asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were lower but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were higher. In contrast, tree density was associated with reduced asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were higher but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were lower. We found differential effects of natural environments at high and low background pollutant concentrations. These findings can provide evidence for urban planning decisions which aim to leverage health co-benefits from environmental improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil: Effects of multiple pollutants and analysis of susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Son, Jiyoung; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Gouveia, Nelson; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Health impacts of air pollution may differ depending on sex, education, socioeconomic status (SES), location at time of death, and other factors. In São Paulo, Brazil, questions remain regarding roles of individual and community characteristics. We estimate susceptibility to air pollution based on individual characteristics, residential SES, and location at time of death (May 1996-December 2010). Exposures for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were estimated using ambient monitors. Time-stratified case-crossover analysis was used with individual-level health data. Increased risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were associated with all pollutants (P effect estimates for those with > 11 years education were lower than estimates for those with 0 years education for NO2, SO2, and CO (1.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.23%, 3.08%); 1.51% (0.51%, 2.51%); and 2.82% (0.23%, 5.35%), respectively). PM10 cardiovascular mortality effects were (3.74% (0.044%, 7.30%)) lower for the high education group (> 11 years) compared with the no education group. Positive, significant associations between pollutants and mortality were observed for in-hospital deaths, but evidence of differences in air pollution-related mortality risk by location at time of death was not strong.

  3. A note on cooperative versus non-cooperative strategies in international pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, Santiago J.; Casino, Begona [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Valencia, Avda. de los Naranjos s/n, Edificio Departamental Oriental, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    In this note, we evaluate the scope of Dockner and Long's [Journal of Environment Economics and Management 24 (1993) 13] conclusion on the efficiency of the non-cooperative outcome in a differential game of international pollution control. We also complete the study of the different equilibria the differential game can present. Our results show that their conclusion requires that the initial value of the stock of pollution be higher than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock so that the equilibrium path of emissions involves a decreasing stock of pollution. Our results also show that the application of the procedure proposed by Tsutsui and Mino [Journal of Economic Theory 52 (1990) 136] to construct a Markov-perfect equilibrium using non-linear strategies is problematic when the initial pollution stock is lower than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock.

  4. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  5. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  6. Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on plant life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, T A; Bull, J N

    1972-01-01

    SO/sub 2/ is the most intensively studied of the air pollutants that affect plants. Some lower plants (e.g. lichens and bryophytes) are so sensitive that they cannot tolerate exposure to concentrations above 0.011 ppM. Higher plants appear to be more resistant but recent research shows that other pollutants may inter-act with SO/sub 2/ to increase their susceptibility. The physiological and biochemical effects of SO/sub 2/ are discussed, and the economic implications are briefly considered. 15 references.

  7. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  8. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  9. Environmental Pollution, Causes and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pham van Huong; , Huynh Thanh Dat; Nguyen Quoc Hung

    2017-01-01

    Pollution induces harmful effects on environment and health security. Main deep causes will be analyzed including natural disasters like volcanoes eruption, climate change as well as and men-caused disasters which are nuclear explosions and dioxin sprays.

  10. Lichen techniques of pollution assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hare, G

    1973-01-01

    Available techniques for determining air pollution by sulfur dioxide using lichens are described. An application of these methods - species distributions, zone mapping and analyses of total sulfur content - in the west central Scotland area, is briefly reported.

  11. Botanical indications of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1965-01-01

    This article is a survey of the knowledge current in 1965 concerning plants as bioindicators of air pollution. Discussion centers on lichens, conifers and bryophytes, and is drawn primarily from the European literature.

  12. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation Districts (RTDs) light rail operations were examined for pollutant production and runoff. To : accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a rainfall-runoff facility was conducted. Input to this labo...

  13. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  14. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  15. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  17. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  18. Air pollution and human mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Economics; Seskin, E P [Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (USA). Environmental and Nonmarket Economics Div.

    1979-11-01

    Investigations have been made on the quantitative relationship between air pollution and human mortality. While primary focus has been on suspended particulates and sulfates from stationary sources of pollution, the evidence relating to air pollutants attributed to mobile sources was also examined. Using statistical analyses for a large number of US metropolitan areas, it was concluded that the benefits associated with a substantial abatement of air pollution from stationary sources are greater than the costs of such abatement. In contrast, the situation for mobile sources-chiefly cars and trucks is less clear-cut. That is, the costs of implementing the currently mandated US standards for automobile emissions probably exeed their potential health benefits.

  19. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  20. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.