WorldWideScience

Sample records for stabilization lowered pollutant

  1. Core stability training on lower limb balance strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of core stability training on lower limbs' muscular asymmetries and imbalances in team sport. Twenty footballers were divided into two groups, either core stability or control group. Before each daily practice, core stability group (n = 10) performed a core stability training programme, while control group (n = 10) did a standard warm-up. The effects of the core stability training programme were assessed by performing isokinetic tests and single-leg countermovement jumps. Significant improvement was found for knee extensors peak torque at 3.14 rad · s(-1) (14%; P strength asymmetries in core stability group (-71.4%; P = 0.02) while a concurrent increase was seen in the control group (33.3%; P lower limbs strength balance development in young soccer players.

  2. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early childhood lower respiratory illness and air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Baker, R. J.; Yap, P.S.; Dostál, Miroslav; Joad, J.P.; Lipsett, M.; Greenfield, T.; Herr, C.E.W.; Beneš, I.; Shumway, R.H.; Pinkerton, K.E.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 10 (2007), s. 1510-1518 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * particulate matter Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2007

  4. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jary, Hannah; Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. CRD42015028042.

  5. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jary

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities.Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms.From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis.A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults.CRD42015028042.

  6. Stability analysis of lower dimensional gravastars in noncommutative geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Ayan [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Hansraj, Sudan [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    The Banados et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett 69:1849, 1992), black hole solution is revamped from the Einstein field equations in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime, in a context of noncommutative geometry (Phys. Rev. D 87:084014, 2013). In this article, we explore the exact gravastar solutions in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space given in the same geometry. As a first step we derive BTZ solution assuming the source of energy density as point-like structures in favor of smeared objects, where the particle mass M, is diffused throughout a region of linear size √(α) and is described by a Gaussian function of finite width rather than a Dirac delta function. We matched our interior solution to an exterior BTZ spacetime at a junction interface situated outside the event horizon. Furthermore, a stability analysis is carried out for the specific case when χ < 0.214 under radial perturbations about the static equilibrium solutions. To give theoretical support we are also trying to explore their physical properties and characteristics. (orig.)

  7. Quantifying pollution transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere

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    F. Ploeger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollution transport from the surface to the stratosphere within the Asian monsoon circulation may cause harmful effects on stratospheric chemistry and climate. Here, we investigate air mass transport from the monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere using a Lagrangian chemistry transport model. We show how two main transport pathways from the anticyclone emerge: (i into the tropical stratosphere (tropical pipe, and (ii into the Northern Hemisphere (NH extratropical lower stratosphere. Maximum anticyclone air mass fractions reach around 5 % in the tropical pipe and 15 % in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere over the course of a year. The anticyclone air mass fraction correlates well with satellite hydrogen cyanide (HCN and carbon monoxide (CO observations, confirming that pollution is transported deep into the tropical stratosphere from the Asian monsoon anticyclone. Cross-tropopause transport occurs in a vertical chimney, but with the pollutants transported quasi-horizontally along isentropes above the tropopause into the tropics and NH.

  8. Biodiversity of zoosporic fungi in polluted water drainages across Niles’Delta region, Lower Egipt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam H. Ali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four identified in addition to five unidentified species appertaining to ten genera of zoosporic fungi were identified and isolated from eighty four polluted water samples, which were randomly collected from different polluted sites of the water drainages along the Niles Delta in Lower Egypt. Baiting sesame seeds culture technique was employed at 20±2º C for the recovery of zoosporic fungi. The genera; Pythium and Saprolegnia (8 and 7 zoosporic fungal species, respectively showed the broadest spectra of species diversity whereas Aqualinderella was only represented by one species (A. fermentans. Saprolegnia delica and Dictyuchus carpophorus (the greatest fungal populations were the most dominant isolated zoosporic fungal species where they were highly occurred especially at the hyper-polluted waters with the heavy metals. These two species could be considered as indicators for the response of the structure and function of microbial communities for water pollution. Several zoosporic fungal species were rarely encountered. Both Aqualinderella fermentans and Pythium rostratum were recovered in moderate frequency of occurrence. Water samples which had high concentrations in heavy metals were the poorest in the species diversity of zoosporic fungi. Despite that, fungal species belonging to the family Saprolegniaceae flourished in hyper polluted water samples whilst those belonging to the family Pythiaceae predominated in more diluted water samples. Also, the prevalent species; S. delica and D. carpophorus were not affected by heavy metals concentrations being as indicators for water pollution with the heavy metals. pH values of the polluted water samples had no influence on the occurrence of zoosporic fungi. Water samples characterized by high organic matter content and low total soluble salts were the richest in zoosporic fungal species.

  9. [Heavy metals pollution and its stability assessment of sediments in flowing rivers around lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-Yong; Jiao, Wei; Jin, Xiang-Can; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2010-10-01

    16 main inflow and outflow rivers around Lake Taihu were chosen as the research object, and the concentrations and distribution of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in the surface sediments of these river estuaries were detected. The pollution extent and stability were analyzed by using three-step sequential extraction method (BCR method). Aim of this study is to control heavy metal pollution of Lake Taihu and provide the basic information. Based on the results, the monitored river estuaries all had been contaminated by different degrees, and four heavy metals' concentrations all exceeded the threshold effect level (TEL) at most sampling sites. A distinct spatial heterogeneity was found in extracted fractions of these heavy metals distribution: northern rivers > southern rivers, inflow rivers > outflow rivers. The Stability Assessment Code (SAC) for different metals varied in the descending order of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. Compared with Pb and Cu, Cd and Zn had a higher second release potential and ecological risk.

  10. Indoor air pollution-related acute lower respiratory infections and low birthweight: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Puneet; Srivastava, Rahul; Krishnan, Anand; Sreenivaas, Vishnubhatla; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2012-12-01

    Present study is a systematic review conducted to establish a quantitative association between acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) and low birthweight (LBW) attributable to Indoor air pollution (IAP) in under-5 children. Total of 24 articles for ALRI in under-5 and seven articles for LBW were included in this review. Meta-analysis was done on nine and six articles on ALRI and LBW children, respectively. Sixteen studies reported significantly elevated odds ratio (range: 1.38-6.0) of ALRI exposed to IAP. Similarly, significantly increased risk of LBW due to IAP was reported in the studies (range: 1.1-1.86). The risk of ALRI increased by 2.51 times, while the risk of LBW increased by 1.45 times due to IAP exposure. This review of ALRI and LBW attributable by IAP confirms and strengthens the findings of previous reviews and provides further strong evidence of associations of ALRI and LBW with IAP.

  11. LOWER PASSAIC RIVER SEDIMENT POLLUTION STUDY USING GIS, NEW JERSEY, USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FENG,H.; ONWUEME,V.; JASLANEK,W.J.; STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.W.

    2005-04-01

    The Passaic River is located in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area. This river has been heavily polluted by dioxins, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals due to agricultural, industrial activities, and urbanization. Contaminated sediments in the Passaic River have received considerable attention because contaminants (metals, PCBs. PAHs, dioxins) in the sediments have potential to release into the aquatic system and air through diffusion and/or volatilization, causing human health hazards. Identification of high concentration areas of these Contaminants in the river-estuarine system is critical to the Passaic River environmental restoration and watershed protection. In this study, we analyzed portion of 10 years (1991-2000) data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool to study the distributions of contaminants in the sediments. The results from this study provide important information for developing environmental management strategies for the lower Passaic River system.

  12. Acute effects of ambient air pollution on lower respiratory infections in Hanoi children: An eight-year time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Schindler, Christian; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2018-01-01

    Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam. We explored the impact of age, gender and season on these associations. Daily ambient air pollution concentrations and hospital admission counts were extracted from electronic databases received from authorities in Hanoi for the years 2007-2014. The associations between outdoor air pollution levels and hospital admissions were estimated for time lags of zero up to seven days using Quasi-Poisson regression models, adjusted for seasonal variations, meteorological variables, holidays, influenza epidemics and day of week. All ambient air pollutants were positively associated with pneumonia hospitalizations. Significant associations were found for most pollutants except for ozone and sulfur dioxide in children aged 0-17. Increments of an interquartile range (21.9μg/m 3 ) in the 7-day-average level of NO 2 were associated with a 6.1% (95%CI 2.5% to 9.8%) increase in pneumonia hospitalizations. These associations remained stable in two-pollutant models. All pollutants other than CO were positively associated with hospitalizations for bronchitis and asthma. Associations were stronger in infants than in children aged 1-5. Strong associations between hospital admissions for lower respiratory infections and daily levels of air pollution confirm the need to adopt sustainable clean air policies in Vietnam to protect children's health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial risk modelling for water shortage and nitrate pollution in the lower Jordan valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the spatial risk modeling activities (work package WP-4.4, 'GIS Risk Modeling') of the INCO-DC project 'Developing Sustainable Water Management in the Jordan Valley'. The project was funded by European Commission's INCO-DC research program. The main objective of the project was to develop the scientific basis for an integral management plan of water resources and their use in the Lower Jordan Valley. The outputs of the project were expected to allow a better understanding of the water management situation, and to provide a sound basis for a better future water management - not only separately in the three countries, but in the overall valley region. The risk modeling was done by the ARCS Seibersdorf research (ARCS), based on information and data provided by the regional partners from Israel (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, HUJ), Palestine (Applied Research Institute, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, ARIJ) and Jordan (EnviroConsult Office, Amman, ECO). The land use classification has been established through a cooperation between ARCS and the Yale University Center for Earth Observation (YUCEO). As a result of the work, the spatial patterns of agricultural and domestic water demand in the Lower Jordan Valley were established, and the spatial dimension of driving forces for water usage and water supply was analyzed. Furthermore, a conceptual model for nitrate leakage (established by HUJ) was translated into a GIS system, and the risks for nitrate pollution of groundwater were quantified. (author)

  14. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  15. Seasonal variations in composite riverbank stability in the Lower Jingjiang Reach, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Zong, Quanli; Deng, Shanshan; Xu, Quanxi; Lu, Jinyou

    2014-11-01

    Bank erosion is a key process in a fluvial system in the context of river dynamics and geomorphology. Since the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), the Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR) below the dam has experienced continuous channel degradation, with the phenomenon of bank erosion occurring frequently in local reaches. Therefore it is necessary to quantitatively investigate seasonal variations in the stability of composite riverbanks along the reach in order to better understand the fluvial processes in the reach. Laboratory tests were conducted for the sampled soils at six riverbanks during a field survey, with various bank soil properties being presented for the first time. These test results show that: the cohesive bank soils are relatively loose due to the high water contents of 28.5-40.0% and the low dry densities of 1.31-1.47 tonnes/m3; and the cohesion or angle of internal friction generally decreases with an increase in water content of the cohesive soil. Based on the measured cross-sectional profiles and interpolated hydrological data, the near-bank hydrodynamic conditions and soil parameters of two typical composite riverbanks were then determined during the 2007 hydrological year. An improved method was proposed for calculating the stability at the mode of cantilever failure for the overhanging block of a composite riverbank, and the stability degrees of these two riverbanks were calculated at different stages. These results reveal that: (i) the incipient velocity of the non-cohesive lower bank had a magnitude of 0.4 m/s, less than the mean near-bank velocity of about 1.0 m/s, which led to intensive basal erosion especially during the flood season; (ii) the cohesive upper bank before failure had sufficient strength to resist direct fluvial erosion, but the failed soil mass deposited in the near-bank zone was disintegrated easily with the submerged immersion and was then transported downstream by fluvial entrainment; (iii) the degree of bank

  16. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  17. Vertical characteristics of VOCs in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain during pollution periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Wang, Yuesi; Wu, Fangkun; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yinghong; Yang, Yuan

    2017-11-17

    In recent years, photochemical smog and gray haze-fog have frequently appeared over northern China. To determine the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during a pollution period, tethered balloon flights were conducted over a suburban site on the North China Plain. Statistical analysis showed that the VOCs concentrations peaked at the surface, and decreased with altitude. A rapid decrease appeared from the surface to 400 m, with concnetrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and halocarbons decreasing by 48.0%, 53.3%, 43.3% and 51.1%, respectively. At heights in the range of 500-1000 m, alkenes concnetrations decline by 40.2%; alkanes and halocarbons concnetrations only decreased by 24.8% and 6.4%, respectively; and aromatics increased slightly by 5.5%. High concentrations VOCs covered a higher range of height (400 m) on heavy pollution days due to lacking of diffusion power. The VOCs concentrations decreased by 50% at 200 m on light pollution days. The transport of air mass affected the composition and concentration of high-altitude VOCs, especially on lightly polluted days. These air masses originated in areas with abundant traffic and combustion sources. Reactive aromatics (k OH >20,000 ppm -1  min -1 and k OH light pollution days. The contribution increased to 52% with pollution aggravated, and increased to 64% with height. The contributions of reactive aromatics were influenced by the degree of air mass aging. Under the umbrella of aging air mass, the contribution of reactive aromatics increased with height. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. FACET ORIENTATION AND TROPISM: ASSOCIATION WITH ACCELERATED DEGENERATION OF STABILIZING STRUCTURES IN LOWER LUMBAR SPINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelec, Vjekoslav; Turner, Rajka; Franić, Miljenko; Korušić, Anđelko; Rotim, Krešimir

    2016-03-01

    The influence of facet orientation and tropism on the process of spinal degeneration has been extensively studied during the last few decades, but there are still many controversies and conflicting results in this field of research. The biomechanical cause of accelerated degeneration of stabilizing structures in lower lumbar spine lies within the combination of several factors, but two most important ones are compressive load and more coronal facet orientation that offers less resistance against torsional loading. Axial rotation of lower lumbar spine is undoubtedly associated with higher strain in disc annulus, and enhanced range of secondary rotational movements may be even more significant for the progression of annular degeneration. Accordingly, more pronounced facet tropism could be having part in faster progression of disc degeneration in lower lumbar spine, as indicated by a number of recent studies. More sagittal facet orientation in patients with a higher facet osteoarthritis score at lower lumbar segments is very likely related to arthritic remodeling commonly seen in other synovial joints. There is also a possibility that it could be associated with the adaptation to partial loss of lumbar lordosis, as both coincide with advanced age.

  19. Stabilization of premixed lean methane-air combustion using dielectric barrier discharge with low pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Ogura, Kazuaki; Mogi, Toshio

    2017-09-01

    Catalytic combustion is a promising technology to stabilize lean combustion with low pollutant emissions. Catalytic combustion has been applied to gas turbine combustors; however, some drawbacks of this technology remain to be addressed. In this work, a new concept is demonstrated to overcome the problems of catalytic combustion by using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) instead of a catalyst. A premixed lean methane-air mixture preheated to 400 °C with an equivalence ratio of 0.45 is flowed through the DBD reactor under atmospheric pressure. Almost complete combustion is achieved with a DBD power of 0.7% of the net calorific value of the mixture. The exhaust emissions are NO = 20 ppm, NO2 = 2 ppm, CO = 2 ppm, and HC \\cong 0 ppm. This work demonstrates that DBD-assisted combustion is a potential alternative to catalytic combustion.

  20. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  1. Is core stability a risk factor for lower extremity injuries in an athletic population? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blaiser, Cedric; Roosen, Philip; Willems, Tine; Danneels, Lieven; Bossche, Luc Vanden; De Ridder, Roel

    2018-03-01

    To research and summarize the literature regarding the role of core stability as a risk factor in the development of lower extremity injuries in an athletic population. Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase were searched in August 2016 to systematically review studies, which related core muscle functioning and core stability to lower extremity injuries. Nine articles were included in the systematic review. Various components of core stability were found to be related to lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries in healthy athletic populations. Core strength, core proprioception and neuromuscular control of the core were found to be a risk factor in the development of lower extremity injuries. However, conflicting evidence was found for core endurance as a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. This systematic review provides preliminary evidence for the association between impaired core stability and the development of lower extremity injuries in healthy athletes. Deficits in various aspects of core stability were identified as potential risk factors for lower extremity injuries. As such, core stability needs to be considered when screening athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pollutant dispersal and stability in a severely polluted floodplain: A case study in the Litavka River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Tereza; Kotková, Kristýna; Elznicová, J.; Strnad, L.; Engel, Z.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 156, SEP (2015), s. 131-144 ISSN 0375-6742 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Anthropogenic alluvium * Fluvial sediments * Heavy metals * Secondary pollution from mining Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.147, year: 2015

  3. Stabilization of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine with external skeletal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerl, F P

    1984-10-01

    For stabilization of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, an external spinal skeletal fixation (ESSF) system has been developed and clinically used since 1977. The system consists of two pairs of Schanz screws and an adjustable external fixation device. The Schanz screws are firmly anchored through the pedicles into the vertebral bodies. Application of ESSF offers some unique characteristics beneficial in the treatment of unstable spinal injuries and spinal osteomyelitis. In contrast to other fixation systems, the number of vertebrae immobilized can be reduced with ESSF. Versatility of the system allows application in every type of spinal instability. Stability obtained with ESSF suffices for early mobilization without major external support in every instance. In laboratory investigation, ESSF proved to be more secure than rod distraction systems and plate fixation. Since 1977, 65 patients were treated with ESSF. All 52 patients who were at least one year postsurgery were personally examined. This group included 42 patients with acute spinal trauma and eight patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Results achieved with ESSF have been encouraging, with no serious complications to date. Future modifications of ESSF application could lead to simplification and facilitation of treatment.

  4. Responsiveness of the double limb lowering test and lower abdominal muscle progression to core stabilization exercise programs in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladay, Douglas E; Miller, Sayers J; Challis, John H; Denegar, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and expensive health care problems in the United States. Studies suggest that stabilization exercise may be effective in the management of people with LBP. To accurately assess the effect of stabilization programs on muscle performance, clinicians need an objective measure that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double limb lowering test (DLLT) and lower abdominal muscle progression (LAMP) can detect a change in abdominal muscle performance after stabilization exercises. Eleven healthy participants (4 men and 7 women) were randomly assigned to either a specific stabilization exercise (SSE) or general stabilization exercise (GSE) group and were evaluated by the DLLT and LAMP before, during, and at the end of 8 weeks of training. Subjects attended exercise sessions twice per week over 8 weeks. No significant difference in pretest performance existed between the 2 groups. No significant difference was detected with the DLLT for either the SSE or GSE over time or when groups were combined. The LAMP detected a significant difference for the combined groups and GSE but not SSE over time. These data indicate that the LAMP is sensitive to change after a spinal stabilization program, whereas the DLLT does not detect a change after these programs. Furthermore, the GSE was more effective in producing these changes. Additional testing of these assessments is necessary to further validate these tests and to identify specific populations for which these tests may be most appropriate.

  5. The IPAC-NC field campaign: a pollution and oxidization pool in the lower atmosphere over Huabei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, regional air pollution characterized by photochemical smog and grey haze-fog has become a severe environmental problem in China. To investigate this, a field measurement campaign was performed in the Huabei region, located between 32–42° N latitude in eastern China, during the period 2 April–16 May 2006 as part of the project "Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China" (IPAC-NC. It appeared that strong pollution emissions from urban and industrial centers tend to accumulate in the lower atmosphere over the central area of Huabei. We observed widespread, very high SO2 mixing ratios, about 20–40 ppbv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude and 10–30 ppbv at 1.5–3.0 km altitude. Average CO mixing ratios were 0.65–0.7 ppmv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude, and very high CO around 1 ppmv was observed during some flights, and even higher levels at the surface. We find the high pollution concentrations to be associated with enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals, calculated with a chemical box model constrained by the measurements. In the upper part of the boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere, high CO and SO2 compete with relatively less NO2 in reacting with OH, being efficiently recycled through HO2, preventing a net loss of HOx radicals. In addition to reactive hydrocarbons and CO, the oxidation of SO2 causes significant ozone production over Huabei (up to ~13% or 2.0 ppbv h−1 at 0.8 km altitude. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere over Huabei is not only strongly polluted but also acts as an oxidation pool, with pollutants undergoing very active photochemistry over this part of China.

  6. On the relationship between low cloud variability and lower tropospheric stability in the Southeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine marine low cloud cover variability in the Southeast Pacific and its association with lower-tropospheric stability (LTS across a spectrum of timescales. On both daily and interannual timescales, LTS and low cloud amount are very well correlated in austral summer (DJF. Meanwhile in winter (JJA, when ambient LTS increases, the LTS–low cloud relationship substantially weakens. The DJF LTS–low cloud relationship also weakens in years with unusually large ambient LTS values. These are generally strong El Niño years, in which DJF LTS values are comparable to those typically found in JJA. Thus the LTS–low cloud relationship is strongly modulated by the seasonal cycle and the ENSO phenomenon. We also investigate the origin of LTS anomalies closely associated with low cloud variability during austral summer. We find that the ocean and atmosphere are independently involved in generating anomalies in LTS and hence variability in the Southeast Pacific low cloud deck. This highlights the importance of the physical (as opposed to chemical component of the climate system in generating internal variability in low cloud cover. It also illustrates the coupled nature of the climate system in this region, and raises the possibility of cloud feedbacks related to LTS. We conclude by addressing the implications of the LTS–low cloud relationship in the Southeast Pacific for low cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change.

  7. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...... volatilized or destabilized with respect to leaching. Pb, in particular, exhibited increased reactivity following the formation of an ordered iron oxide structure at 900 °C. The thermal treatment had a positive effect on Cr release, which was reduced significantly at 900 °C in the presence of organic matter...

  8. Three-dimensional investigation of ozone pollution in the lower troposphere using an unmanned aerial vehicle platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Lu, Qing-Chang; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Si-Jia; Li, Bai; Li, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Potential utilities of instrumented lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to quickly characterize tropospheric ozone pollution and meteorological factors including air temperature and relative humidity at three-dimensional scales are highlighted in this study. Both vertical and horizontal variations of ozone within the 1000 m lower troposphere at a local area of 4 × 4 km 2 are investigated during summer and autumn times. Results from field measurements show that the UAV platform has a sufficient reliability and precision in capturing spatiotemporal variations of ozone and meteorological factors. The results also reveal that ozone vertical variation is mainly linked to the vertical distribution patterns of air temperature and the horizontal transport of air masses from other regions. In addition, significant horizontal variations of ozone are also observed at different levels. Without major exhaust sources, ozone horizontal variation has a strong correlation with the vertical convection intensity of air masses within the lower troposphere. Higher air temperatures are usually related to lower ozone horizontal variations at the localized area, whereas underlying surface diversity has a week influence. Three-dimensional ozone maps are obtained using an interpolation method based on UAV collected samples, which are capable of clearly demonstrating the diurnal evolution processes of ozone within the 1000 m lower troposphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilization of nanosized titanium dioxide by cyclodextrin polymers and its photocatalytic effect on the degradation of wastewater pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Tamás Zoltán; Puskás, István; Varga, Erzsébet; Molnár, Mónika; Fenyvesi, Éva

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are considered highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of organic pollutants. Among AOP techniques, photocatalysis has recently been the most widely studied. Our aims were to investigate how the dispersion of nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO 2 ) applied in photodegradation-based procedures can be stabilized with cyclodextrins in order to obtain a new, more efficient photocatalyst for the purification of waters polluted by xenobiotics applying UV irradiation. During our work, on the one hand, we studied the behavior and stability of nanoTiO 2 in cyclodextrin solutions. On the other hand, we used various monomer and polymer cyclodextrin derivatives, and assessed the options for nanoTiO 2 stabilization in the presence of various salts and tap water on the basis of turbidity tests. The physical stability of nanoTiO 2 dispersions is diminished in the presence of the salts found in tap water (and occurring also in surface waters and ground water) and they are precipitated immediately. This colloidal instability can be improved by cyclodextrin derivatives. Based on the results of our studies we have selected carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrin polymer (CMBCD-P) for stabilization of nanoTiO 2 dispersions. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and ibuprofen as model organic pollutants in various media (distilled water, NaCl solution and tap water) has been studied using nanoTiO 2 as catalyst stabilized by CMBCD-P. CMBCD-P itself showed a catalytic effect on the UV degradation of methylene blue. In addition to enhancing the colloid stability of nanoTiO 2 CMBCD-P showed also synergistic effects in catalyzing the photodecomposition process of the dye. On the other hand, ibuprofen as a model pharmaceutical, a pollutant of emerging concern (EP), was protected by CMBCD-P against the photocatalytic degradation showing that inclusion complex formation can result in opposite effects depending on the structure of the

  10. Stabilization of nanosized titanium dioxide by cyclodextrin polymers and its photocatalytic effect on the degradation of wastewater pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Zoltán Agócs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs are considered highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of organic pollutants. Among AOP techniques, photocatalysis has recently been the most widely studied. Our aims were to investigate how the dispersion of nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 applied in photodegradation-based procedures can be stabilized with cyclodextrins in order to obtain a new, more efficient photocatalyst for the purification of waters polluted by xenobiotics applying UV irradiation. During our work, on the one hand, we studied the behavior and stability of nanoTiO2 in cyclodextrin solutions. On the other hand, we used various monomer and polymer cyclodextrin derivatives, and assessed the options for nanoTiO2 stabilization in the presence of various salts and tap water on the basis of turbidity tests. The physical stability of nanoTiO2 dispersions is diminished in the presence of the salts found in tap water (and occurring also in surface waters and ground water and they are precipitated immediately. This colloidal instability can be improved by cyclodextrin derivatives. Based on the results of our studies we have selected carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrin polymer (CMBCD-P for stabilization of nanoTiO2 dispersions. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and ibuprofen as model organic pollutants in various media (distilled water, NaCl solution and tap water has been studied using nanoTiO2 as catalyst stabilized by CMBCD-P. CMBCD-P itself showed a catalytic effect on the UV degradation of methylene blue. In addition to enhancing the colloid stability of nanoTiO2 CMBCD-P showed also synergistic effects in catalyzing the photodecomposition process of the dye. On the other hand, ibuprofen as a model pharmaceutical, a pollutant of emerging concern (EP, was protected by CMBCD-P against the photocatalytic degradation showing that inclusion complex formation can result in opposite effects depending on the structure

  11. [Lead pollution of drinking water in lower Saxony from corrosion of pipe materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, B P; Lass, J; Dunkelberg, H; Suchenwirth, R

    2009-05-01

    The corrosion of drinking water pipe materials can release different elements into tap water. Especially important in this context is the heavy metal lead, which mainly leaches from the peripheral water distribution system. Lead is known to have numerous adverse effects especially to infants and children. The aim of this project was to assess the present state of drinking water contamination with lead in Lower Saxony and to promote the replacement of lead pipes. For this purpose a project was initiated comprising three parts. Firstly, a free examination of drinking water was offered in cooperation with local public health departments for private households with young women and families with children living in buildings constructed before 1974. Participants were asked to collect a cold tap water sample in their household after nocturnal stagnation and to complete a questionnaire. The collected samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry for their lead concentration. Secondly, data from local public health departments on results of lead measurements, especially in buildings for the public, were collected and analysed. Finally, a working group 'lead replacement' consisting of representatives of all relevant parties (e.g., tenant and landlord associations, handicraft, building and health administration) was initiated. In the project in total 2,901 tap water samples from households were collected between the years 2005 and 2007. Of these, 7.5% had lead concentrations exceeding 10 microg/L (recommended limit of the World Health Organisation) and 3.3% had concentrations above the limit of the German drinking water ordinance (25 microg/L). There were remarkable regional differences in the frequency of tap water contamination. Multi-family houses were more frequently affected than single and double family houses. Additional data were collected in a preceding study in southern Lower Saxony. Of the 1 434 stagnation samples, 3.1% had lead concentrations greater

  12. The Effect of Lower Body Stabilization and Different Writing Tools on Writing Biomechanics in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Lien, Yueh-Ju; Yu, Yu-Chun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Wu, David Bin-Chia

    2013-01-01

    A high percentage of children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty keeping up with the handwriting demands at school. Previous studies have addressed the effects of proper sitting and writing tool on writing performance, but less on body biomechanics. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lower body stabilization and pencil…

  13. Can external lateral stabilization reduce the energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, T.; Noten, S.; Lamoth, C. J.; Beek, P. J.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Houdijk, H.

    The aim of this study was to examine whether impaired balance control is partly responsible for the increased energy cost of walking in persons with a lower limb amputation (LLA). Previous studies used external lateral stabilization to evaluate the energy cost for balance control; this caused a

  14. Meta-analysis of biochar potential for pollutant immobilization and stabilization in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Marsz, Aleksandra; Fristak, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is the pyrolysis product of biomass, preferably from agricultural and forestry residues and waste materials. Characterized by a polyaromatic structure rich in carbon, it offers a microporous structure with a high specific surface area and active functional groups as binding sites. Because of the high sorption capacity for organic and inorganic soil pollutants biochar is an interesting tool for in-situ soil remediation. Especially if the reduction of contaminant bioavailability and the protection of groundwater from pollutants in the vadose zone are the most relevant issues for remediating a polluted site without excavation and removal of the soil, an in-situ application of biochar may offer a promising remediation strategy. The resulting interest of deploying biochar as sorbent for soil contaminants has stimulated a wealth of studies to develop successful applications for environmental technology. However, the existing studies do not always agree on the efficacy for different pollutants and on the most relevant char and soil characteristics that determine the rate of success when using biochar as sorbent. This makes it necessary to apply advanced literature assessment techniques to allow for the recognition of the extent and the significance of the efficacy of a given pollutant treatment technique. A meta-analysis is a study assessment technique that allows extracting a harmonized answer to a specific research question that has been studied more often than one time, even if the results are partially conflicting. Such a technique also allows getting an overview about the degree of consensus or contradiction in the answers to the question if biochar can be applied successfully for immobilizing certain soil contaminants. The meta-analysis results can also be used to quantify the average extent of effects of a certain treatment, depending on the characteristics of the sorbent and on the application rate. By checking 104 published papers in the peer

  15. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-02-01

    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Krishnamoorthi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. ► Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. ► The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. ► Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  17. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  18. Air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children in Ningbo, China: A time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pei-Wen; Wang, Jian-Bing; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Shen, Peng; Chai, Peng-Fei; Li, Die; Jin, Ming-Juan; Tang, Meng-Ling; Lu, Huai-Chu; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are main causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Air pollution has been recognized as an important contributor to development and exacerbation of respiratory infections. However, few studies are available in China. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of air pollution on hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children under 15 years in Ningbo, China. Poisson generalized models were used to estimate the associations between air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections adjusted for temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects. We found that four pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and SO 2 ) were significantly associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections. The effect estimates for acute upper respiratory infections tended to be higher (PM 2.5 ER = 3.46, 95% CI 2.18, 4.76; PM 10 ER = 2.81, 95% CI 1.93, 3.69; NO 2 ER = 11.27, 95% CI 8.70, 13.89; SO 2 ER = 15.17, 95% CI 11.29, 19.19). Significant associations for gaseous pollutants (NO 2 and SO 2 ) were observed after adjustment for particular matter. Stronger associations were observed among older children and in the cold period. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections in Ningbo.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Pollutants' Transport and Fate in AN Unsteady Flow in Lower Bear River, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salha, A. A.; Stevens, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents numerical application and statistical development of Stream Water Quality Modeling (SWQM) as a tool to investigate, manage, and research the transport and fate of water pollutants in Lower Bear River, Box elder County, Utah. The concerned segment under study is the Bear River starting from Cutler Dam to its confluence with the Malad River (Subbasin HUC 16010204). Water quality problems arise primarily from high phosphorus and total suspended sediment concentrations that were caused by five permitted point source discharges and complex network of canals and ducts of varying sizes and carrying capacities that transport water (for farming and agriculture uses) from Bear River and then back to it. Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has designated the entire reach of the Bear River between Cutler Reservoir and Great Salt Lake as impaired. Stream water quality modeling (SWQM) requires specification of an appropriate model structure and process formulation according to nature of study area and purpose of investigation. The current model is i) one dimensional (1D), ii) numerical, iii) unsteady, iv) mechanistic, v) dynamic, and vi) spatial (distributed). The basic principle during the study is using mass balance equations and numerical methods (Fickian advection-dispersion approach) for solving the related partial differential equations. Model error decreases and sensitivity increases as a model becomes more complex, as such: i) uncertainty (in parameters, data input and model structure), and ii) model complexity, will be under investigation. Watershed data (water quality parameters together with stream flow, seasonal variations, surrounding landscape, stream temperature, and points/nonpoint sources) were obtained majorly using the HydroDesktop which is a free and open source GIS enabled desktop application to find, download, visualize, and analyze time series of water and climate data registered with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System

  20. Effectiveness of temporary control measures for lowering PM2.5 pollution in Beijing and the implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jian; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Huanjia; Wang, Kun; Hua, Shenbing; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang

    2017-05-01

    gaseous pollutants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) will be very significant for further lowering the concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing in normal time.

  1. Heavy Metal Pollution of Lakes along the Mid-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China: Intensity, Sources and Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu

    2013-01-01

    Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Geo-accumulation index (Ig) analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes. PMID:23442559

  2. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  3. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (''D'') Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ''D'' pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels

  4. Prevention of falling risk in elderly people: the relevance of muscular strength and symmetry of lower limbs in postural stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzigalli, Luisa; Filippini, Alberto; Ahmaidi, Said; Jullien, Hugues; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Falls are one of the major health problems affecting the quality of life among older adults. The aging process is associated with decreasing muscle strength and an increasing risk of falling. The variables and techniques adopted to quantify muscular strength and postural stability were different in each protocol; a great number of reports analyzed the risk factors and predictors of falls, but the results appear still uncertain. To date, there is no clear, definitive statement or review that has examined the effect of the quadriceps strength on static balance performances in different sensory conditions. This contribution aims to provide an overview of experimental works to increase the comprehension and prevention of falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly. Based on a review of the literature, this work was designed to explore the relationship among risk of falls, postural stability, and muscular strength of lower limbs in older adults.

  5. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 1: Fate of elements and dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeldt, Brita; Jay, Klaus; Seifert, Helmuth; Vehlow, Jürgen; Christensen, Thomas H; Baun, Dorthe L; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator plants that are treated by means of the Ferrox process can be more safely disposed of due to reduction of soluble salts and stabilization of heavy metals in an iron oxide matrix. Further stabilization can be obtained by thermal treatment inside a combustion chamber of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The influence of the Ferrox products on the combustion process, the quality of the residues, and the partitioning of heavy metals between the various solids and the gas have been investigated in the Karlsruhe TAM-ARA pilot plant for waste incineration. During the experiments only few parameters were influenced. An increase in the SO2 concentration in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed compared with reference tests. Higher contents of Fe and volatile heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Pb and partly Hg in the Ferrox products lead to increased concentration of these elements in the solid residues of the co-feeding tests. Neither the burnout nor the PCDD/F formation was altered by the addition of the Ferrox products. Co-feeding of treated APC residues seems to be a feasible approach for obtaining a single solid residue from waste incineration.

  6. Whole body, long-axis rotational training improves lower extremity neuromuscular control during single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M

    2011-05-01

    Poor neuromuscular control during sports activities is associated with non-contact lower extremity injuries. This study evaluated the efficacy of progressive resistance, whole body, long-axis rotational training to improve lower extremity neuromuscular control during a single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization. Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either Training or Control groups. Electromyographic, ground reaction force, and kinematic data were collected from three pre-test, post-test trials. Independent sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons were used to compare group mean change differences (P≤0.05/21≤0.0023). Training group gluteus maximus and gluteus medius neuromuscular efficiency improved 35.7% and 31.7%, respectively. Training group composite vertical-anteroposterior-mediolateral ground reaction force stabilization timing occurred 1.35s earlier. Training group knee flexion angle at landing increased by 3.5°. Training group time period between the initial two peak frontal plane knee displacements following landing increased by 0.17s. Training group peak hip and knee flexion velocity were 21.2°/s and 20.1°/s slower, respectively. Time period between the initial two peak frontal plane knee displacements following landing and peak hip flexion velocity mean change differences displayed a strong relationship in the Training group (r(2)=0.77, P=0.0001) suggesting improved dynamic frontal plane knee control as peak hip flexion velocity decreased. This study identified electromyographic, kinematic, and ground reaction force evidence that device training improved lower extremity neuromuscular control during single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization. Further studies with other populations are indicated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental investigation of the stability of Fe-rich carbonates in the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, E.; Menguy, N.; Auzende, A.; Benzerara, K.; Bureau, H.; Antonangeli, D.; Corgne, A.; Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Perrillat, J.; Guyot, F. J.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Carbonates are the main C-bearing minerals that are transported deep in the Earth's mantle via subduction of the oceanic lithosphere [1]. The fate of carbonates at mantle conditions plays a key role in the deep carbon cycle. Decarbonation, melting or reduction of carbonates will affect the extent and the way carbon is recycled into the deep Earth. To clarify the fate of carbonates in the deep mantle, high-pressure high-temperature experiments were carried out up to 105 GPa and 2850 K on oxide assemblages of (Mg,Fe)O + CO2. The presence of Fe(II) in starting materials induces redox reactions from which Fe(II) is oxidized and a part of the carbon is reduced. This leads to an assemblage of magnetite, diamonds, and carbonates or, pressure depending, their newly discovered Fe(III)-bearing high-pressure polymorphs based on a silicate-like chemistry with tetrahedrally coordinated carbon [2]. Our results show the possibility for carbon to be recycled in the lowermost mantle and provide evidence of a possible coexistence of reduced and oxidized carbon at lower mantle conditions. [1] Sleep, N. H., and K. Zahnle (2001) J. Geophys. Res.-Planets 106(E1), 1373-1399. [2] Boulard et al. (2011) PNAS, 108, 5184-5187.

  8. Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks: On relationships between Arctic clouds, sea ice, and lower tropospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.; Boeke, R.; Hegyi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence other important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these Arctic climate system elements creating the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks, we quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE). In addition, we quantify the covariability between surface CRE and sea ice concentration (SIC). This paper builds on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, a statistically insignificant covariability is found between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, we find a statistically significant increase in the average surface longwave CRE at lower SIC values in fall. Specifically, a +3-5 W m-2 larger longwave CRE is found over footprints with 0% versus 100% SIC. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m-2 are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume, under certain meteorological conditions. Our results also suggest that a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  9. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  10. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...... in the leachate from an amended, slightly polluted soil (255 mg/kg As and 27 mg/kg Cr) did not at any time exceed 50 μg/L, which means that the soil can be reused for construction e.g. roads and baffle walls as described by the Danish Reuse Act. Ageing of ferrihydrite, the main constituent of Fe...

  11. Nitrate pollution of groundwater around a sewage stabilization pond, Kerala India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Shahul Hameed, A.; Velayudhan, K.T.; Jacob, S.; Mathew, M.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the influence of the sewage stabilisation pont of the Calicut Medical College on the quality of water in the open dug wells which are situated in and around the stabilisation pond. The study revealed that domestic wells are becoming increasingly polluted with nitrate in spite of heavy rainfall in the region. The level of nitrate in the observation wells was found to be vary widely during different seasons: from 1.1 to 49.8, 0.7 to 19.5 and from 2.1 to 38.3 mg/l during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. One well had nitrate exceeding the maximum permissible limit specified for drinking water by Bureau of Indian Standards. The problem is more pronounced in summer when the level of nitrate is observed to be on the higher side. (author)

  12. Can air pollution affect tear film stability? a cross-sectional study in the aftermath of an explosion accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granslo JT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After an explosion and fire in two tanks containing contaminated oil and sulphur products in a Norwegian industrial harbour in 2007, the surrounding area was polluted. This caused an intense smell, lasting until the waste was removed two years later. The present study reports examinations of tear film break up time among the population. The examinations were carried out because many of the people in the area complained of sore eyes. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between living or working close to the polluted area and tear film stability one and a half years after the explosion. Methods All persons working or living in an area less than six kilometres from the explosion site were invited to take part in the study together with a similar number of persons matched for age and gender living more than 20 kilometres away. Three groups were established: workers in the explosion area and inhabitants near the explosion area (but not working there were considered to have been exposed, and inhabitants far away (who did not work in the explosion area were considered to be unexposed. A total of 734 people were examined, and the response rate was 76 percent. Tear film stability was studied by assessing non-invasive break-up time (NIBUT using ocular microscopy. In addition Self-reported Break Up Time (SBUT was assessed by recording the time the subject could keep his or hers eyes open without blinking when watching a fixed point on a wall. Background information was obtained using a questionnaire. Non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-tests with exact p-values and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Both NIBUT and SBUT were shorter among the male exposed workers than among the inhabitants both near and far away from the explosion area. This was also found for SBUT among males in a multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and smoking. Conclusions Reduced tear film stability

  13. The use of indigenous plant species and calcium phosphate for the stabilization of highly metal-polluted sites in southern Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kucharski, R.; Sas-Nowosielska, A.; Malkowski, E.; Japenga, J.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Pogrzeba, M.; Krzyzak, J.

    2005-01-01

    Highly metal-polluted (Pb, Cd, Zn) soil from a non-ferrous mine and smelter site in southern Poland, further referred to as Waryski soil, was used to test indigenous plant species for stabilization effectiveness of heavy metals in soils. Results of pilot investigations with commercially available

  14. Estimation of root cohesion for desert shrub species in the Lower Colorado riparian ecosystem and its potential for streambank stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A. R.; Gautam, M. R.; Yu, Z.; Imada, S.; Acharya, K.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying mechanical properties of native vegetation for streambank stability has remained a critical need of the Lower Colorado riparian revegetation effort. In the present study we estimated root cohesion for four representative native desert shrub species: Artiplex lentiformis (Torr.) S.Watson, Lycium andersonii A. Gray, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville, and Allenrolfea occidentalis (S.Watson) Kuntze to understand their suitability in streambank stabilization in the framework of a revegetation campaign. Field experiments were conducted to measure root length, root length density, root area ratio, and root tensile strength. Finally, the root cohesion values were assessed using a simple perpendicular model. Root area ratio estimates showed that on average plant roots occupy 0.46 % of the area under the crown of the selected species. The root tensile strength (Tr) was greatest for L. tridentata (62.23 MPa) followed by L. andersonii (53.53 MPa), A. lentiformis (49.17 MPa), and A. occidentalis (35.03 MPa).The root cohesion values could be used to rank the species according to their potential for shallow bank slope stabilization in riparian ecosystems of a desert environment. The maximum root cohesion in the present study was estimated for A. lentiformis (97.6kPa) followed by L. andersonii (89.3kPa), L. tridentata (35.6 kPa), and A. occidentalis (34.8 kPa). Root cohesion values were also estimated using Fiber bundle model (FBM) and compared to the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979). The comparative root cohesion values for root diameter (> 0.5 mm) suggest that Wu's model estimates are greater than those of the FBM model by a reduction factor ranges between 0.35 and 0.56 for our studied species.

  15. Phosphate Stability in Diagenetic Fluids Constrains the Acidic Alteration Model for Lower Mt. Sharp Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; VanBommel, S. J.; McAdam, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Curiosity has encountered silica-enriched bedrock (as strata and as veins and associated halos of alteration) in the largely basaltic Murray Fm. of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) investigations of the Murray Fm. revealed decreasing Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al, and higher S, as silica increased (Fig. 1). A positive correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 (up to 74.4 and 1.7 wt %, respectively) suggests that these two insoluble elements were retained while acidic fluids leached more soluble elements. Other evidence also supports a silica-retaining, acidic alteration model for the Murray Fm., including low trace element abundances consistent with leaching, and the presence of opaline silica and jarosite determined by CheMin. Phosphate stability is a key component of this model because PO4 3- is typically soluble in acidic water and is likely a mobile ion in diagenetic fluids (pH less than 5). However, the Murray rocks are not leached of P; they have variable P2O5 (Fig. 1) ranging from average Mars (0.9 wt%) up to the highest values in Gale Crater (2.5 wt%). Here we evaluate APXS measurements of Murray Fm. bedrock and veins with respect to phosphate stability in acidic fluids as a test of the acidic alteration model for the Lower Mt. Sharp rocks.

  16. Bioindicators and biomarkers of environmental pollution in the middle-lower basin of the Suquía River (Córdoba, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Tamara; Hued, Andrea Cecilia; Monferrán, Magdalena Victoria; Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Galanti, Lucas Nicolás; Amé, María Valeria

    2012-10-01

    The Suquía River middle-lower basin (Córdoba, Argentina) is subject to a strong anthropogenic impact because it receives pollutants from different sources. Recent studies have shown the importance and the need of approaching the monitoring process of water quality from integral perspectives through the use of chemical as well as biological methods. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the fish species Jenynsia multidentata as a bioindicator of environmental pollution in the middle-lower basin of the Suquía River using biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes as well as gill and liver histopathology as biomarkers. We also studied the fish-assemblage characteristics through the fish species pattern variation and the application of a biotic index based on fish data. Our study also included the analysis of a water-quality index, heavy-metal concentrations in sediment and water, and pesticide concentrations in sediment. The chemical analyses of the middle-lower Suquía River basin showed a water-quality degradation gradient. Fish-assemblage structure changed with increasing water pollution, showing a simpler structure at the most polluted area. According to the biotic index, the variation pattern of fish assemblages reflected the aquatic environmental deterioration. Both molecular and histopathological biomarkers reflected the same trend in relation to water quality. However, enzymes varied with more acute precision between seasons. In addition, each enzyme presented with different sensibility. At tissue level, the histopathological analysis detected chronic contamination at both stations and seasons. The present work, which comprises different levels of biological organization together with chemical analyses, generated particular although complementary information, thus evidencing the same trend of aquatic contamination. Thus, the development of integral investigations gives a comprehensive approach and becomes the most effective tool to construct policies

  17. The effects of one-half of a soccer match on the postural stability and functional capacity of the lower limbs in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kim Fukushi Yamada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Most injuries occur during the final 15 minutes of each half of a soccer match, suggesting that physical exertion may influence changes in neuromuscular control and the body's ability to stabilize the joints of the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of one-half of a soccer match on the functional capacity and stability of the lower limbs in young soccer players. METHODS: We analyzed 27 soccer players by evaluating the functional capacity of their lower limbs using the hop test protocol and their level of postural stability using the Biodex Stability System. The evaluations were performed before and after 45 minutes of game time. RESULTS: After the match, there was a decrease in the overall stability index (OSI (F(1,23 = 5.64, p = 0.026 and the anterior-posterior stability index (APSI (F(1,23 = 5.24,p = 0.032. In the single and triple hop tests, there was a higher functional capacity in the dominant limb compared to the non dominant limb in the pre- and post-game comparisons. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that there is a decrease in the stability of the lower limbs in young soccer players after a 45 minutes soccer match, but the same result was not found for the functional capacity.

  18. Wearing a safety harness during treadmill walking influences lower extremity kinematics mainly through changes in ankle regularity and local stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Leslie M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wearing a harness during treadmill walking ensures the subject's safety and is common practice in biomedical engineering research. However, the extent to which such practice influences gait is unknown. This study investigated harness-related changes in gait patterns, as evaluated from lower extremity kinematics during treadmill walking. Findings Healthy subjects (n = 10 walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3 minutes with and without wearing a harness (LiteGait®, Mobility Research, Inc.. In the former condition, no weight support was provided to the subjects. Lower extremity kinematics was assessed in the sagittal plane from the mean (meanRoM, standard deviation (SDRoM and coefficient of variation (CoVRoM of the hip, knee, and ankle ranges of motion (RoM, as well as from the sample entropy (SampEn and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE of the joints' angles. Wearing the harness increased the meanRoM of the hip, the SDRoM and the CoVRoM of the knee, and the SampEn and the LyE of the ankle. In particular, the harness effect sizes for both the SampEn and the LyE of the ankle were large, likely reflecting a meaningful decline in the neuromuscular stabilizing control of this joint. Conclusions Wearing a harness during treadmill walking marginally influences lower extremity kinematics, resulting in more or less subtle changes in certain kinematic variables. However, in cases where differences in gait patterns would be expressed through modifications in these variables, having subjects walk with a harness may mask or reinforce such differences.

  19. Relationships between lower tropospheric stability, low cloud cover, and water vapor isotopic composition in the subtropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that govern the relationships between lower tropospheric stability and low-cloud cover is crucial for improved constraints on low-cloud feedbacks and for improving the parameterizations of low-cloud cover used in climate models. The stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor is a sensitive recorder of the balance of moistening and drying processes that set the humidity of the lower troposphere and may thus provide a useful framework for improving our understanding low-cloud processes. In-situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition collected at the NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, along with twice-daily soundings from Hilo and remote sensing of cloud cover, show a clear inverse relationship between the estimated inversion strength (EIS) and the mixing ratios and water vapor δ -values, and a positive relationship between EIS, deuterium excess, and Δ δ D, defined as the difference between an observation and a reference Rayleigh distillation curve. These relationships are consistent with reduced moistening and an enhanced upper-tropospheric contribution above the trade inversion under high EIS conditions and stronger moistening under weaker EIS conditions. The cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, and cloud-top pressure were all found to be higher under low EIS conditions. Inverse modeling of the isotopic data for the highest and lowest terciles of EIS conditions provide quantitative constraints on the cold-point temperatures and mixing fractions that govern the humidity above the trade inversion. The modeling shows the moistening fraction between moist boundary layer air and dry middle tropospheric air 24±1.5% under low EIS conditions is and 6±1.5% under high EIS conditions. A cold-point (last-saturation) temperature of -30C can match the observations for both low and high EIS conditions. The isotopic composition of the moistening source as derived from the inversion (-114±10‰ ) requires moderate

  20. Ambient particulate air pollution and acute lower respiratory infections: a systematic review and implications for estimating the global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin; Burnett, Rick; North, Tiffany; Cohen, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) account for nearly one fifth of mortality in young children worldwide and have been associated with exposures to indoor and outdoor sources of combustion-derived air pollution. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant articles on air pollution and ALRI in children. Using a Bayesian approach to meta-analysis, a summary estimate of 1.12 (1.03, 1.30) increased risk in ALRI occurrence per 10 μg/m 3 increase in annual average PM 2.5 concentration was derived from the longer-term (subchronic and chronic) effects studies. This analysis strengthens the evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to PM 2.5 and the occurrence of ALRI and provides a basis for estimating the global attributable burden of mortality due to ALRI that is not influenced by the wide variation in regional case fatality rates. Most studies, however, have been conducted in settings with relatively low levels of PM 2.5 . Extrapolating their results to other, more polluted, regions will require a model that is informed by evidence from studies of the effects on ALRI of exposure to PM 2.5 from other combustion sources, such as secondhand smoke and household solid fuel use.

  1. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  2. Trends in emissions and concentrations of air pollutants in the lower troposphere in the Baltimore/Washington airshed from 1997 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. He

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the composition of the lower atmosphere (0–1500 m altitude and surface air quality over the Baltimore/Washington area and surrounding states were investigated for the period from 1997 to 2011. We examined emissions of ozone precursors from monitors and inventories as well as ambient ground-level and aircraft measurements to characterize trends in air pollution. The US EPA Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS program reported substantial decreases in emission of summertime nitrogen oxides (NOx from power plants, up to ∼80% in the mid-Atlantic States. These large reductions in emission of NOx are reflected in a sharp decrease of ground-level concentrations of NOx starting around 2003. The decreasing trend of tropospheric column CO observed by aircraft is ∼0.8 Dobson unit (DU per year, corresponding to ∼35 ppbv yr−1 in the lower troposphere (the surface to 1500 m above ground level. Satellite observations of long-term, near-surface CO show a ∼40% decrease over western Maryland between 2000 and 2011; the same magnitude is indicated by aircraft measurements above these regions upwind of the Baltimore/Washington airshed. With decreasing emissions of ozone precursors, the ground-level ozone in the Baltimore/Washington area shows a 0.6 ppbv yr−1 decrease in the past 15 yr. Since photochemical production of ozone is substantially influenced by ambient temperature, we introduce the climate penalty factor (CPF into the trend analysis of long-term aircraft measurements. After compensating for inter-annual variations in temperature, historical aircraft measurements indicate that the daily net production of tropospheric ozone over the Baltimore/Washington area decreased from ∼20 ppbv day−1 in the late 1990s to ∼7 ppbv day−1 in the early 2010s during ozone season. A decrease in the long-term column ozone is observed as ∼0.2 DU yr−1 in the lowest 1500 m, corresponding to an improvement of ∼1.3 ppbv yr−1. Our

  3. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: A freshwater bivalve study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: rcompany@ualg.pt; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Shepherd, T.J.; Pearson, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Science Labs., Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  4. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  5. Changes of floodplain morphology by water mills: Legacy sediments stored behind mill dams as archive and source for pollution - Examples from the Wurm River, Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchty-Lemke, Michael; Frings, Roy; Hagemann, Lukas; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Maaß, Anna-Lisa; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The Wurm River (Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany) is a small stream in a low mountain area near the Dutch-German border that has seen a lot of anthropogenic changes of its morphology since medieval times. Among other influencing factors, water mills, in particular, had an early impact on the sediment dynamics and created sediment traps. Several knickpoints in the long profile may represent the legacy of mill damming - or founded mill building at these spots. The knickpoints may also represent the aftermath of the colliery history. A study site in the upper reaches of the Wurm River features erosion terraces, incised following the demise of a mill dam in the early 20th century. The mill pond most likely collected sediment and additives e.g. used in agricultural and industrial processes. These legacy sediments from behind former mill dams provide information about anthropogenic pollution, particularly for the era of industrialization in the vicinity of the old industrial area of the city of Aachen. Along with the demise of the mill dam and the increased incision tendency, the sediments are also a secondary source for pollution in case of remobilization of contaminated sediments. Two major research questions are addressed. A) Which individual hydrological and geomorphological processes, both upstream and downstream, triggered the incision and the construction of the erosion terraces, which are preserved in the mill pond sediments? Is either the demised mill dam, or subsidence effects, or a combination of both the determining factor? B) Which contaminants are retained in the sediments? Is there a detectable point source for the pollutants or is it a mixture of diffuse anthropogenic (industry, agriculture, traffic, wastewater) and natural origin? To tackle these questions, sedimentological data are combined with geomorphological mapping and evaluation of historical data. A soil profile provides insight into the architecture of the floodplain, which is built of riverbed

  6. Tissue sensitivity of the rat upper and lower extrapulmonary airways to the inhaled electrophilic air pollutants diacetyl and acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Joseph A; Smith, Gregory J; Morris, John B

    2014-11-01

    The target site for inhaled vapor-induced injury often differs in mouth-breathing humans compared with nose-breathing rats, thus complicating the use of rat inhalation toxicity data for assessment of human risk. We sought to examine sensitivity of respiratory/transitional nasal (RTM) and tracheobronchial (TBM) mucosa to two electrophilic irritant vapors: diacetyl and acrolein. Computational fluid dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was coupled with biomarker assessment to establish delivered dose-response relationships in RTM and TBM in male F344 rats following 6 h exposure to diacetyl or acrolein. Biomarkers included glutathione status, proinflammatory and antioxidant gene mRNA levels, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Modeling revealed that 0.0094-0.1653 μg acrolein/min-cm(2) and 3.9-21.6 μg diacetyl/min-cm(2) were deposited into RTM/TBM. Results indicate RTM and TBM were generally of similar sensitivity to diacetyl and acrolein. For instance, both tissues displayed induction of antioxidant and proinflammatory genes, and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 after electrophile exposure. Hierarchical cellular response patterns were similar in RTM and TBM but differed between vapors. Specifically, diacetyl exposure induced proinflammatory and antioxidant genes concomitantly at low exposure levels, whereas acrolein induced antioxidant genes at much lower exposure levels than that required to induce proinflammatory genes. Generally, diacetyl was less potent than acrolein, as measured by maximal induction of transcripts. In conclusion, the upper and lower extrapulmonary airways are of similar sensitivity to inhaled electrophilic vapors. Dosimetrically based extrapolation of nasal responses in nose-breathing rodents may provide an approach to predict risk to the lower airways of humans during mouth-breathing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All

  7. Number of test trials needed for performance stability and interrater reliability of the one leg stand test in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Nielsen, Anni Østergaard; Madsen Topp, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST...... in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and (3) to provide a test procedure....

  8. Pollution control costs of a transboundary river basin: Empirical tests of the fairness and stability of cost allocation mechanisms using game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Ming; Wang, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-07-15

    With rapid economic growth, transboundary river basin pollution in China has become a very serious problem. Based on practical experience in other countries, cooperation among regions is an economic way to control the emission of pollutants. This study develops a game theoretic simulation model to analyze the cost effectiveness of reducing water pollutant emissions in four regions of the Jialu River basin while considering the stability and fairness of four cost allocation schemes. Different schemes (the nucleolus, the weak nucleolus, the Shapley value and the Separable Cost Remaining Benefit (SCRB) principle) are used to allocate regionally agreed-upon water pollutant abatement costs. The main results show that the fully cooperative coalition yielded the highest incremental gain for regions willing to cooperate if each region agreed to negotiate by transferring part of the incremental gain obtained from the cooperation to cover the losses of other regions. In addition, these allocation schemes produce different outcomes in terms of their fairness to the players and in terms of their derived stability, as measured by the Shapley-Shubik Power Index and the Propensity to Disrupt. Although the Shapley value and the SCRB principle exhibit superior fairness and stabilization to the other methods, only the SCRB principle may maintains full cooperation among regions over the long term. The results provide clear empirical evidence that regional gain allocation may affect the sustainability of cooperation. Therefore, it is implied that not only the cost-effectiveness but also the long-term sustainability should be considered while formulating and implementing environmental policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability and spatio-temporal structure in fish assemblages of two floodplain lagoons of the lower Orinoco River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirson González

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage structure and variability were analyzed in two floodplain lagoons (Las Arhuacas and Los Cardonales along the lower Orinoco over a hydrological cycle. Every three months during continuous three-day sampling, experimental gill nets (5 to 12.5 cm of mesh opening and 1 mm-mesh seine nets were utilized according to the types of habitats presents. A total of 133 fish species were found in Las Arhuacas and 95 species in Cardonales. Fifty five and 17 species were exclusive to Las Arhuacas and Los Cardonales respectively, and 77 were common to both lagoons. In Las Arhuacas, the most speciesrich orders were Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes and Gymnotiformes and in Los Cardonales, the most species-rich orders were Characiformes, Siluriformes, Clupeiformes and Perciformes. The richness, abundance and biomass were significantly higher (p < 0.001 in Arhuacas than in Cardonales. In general, the fishes assemblage was highly variable during the high water phase and moderately stable during low water phase in both lagoons, with more stability or less variability in Cardonales than Arhuacas. Also, there were significant differences in the fish assemblages between the two lagoons, mainly during low waters (ANOSIM; p < 0.001. The species that contributed most to the mean dissimilarity between the lagoons were Hypostomus argus, Aphanotorulus ammophilus, Potamorhina altamazonica, Prochilodus mariae, Loricaria gr. cataphracta, Oxydoras sifontesi, Hydrolycus armatus, Hyphopthalmus edentatus and Pterodoras rivasi. The last four species were more commonly collected in Los Cardonales. Also, the species of small size (mainly SL < 5 cm such as Rhinosardinia amazonica, Moenkhausia sp. 1 "lepidura", Moenkhausia sp. 2, Aphyocharax alburnus, Characidium sp. 1, Moenkhausia sp. 3, Exodon paradoxus and Roeboides dientonito contributed to the mean dissimilarity among the beach and aquatic vegetation habitats. The patterns of the species assemblage

  10. Heavy metal pollution of soils and sediments at the historical smelting site of the Rudawy Janowickie Mountains (Lower Silesia, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierczak, Jakub; Néel, Catherine; Pietranik, Anna

    2010-05-01

    the same time in order to observe weathering features of slags in different environments and to verify the influence of those wastes on properties of soils and sediments. Studied slags are isometric and well rounded (pebble-like), with size ranging from few to dozens of centimetres. The average chemical composition of slags is 47 wt. % Fe2O3, 40 wt. % SiO2, 8 wt. % Al2O3. Slags show elevated concentrations of Cu (up to 13400 ppm), Zn (up to 3640 ppm), Pb (up to 270 ppm) and As (up to 130 ppm). Dominant type of slag occurring in all environments is black and has massive texture. It consists of silicate glass, fayalite, hercynite, bornite, pyrhotite, intermetallic compounds of Fe and As, metallic Pb and Cu. Sulfides and metallic phases are the most important PTE carriers. Second type of slag was found only on surface. It is highly porous and often encloses small fragments of granitic rocks. Despite weathered appearance, it has similar phase composition to the dominant type of slag. The weathering products occur as aureoles and interstitial replacements within the sulfides. Secondary phases in the aureoles are: brochantite, malachite and Fe oxy-hydroxides. PTE initially concentrated in primary phases such as sulfides can be mobilized by weathering and be subsequently bounded in secondary phases (brochantite, malachite). The stability of these phases depends on the surrounding conditions (e.g. here, secondary phases are stable only in slags from surface). Presence of slags at the studied site is clearly documented by geochemical analysis of stream sediments. The Cu concentration in sediments from the area where no slags have been found is 8 ppm, while it exceeds 130 ppm in the site where slags are widespread. Our observations thus show that the studied slags release some potentially toxic elements (especially Cu) during weathering and the slag texture appears to be an important factor controlling metal migration. The work was financed by Polish Ministry of Science and

  11. The potential role of cAMP as a pollution biomarker of terrestrial environments using the land snail Eobania vermiculata: Correlation with lysosomal membrane stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itziou, A.; Dimitriadis, V.K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Biology

    2009-09-15

    The present study investigates the role of the signal transduction molecule cAMP, and the lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), as biomarkers of terrestrial environmental pollution using the land snail Eobania vermiculata. Snails were exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Ca, Pb and Cu) and organic pollutants (chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl and PAHs) in laboratory conditions for 25 days. In addition, snails were collected from various sites located at different distances away from two polluted areas in northern Greece (the road Agiou Dimitriou in Thessaloniki city and a lignite power station in the district of Kozani). The results of the current investigation showed significantly increased levels of cAMP in the digestive gland of snails, as well as decreased LMS values in all experimental groups compared to control animals. In support of our data, cAMP levels were significantly negatively correlated with the conventional biomarker LMS, thus encouraging the use of cAMP as a new potential stress index in terrestrial pollution biomonitoring studies.

  12. Effect of ion entry acceptance conditions on the performance of a quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in upper and lower stability regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.; Taylor, S.; Gibson, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Computer simulation of ion motion in a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been used to examine the effect of initial ion conditions on performance when operated in the first and third zones of the Mathieu stability diagram. Commercial instruments frequently use round electrodes instead of the better-performing hyperbolic electrodes because the cost of manufacturing is lower. However, adverse features are seen when using round electrodes. Here further insight is provided and a possible method of correction is suggested. For the first time, ion origin for the first stability region for a round electrode quadrupole has been reported

  13. The Relation Between the Position of Center of Gravity on Postural Stability and the Muscular Strength of the Lower Limbs in the Human

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 賢

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relation between the position of center of gravity on postural stability and the muscular strength of the lower limbs. The indexes of the strength were Leg extension and Leg curl. One Repetition Maximum of muscular strength was calculated using by repetition maximum method. The center of gravity on postural stability was measured using FPS(Foot Pressure System). The result were as follows, To train both of the extension and the curl, it was a primary factor t...

  14. A criterion for stability of the motor function of the lower extremity in stroke patients using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman; Vogelaar, T W; Lankhorst, G J; Verbeek, A L

    1996-03-01

    A test-retest reproducibility study was performed to define a criterion for stability as opposed to change of motor function of the lower extremity in stroke patients. Forty-nine patients with stroke were examined twice by the same physiotherapist, using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale. The interval between both measurements was three weeks. The mean differences between the first and the second measurement were small, with 0.04 points for the lower extremity scale and 0.92 points for the balance scale, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for the lower extremity scale was 0.86, and 0.34 for the balance scale. The standard error of measurement for each scale was 1.76 and 1.17 points, respectively. The standard error of measurement can be transformed in an 'error threshold', which is a criterion to differentiate real changes from changes due to chance variation or measurement error. As the absence of real change is a parameter for stability, a change of less than 5 points for the lower extremity scale and of less than 4 points for balance confirms stability of motor function.

  15. Evaluating eccentric hip torque and trunk endurance as mediators of changes in lower limb and trunk kinematics in response to functional stabilization training in women with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Piva, Sara Regina; Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2015-06-01

    Altered movement patterns of the trunk and lower limbs have been associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP). It has been assumed that increasing the strength of the hip and trunk muscles would improve lower limb and trunk kinematics in these patients. However, evidence in support of that assumption is limited. To determine whether increases in the strength of hip muscles and endurance of trunk muscles in response to functional stabilization training will mediate changes in frontal plane lower limb kinematics in patients with PFP. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-one female athletes were randomized to either a functional stabilization training group that emphasized strengthening of the trunk and hip muscles or a standard training group that emphasized stretching and quadriceps strengthening. Patients attended a baseline assessment session, followed by 8 weeks of intervention, and were then reassessed at the end of the intervention period. The potential mediators that were evaluated included eccentric torque of hip muscles and endurance of the trunk muscles. The outcome variables were the lower limb and trunk kinematics in the frontal plane assessed during a single-legged squat task. The eccentric strength of the gluteus muscles showed a mediation effect ranging from 18% to 32% on changes to frontal plane kinematics (decreased ipsilateral trunk inclination, pelvis contralateral depression, and hip adduction excursions) observed in the functional stabilization training group after intervention. Although the mediation effects were small, the results suggest that improvements in the strength of the gluteus muscles can influence the frontal plane movement patterns of the lower limb and trunk in women with PFP. Patients with PFP might benefit from strengthening of the hip muscles to improve frontal plane lower limb and trunk kinematics during functional tasks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. The significance of lower jaw position in relation to postural stability. Comparison of a premanufactured occlusal splint with the Dental Power Splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, D; Riegel, M; Lin Chung, T; Kopp, S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on postural stability of two different lower jaw positions held in place by splints with eyes open and eyes closed. The postural stability in 21 healthy adult volunteers was investigated using two different sets of occlusal conditions with the lower jaw being at rest either with the eyes opened or closed. Two occlusal splints (standard splint and DPS splint) were used in order to maintain this lower jaw position. The balance behaviour was recorded using a balance platform. In a comparison of the habitual occlusion with the two occlusal splints, the balance posturographic values with the eyes opened fell between 7-9% and those for weight distribution with the eyes closed between 22-26% (with greater improvement being achieved with DPS) with the result that the variability in the range of fluctuations was reduced. The level of positioning accuracy deteriorated with the wearing of a splint between 13% with the DPS splint and 30% with the standard splint. Gender-specific differences of minor importance in relation to the positioning accuracy were recorded, with there being significant differences in the female participants (P≤0.00). An occlusal change in the stomatognathic system impacts on postural stability. Balance deficits seem to correlate with deteriorated body sway, which, according to the results, can be improved by a myocentric bite position using a DPS splint. This is more the case with the eyes closed than with the eyes opened.

  17. Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Hydrochemical Properties of Typical Plain River-net Area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China: A Case Study in Suzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Ruan, X.; Sun, H.; Pan, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, tidal river water retention and other geological factors, groundwater quality in plain river-net area is vulnerable to pollution. Detailed chemical analysis results of 49 groundwater samples were carried out to identify groundwater pollution characteristics, hydrochemical properties and to assess groundwater quality and usability in Suzhou City, a typical plain area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China. In order to protect, utilize and manage groundwater resources effectively, it is necessary to recognize the dominant processes responsible for hydrogeochemistry, groundwater pollution threats in study area. The results revealed ammonia concentration in confined and shallow groundwater ranges from 0.02 to 6.78 mg/L, 0.04 to 3.17 mg/L, respectively. Nitrite concentrations range from 0.004 to 1.01 mg/L, 0.004 to 3.66 mg/L, respectively. Iron concentrations range from 0.006 to 16.9 mg/L, 0.02 to 7.88 mg/L, respectively. Manganese concentrations range from 0.003 to 1.04 mg/L, 0.06 to 0.58 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of analytical results and water quality standards, majority of groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking, domestic as well as for industrial uses directly. Toxic metals and high levels ions should be removed if groundwater is supplied for different purposes. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and sodium percentage values revealed that most of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes except only a few. The salinity hazard of study area is regarded as low to medium, and special management for salinity control is required in scattered regions. Results of suitability for industrial purposes according to calculated Langeliar saturation index and Larson Ratio showed that majority of samples are calcium carbonate depositing, whereas a few are calcium carbonate dissolving in nature. Results show that sodium, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions of groundwater. Na-HCO3

  18. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  19. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk Kim

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  20. Stabilization / solidification of polluted marine dredged sediment of port en Bessin France, using hydraulic binders and silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Ernesto

    2017-09-01

    A large amount of sediment is dredged in France every year. Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments, environmentally reuse of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The first objective of this study is to find an application for reuse of marine dredged sediments materials, as new material for road construction. Hence, serial tests need to be realized to identify if marine dredged sediment could be utilized for road construction. The second goal is to enhance the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of the mix, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the identification of the mechanical characteristics measured on the mixes is compatible with their use as a base course material. The results show that the treatment by hydraulics binders could satisfy the needed mechanical characteristics. The present of Silica Fume is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. However, the proportion of hydraulics binders and silica fume needed to meet prescribed specification is important, so the reuse of the marine dredged sediments of Port-en-Bessin, France in road construction, as an alternative material could be achieved. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shown as expected than the study to identify the chemical characteristic realized. To evaluate the environmental impacts of the used material, leaching test is performed. The leaching test was performed to verify the predicted release of pollutants based on total dissolution. And for the final part, the test results show that the polluted marine dredged sediments could be safely used (in term of environmental impact) as a new material in road construction.

  1. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of pressure biofeedback unit for assessing lumbopelvic stability during 6 lower limb movement tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Daniel Camara; Lauria, Alessandra Christoff; Pereira, André Roberto Scarpelli; Andrade, Guilherme Trivellato; Ferreira, Manuela Loureiro; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique; Van Dillen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess examiners' intrarater and interrater reliability to use a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) during 6 lower limb movement tests based on Movement System Impairment classification model for low back pain (LBP) in people with nonspecific LBP. Thirty subjects (13 men and 17 women) with chronic nonspecific LPB were assessed during 6 lower limb movement tests based on Movement System Impairment classification using a PBU. Each test was performed twice by 2 assessors with a 48-hour interval between test sessions. Reliability indices of PBU measures (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) were calculated. Intrarater reliability for hip and knee movement tests was good to excellent (ICC(3,3), 0-.60-0.95). Interrater reliability for hip and knee movement tests was fair to excellent (ICC(2,3), 0.40-0.86). Standard error of the measurement and smallest detectable change for the movement tests ranged from 1.4 to 11.3 mm Hg and from 3.9 to 31.3 mm Hg, respectively. The results of this study indicate that trained examiners can reliably perform PBU measures for patients with chronic LBP. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of pozzolanic binder addition on stabilization of polluted dredged sediments on its potential reuse as a new material resource for road construction in Basse Normandie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, E.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments (MDS) and the cost of managing the disposal site is very high, a reutilization of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The primary goal of this research is to find a domain for reuse of MDS materials as a new material regarding the environmental issues, and other requirement needed. In this study, the MDS was used as replacement material in road construction. Hence, various tests need to be realized to identify if MDS could achieve the requirement needed in this domain. The secondary objective is to enhance the geotechnical characteristic and to reduce the pollution content of the MDS, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the geotechnical characteristic. The geotechnical test result shows that the stabilization by hydraulics binders improve the geotechnical characteristic and could fulfil the requirement needed. The present of Fly Ash and Silica Fume in this study is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shows as expected then the study to identify the chemical characteristic was realized. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts, leaching test was performed. The Leaching test result shows that with 7% of Silica Fume and 10% of Fly Ash capable to fulfil the criteria needed, hence, the use of MDS is consider safe in term of geotechnical and environmental impact, as a new material in road construction

  3. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  4. Stability and linearity of luminescence imaging of water during irradiation of proton-beams and X-ray photons lower energy than the Cerenkov light threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Koyama, Shuji; Yabe, Takuya; Komori, Masataka; Tada, Junki; Ito, Shiori; Toshito, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Yuho; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2018-03-01

    Luminescence of water during irradiations of proton-beams or X-ray photons lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold is promising for range estimation or the distribution measurements of beams. However it is not yet obvious whether the intensities and distributions are stable with the water conditions such as temperature or addition of solvable materials. It remains also unclear whether the luminescence of water linearly increases with the irradiated proton or X-ray energies. Consequently we measured the luminescence of water during irradiations of proton-beam or X-ray photons lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold with different water conditions and energies to evaluate the stability and linearity of luminescence of water. We placed a water phantom set with a proton therapy or X-ray system, luminescence images of water with different conditions and energies were measured with a high-sensitivity cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera during proton or X-ray irradiations to the water phantom. In the stability measurements, imaging was made for different temperatures of water and addition of inorganic and organic materials to water. In the linearity measurements for the proton, we irradiated with four different energies below Cerenkov light threshold. In the linearity measurements for the X-ray, we irradiated X-ray with different supplied voltages. We evaluated the depth profiles for the luminescence images and evaluated the light intensities and distributions. The results showed that the luminescence of water was quite stable with the water conditions. There were no significant changes of intensities and distributions with the different temperatures. Results from the linearity experiments showed that the luminescence of water linearly increased with their energies. We confirmed that luminescence of water is stable with conditions of water. We also confirmed that the luminescence of water linearly increased with their energies.

  5. Fabrication of Z-scheme Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability for organic pollutant degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chaosheng; Zhang, Lu; Jiang, Bo; Zheng, Jingtang; Hu, Ping; Li, Sujuan; Wu, Mingbo; Wu, Wenting

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 composite photocatalysts were prepared by precipitation method. • The composites showed enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The photocorrosion of Ag 3 PO 4 was inhibited due to the introduction of MoS 2 . • Z-scheme mechanism was proposed to explain the enhanced photoactivity. - Abstract: In this study, highly efficient visible-light-driven Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 composite photocatalysts with different weight ratios of MoS 2 were prepared via the ethanol-water mixed solvents precipitation method and characterized by ICP, XRD, HRTEM, FE-SEM, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL analysis. Under visible-light irradiation, Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 composites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The optimal composite with 0.648 wt% MoS 2 content exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity, which can degrade almost all MB under visible-light irradiation within 60 min. Recycling experiments confirmed that the Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 catalysts had superior cycle performance and stability. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of Ag 3 PO 4 /MoS 2 photocatalysts can be mainly ascribed to the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers and the stronger oxidation and reduction ability through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag 3 PO 4 , Ag and MoS 2 , in which Ag particles act as the charge separation center. The high photocatalytic stability is due to the successful inhibition of the photocorrosion of Ag 3 PO 4 by transferring the photogenerated electrons of Ag 3 PO 4 to MoS 2 . The evidence of the Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism of the composite photocatalysts could be obtained from the active species trapping experiments and the photoluminescence technique.

  6. Effects of refining and removal of persistent organic pollutants by short-path distillation on nutritional quality and oxidative stability of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Åge; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2010-12-08

    Food and feed legislations are implemented to control the level of unwanted persistent organic pollutants (POPs) below health risk concerns. Short-path distillation is established as the most effective industrial process to remove POPs in fish oil. However, the technology involves heating of the oil to high temperature levels (>200 °C) that possibly give unwanted heat-induced side reactions and coevaporation of minor compounds of importance for the nutritional quality of the oil. The effects on retention of vitamins, cholesterol, and unsaponifiable compounds, geometrical isomerization, loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), oxidation level, and oxidative stability have been studied on the basis of experiments designed to optimize and model the effect of process conditions (i.e., evaporator temperature, feed rate, and addition of working fluid) on the reduction of POPs. Loss of volatile nutrients was observed, but the extent will depend on the process conditions needed to obtain target decontamination level, as well as the concentration ratio and difference in vapor pressure between free and esterified forms of the studied compounds. Some reduction in oxidation level was documented with preservation of PUFA level and quality. Oxidative stability was influenced both positively and negatively depending on the applied process conditions. Generally, no adverse negative effects on the nutritional quality of the fish oil could be documented. Optimal process conditions were modeled that ensure removal of POPs to within legislation levels while retaining most of the vitamin levels in fish oil. A 76% reduction of the WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ level in the used feedstock was needed to be in accordance with the voluntary industrial monograph of GOED. This could be achieved on the basis of operation conditions giving vitamins. A 90% decontamination rate gave vitamin retentions in the 60-90% range.

  7. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals pollution in industrial area and its comparison with relatively less polluted area: a case study from the City of Peshawar and district Dir Lower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, F Akbar; Ishaq, M; Ihsanullah, I; Asim, S M

    2010-04-15

    Multivariate and univariate statistical techniques i.e., cluster analysis PCA, regression and correlation analysis, one way ANOVA, were applied to the metal data of effluents soil and ground water to point out the contribution of different industries towards the metals pollution, their source identification and distribution. The samples were collected from different industries and different downstream points of the main effluents stream and from the relatively less polluted area considered as control area. The samples were analyzed for metal concentration levels by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration data in the three media of the polluted area were compared with background data and control data as well as with the WHO safe limits. The results showed that soil has high metals concentration compared to effluents and water. The data also showed elevated levels of Mn and Pb in water that are 8.268 and 2.971 mg/L, respectively. Principal component analysis along with regression analysis showed that the elevated levels of metals in the effluents contaminate adjacent soil and ultimately the ground water. The other elements Co, Cd, Ni and Cu were also found to have correlation in the three media. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  9. Number of test trials needed for performance stability and interrater reliability of the one leg stand test in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Nielsen, Anni Østergaard; Topp, Ulla Madsen; Jakobsen, Berit; Nielsen, Kirsten Juel; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2014-01-01

    Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and (3) to provide a test procedure. Thirteen women and 23 men with a mean age (SD) of 67.4 (10.6) years; 19 below-knee and 17 above-knee amputees who performed the OLST at a mean of 14.5 (4.5) days post-amputation. All patients performed five timed OLST-trials with 1-min rest intervals between trials, supervised by a physical therapist, of which 28 included in the reliability-part conducted this twice, separated with a mean of 3.4 (0.78)h. Repeated measures Friedman determined the number of trials needed to ensure stable OLST-scores while the ICC1.1, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest real difference (SRD) determined reproducibility. No learning curve was found for the five OLST-trials (p=0.241), with the best of the five trials reaching a median (25-75% quartile) of 2.9 (1.7-8.2)s, and with only six patients able to stand for more than 10s. The ICC (95% CI), SEM and SRD were respectively 0.87 (0.61-0.96), 0.99 s and 2.74 s. Findings suggest that the best of five trials be used for the OLST in unilateral non-traumatic amputee patients as we found excellent interrater reliability and acceptable agreement when using this score. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower cytotoxicity, high stability, and long-term antibacterial activity of a poly(methacrylic acid)/isoniazid/rifampin nanogel against multidrug-resistant intestinal Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Lina; Yu, Li; Li, Zhenyan; Guo, Huixin; Li, Haicheng; Zhao, Meigui; Chen, Liang; Chen, Xunxun; Zhong, Qiu; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the undesirable side effects and reduce the cytotoxicity of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RMP) in the digestive tract, a poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) nanogel was developed as a carrier of INH and RMP. This PMAA/INH/RMP nanogel was prepared as a treatment for intestinal tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The morphology, size, and in vitro release properties were evaluated in a simulated gastrointestinal medium, and long-term antibacterial performance, cytotoxicity, stability, and activity of this novel PMAA/INH/RMP nanogel against multidrug-resistant MTB in the intestine were investigated. Our results indicate that the PMAA/INH/RMP nanogel exhibited extended antibacterial activity by virtue of its long-term release of INH and RMP in the simulated gastrointestinal medium. Further, this PMAA/INH/RMP nanogel exhibited lower cytotoxicity than did INH or RMP alone, suggesting that this PMAA/INH/RMP nanogel could be a more useful dosage form than separate doses of INH and RMP for intestinal MTB. The novel aspects of this study include the cytotoxicity study and the three-phase release profile study, which might be useful for other researchers in this field. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and/or improve health in homes using solid fuel in lower and middle income countries: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Reginald; Ochieng, Caroline A; Semple, Sean; Juvekar, Sanjar; Emina, Jacques; Armah, Frederick Ato; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-03-04

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) interventions are widely promoted as a means of reducing indoor air pollution/health from solid fuel use; and research addressing impact of these interventions has increased substantially in the past two decades. It is timely and important to understand more about effectiveness of these interventions. We describe the protocol of a systematic review to (i) evaluate effectiveness of IAP interventions to improve indoor air quality and/or health in homes using solid fuel for cooking and/or heating in lower- and middle-income countries, (ii) identify the most effective intervention to improve indoor air quality and/or health, and (iii) identify future research needs. This review will be conducted according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported following the PRISMA statement. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS, and PubMed searches were conducted in September 2013 and updated in November 2014 (and include any further search updates in February 2015). Additional references will be located through searching the references cited by identified studies and through the World Health Organization Global database of household air pollution measurements. We will also search our own archives. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment of all included papers will be conducted independently by five reviewers. The study will provide insights into what interventions are most effective in reducing indoor air pollution and/or adverse health outcomes in homes using solid fuel for cooking or heating in lower- or middle-income countries. The findings from this review will be used to inform future IAP interventions and policy on poverty reduction and health improvement in poor communities who rely on biomass and solid fuels for cooking and heating. The review has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42014009768 ).

  12. Dispersion patterns of pollutant from smokestacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigor Nauli

    2002-01-01

    Air quality in industrial area depends on the nature of particles emitted from the plume. The particles are transported by the atmosphere away from the source and deposits at surroundings. Coverage area and pollutant concentration at contaminated areas will vary based on emission rate, plume stack, weather profile, and terrain. Forecasting of an area contaminated by industrial waste could help many parties in anticipating the effects, in improving the production process, and in imposing the policy by the authority. Such information can be created by prediction techniques. One of the models for illustrating the air pollution from a single point source is Gaussian dispersion curve. It assumed that pollutant concentration will distributed normally in vertical and downwind direction. The highest concentration of pollutants would be in centerline and lower values as the distance further away from the source. A computer application has been developed to assist modeling the pollutant dispersion. The program collects the atmospheric stability classification, computes dispersion coefficients, and maintains the corresponding mathematical equations. When data of emission rate, plume stack, average wind speed, and atmospheric condition are available, then the program will inform the concentration of pollutants in any distance from the source. By varying in inputs, the computer application produces numerous air pollution predictions as dispersion patterns. The dispersion patterns form the elliptical contour with segments of pollutant concentrations. The central segment represents the highest concentration and the outer segments in concentric manner illustrate the lower concentration. The patterns exhibit the highest contaminated point, the longest distance in a specific weather condition, the moving of the highest contaminated point as weather changing, and the variety of pollutant concentration by the effective stack height. (author)

  13. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  14. Electromyography Activation of the Lower-Limb Muscles Adopting a Physioball and Elastic Band to Stabilize the Knee Joint During Multiple Sets With Submaximal Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gabriel Andrade; DeFreitas, Jason; de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Silva, Jurandir; Lima, Vicente; Miranda, Humberto

    2017-09-01

    Crossover design. Excessive valgus and varus force which affected the knee joint during dynamic tasks has been often associated to lower extremity injuries. Strategies to increase the resistance against these asymmetries (eg, the use of a physioball between the knees or elastic bands around the knees) are often applied in rehabilitation and conditioning programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of performing leg press (LP) 45° using a physioball and elastic band over multiple sets with submaximal loads on electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and fatigue indices. 18 trained females volunteered (age: 24.4 ± 2.1 y; height: 168.1 ± 4 cm; body mass: 65.1 ± 4.4 kg) participated in this study. The 10 repetition maximum (RM) loads were determined for the LP. Then, 3 experimental protocols were followed in a randomized crossover design over 3 nonconsecutive days: control protocol-the participants performed 4 LP sets; physioball between knees-4 LP sets were performed with the physioball between the knees; elastic band-4 LP sets were performed with the elastic band involving the knees. Ten repetitions were performed during each set with 70% of 10-RM loads; EMG spectral indices (CRMS and Cf5) was collected from the biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. Higher levels of CRMS and Cf5 were noted for RF, VL, and VM muscles using the physioball and elastic band when compared with control protocol, respectively. CRMS index of BF muscle was significantly higher using physioball and elastic band protocol versus control condition, respectively. Therefore, both physioball and elastic band can be adopted during LP with the goal to reduce excessive varus and valgus forces, respectively, even performing consecutive sets with submaximal loads. Furthermore, this may be an interesting alternative to increasing quadriceps activation and improving the knee joint stabilization.

  15. Comparison of Trunk Stabilization Exercises Using a Gym Ball and Conventional Back Care Exercises for Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The trunk muscles are vital for the maintenance of spinal stability. Training of specific muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, which provide dynamic and segmental stability, is one of the major goals in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP. However, more investigation of lumbar stabilization training using a ball is required before making any strong conclusions about its efficacy. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effect of trunk stabilization exercises and conventional back care exercises for patients with chronic LBP. Patients and Methods Thirty male subjects with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received trunk stabilization exercise using a gym ball whereas the control group received conventional back care exercises for six weeks. The abdominal muscle endurance, pain intensity, and functional disability were measured using pressure biofeedback, visual analogue scale (VAS, and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline and during week two, four and six. Results The results of the study demonstrated significant improvements in abdominal muscle endurance and reduction in VAS and MODQ score of both groups (P = 0.001. The trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater gains in abdominal muscle endurance during weeks two to six compared to the conventional back care exercise group (P < 0.05. In addition, the trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater reduction in the VAS score (P = 0.035 and MODQ score (P = 0.001 at week six compared to the conventional back care exercise group. Conclusions The trunk stabilization exercises are more effective than conventional back care exercises in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic LBP.

  16. Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nakivubo wetland, which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years, is ecologically stressed by agricultural and infrastructural developments. Field studies were carried out to assess the hydraulic loading, pollution profile, stability and water quality of this wetland. The upper and lower ...

  17. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  18. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  20. Evaluating Abdominal and Lower-Back Muscle Activity While Performing Core Exercises on a Stability Ball and a Dynamic Office Chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W R; De Carvalho, Diana E; Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dynamic office chair to activate the core muscles while participants performed exercises sitting on the chair compared to a stability ball. Prolonged sitting has become an accepted part of the modern office. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that sedentary postures are linked to many adverse effects on health. The concept of dynamic or active sitting is intended to promote movement while sitting to reduce the time spent in prolonged, static postures. Sixteen participants performed four pelvic rotation exercises (front-back, side-side, circular, and leg lift) on both a dynamic office chair and a stability ball. Muscle activity from 12 torso muscles were evaluated with surface electromyography. For all exercises, trunk muscle activity on the chair was comparable to that on a stability ball. The right external oblique was the only muscle to produce greater peak activity (p = .019) when using the ball compared to the chair (21.4 ± 14.0 percent maximal voluntary excitations (%MVE) and 14.7 ± 10.8 %MVE for the ball and chair, respectively). The left thoracic erector spinae produced greater average activity (p = .044) on the chair than on the ball. These findings suggest that this dynamic sitting approach could be an effective tool for core muscle activation while promoting movement and exercise while sitting at work. Muscle activations on the dynamic chair are comparable to those on a stability ball, and dynamic office chairs can promote movement and exercise while sitting at work. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  2. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Wibowo, Firmanul Catur; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-01-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research and Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator. (paper)

  3. Lowering data retention voltage in static random access memory array by post fabrication self-improvement of cell stability by multiple stress application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new version of the post fabrication static random access memory (SRAM) self-improvement technique, which utilizes multiple stress application. It is demonstrated that, using a device matrix array (DMA) test element group (TEG) with intrinsic channel fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) six-transistor (6T) SRAM cells fabricated by the 65 nm technology, the lowering of data retention voltage (DRV) is more effectively achieved than using the previously proposed single stress technique.

  4. The Effect of Sitting on Stability Balls on Nonspecific Lower Back Pain, Disability, and Core Endurance: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Tessa Lillis Poirier; Marshall, Kyra Stanise; Lake, David Allen; Wofford, Nancy Henderson; Davies, George James

    2016-09-15

    Experimental randomized crossover. The aim of the study was to determine whether sitting on a ball for 90 min/d instead of a chair has an effect on low back pain (LBP), low back disability, and/or core muscle endurance. LBP may result from prolonged sitting. It has been proposed that replacing chairs with stability balls can diminish LBP in those who sit for prolonged periods. Research on the topic is sparse and inconclusive. A total of 90 subjects (university students, staff, and faculty, ages 18-65, who sit ≥4 hr/d) were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group for the first part of the study. Baseline data were collected: Oswestry Disability Index, a numerical pain rating scale for LBP, and four core muscle endurance tests. For 8 weeks, the control group sat on their usual chair. The intervention group sat on stability balls 5 d/wk, increasing up to 90 min/d. Baseline measurements were repeated postintervention. After a washout period, subjects switched groups, and the procedures were repeated-70 completed participation in control group and 76 in intervention group. There were no statistically significant differences for pain or disability in either group (P > 0.05). Changes in isometric trunk flexion (P = 0.001), nondominant side plank (P = 0.008), and Sorensen (P = 0.006) endurance scores were significant within the intervention group but not the control group. Between-group comparisons revealed a significant difference for isometric trunk flexion (P = 0.005) and Sorensen endurance times (P = 0.010). Analysis also showed that ball-sitting did not prevent an increase in LBP over the 8-week period. Ball-sitting had no significant effects on LBP or associated disability, but did improve core endurance in the sagittal plane. Although ball-sitting may be useful as an adjunct treatment for LBP when core muscles are involved, clinicians should rely on other, evidence-based treatments for LBP.

  5. The Effect of Local Fatigue Induced at Proximal and Distal Muscles of Lower Extremity in Sagittal Plane on Visual Dependency in Quiet Standing Postural Stability of Healthy Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Soleymani-Far

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of local muscle fatigue induced at proximal and distal segments of lower extremity on sagittal plane mover on visual dependency in quiet standing postural stability. Materials & Methods: In this Quasi–experimental study (before – after comparison sagittal plane prime movers of the ankle and hip musculature were fatigued using isokinetic contractions at two test sessions with a randomized order and one week interval. Twenty five healthy young female students were َselected by using non probability selection and sample of convenience and asked to maintain single leg upright posture as immobile as possible. RMS and SD of Center of Pressure displacements were assessed in 30 seconds and consequently, the eyes were closed after 15 seconds. A analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures was used to analyze the effect of the following factors over two periods of 5 seconds immediately before and after eye closure: (1 fatigue, (2 vision, (3 segment of fatigue. Results: The main effects of each within-subject factors (fatigue, vision and segment of fatigue were significant (P<0.05. The analysis of RMS and SD of Center of Pressure demonstrated a significant interaction between fatigue and vision, and fatigue and segment of fatigue so that the effects of Fatigue on Proximal segment and eye closed conditions were increased. Conclusion: The visual dependency for control of postural stability incremented following muscle fatigue. Proximal muscle fatigue lead to exaggeration of visual dependency for control of postural stability. Based on the present results, emphasis on the proprioception of proximal segment of lower extremity may be recommended for postural stability training.

  6. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... government and non-government websites covering specific environmental, biological, and chemical agents that cause indoor air pollution. ...

  7. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  8. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Clean Air Act Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  9. Using Stable Isotopes in Water Vapor to Diagnose Relationships Between Lower-Tropospheric Stability, Mixing, and Low-Cloud Cover Near the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, are merged with soundings from Hilo to show an inverse relationship between the estimated inversion strength (EIS) and isotopically derived measures of lower-tropospheric mixing. Remote sensing estimates of cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, and cloud top pressure were all found to be higher (lower) under low (high) EIS. Inverse modeling of the isotopic data corresponding to terciles of EIS conditions provide quantitative constraints on the last-saturation temperatures and mixing fractions that govern the humidity above the trade inversion. The mixing fraction of water vapor transported from the boundary layer to Mauna Loa decreases with respect to EIS at a rate of about 3% K-1, corresponding to a mixing ratio decrease of 0.6 g kg-1 K-1. A last-saturation temperature of 240 K can match all observations. This approach can be applied in other settings and may be used to test models of low-cloud climate feedbacks.

  10. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  11. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  12. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  13. Cross-linking with O-raffinose lowers oxygen affinity and stabilizes haemoglobin in a non-cooperative T-state conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yiping; Ramasamy, Somasundaram; Wood, Francine; Alayash, Abdu I; Rifkind, Joseph M

    2004-12-01

    O-R-polyHbA(0) is an intra- and intermolecularly O-raffinose cross-linked derivative of deoxygenated human haemoglobin developed as an oxygen therapeutic. When compared with its native protein (HbA(0)), O-R-polyHbA(0) was found to be locked in the T (tense) quaternary conformation with a lower oxygen affinity, a reduced Bohr effect (50% of HbA(0)) and no measurable cooperativity (h=1). The kinetics of oxygen and CO binding to the protein indicate lower 'on' rates and faster 'off' rates than HbA(0) and the absence of effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) on the kinetics. Other properties consistent with a T-like conformation are inaccessibility of the betaCys-93 thiol group of O-R-polyHbA(0), the hyperfine splitting from nitrogen in the EPR spectrum of the Fe(II)NO complex of O-R-polyHbA(0) and decreased flexibility in the distal haem pocket, as indicated by low-spin bis-histidine complexes detected by EPR of oxidized chains. A comparison of the properties of O-R-polyHbA(0) with those of HbA(0) with and without IHP, as well as the reaction of nitrite with deoxygenated haemoglobin, provide additional insights into the variations in the conformation of T-state haemoglobin in solution (modifications of the T state produced by adding organic phosphates, like IHP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate). Although the physiological ramifications of locking HbA(0) in the T conformation with the O-raffinose are still unknown, valuable insights into haemoglobin function are provided by these studies of O-R-polyHbA(0).

  14. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  15. Stabilization of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine with the internal spinal skeletal fixation system. Indications, techniques, and first results of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, M; Etter, C; Kehl, T; Thalgott, J

    1987-01-01

    Since 1984, 30 patients with burst fractures of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were treated with AO internal spinal skeletal fixation system. All patients in this series had a minimum follow-up of 12 months. This new instrumentation is a posterior intrapedicular system developed by Dick in 1982. It allows stable fixation that is limited only to adjacent spinal segments. The internal fixator permits reduction in all three planes. Independently, it is possible to add distraction or compression to the involved segments. It also is able to reduce effectively the "middle column" which is thought to be accomplished by "ligamentotaxis." In this series there were 16 neurologically intact patients and 14 with partial or complete neurologic injury. There were two minor instrumentation loosenings early in the series. Most patients in this series had a near-anatomic reduction of all three columns in the involved segment. It was also possible to re-establish the normal lordosis of the lumbar spine. The device provided sufficient rigid fixation for rapid postoperative mobilization in a light external orthosis.

  16. Different behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis in intracellular biosynthesis of silver and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles: more stability and lower toxicity of extracted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani Amin, Zohreh; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh

    2016-09-01

    Chemical reagents that are used for synthesis of nanoparticles are often toxic, while biological reagents are safer and cost-effective. Here, the behavior of Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) was evaluated for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-NPs) using TEM images intra- and extracellularly. The bacteria only biosynthesized the nanoparticles intracellularly and distributed Ag-NPs throughout the cytoplasm and on outside surface of cell walls, while CdS-NPs only formed in cytoplasm near the cell wall. A new method for purification of the nanoparticles was used. TEM images of pure CdS-NPs confirmed biosynthesis of agglomerated nanoparticles. Biosynthetic Ag-NPs were more stable against bright light and aggregation reaction than synthetic Ag-NPs (prepared chemically) also biosynthetic Ag-NPs displayed lower toxicity in in vitro assays. CdS-NPs indicated no toxicity in in vitro assays. Biosynthetic nanoparticles as product of the detoxification pathway may be safer and more stable for biosensors.

  17. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  18. Information Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth of information resources creates new challenges for end-users. The correct information may be polluted by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda or incorrect information via the Internet and other media. This paper defines 'information pollution' as "the contamination of information by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda and incorrect information." The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of information pollution. It is concluded that it is sometim...

  19. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  20. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  1. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particle pollution was higher in communities with larger African-American populations, lower home values and lower median income. 10 However, two other recent studies in France have found no association with lower ...

  2. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  3. Recent changes (1973-2014 versus 1903-1972) in the flow regime of the Lower Paraná River and current fluvial pollution warnings in its Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F; Borús, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in flow regimes of large rivers may originate or increase risks to ecosystems and humans. The Paraná River basin (South America) undergoes human pressures (e.g., heavy damming in the upper basin, deforestation, and mixed pollution) that may affect the water quantity and quality of its terminal Delta (Argentina). In this study, after applying univariate and multivariate change-point detection and trend analyses to the daily data series of flows incoming to the Delta (Paraná-Santa Fe section), flow characteristics were compared by Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Environmental Flow Components (EFC). Some flood characteristics were also compared from hydrometric levels in the middle Delta (San Pedro station). Chemical and microbiological water variables in the main rivers of the "Paraná Delta" Biosphere Reserve were examined during two extreme hydrologic years (October 2008 to July 2010) to detect potential risk factors in association with hydrologic conditions. In the Lower Paraná River, a historical period (1903-1972) and two more altered periods (1973-1999 wet period and 2000-2014 dry period) were identified. Flow duration curves evidenced different changes in both altered periods, reflecting the joint effect of climatic variability and human influence. The most evident alterations in the flow regime were the lack of record of the extreme-low-flow component, the attenuation of monthly flow seasonality, and the increase in the number of reversals (dry period) and in the variability of maximum and minimum flow dates. These alterations are consistent with the monthly and daily flow regulation by upstream dams evidenced by available data from the current dry period. In the middle Delta, the marked monthly seasonality in flood days decreased only in the wet period. The proportion between the number of flood days exceeding the evacuation level and that of those exceeding the warning level doubled in the wet period but decreased only

  4. Recent changes (1973-2014 versus 1903-1972) in the flow regime of the Lower Paraná River and current fluvial pollution warnings in its Delta Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F.; Borús, Juan A.

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in flow regimes of large rivers may originate or increase risks to ecosystems and humans. The Paraná River basin (South America) undergoes human pressures (e.g., heavy damming in the upper basin, deforestation, and mixed pollution) that may affect the water quantity and quality of its terminal Delta (Argentina). In this study, after applying univariate and multivariate change-point detection and trend analyses to the daily data series of flows incoming to the Delta (Paraná-Santa Fe section), flow characteristics were compared by Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Environmental Flow Components (EFC). Some flood characteristics were also compared from hydrometric levels in the middle Delta (San Pedro station). Chemical and microbiological water variables in the main rivers of the "Paraná Delta" Biosphere Reserve were examined during two extreme hydrologic years (October 2008 to July 2010) to detect potential risk factors in association with hydrologic conditions. In the Lower Paraná River, a historical period (1903-1972) and two more altered periods (1973-1999 wet period and 2000-2014 dry period) were identified. Flow duration curves evidenced different changes in both altered periods, reflecting the joint effect of climatic variability and human influence. The most evident alterations in the flow regime were the lack of record of the extreme-low-flow component, the attenuation of monthly flow seasonality, and the increase in the number of reversals (dry period) and in the variability of maximum and minimum flow dates. These alterations are consistent with the monthly and daily flow regulation by upstream dams evidenced by available data from the current dry period. In the middle Delta, the marked monthly seasonality in flood days decreased only in the wet period. The proportion between the number of flood days exceeding the evacuation level and that of those exceeding the warning level doubled in the wet period but decreased only slightly

  5. Turbines, a manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of pollutant emissions in turbines lower than 10 MW; Turbines, proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    In order to comply with the new French regulations concerning 2-to-20 MW turbines and with regulations in other countries, Turbomeca is already proposing engines with water or steam injection allowing for a 40 pc to 80 pc decrease in NOx emissions. Turbomeca is developing new combustion chambers with lean pre-mixing and low pollutant emissions (NOx inferior to 75 mg/Nm{sup 3} and CO inferior to 50 mg/Nm{sup 3}) that can be adapted to existing engines or installed on developing ones. Turbomeca is also studying catalytic combustion chambers with very low pollutant emission levels (NOx and CO inferior to 20 mg/Nm{sup 3})

  6. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  7. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  8. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  9. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  10. A manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of polluting emissions from turbines with a power lower than 10 MW; Turbines. Proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the industrial turbines manufactured by Turbomeca company and with the way to reduce the pollutant emissions in agreement with the French regulation on combustion and environment. After a recall of the functioning conditions and the performances requested in turbines combustion chamber, the paper analyzes the different existing solutions used for the reduction of pollutants emissions (water injection, weak, rich and dry low NOx combustion, catalytic combustion) and their cost/performance ratio. Then Turbomeca`s applied research on combustion chambers is described (conventional chambers with water injection, specific low emission chamber of Eurodyn turbines and adaptable to other existing engines, 2D numerical simulation of combustion kinetics, low pre-mixed combustion chambers, catalytic combustion chambers). (J.S.)

  11. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  12. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  14. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  16. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  17. Dispersion and transport of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslik, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the physical mechanisms that govern the dispersion and transport of air pollutant; the influence of the state of the 'carrying fluid', i.e. the role of meteorology; and finally, outlines the different techniques of assessing the process. Aspects of physical mechanisms and meteorology covered include: fate of an air pollutant; turbulence and dispersion; transport; wind speed and direction; atmospheric stability; and the role of atmospheric water. Assessment techniques covered are: concentrations measurements; modelling meteorological observations; and tracer releases. It is concluded that the only way to reduce air pollution is to pollute less. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Long-term 2007-2013 monitoring of reproductive disturbance in the dun sentinel Assiminea grayana with regard to polymeric materials pollution at the coast of Lower Saxony, North Sea, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, B T; Löder, M; Herlyn, M; Daehne, B; Thomsen, A; Gall, K

    2017-02-01

    During biological effect monitoring studies of endocrine active compounds with the snail Assiminea grayana in 2007-2013, reproductive disorders including atresia, transformation of capsule/albumen glands into prostates in females and ovotestis, transformation of prostates to capsule/albumen glands, disruption of spermatogenesis, and calcification of tubules in males, were encountered in several years. The search of sources of endocrine active substances was first directed to antifouling biocides from paint particles and extended to leaching compounds from polymeric materials. In contrast to the reference sites, most of the observed disorders occurred at a station near harbors and dockyards polluted with residues from antifouling paints and polymeric materials. Beside of investigations about the potential ingestion of polymer particles by the snails, further investigations of compounds of polymeric materials with endocrine potential should follow.

  19. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to ... of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are Hazardous Air Pollutants? Health and ...

  20. Spectral Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, E B; Plum, M

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the problems arising when computing eigenvalues of self-adjoint operators which lie in a gap between two parts of the essential spectrum. Spectral pollution, i.e. the apparent existence of eigenvalues in numerical computations, when no such eigenvalues actually exist, is commonplace in problems arising in applied mathematics. We describe a geometrically inspired method which avoids this difficulty, and show that it yields the same results as an algorithm of Zimmermann and Mertins.

  1. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  2. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  3. Characteristics and classification of PM2.5 pollution episodes in Beijing from 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqi; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Hanyu; Lv, Zhe

    2018-01-15

    During the period of 2013-2015, a total of 34 PM 2.5 pollution episodes occurred in Beijing, each of which remained for at least 2days. Among that, 28 times occurred in winter half year with the average concentration of 243.1μg/m 3 and summer half year with the average concentration of 194.1μg/m 3 . These episodes were mainly associated with lower wind speed and lower visibility as well as higher relative humidity, indicating that they belonged to heavy pollution under static stability. The PM 2.5 pollution was classified into two categories according to the back trajectory analysis and meteorological background field. Category I, accounting for 22 times among all the pollution episodes, was due to air mass transport from Beijing's southern regions with north-south direction pressure gradient and sparse isopiestic. And category II was mainly led by northwestern air masses accompanied with a large area of uniform pressure field. Then, a typical case study was conducted for each category to recognize the sub-region contribution to Beijing's PM 2.5 pollution based on WRF-CAMx modeling system, and the simulation results indicated that local emission source contribution decreased significantly during the accumulation phase for category I, but increased during that of category II, with an average contribution of 47.3% and 77.1% during the entire pollution period of each category, respectively. Two red alerts of air pollution occurred in December 2015 were also analyzed based on the episode classification. It was found that the second red alert pollution episode belonged to category II. The emission control measures in Beijing worked more obviously with the reduction effect ratio of 15.4% compared to the first red alert period (9.7%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  5. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  6. Reducing Air Pollution from Passenger Cars and Trucks (Text Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the text explanation of an infographic about reducing air pollution viaTier 3 Vehicles & fuel standards. Tier 3 vehicle and fuel standards will provide substantial pollution reduction at lower cost.

  7. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The author of this book has combined his own vast experience as a marine biologist with a critical evaluation of the ever-increasing literature in a work which highlights those longterm effects and dangerous materials most threatening on a global scale. This English translation of the highly acclaimed German original has been revised and expanded to keep pace with the rapid process of research in the field. A particularly large number of changes were made in the chapter on oil pollution, and new chapters on waste heat and radioactivity in the ocean have been added. (orig.)

  8. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  9. An assessment of different atmospheric stability methods for annual atmospheric dispersion factors at a coastal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathsingh, A.; Rakesh, P.T.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    The meteorological data is used for routine radiological release consequence analysis, real time consequence assessments of accidental releases of radiological effluents and design basis accidental analysis in a nuclear plant site. For dispersion estimate, it is often required to specify the type of stability and/or turbulence conditions in which diffusion of pollutants would occur. Stability indicates the degree of turbulence and thus the atmospheric mixing. Intensity of turbulence and dispersion of pollutant releases in to the lower atmosphere are strongly dependent on the local winds as well as resistance of atmosphere to vertical mixing which is called atmospheric stability. Three different methods of atmospheric stability based on Standard deviation of wind direction (σθ), temperature gradient and Bulk Richardson (Rib) number are used to compute stability over Kalpakkam site using hourly meteorological data. All the three methods of estimating atmospheric stability are compared with M-O similarity based method. Different atmospheric stability methods were analyzed to estimate the annual average atmospheric dispersion factors at Kalpakkam coastal site for the year 2016

  10. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  11. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  12. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  13. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  14. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  15. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  16. Controlling the monopolistic polluter: nihilism or eclecticism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, P.

    1981-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the consequences of pollution control when the polluter is a monopolist who can choose between abating pollution by reducing output and by adopting a less-polluting technology. It is suggested that the risk of welfare losses resulting from control policy is lower when technology is flexible than when it is rigid. Nevertheless some risk does remain, so the paper concludes with a discussion of the possible use of selective control instruments to keep the risk to a minimum. 11 references, 1 figure.

  17. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  18. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  19. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K. (Univ. to Tennessee, Martin (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  20. Polluted soils with heavy metals. Stabilization by magnesium oxide. Ex-situ and in-situ testings; Suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Estabilizacion con oxido de magnesio. Ensayos ex situ-in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenoz, S.; Hernandez, J.; Gangutia, N.

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the use of Low-Grade MgO as a stabiliser agent for polluted soil reclaim. Low-Grade MgO may be an economically feasible alternative in the stabilisation of heavy metals from heavily contaminated soils. The effectiveness of Low-Grade MgO has been studied in three ex-situ stabilisation of heavily polluted soils contaminated by the flue-dust of pyrite roasting. LG-MgO provides an alkali reservoir guaranteeing long-term stabilisation without varying the pH conditions. The success of the ex-situ stabilisation was corroborated with the analysis of heavy metals in the leachates collected from the landfill o ver a long period of time. The study also includes the results obtained in an in-situ pilot scale stabilisation of contaminated soil. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...

  2. Analysis of smoke trailers at individual classes of atmosphere stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carach, V.; Macala, J.

    2007-01-01

    At the present most endangered element of the environment is currently atmosphere and its pollution that rapidly accrue. Pollutants are emitted from air pollution sources. The output of pollutant from air pollution source is creating so-called smoke screen. Smoke screens can be observed from point sources of air pollution - smokestacks, up-cast. The purpose of this article was to build theoretical models of smoke screens rise from point source at different meteorological conditions characterized with fifth classes of atmosphere stability. (authors)

  3. The Rapid Rate of Growth of Non-government Credit in 2004-2008 vs lowering the Lending Standards – a Major Impact on the Romanian Banking System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana Calinica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The "subprime" credit crisis started in 2007 in the USA was the most eloquent example of the fact that stability and proper functioning of the banking system of a country is essential. It was obvious that when this adverse phenomenon occurred, the Romanian banking system was characterized by pronounced vulnerability, induced by a number of previous and unremedied deficiencies. The purpose of this article is to identify these failures and for this purpose, an analysis will be made on the evolution of the non-government credit in the period prior to the economic and financial crisis, taking into account the level of the credit standards at the time. It will also be analyzed the evolution of the credit risk and progression of other important banking indicators, identifying the negative effects of a possibly wrong direction of the Romanian banking system in the period prior to the recent economic and financial crisis.

  4. Can cross-border pollution reduce pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Panos Hatzipanayotou; Sajal Lahiri; Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    We develop a North-South model of foreign aid and cross-border pollution resulting from production activities in the recipient country. There is both private and public abatement of pollution, the latter being financed through emissions tax revenue and foreign aid. We characterise a Nash equilibrium where the donor country chooses the amount of aid, and the recipient chooses the fraction of aid allocated to pollution abatement and/or the emission tax rate. At this equilibrium, an increase in ...

  5. Aerosols and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth's radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  6. An Optimal Lower Eigenvalue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal lower eigenvalue system is studied, and main theorems including a series of necessary and suffcient conditions concerning existence and a Lipschitz continuity result concerning stability are obtained. As applications, solvability results to some von-Neumann-type input-output inequalities, growth, and optimal growth factors, as well as Leontief-type balanced and optimal balanced growth paths, are also gotten.

  7. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  8. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  9. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  10. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  11. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  12. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available regions. Ambient air pollution relates to the quality of outdoor air and will be discussed in this chapter, with a focus on the air pollutants which are typically regulated in this context internationally....

  13. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious pollution of these shallow seas endangering marine life and spoiling recreational facilities. Different polluting agents like sewage, chemicals, industrial coolants etc...

  14. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m 3 for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  16. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  18. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  19. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  1. Air pollution and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  2. Meteorological conditions during a severe, prolonged regional heavy air pollution episode in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xueliang; Cao, Weihua; Huo, Yanfeng; Yang, Guanying; Yu, Caixia; He, Dongyan; Deng, Weitao; Fu, Wei; Ding, Heming; Zhai, Jing; Cheng, Long; Zhao, Xuhui

    2018-03-01

    A severe, prolonged and harmful regional heavy air pollution episode occurred in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017. In this paper, the pollutant characteristics and the meteorological formation mechanism of this pollution event, including climate anomalies, surface weather conditions, planetary boundary layer structure and large-scale circulation features, were analysed based on observational pollution data, surface meteorological data, sounding data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results are as follows. (1) Five pollution stages were identified in eastern China. The two most severe episodes occurred from December 27, 2016 to January 4, 2017 and from January 8 to 12 2017. During these two pollution episodes, fine mode particles were major contributors, and hourly PM2.5 concentrations often exceeded 150 μg/m3, reaching a maximum of 333 μg/m3 at Fuyang station. Gaseous pollutants were transformed into secondary aerosols through heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PM2.5. (2) Compared with the same period over the years 2000-2016, 2017 presented meteorological field climate anomalies in conjunction with unfavourable surface conditions (weak winds, high relative humidity, fewer hours of sunshine, high cloud cover) and adverse atmospheric circulation (weak East Asian winter monsoon and an abnormal geopotential height of 500 hPa), which caused poorer visibility in 2017 than in the other analysed years. (3) During the development of heavy pollution event, unfavourable surface weather conditions, including poorer visibility, weaker pressure, higher relative humidity, lower wind speed with unfavourable wind direction and less precipitation suppressed the horizontal diffusion ability of air pollutants. Furthermore, the unfavourable structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was the key cause of the rapid PM2.5 increase. The deep, strong temperature inversion layer and weak vertical wind velocity could have suppressed vertical motion and enhanced

  3. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  4. Bioremediation of soil and water: application to chemical and nuclear pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavasseur, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Bioremediation is a branch of biotechnology that uses natural or diverted biological mechanisms to address environmental problems. The biological agents can be simple organic molecules, such as DNA or antibodies, or live or dead organisms (bacteria, microalgae, fungi, higher algae and plants). Phyto-remediation refers more specifically to using plants to decontaminate polluted soil, water, or air. Unlike organic pollutants such as PCBs1, TNT2, TCE3, which can be metabolized by soil microorganisms and plant roots, radionuclides - like most heavy metals - cannot be degraded. Thus, bioremediation strategies for radionuclides will consist into: - stabilization/mineralization to reduce their bioavailability through a change in their redox state; - for soil, their extraction using the plant nutrition mechanisms; - for polluted solutions, their extraction using the 'cation traps' properties of plant cell walls. Compared to physicochemical methods conventionally used to decontaminate soils but which lead to a sharp decline in fertility and productivity, bioremediation is considered a friendly environmental technology. An important advantage of this technique is its cost, much lower than traditional remediation techniques. By cons, bioremediation cannot be applied in an emergency, because processing times are spread over several years - even decades - depending on the degree of pollution. Therefore current research focuses on optimizing the processing time. We present in this paper several examples of in situ bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides, and we discuss in conclusion the negative and positive aspects of this technique. (author)

  5. Characteristics of Turbulent Transfer during Episodes of Heavy Haze Pollution in Beijing in Winter 2016/17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Zheng, Shuwen; Wei, Wei; Wu, Bingui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Cai, Xuhui; Song, Yu

    2018-02-01

    We analyzed the structure and evolution of turbulent transfer and the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer in relation to aerosol concentrations during an episode of heavy haze pollution from 6 December 2016 to 9 January 2017. The turbulence data were recorded at Peking University's atmospheric science and environment observation station. The results showed a negative correlation between the wind speed and the PM2.5 concentration. The turbulence kinetic energy was large and showed obvious diurnal variations during unpolluted (clean) weather, but was small during episodes of heavy haze pollution. Under both clean and heavy haze conditions, the relation between the non-dimensional wind components and the stability parameter z/ L followed a 1/3 power law, but the normalized standard deviations of the wind speed were smaller during heavy pollution events than during clean periods under near-neutral conditions. Under unstable conditions, the normalized standard deviation of the potential temperature σ θ /| θ *| was related to z/ L, roughly following a -1/3 power law, and the ratio during pollution days was greater than that during clean days. The three-dimensional turbulence energy spectra satisfied a -2/3 power exponent rate in the high-frequency band. In the low-frequency band, the wind velocity spectrum curve was related to the stability parameters under clear conditions, but was not related to atmospheric stratification under polluted conditions. In the dissipation stage of the heavy pollution episode, the horizontal wind speed first started to increase at high altitudes and then gradually decreased at lower altitudes. The strong upward motion during this stage was an important dynamic factor in the dissipation of the heavy haze.

  6. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  7. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  8. Atmospheric pollution. Introduction; Pollution atmospherique. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, Ch. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    This article is a general introduction to air pollution. It focusses on air quality problems at the local and regional scale: 1 - atmospheric environment and determining factors of its quality; 2 - French situation; 3 - local scale impacts: health hazards; 4 - regional scale impacts: risks for health and ecosystems (acid rains, photochemical pollution); 5 - management of the atmospheric environment (national scale, international scale: monitoring of air quality and role of the French agency of environment and energy mastery - Ademe). (J.S.)

  9. Stability of a novel synthetic amorphous manganese oxide in contrasting soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komárek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Bordas, F.; Mihaljevič, M.; Klementová, Mariana; Šebek, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 214, FEB (2014), s. 2-9 ISSN 0016-7061 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Amorphous manganese oxide * Stability * Soils * Chemical stabilization * Pollution Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2014

  10. Infecção pós-estabilização intramedular das fraturas diafisárias dos membros inferiores: protocolo de tratamento Post-stabilization infection of lower limbs' shaft fractures: a treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsander Guillaumon Pereira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento das infecções pós-estabilização intramedular das fraturas dos membros inferiores apresenta uma grande variedade de opções, desde a limpeza cirúrgica com manutenção da haste até a retirada da haste e colocação de fixador externo. O espaçador diafisário ainda é uma técnica pouco utilizada para o tratamento desse tipo de infecção, existindo poucos relatos na literatura sobre sua aplicação. No IOT HCFMUSP, esta técnica vem sendo empregada de maneira crescente e, no presente trabalho, temos o objetivo de descrever o protocolo de tratamento utilizado em nossa instituição, bem como a apresentação de nossa casuística inicial. O protocolo consiste na antibioticoterapia endovenosa, retirada da haste intra-medular, desbridamento cirúrgico do canal medular e colocação do espaçador diafisário. Revisamos retrospectivamente o prontuário de 11 pacientes com 13 fraturas, sendo cinco femorais e oito tibiais, submetidos à técnica apresentada. O tempo de seguimento variou de 6 a 36 meses, média de 14,27 meses, com resultados satisfatórios ocorridos em dez das treze fraturas estudadas, representando uma taxa de eficácia de 76,93%. Concluímos que o método representa uma boa alternativa para o tratamento destes casos, necessitando ainda novos trabalhos comparativos para a avaliação de suas vantagens e para difundir o uso do método.Treatment of infection following intramedullary nailing of lower limbs present a large variety of options, that goes from debridement and maintenance of the nail up to the its removal and external fixation of the limb. The cement rod is an unusual technique employed for treating this kind of infection, although little is found in literature about its application. At the IOT HC-FMUSP, this technique has been increasingly employed and the purpose of this article is to describe the treatment protocol used in our institution. The protocol consists in intravenous antibiotic therapy, removal

  11. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  12. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  13. Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, S

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Chandrasekhar's book received high praise when it first appeared in 1961 as part of Oxford University Press' International Series of Monographs on Physics. Since then it has been reprinted numerous times in its expensive hardcover format. This first lower-priced, sturdy paperback edition will be welcomed by graduate physics students and scientists familiar with Dr. Chandrasekhar's work, particularly in light of the resurgence of interest in the Rayleigh-Bénard problem. This book presents a most lucid introduction to the Rayleigh-Bénard problem: it has also been applauded for its thorough, clear coverage of the theory of instabilities causing convection. Dr. Chandrasekhar considers most of the typical problems in hydromagnetic stability, with the exception of viscous shear flow; a specialized domain deserving a book unto itself. Contents include: Rotation; Stability of More General Flows; Bénard Problem; Gravitational Equilibrium and Instability; Stability of a Magnetic Field; Thermal Instability of a L...

  14. 33 CFR 157.22 - Intact stability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.22 Intact stability requirements. All tank ships...

  15. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  16. The changing paradigm of air pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Emily G; Watkins, Timothy H; Solomon, Paul A; Thoma, Eben D; Williams, Ronald W; Hagler, Gayle S W; Shelow, David; Hindin, David A; Kilaru, Vasu J; Preuss, Peter W

    2013-10-15

    The air pollution monitoring paradigm is rapidly changing due to recent advances in (1) the development of portable, lower-cost air pollution sensors reporting data in near-real time at a high-time resolution, (2) increased computational and visualization capabilities, and (3) wireless communication/infrastructure. It is possible that these advances can support traditional air quality monitoring by supplementing ambient air monitoring and enhancing compliance monitoring. Sensors are beginning to provide individuals and communities the tools needed to understand their environmental exposures with these data individual and community-based strategies can be developed to reduce pollution exposure as well as understand linkages to health indicators. Each of these areas as well as corresponding challenges (e.g., quality of data) and potential opportunities associated with development and implementation of air pollution sensors are discussed.

  17. Air pollution meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvaikar, V.V.; Daoo, V.J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  18. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  19. Lower-Conductivity Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) that have both initial and post-exposure thermal conductivities lower than those of yttria-stabilized zirconia TBCs have been developed. TBCs are thin ceramic layers, generally applied by plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition, that are used to insulate air-cooled metallic components from hot gases in gas turbine and other heat engines. Heretofore, yttria-stabilized zirconia (nominally comprising 95.4 atomic percent ZrO2 + 4.6 atomic percent Y2O3) has been the TBC material of choice. The lower-thermal-conductivity TBCs are modified versions of yttria-stabilized zirconia, the modifications consisting primarily in the addition of other oxides that impart microstructural and defect properties that favor lower thermal conductivity.

  20. mathematical modelling of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    the main objectives of this thesis are dealing with environmental problems adopting mathematical techniques. in this respect, atmospheric dispersion processes have been investigated by improving the analytical models to realize the realistic physical phenomena. to achieve these aims, the skeleton of this work contained both mathematical and environmental topics,performed in six chapters. in chapter one we presented a comprehensive review study of most important informations related to our work such as thermal stability , plume rise, inversion, advection , dispersion of pollutants, gaussian plume models dealing with both radioactive and industrial contaminants. chapter two deals with estimating the decay distance as well as the decay time of either industrial or radioactive airborne pollutant. further, highly turbulent atmosphere has been investigated as a special case in the three main thermal stability classes namely, neutral, stable, and unstable atmosphere. chapter three is concerned with obtaining maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant. the variable effective height of pollutants has been considered throughout the mathematical treatment. as a special case the constancy of effective height has been derived mathematically and the maximum ground level concentration as well as its location have been established

  1. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  2. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...... undertake the changes that are necessary to achieve greater sustainability—or at best continue to struggle in a globalized and highly interconnected industry to implement the necessary changes. In light of this failure, this thesis investigates how organizations can change towards practising sustainability...

  3. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Aerodynamic modeling of the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis , we present a study dealing with the basic meteorology concepts commonly used in air pollution. The pollutant motion in the atmosphere together with its basic mathematical concepts have been reviewed. This review includes; atmospheric forces acting on a particle, atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric stability and the most widely used atmospheric diffusion models. The resistance for pollutant transfer for different atmospheric stability classes has been derived in terms of both wind velocity profile parameters and diffusion coefficients. Therefrom, the residence time of a pollutant in the atmosphere is obtained. The dust particle trajectory and deposition in case of neutral atmosphere is formulated mathematically adopting particle Gaussian distribution. An analytical treatment for the diffusion equation with extension of the boundary conditions to include the ground surface absorption of pollutants and presence of elevated inversion layer, has been presented . The concept of decay distance is introduced and applied in a sample calculation for the dispersion of pollutants over growing wheat field

  5. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  6. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  7. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  8. River Pollution: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  9. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  10. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  11. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Airforce. His hobbies include reading books and listening to music. Keywords. Indoor air pollution. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Indoor Air Pollution. Danger at Home ... concentration of. VOCs and it is also a source of stable inorganic gases. GENERAL I ARTICLE which homes are built. Radon is a product of radioactive decay.

  12. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  13. [Indoor pollution and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, J

    1998-09-01

    The indoor pollution, where the patients pass in general close to 90% of their time, is an important factor to take in consideration if one wants to evaluate suitably the effects of the air pollution on the health. Causes of this kind of pollution are partially linked to the external pollution and the outdoor environment and also are function of human activities and introduced products in the habitat (heating, tabagisme, handywork, products of maintenance, coatings, materials of construction, etc.). The effects on health are as various as the pollutants, going from sharp intoxication to irritations or simply desagreements. In this problem of public health we may not underestimated sensitive persons and risky group as well as long terme effects, and chronic exposition effects. The search of solutions needs multiple competences from the physician, who has to play an essential role.

  14. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104...... congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...... information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data...

  15. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  16. Lower hybrid current drive in shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A time dependent lower hybrid current drive tokamak simulation code has been developed. This code combines the BALDUR tokamak simulation code and the Bonoli/Englade lower hybrid current drive code and permits the study of the interaction of lower hybrid current drive with neutral beam heating in shaped cross-section plasmas. The code is time dependent and includes the beam driven and bootstrap currents in addition to the current driven by the lower hybrid system. Examples of simulations are shown for the PBX-M experiment which include the effect of cross section shaping on current drive, ballooning mode stabilization by current profile control and sawtooth stabilization. A critical question in current drive calculations is the radial transport of the energetic electrons. The authors have developed a response function technique to calculate radial transport in the presence of an electric field. The consequences of the combined influences of radial diffusion and electric field acceleration are discussed

  17. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  18. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  19. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  20. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  1. Air Pollution and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R.; Shah, Anoop S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with “traditional” risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. PMID:29402072

  2. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  3. Lower GI Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium during the test • a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI series, which uses ... to evenly coat the large intestine with the barium • if the health care provider has ordered a double-contrast lower GI series, the radiologist will inject air ...

  4. Pollutant Scavenging Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W. G.N.; Hales, J. M.; Hane, C. E.; Young, J. A.; Davis, W. E.; Drewes, D. R.; Tanner, T, M.; Thomas, C. W.; Wogman, N. A.; Dana, M. Terry; Glover, D. M.

    1976-03-01

    This section is comprised of 18 papers. The removal of atmospheric pollutants by clouds and precipitation is a major factor in determining budgets of pollutants distributed on a regional scale. The quantity and patterns of pollutants delivered to sensitive ecosystems, as well as the distributions remaining as inhalation hazards in scavenged air, can only be defined by a thorough investigation of precipitation scavenging processes. Results are reported from research studies on in-cloud scavenging in frontal and convective storms, and below-cloud scavenging of submicron particulates. (CH)

  5. Dangers of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental pollution is ever increasing. Protection of the environment must not be neglected for economic reasons. Damage to health due to environmental effects is hard to determine epidemiologically as there are nearly always several causes to consider at the same time. Still, the increase in environmental pollution results in increased damage to humans, animals, and plants. The many dangers to health can be illustrated by the example of energy demand and the different ways to meet it. It is highly necessary to create environmental laws which aim at a reduction of environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  6. Radioactivity and plumbum pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huishan

    2006-01-01

    This paper first indicates the five aspects to understand correctly the poisoning by radioactive plumbum: milling of nonferrous metal, development of mines, production of accumulator, discharge of waste gas from vehicles and radiation from building materials, as well as 'rubbish' from manufacture of plumbiferous equipment, and analyzes the seriousness of plumbum pollution (especially for children) along with the feature and symptom to plumbism. Then a lot of cases about the radioactive plumbum pollution are expounded so as to make a deeper understanding of plumbum pollution. Finally, some needed recognitions and prevention measures are put forward in different ways. (authors)

  7. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  8. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  9. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  10. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  11. Local cartography of persistent organic pollutants (PCDD/F, PCB) concentrations in soils of three French departments. How to define background concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clozel, Blandine

    2017-04-01

    As part of the Regional Health Plan for the Rhône-Alpes area (France), a cartography of soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants (dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) was undertaken in order to define the background concentrations of soils located away from point source pollution. In the natural environment, PCDD/PCDF and PCB comes from air pollution and accumulate in the upper part of the soils. To define the background concentration of persistent organic pollutants from diffuse atmospheric origin in soils, sampling was carried out within the first 5 centimeters of soils that have been very little anthropized and untilled for more than 15 years. In such soils mixing and dilution of the pollutants is very limited. 170 samples were collected following a systematic plan of grid type (mesh of 8 x 8 km) in an area of 14 000km2, avoiding soil of high altitude and from urban area. Beyond their total concentration, the ratio of the congeners of PCBs (7 indicators and 12 dioxin-like) and of the 17 dioxins/furans was also used for interpretation. As expected, the concentrations in pollutants are globally lower in the rural zones than in the more industrialized ones. However, the pollutants are relatively enriched in valleys, confirming that the meteorological conditions and the local topography play a significant role in the repartition of the diffuse atmospheric pollution. For the vast majority of samples, even some of those presenting the highest total concentration, the ratio of the various congeners argues for an ancient origin of the contamination. All studies at the French or European level of the atmospheric concentration of organic pollutants indicate a progressive decrease in emissions of these contaminants for about 20 years. However, the soils have been receptors since a long time and such pollutants have accumulated. The congeners ratio give evolved signature of pollution indicating, on one hand, it is mainly due to past

  12. A matrix lower bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  13. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  14. Lower-Conductivity Ceramic Materials for Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming

    2006-01-01

    Doped pyrochlore oxides of a type described below are under consideration as alternative materials for high-temperature thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). In comparison with partially-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is the state-of-the-art TBC material now in commercial use, these doped pyrochlore oxides exhibit lower thermal conductivities, which could be exploited to obtain the following advantages: For a given difference in temperature between an outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface, the coating could be thinner. Reductions in coating thicknesses could translate to reductions in weight of hot-section components of turbine engines (e.g., combustor liners, blades, and vanes) to which TBCs are typically applied. For a given coating thickness, the difference in temperature between the outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface could be greater. For turbine engines, this could translate to higher operating temperatures, with consequent increases in efficiency and reductions in polluting emissions. TBCs are needed because the temperatures in some turbine-engine hot sections exceed the maximum temperatures that the substrate materials (superalloys, Si-based ceramics, and others) can withstand. YSZ TBCs are applied to engine components as thin layers by plasma spraying or electron-beam physical vapor deposition. During operation at higher temperatures, YSZ layers undergo sintering, which increases their thermal conductivities and thereby renders them less effective as TBCs. Moreover, the sintered YSZ TBCs are less tolerant of stress and strain and, hence, are less durable.

  15. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  16. Fate of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapta, S.C.; Boyer, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A literature review is presented of the fate of pollutants in sediment and water systems. Topics of discussion include the following: modeling, observations, and general studies; chlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; nonchlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; pesticides; heavy metals; and radionuclides

  17. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  18. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  19. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  20. Sources of pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Sources of pollution. Domestic wastewater (Sewage). Organic matter; Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pathogens, viruses, …. Agricultural runoff. Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pesticides; Industrial effluents; Organics (oil &grease, pigments, phenols, organic matter ….) Heavy ...

  1. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  2. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    within UNESCO) for ocean research and related matters, defines: 'marine pollution is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries), resulting in such deleterious effects ...

  3. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO 2 , anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  4. Fine dust, a new challenge in air pollution abatement?; Feinstaub - Neue Herausforderung fuer saubere Luft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Dusts with particle size smaller than 2.5 {mu}m are hazardous to human health. Pollution sources are industrial processes, furnaces, power plants and traffic. Pollution limits will be lowered in ther European Union in 2005. Reduction of particulate emissions in Bavaria should be achieved by pollution control equipment in power plants and automobiles. (uke)

  5. POLLUTION AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Pratibha Pathak

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades there has been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution, in particular, the global burden of disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution. Most of these environment-related diseases are however not easily detected and may be acquired during childhood and manifested later in adulthood. Im...

  6. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  7. Pollution and National Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Hartwick

    1990-01-01

    The current value Hamiltonian in an aggregate optimal growth problem with heterogeneous capital stocks including exhaustible, renewable and environmental stocks is the NNP function. Routine substitutions reveal that the using up of environmental capital (more pollution) is representable as an easy-to-interpret economic depreciation magnitude. We obtain a result which indicates when it is valid to net pollution abatement expenditures from GNP. We also obtain the general result: deduct rents on...

  8. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa..., India during 25– 26 February 2004. The theme of the special issue is bMarine Pollution and EcotoxicologyQ. The International workshop was organized in honour of a distinguished scientist, Dr. S.N. De Souza, Deputy Director who superannuated on 29...

  9. Atmospheric stability and atmospheric circulation in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synodinou, B.M.; Petrakis, M.; Kassomenos, P.; Lykoudis, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the evaluation and study of atmospheric pollution reference is always made to the stability criteria. These criteria, usually represented as functions of different meteorological data such as wind speed and direction, temperature, solar radiation, etc., play a very important role in the investigation of different parameters that affect the build up of pollution episodes mainly in urban areas. In this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the atmospheric stability criteria based on measurements obtained from two locations in and nearby Athens. The atmospheric stability is then examined along with the other meteorological parameters

  10. Lower thoracic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Nazim

    2017-01-01

    The role of thoracic spine related dysfunction in producing lower extremity symptoms is not clear. This case study describes the assessment and treatment of a patient with low back pain and bilateral lower extremity (BLE) symptoms. It was found that patient education about postural awareness and passive mobilization are valuable aids to decrease BLE symptoms due to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) dysfunction and lower thoracic hypomobility. The clinicians need to consider examination and treatment of the lower thoracic area in patients with BLE symptoms. More research is required to explore the role of SNS dysfunction in producing BLE symptoms.

  11. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  12. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  13. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation.

  14. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  15. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  16. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  17. Predicting life-history adaptations to pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Animals may adapt to pollutant stress so that individuals from polluted environments are less susceptible than those from unpolluted environments. In addition to such direct adaptations, animals may respond to pollutant stress by life-history modifications; so-called indirect adaptations. This paper will demonstrate how, by combining life-history theory and toxicological data, it is possible to predict stress-induced alterations in reproductive output and offspring size. Pollutant-induced alterations in age-specific survival in favor of adults and reductions in juvenile growth, conditions are predicted to select for reduced investment in reproduction and the allocation of this investment into fewer, larger offspring. Field observations on the freshwater crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus pulex, support these predictions. Females from metal-polluted sites had lower investment in reproduction and produced larger offspring than females of the same species from unpolluted sites. Moreover, interpopulation differences in reproductive biology persisted in laboratory cultures indicating that they had a genetic basis and were therefore due to adaptation rather than acclimation. The general applicability of this approach will be considered.

  18. Arctic pollution: How much is too much

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An overview is presented of the problems of pollution in the Arctic. Pollution from lower latitudes is carried into the Arctic by atmospheric circulation and ocean currents. Contamination of snow, waters and organisms with imported pollutants has appeared in the past few decades and appears to be increasing. Arctic ecosystems show indications of being much more susceptible to biological damage at low levels of pollutants than higher-energy ecosystems in temperate latitudes, and many Arctic organisms become accumulators and concentrators of organic pollutants and toxic metals. Arctic haze is 20 to 40 times as high in winter as in summer and has been found to consist of particles of largely industrial origin, mostly soot, hydrocarbons and sulphates. Dramatic declines in stratospheric ozone have been apparent over Antarctica, and a similar but less intense depletion is appearing over the Arctic. Toxic compounds, particularly organochlorines and some heavy metals, have been found in worrying amounts in snow, water and organisms in Arctic North America, Greenland and Svalbard. Radioactive contamination was widespread during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1960s and 1970s, and the comparatively small amount of radiation released by the Chernobyl accident had greatest effect in northern Scandinavia. 4 figs.

  19. dispersion characteristics of settleable and dissolvable pollutants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974), they are not suitable for waste stabilization ponds. None of the existing models indicated how the setting velocity of the pollutant could be measured. .... Harris' method is preferred to the moment method because it involves only the first moment of the curve ..... gravities of sewage solids (Imhoff, and Fair,. 1956).

  20. Optimization of wind speed on dispersion of pollutants using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atmospheric stability is the goal of air quality meteorology (Henry et al 1984). The concentration of the pollutants from different sources can be obtained from dispersion model, which represents the source contributions at that point. The contributions can also be estimated via a receptor model from a speciation analysis of ...

  1. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies......, examination of pH-dependent desorption, distribution in grain-size fractions and sequential extraction. Our results show that the first factors determining the speciation of Pb in soil are: (1) the stability of the original speciation and (2) the contamination level, while soil characteristics...... are of secondary importance. In nine of ten soils Pb was concentrated strongly in the soil fines (soils, particles with a highly concentrated Pb-content were observed during SEM-EDX. In eight of the soils, the particles contained various Pb-species with aluminum/iron, phosphate, sulfate...

  2. "EMERGING" POLLUTANTS, AND COMMUNICATING THE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper weaves a rnulti-dimensioned perspective of mass spectrometry as a career against the backdrop of mass spectrometry's key role in the past and future of environmental chemistry. Along the way, some insights are offered for better focusing the spotlight on the discipline of mass spectrometry. A Foundation for Environmental Science-Mass Spectrometry Historically fundamental to our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is mass spectrometry. This branch of analytical chemistry is the workhorse which supplies much of the definitive data to environmental scientists and engineers for identifying the molecular compositions, and ultimately the structures, of chemicals. This is not to ignore the complementary and critical roles played by the adjunct practices of sample enrichment (e.g., to lower method detection limits via any of various means of selective extraction) and analyte separation (e.g., to lessen contaminant interferences via the myriad forms of chromatography and electrophoresis). While the power of mass spectrometry has long been highly visible to the practicing environmental chemist, it borders on continued obscurity to the lay public and most non-chemists. Even though mass spectrometry has played a long, historic and Largely invisible role in establishing or undergirding our existing knowledge about environmental processes and pollution, what recognition it does enjoy is usually relegated to that of a tool. It is usually

  3. Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576. Results South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Conclusions Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.

  4. Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Armenta, Bianca; Nourian, Maziar; Assasnik, Nushean; Nourian, Kimiya; Chernenko, Alla

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured) environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576). South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.

  5. Social Capital and Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-26

    lowers drug use, criminality, and teenage pregnancies , while increasing youth academic success, economic development, and government effectiveness.49...terrorism, organized crime, narco-trafficking, refugee migration, epidemics, humanitarian crises, and poverty .17 Many such states exist in what has... poverty , and radical movements have riveted U.S. and partner attentions and demanded from them comprehensive and holistic approaches to stability

  6. 21 CFR 872.3890 - Endodontic stabilizing splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inserted through the root canal into the upper or lower jaw bone to stabilize a tooth. (b) Classification... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3890 Endodontic stabilizing splint. (a...

  7. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  8. The price of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Davidson, M.D.; Wit, R.

    1998-06-01

    The market does not create a price for environmental pollution for the simple reason that there is no market for the environment. What can be done is to calculate shadow prices for environmental pollution, which is achieved by calculating the price that would arise if there would be a market for the environment. In applying this method, it generally proves to be necessary to base calculations on government environmental targets. Using available research data, the method is used to calculate shadow prices for a number of key pollutants. The present report is based on the CE studies 'Schaduwprijzen Prioriterings Methodiek (SPM)' (1997), commissioned by ICI Holland BV, and 'De prijs van Milieuvervuiling' (1997), commissioned by KNP BT Packaging

  9. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise

  10. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively...... by seven referral centres. Variables analysed included patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics, stone-free rates (SFR) and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the differences for SFRs and complication rates between prone- and supine PCNL. RESULTS: One hundred...... seventeen patients underwent PCNL (mean stone size: 19.5 mm) for stones harboured only in the lower renal pole (single stone: 53.6 %; multiple stones: 46.4 %). A higher proportion of patients with ASA score ≥ 3 and harbouring multiple lower pole stones were treated with supine PCNL (5.8 vs. 23.1 %; p = 0...

  11. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  12. Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kakosimos, k.E.; Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Environmental context Trafficked streets are air pollution hot spots where people experience high exposure to hazardous pollutants. Although monitoring networks provide crucial information about measured pollutant levels, the measurements are resource demanding and thus can be performed at only few...... selected sites. Fast and easily applied street pollution models are therefore necessary tools to provide information about the loadings in streets without measurement activities. We evaluate the Operational Street Pollution Model, one of the most commonly applied models in air pollution management...... and research worldwide. Abstract Traffic emissions constitute a major source of health hazardous air pollution in urban areas. Models describing pollutant levels in urban streets are thus important tools in air pollution management as a supplement to measurements in routine monitoring programmes. A widely used...

  13. Plasma stabilization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklas, E. A.; Fader, W. J.; Jong, R. A.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1980-07-01

    The plasma stabilization experiment is an effort to enhance stability in a mirror-confined plasma by trapping cold ions with rf fields applied near the mirror throats. Nagoya Type 3 antennas, coupled to a 60 kW rf power supply are mounted in the throats of the UTRC baseball magnet. An external washer gun provides a source of plasma for both streaming and confined plasma tests. Results show a strong stoppering effect on streaming plasmas and a marginal effect on confined plasmas. Theoretical calculations provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The field generates a ponderomotive force acting on the electrons. The resultant improvement in electron confinement changes the ambipolar potential and inhibits the flow of ions through the mirror throat. Criteria are derived for the validity of this trapping concept. The requisite field strengths are significantly lower than those required to trap ions directly. Scaling laws are developed for application of cold ion trapping to large mirror devices containing dense plasmas. The use of slow-wave antenna structures operated at frequencies above the lower hybrid frequency is recommended for these applications.

  14. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  16. Stability theory for a two-dimensional channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshkin, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    A scheme for deriving conditions for the nonlinear stability of an ideal or viscous incompressible steady flow in a two-dimensional channel that is periodic in one direction is described. A lower bound for the main factor ensuring the stability of the Reynolds-Kolmogorov sinusoidal flow with no-slip conditions (short wavelength stability) is improved. A condition for the stability of a vortex strip modeling Richtmyer-Meshkov fluid vortices (long wavelength stability) is presented.

  17. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  18. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  19. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This article is the last of a three-part series dealing with sound measurement, effects, pollution, and indoor/door learning activities. This section focuses on outdoor activities and equipment that students can make to assist them in data collection. (Author/SA)

  20. Technology and environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himi, Yasuji (Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki, (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    The history of environmental pollution changed with development of industrial technology and the facts that new technology always generated new pollution are explained, and necessity of Total Emission Control is emphasized. As the actual facts, those were introduced that the hydrogen chloride hazard at the initial stage of alkaline industry with the important meaning of ammonia-soda process as the solution of it, dust hazard by cement industry at its beginning in Japan and Cottrell precipitator technology for its solution, various hazards accompanied with metal refining industry. Discrepancy of view points between production technology and environmental science are explained and importance of technology belonging to the boundary domain between them was emphasized. However, it was indicated that present solutions were depend upon recovery technology and had a possibility to generate new pollution by recovered materials. For the reason, necessity of study on the interaction among chemical industries was proposed from the view of solution for byproduct with environmental pollution problem. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such ... Hence, the transfer of air borne particles to land or water surfaces ... relative importance of these processes depends primarily on the size of the particles. Anthropogenically added particulates and aerosols in atmosphere show a broad size distribution from.

  2. Dust pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine dust particles emitted from agricultural facilities, lands and operations are considered pollutants when they affect public health and welfare. These particles, with a diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10), are regulated by government agencies. ...

  3. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the risks to health may be greater due to indoor air pollution than the outdoor air. ... materials, furnishings, wet or damp carpets, household chemical products, air cond itioners, dehumidifiers and outdoor sources such as radon and pesticides. ... organic compounds are emitted from construction materials, furnishings and ...

  4. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  5. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  6. Groundwater pollution microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitton, G.; Gerba, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a survey of available information on groundwater pollution microbiology. It is useful as a starting point for students and professionals investigating this topic. Subjects discussed include bacteria and virus movement through soils, carcinogenicity of some organic chemicals detected in groundwater, sampling techniques, and land treatment systems. Include references to the journal literature and a subject index.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  8. 5 Anthropogenic Pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Investigation of the anthropogenic pollution impact on microbial contamination of Lake Kivu, Rwanda was carried out in Gisenyi, ... water. The microbial quality of the water was poor, suggesting contamination of the lake water by animals and ... etc. The lake water is unfit for human domestic use without any form of treatment.

  9. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  10. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  11. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Pollution and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhoja, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    If no body can dispute the fact that technological progress favours production, comfort and the economy of time, nobody can deny either that the same progress is at the origin of a pollution that puts earth's natural resources in jeopardy. Pollution is physical, but it has a moral aspect as well. In the first case, it spoils water, the soil, the sea, the air and the vegetation. In the second case, it deals a hard blow to man's intelectual and spiritual life. Pollution is natural and biological and, in this case, it is not the result of man's activity, but that of bacteria and viruses which are responsible for various illnesses and epidemics. It could also be the result of toxicity due to volcanic eruptions, solar explosions, or electric charges liberated by clouds. Pollution can also result from harmful waste of chemical and other industries, from the various usages of chemical products, from cars and engines' exhaust, from thermal activities or radioactive spills. Today, it is radioactivity which constitutes the most serious threat to human life.(author)

  13. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  14. Pollution bio-indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, O.; Hohn, B.; Kovalchuk, I.; Kovalchuk, O.

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic plants are at the origin of new methods of evaluation of water and radioactive soils genotoxicity or chemically polluted soils genotoxicity. These tests show the advantage of simplicity, that makes of them, choice tools for environmental studies. (N.C.)

  15. National pollutants emission limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  16. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  17. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  18. Microbial bioconversion of pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovleva, L.A.; Aliyeva, R.M.; Naumova, R.P.; Gvozdyak, P.I. (Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms totally detoxicate xenobiotics of various chemical structures, which are serious and, in some cases, very hazardous pollutants. At present, the efforts of a number of researchers promoted the establishment in this country of a collection of microorganisms able to degrade volatile toxic pollutants--toluene, isomeric xylenes, styrene, alpha-methylstyrene, crotonaldehyde; widely distributed xenobiotics chlorobenzoic acids; isomeric aryldicarboxylic acids; and ecologically hazardous pollutants such as aromatic nitrocompounds. The active strains-destructors are mainly representatives of the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Research into their physiological characteristics, key enzymes, pathways of xenobiotics degradation, genetic mechanisms determining the degradation of these foreign compounds, and behaviour of the strains in a real environment made it possible to develop the theoretical principles of using these microbial cultures to purify real industrial wastes and remediate polluted areas of soil and water. Improvement of the methods of immobilizing the active xenobiotics-degrading strains on cheap and efficient carriers made it possible to significantly intensify the cleanup process of industrial wastes and eliminate a number of problems during the development of the biotechnologies for industrial waste cleanup. Successfully operated at present are the biotechnologies of the local cleanup of waste waters of terephthalate production, microbial purification of industrial waste waters in nylon-66 production from hexamethylenediamine, purification of coke production wastes from phenols, waste waters of polyisocyanate production from aromatic amines, local purification of waste waters in synthetic rubber production from alpha-methylstyrene, acetaldehyde production wastes from crotonaldehyde and mercury. 97 references.

  19. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil, fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious ...

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  1. Engines, fuels and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The article points out the close relationship among engines, fuels and polluting emissions, and outlines an overall picture of future trends. The technical trade literature shows that diesel engines may undergo strong future development, due to their more favourable energy converting and less polluting characteristics. With regard to petrol injection engines, their improved construction under extremely close tolerances will result in a severe tightening-up of fuel specifications (with or without lead), so as to prevent the deposition of residues at the inlet (manifolds, injectors, valves, and combustion chamber), and their ensuing adverse effects on vehicle handling especially during the 'warm-up' stage. Recent checkups and tests run in the USA have evidenced that automotive engine-derived pollution in towns is in fact considerably more severe than that derived from mathematical models based on 'average emission factors' determined on a laboratory scale (roller bench tests, vaporization tests etc.). The entire body of regulations issued so far becomes questionable, and supplementary studies based on road-tests have been proposed. The paper's discussion is concluded with statistical data showing traffic pollution caused by VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

  2. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  3. Comparative discussion on some measurements of the atmospheric natural radioactivity and pollution with coal smoke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measuring the natural radioactivity and coal smoke pollution are discussed for two sites in an industrial town, as well as for two heights at the same site, in connection with large scale and local atmospheric stability. The effects of the radiation fog upon the radon daughters acumulation near the ground are examined in some detail. By comparing the pollutant diurnal variations during two periods of similar atmospheric stability in autumn, respectively in winter, the contribution from the dwelling coal heating has been estimated to be about half of the total pollution in the town. (author)

  4. Core stability training for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Anderson, Barton E

    2013-11-01

    Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. PUBMED WAS SEARCHED FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC, BIOMECHANIC, AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF CORE STABILITY FOR INJURY PREVENTION (KEYWORDS: "core OR trunk" AND "training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation" AND "risk OR prevalence") published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport.

  5. On a pollution look; Sur un air de pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, J.P.; Monchicourt, M.O.

    2002-07-01

    The author, who is director of the laboratory of atmospheric pollution studies of the French national institute of agronomical research (INRA), answers the questions of a journalist about: how to detect air pollution, what are its causes, what are its impacts on health and environment, and what are the existing protection means against atmospheric pollution. (J.S.)

  6. Lower pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-01-01

    In an Extrap pinch there is a superimposed magnetic octupole field which forms a magnetic separatrix with the field generated by the pinch current. Earlier experiments have shown that the octupole field has a stabilizing influence on the plasma. Regardless of the details of this stabilizing mechanism, it is expected that the influence of the octupole field should become negligible for a sufficiently small ratio between the characteristic pinch and separatrix radii. In other words, there should exist a lower limit of this ratio below which the system approaches the state of an ordinary unstabilized Z-pinch. The present paper presents an extended version of an earlier theoretical model of this lower limit, and its relation to the corresponding critical ratio between the external conductor and pinch currents. This ratio is found to vary substantially with the plasma parameters. (authors)

  7. Air Pollution Tracking using PDEs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ,. Polluted Zones, Positive Finite Difference Scheme. 1. Introduction. In this work we propose a mathematical model that can be used to track the movement of pollutant material in the atmosphere. Such models are important tools for planning ...

  8. Lower Extremity Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glancy, D Luke; Subramaniam, Pramilla N; Rodriguez, Juan F

    2016-11-15

    Severe hypokalemia in the absence of other electrolyte abnormalities, the result of diarrhea, caused striking electrocardiographic changes, generalized weakness, flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities, and biochemical evidence of mild skeletal and cardiac rhabdomyolysis in a 33-year-old man. Repletion of potassium reversed all abnormalities in 24 hours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    often defined as a sudden loss of perfusion to the lower extremity/extremities of less than 14 days' duration, ... Femoral arteries palpated Soft, tender. Hard, calcified. Dystrophic limb features Absent. Present. Cardiac abnormalities Present. Generally absent. Iliac/femoral bruits Absent. May be present. History of claudication ...

  10. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S.; Williams, Leah R.; Lewis, David K.; Magoon, Gregory R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Kaminsky, Michael L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jayne, John T.

    2017-09-01

    The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ), measurements must be fast (real time), scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time). Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA) air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC) sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ): [CO] = 231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84-1706 ppb), [NO] = 6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0-209 ppb), [NO2] = 11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0-71 ppb), and [O3] = 23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0-99 ppb). Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR), we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature = 23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity = 50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8-79.9 %) can be effectively modeled for the Alphasense CO-B4, NO-B4, NO2-B43F, and Ox-B421 sensors, yielding (5 min average) root

  11. 2.10. Threat: Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    3.12.1 Industrial pollution Based on the collated evidence, what is the current assessment of the effectiveness of interventions for industrial pollution? Likely to be beneficial ● Use visual and acoustic ʹscarersʹ to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining or sewage Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence) ● Relocate birds following oil spills● Use repellents to deter birds from landing on pools polluted by mining Unlikely to be beneficial ● Clean birds after oil spills Likely ...

  12. The myth of core stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    The principle of core stability has gained wide acceptance in training for the prevention of injury and as a treatment modality for rehabilitation of various musculoskeletal conditions in particular of the lower back. There has been surprisingly little criticism of this approach up to date. This article re-examines the original findings and the principles of core stability/spinal stabilisation approaches and how well they fare within the wider knowledge of motor control, prevention of injury and rehabilitation of neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems following injury.

  13. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  14. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  15. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  16. A study of the physical factors affecting air pollution dispersion in Helwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution is considered as one of the most important environmental problems facing the humanity. Cement industry, usually, is responsible for building high levels of pollutants. The present research focused on the study of air pollution control of cement industry using mathematical modeling. A mathematical dispersion model was developed based on Gaussian distribution where the dispersion parameters increase with increasing atmospheric turbulence. The Gaussian equation takes in consideration the effect of emission rates. stack height, buoyant plume rise, weather and meteorological parameters. The model was tested for different stack heights, wind speeds. And atmospheric stability classes. Maximum ground level concentration of cement pollutants were measured in different locations of Helwan, south Cairo around the cement factories. Analysis of results shows that the ground level of pollutants concentrations are inversely proportional to wind speed and atmospheric stability classes. Stack height also affects the behaviour of deposition of cement particulates. The model results show satisfactory agreement with the measured concentrations. 6 figs

  17. Wind energy systems solutions for power quality and stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Mohd Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases--and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering

  18. Numerical simulation of pollutant transport in soils surrounding subway infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cuihong; Liu, Chengqing; Liang, Jiahao; Wang, Shihan

    2018-03-01

    With continued urbanization, public transport infrastructure, e.g., subways, is expected to be built in historically industrial areas. To minimize the transfer of volatile organic compounds and metalloids like arsenic from industrial areas into subway environments and reduce their impact on public health, the transport of pollutants in soil was simulated in this study. During numerical simulations of a contaminated site, the pollutant (arsenic) was transported from layers of higher to lower concentration, and concentration changes were particularly evident in the early simulation stages. The pollutant was transported in soil along the direction of groundwater flow and spread from the center to the periphery of the contaminated zone without inputs from pollution sources. After approximately 400 days, the concentration of all layers became uniform, with slow decreases occurring over time. The pollutant supply rate had a major influence on the pollutant diffusion distance. When other conditions were kept constant, higher supply rates resulted in longer diffusion distances. The simulation results show that a diaphragm wall of a certain depth can effectively control the diffusion of pollutants in soil. These results can be used to improve environmental assessments and remediation efforts and inform engineering decisions during the construction of urban infrastructure at sites affected by historical pollution.

  19. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  20. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  2. Open Burning Sources of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation will focus on Open Burning Sources f Air Pollution, with sections on Sources, Pollutants, Perspective, Quantification. The various sources of domestic and international open burning pollutants will be discussed. The focus pollutants and their effects wil...

  3. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  4. Water pollution by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Brian

    2008-02-12

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification of the catchment as well as nutrient, particulate and biocide pollution. The European Water Framework Directive implicitly recognizes this in requiring restoration of water bodies to 'good ecological quality', which is defined as only slightly different from pristine state. The implications for the management of agriculture are far more profound than is currently widely realized.

  5. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  6. [Comparative analysis of the physical status of students living under different conditions of environmental pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalimova, R S; Valiakhmetov, R M

    2010-01-01

    The physical status was comparatively studied in students living under different conditions of environmental pollution. The anthropometric and some physiometric (vital capacity) parameters were established to be lower in students from polluted areas than in those from relatively pure ones. The students from polluted areas were observed to have higher hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output). The results of the study improve and supplement knowledge of the physical development of the students living in the areas with varying environmental pollution levels and reflect the morphofunctional status that is an indicator in the evaluation of the body's functional tension, which may suggest the suppressing action of environmental pollution on the students' body.

  7. Understanding metals pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, H.; Bollinger, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Either from natural or anthropic origin, be it normal or accidental (Tchernobyl), metallic elements are found everywhere in our environment. After a presentation of their repartition and mobility in water, sediments or soils, the mechanisms allowing their dispersion or their concentration are shown. Finally, transfers between environmental compartments are presented, before evoking the case of polluted sites: diagnostic, remediation and long-time management. (authors)

  8. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  9. Pesticide Pollution in Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Kurt, Burak; Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidepollution affects both aquatic and soil ecosystems. Factors that promotepesticide pollution include drainage patterns, properties of the pesticide,rainfall, microbial activity, treatment surface and rate of application.Pesticides are able to move from one ecosystem to another through processessuch as transfer (mobility) and transformation (degradation). Transfer mayoccur through surface runoff, vapourization to atmosphere, sorption (adsorp‐tion/desorp-tion), plant uptakeor soil water...

  10. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  11. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Economics of Pollution; Part Three: Can Pollution Be Controlled? Teaching About: Can Pollution Be Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolozin, Harold; Reilly, Patricia R.

    In this third of three articles on the economics of pollution control general statements from several sources present a background which questions our ability to devise the necessary tools to fight pollution, even if adequate expenditures of money are provided. In the struggle to control pollution, the economist, it is believed, can provide…

  13. Damage by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.

    1961-01-12

    Photochemical air pollution in the Los Angeles and San Francisco bay areas of California causes damage to the foliage of many plants and reduces the growth of a variety of glasshouse-grown crops. Not only is commercial flower production adversely affected, but a wide variety of critically controlled plant experiments conducted by several research institutions also are hampered. Moderate to severe plant damage has been experienced during the past several years for all but a few weeks in the winter months in standard glasshouses at the University of California at Riverside. Plants in glasshouses can be protected from photochemical air pollution by passing all of the air entering the house through activated carbon filters. The phytotoxic products of the photochemical reactions are ozone, the recently described peroxyacetyl nitrite PAN and the oxidants, as yet unidentified, produced by ozone-olefin reactions. Although ethylene occurs in the photochemical air pollution complex and is damaging to a variety of plants, it is not removed by activated carbon. A combination of filter-cooler unit is described which filters phytotoxicants from the air in greenhouses.

  14. Environmental pollution and allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Ken-ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to worsen various allergies in experimental studies. For example, diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which are an agglomeration of particles and a wide array of chemical substances, aggravate asthma, primarily due to the principle organic chemical components of DEPs. In addition, environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters, which are commonly used as plasticizers in plastic products, also aggravate atopic dermatitis. It has also become evident that extremely small nanomaterials and Asian sand dust particles can enhance allergic inflammation. While the underlying mechanisms that cause such aggravation are becoming clearer at the cellular and molecular levels, methods to easily and quickly evaluate (screen) the ever-increasing amount of environmental pollutants for exacerbating effects on allergies are also under development. To eliminate and control allergic diseases, medical measures are necessary, but it is also essential to tackle this issue by ameliorating environmental changes. PMID:28798526

  15. Total Hydrocarbon (THC) of the Lower Kolo Creek in Otuogidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic wild life and habitats are affected by pollution through physical contact, absorption and inhalation. This study was carried out to investigate the THC values of lower Kolo creek in Otuogidi Bayelsa State – Nigeria for 12 months. THC of sediment and water covering wet and dry season obtained from the creek were ...

  16. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    are identified and empirically explored: (i) job matching, (ii) labour market value, and (iii) personal commitment. Entrepreneurs appear to be more productive and thus better matched compared to wageworkers. However, they also appear to be locked in entrepreneurship because of their anticipated lower value......This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...... in the labour market and because of their personal attachment to the venture. The counter-intuitive finding – entrepreneurship yields greater employment stability – only holds with respect to subsequent transitions to wagework and not for new venture founding. The results have implications for our understanding...

  17. On site selection of thermoelectric power plants in polluted environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impact of combined heat-power plants. The selection of the site of these plants depends on the spatial distribution law of pollutants and their chemical interaction with environment. The solutions of a diffusion equation describing a system of chemically interacting pollutants are given and discussed. The environmental impacts are described in terms of wind and atmosphere stability, effective and built stack height and the source distance parameters. The optimal constructive solutions are judged upon the concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen oxides at the ground level which must be kept under the maximum admissible limit. (author). 8 figs

  18. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  19. Atmospheric pollution in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, G.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with all the activities of humans. It is becoming a serious problem in coming years so it is relevant to find out how seriously our atmosphere is being polluted and how this pollution affects human and plant life in our environment. Not only the human activities are the source of our pollution but nature causes more pollution. Air pollution that is due to the pressure of foreign substances in air, effects the quality and concentration of air substances. It is not only injurious to property, but also to vegetation and animal life. Air pollution is one of our most serious environmental problems. The sources vary from smoke-stacks and automobiles to noise and foreon containing aerosols. (orig./A.B.)

  20. Modelling pollutant emissions in diesel engines, influence of biofuel on pollutant formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranović, Zvonimir; Bešenić, Tibor; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the harmful effect on the environment, European Union allowed using the biofuel blends as fuel for the internal combustion engines. Experimental studies have been carried on, dealing with the biodiesel influence on the emission concentrations, showing inconclusive results. In this paper numerical model for pollutant prediction in internal combustion engines is presented. It describes the processes leading towards the pollutant emissions, such as spray particles model, fuel disintegration and evaporation model, combustion and the chemical model for pollutant formation. Presented numerical model, implemented in proprietary software FIRE ® , is able to capture chemical phenomena and to predict pollutant emission concentration trends. Using the presented model, numerical simulations of the diesel fuelled internal combustion engine have been performed, with the results validated against the experimental data. Additionally, biodiesel has been used as fuel and the levels of pollutant emissions have been compared to the diesel case. Results have shown that the biodiesel blends release lower nitrogen oxide emissions than the engines powered with the regular diesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  2. POLLUTION CAUSED BY INDUSTRY AND HEALT EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    KARAAĞAÇ, Sakine Ugurlu

    2018-01-01

    Pollution is theintroduction of harmful substances or products into the environment fromdifferent sources. Increased urbanization in parallel with the rapid populationgrowth, and rapid increase in industrial organization in parallel withdevelopments in science and technology revealed the environmental pollutionproblems. Main types of pollution are water pollution, air pollution, soilpollution, biological and nuclear pollution. Water pollution; Most industriesrequire large amounts of water for...

  3. Crane Lowers Aeroshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    January 31, 2003In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, an overhead crane lowers the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) aeroshell toward a rotation stand. Set to launch in 2003, the MER Mission will consist of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 110 yards (100 meters) each Martian day. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments that will allow it to search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in the planet's past. The rovers will be identical to each other, but will land at different regions of Mars. The first rover has a launch window opening May 30, and the second rover a window opening June 25, 2003.

  4. Pasvik River Watercourse, Barents Region: Pollution Impacts and Ecological Responses. Investigations in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traaen, T.; Moiseenko, T.; Sandimirov, S. and others

    1994-12-31

    The Pasvik River is one of the largest rivers in the Northern Fennoscandia and constitutes the border between Norway and Russia, with catchment area in Finland, Norway and Russia. Besides being strongly regulated for hydroelectric power production, the river is polluted by the smelter in Nikel and other industrial activities and by domestic sewage from the settlements on both sides of the border. This document discusses the pollution of the river and the ecological responses. The two main areas of concern are heavy metals and eutrophication. Very high content of heavy metals in water, lake sediments, macrophytes and fish was found in Kuetsyarvi. Extensive toxic effects were documented on the fish population in the lake. The toxic effects are less than expected from the concentration of heavy metals, which is due to high calcium content, organic matter and eutrophication. Eutrophication is due to the domestic sewage from settlements within the water catchment. Kuetsyarvi has eutrophic status, the lower parts of the Pasvik River have oligo-mesotrophic status according to phosphorus concentrations, and the composition of the planktonic and benthic communities. Because of increased and stabilized water level from hydroelectric power regulations, increased abundance of macrophytes and zoobenthos in shallow areas also have occurred. 77 refs., 32 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  6. Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling of Abadan oil Refinery Using SCREEN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Rad, F.; Salman-Mahini, A.; Mirkarimi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem that has been recognized throughout the world. Refineriers normally create environmental pollution through emissions of pollutants gaseous from a variety of sources. Analysing air pollution distribution and dispersion can help in reducing the negative effects. In this study NO X and SO 2 emissions and distributions were investigated for Abadan oil refinery using SCREEN3 software. In this softweare, wind speed and direction, air temperature, location and physical characteristics of chimnies and atmospheric stability were taken into consideration.The concentration of pollutants in different distances from the stacks in the range 25 km were predicted and mapped in Idrisi software. The output from software SCREEN3 for emissions from stacks were also examined and compared with the standard output of the refineries. According to our results, the concentration of pollutants in summer and autumn seasons exceeds of the environmental standards.

  7. Polluted Morality: Air Pollution Predicts Criminal Activity and Unethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jackson G; Lee, Julia J; Gino, Francesca; Galinsky, Adam D

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution is a serious problem that affects billions of people globally. Although the environmental and health costs of air pollution are well known, the present research investigates its ethical costs. We propose that air pollution can increase criminal and unethical behavior by increasing anxiety. Analyses of a 9-year panel of 9,360 U.S. cities found that air pollution predicted six major categories of crime; these analyses accounted for a comprehensive set of control variables (e.g., city and year fixed effects, population, law enforcement) and survived various robustness checks (e.g., balanced panel, nonparametric bootstrapped standard errors). Three subsequent experiments involving American and Indian participants established the causal effect of psychologically experiencing a polluted (vs. clean) environment on unethical behavior. Consistent with our theoretical perspective, results revealed that anxiety mediated this effect. Air pollution not only corrupts people's health, but also can contaminate their morality.

  8. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  9. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  10. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  11. Reactor core lower support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent refers to the lower support of a nuclear reactor core, and is intended for supporting each fuel assembly of the core and for distributing the primary coolant through these assemblies. It is composed of: - A first thick plate supporting the fuel assemblies. Vertical channels are machined in this plate directly facing each assembly for the passage of the primary fluid: - A second thin plate drilled with orifices, fixed under the first plate, with no space between them, and so positioned that each orifice is directly facing one of the channels. The section of the orifices diminishes from the centre of the plate towards its periphery. The second plate can also be constituted of an assembly of juxtaposed smaller plates, each small plate being secured to the first plate independently of the neighbouring plates [fr

  12. Tevatron lower temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilacker, J.C.

    1994-07-01

    This year saw the completion of three accelerator improvement projects (AIP) and two capital equipment projects pertaining to the Tevatron cryogenic system. The projects result in the ability to operate the Tevatron at lower temperature, and thus higher energy. Each project improves a subsystem by expanding capabilities (refrigerator controls), ensuring reliability (valve box, subatmospheric hardware, and compressor D), or enhancing performance (cold compressors and coldbox II). In January of 1994, the Tevatron operated at an energy of 975 GeV for the first time. This was the culmination, of many years of R ampersand D, power testing in a sector (one sixth) of the Tevatron, and final system installation during the summer of 1993. Although this is a modest increase in energy, the discovery potential for the Top quark is considerably improved

  13. Metal pollution determined by pollution indices for sea grass P. oceanica and surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Slavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, As, Co, and Hg in the sea grass Posidonia oceanica and surface sediment samples were determined. Together with P. oceanica, surface sediment samples were collected at eight locations in the major demographic, tourist and port areas along the Montenegrin coast to assess metal pollution. The metal pollution index (MPI and metal enrichment factor (EF were calculated and used to evaluate the impact of heavy metals in the surface sediment on P. oceanica. The sediment MPI and EF values were lower than these values in P. oceanica at the same locations. Since the surface sediment contained lower mean concentrations of Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg, than the sea grass P. oceanic, we concluded that the sea grass absorbed some metals from the seawater column. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  14. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  15. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  16. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  17. Environmental pollution and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giampaolo, L; Quecchia, C; Schiavone, C; Cavallucci, E; Renzetti, A; Braga, M; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical evidences and epidemiological studies show that allergic pathologies of the respiratory tract are increasing in the world areas with high pollution impact, demonstrating how many polluting substances favor both allergic sensitization and the bronchial inflammatory changes characteristic of asthma. It has been shown that asthma, as many other diseases, is a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental stimuli that results in clinical expression of various phenotypes of asthma: allergic, intrinsic etc. Many pollutants have such a potential. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can favor allergic sensitization, induce acute asthma attacks and increase bronchial reactivity, acting both on allergen, on bronchial mucosa and on immune cells. In fact, DEP can favor B lymphocytes to shift to a production of IgE and T cells to produce Th2 cytokines. Asthma can be also induced by high exposure to many other substances as NO2 and first of all ozone (O3): strong oxidizing substance that is synthesized, in absence of ventilation, by photochemical reaction due to the combination of ultraviolet sun radiation on exhaust gases as NO2 and hydrocarbons. Ozone is abundant in cities with minimal concentration in the morning gradually increasing during the day until maximal levels in the afternoon and then decreasing during the night. Epidemiological studies show that the number of access to hospital for acute asthma and even the use of bronchodilator by asthmatics increase during the high level periods when Ozone constitute almost 90 percent of the total oxidants in the environment. Particulate matter of very small diameter have a crucial role in favoring asthma attacks, and smaller the substance deeper the penetration in the bronchial tree, with an inflammatory reaction in the peripheral bronchial mucosa characterized by increased vessel permeability, mucosal edema, inflammatory mediator production by damaged epithelium and inflammatory cells that determines

  18. Nitrate pollution in groundwater and strategies to reduce pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R K; Ladha, J K

    2002-01-01

    The input-intensive rainfed tropical ecosystem, where wet season (WS) rice (Oriza sativa L.)-dry season (DS) diversified high-value upland crops like vegetables predominate, has resulted in a problem of a large leakage of N into the environment, thereby polluting the water. Excessive use of N fertilizer in high-value crops grown in DS is economically motivated. Out of twenty water sources evaluated in a watershed with a total area of 265 ha located in Magnuang, Ilocos Norte, Philippines, twelve had near or above the World Health Organization's (WHO) NO3-N limit for drinking water of 10 ppm. Soil mineral N (upper 100 cm) observed in seven rice-sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) farmers' fields ranged from 111 to 694 kg ha(-1) which decreased by 10 to 68% in plots with dry-to-wet (DTW) crops like indigo, indigo+mungo and corn. In fallow plots where mineral N was either maintained or increased, it showed movement to lower soil profiles demonstrating NO3 leaching without a crop. On average, maize (Zea mays L.) captured 176 kg N ha(-1) and indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L.) 194 kg N ha(-1). In both fallow and planted plots, mineral N declined to low levels at 100% water-filled pore spaces (WFPS) before rice transplanting. A strategy for including indigo plus maize as a N-catch crop is proposed to decrease NO3 leaching and maximize N use efficiency in a rice-sweet pepper cropping system.

  19. Estuarine characteristics of the lower reaches of the River Periyar (Cochin backwater)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Varma, P.U.; Balachandran, K.K.; Pylee, A.; Joseph, T.

    Lower reaches of river Periyar were studied to assess longitudinal extent of salt water intrusion into the system during different seasons and also its effect on the flushing of pollutants introduced by the industries. During SW monsoon season due...

  20. Organic carbon in the sediments of the lower reaches of Periar River

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Sediments are indicators of the quality of water overlying them and hence, useful in the assessment of environmental pollution. Temporal and spatial variations in sediment characteristics and organic carbon content from 9 stations in the lower...

  1. Towards sustainable pollution management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, N. G. W.

    2017-03-01

    It is often overlooked pollution control itself may not be entirely free from adverse impact on the environment if considered from a more holistic perspective. For example mechanised wastewater treatment is energy intensive and so has a carbon footprint because of the need to move air to supply oxygen to the aerobic treatment process. The aerobic treatment process then results in excess bio-sludge which requires disposal and if such is not appropriately performed, then there is risk of surface and groundwater contamination. This presentation explores the changes which have been investigated and are beginning to be implemented in wastewater, sludge, and agro-industrial wastes management which are more environmentally benign. Three examples shall be used to illustrate the discussion. The first example uses the conventional sewage treatment system with a unit process arrangement which converts carbonaceous pollutants from soluble and colloidal forms to particulate forms with an aerobic process before attempting energy recovery with an anaerobic process. Such an arrangement does, however, result in a negative energy balance. This is not withstanding the fact there is potentially more energy in sewage than is required to treat it if that energy can be effectively harvested. The latter can be achieved by removing the carbonaceous pollutants before the aerobic process and thereby using the aerobic process for polishing instead of treating. The carbonaceous pollutants so recovered then becomes the feed for the anaerobic process. Unfortunately conventional anaerobic sludge digestion only removes 35-45% of the organic material fed. Since biogas production (and hence energy recovery) is linked to the amount of organic material which can be degraded anaerobically, the effectiveness of the anaerobic digestion process needs to be improved. Contrary to a commonly held belief wherein methanogenesis is the “bottleneck” in anaerobic processes, hydrolysis is in sludge digestion

  2. Buddha's birthplace (Lumbini, Nepal) is polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Naja, Manish; Panday, Arnico; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Mahata, Khadak; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of the Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. Measurements of the ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (BC, PM, CO, O3) were conducted in Lumbini, first of its kind in Lumbini, during an intensive measurement period of three months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). Hourly average concentrations were: BC: 4.9±3.8 (0.3-29.9) μg/m3; CO: 344.1±160.3 (124.9-1429.7) ppbv; O3: 46.6±20.3 (0.85-118.1) ppbv; PM10: 128.8±91.9 (10.5-603.9) μg/m3; and PM2.5: 53.1±35.1 (6.1-272.2) μg/m3. These levels are comparable to heavily polluted sites in the region. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations frequently (94% and 85%, respectively, of the sampled period) exceeded the WHO guideline, which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. Clear diurnal cycles were observed for the pollutants. Occurrences of peak concentrations during the study period were due to regional forest fires and meteorological conditions conducive of transport to Lumbini. The WRF-STEM model was used to simulate the meteorology and the pollution concentration, and showed the model concentration to be lower by a factor of ~1.4-5, even though the model was able to capture the observed variability. Regionally tagged CO tracers and the chemical composition of fine mode PM2.5 was obtained from the model. The aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained from Lumbini indicated presence of BC from both biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, with more than half of the ambient BC attributable to fossil fuel

  3. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  4. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  5. An interprovincial cooperative game model for air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhao, Laijun; Fan, Longzhen; Qian, Ying

    2015-07-01

    The noncooperative air pollution reduction model (NCRM) that is currently adopted in China to manage air pollution reduction of each individual province has inherent drawbacks. In this paper, we propose a cooperative air pollution reduction game model (CRM) that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distribute the economic benefit of the cooperation (i.e., pollution reduction cost saving) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CRM to the case of SO2 reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China. The results, based on the data from 2003-2009, show that cooperation helps lower the overall SO2 pollution reduction cost from 4.58% to 11.29%. Distributed across the participating provinces, such a cost saving from interprovincial cooperation brings significant benefits to each local government and stimulates them for further cooperation in pollution reduction. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed using the year 2009 data to test the parameters' effects on the pollution reduction cost savings. China is increasingly facing unprecedented pressure for immediate air pollution control. The current air pollution reduction policy does not allow cooperation and is less efficient. In this paper we developed a cooperative air pollution reduction game model that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distributes the cooperation gains (i.e., cost reduction) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. The empirical case shows that such a model can help improve efficiency in air pollution reduction. The result of the model can serve as a reference for Chinese government

  6. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  7. Radiation pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benalashhar, Hanan Ali

    2006-01-01

    This paper interested in the topic of environmental pollution by radioactive materials due to several human activities. The meaning of human activities are nuclear tests and extraction of raw uranium, waste and reactor accidents, nuclear fuel and radon gas, and the peaceful uses of radiation. This paper points out the effects of environmental pollution by radiation and the means of reduction, and also illustrate the radiation pollution in the Arab region. (author)

  8. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  9. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  10. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercises in Heavy Lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Driving up to Point 5, one can't help but notice the impressively enormous red structure climbing up and over Building 3585. This unusual bridge-like construction is CMS'new crane, otherwise known as 'the gantry'. CMS'impressive "gantry" was recently installed at Building 3585. The 'gantry'was constructed by VSL, a Swiss company that is used to building such uniquely designed cranes used for major construction jobs, including lifting the roofs of various stadiums and the huge Airbus A380 assembly hall in Toulouse or bridge foundation caissons. CMS's crane was custom-built to sustain up to 2000 tonnes of machinery and detectors and slowly lower them down into the experimental cavern. The feature of two towers, one on either side of the building, each 24 m high, is the reason behind the nickname of this amazing crane. Two large beams, 28 m long and 3.4 m high, run along the width of the roof and four openings, each 5 m long, in the ceiling will allow the cables to pass through into the gallery. Unlike typic...

  12. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  13. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  14. General assessment of estuarine pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estuaries are generally free from contamination by chlorinated pesticides. India being signatory to Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, their levels in estuaries is no more a concern.

  15. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  16. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Ma, Xuejiao; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-04-17

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  17. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  18. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  19. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  20. Transport and transformation of pollutant in the Lake Michigan area. [Pollutants from the Chicago and Milwaukee areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkezweeny, A. J.; Young, J. A.; Lee, R. N.; Busness, K. M.; Hales, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport and the transformation of pollutants emitted from the Milwaukee and the Chicago areas were studied during August 1976. The study is part of the MAP3S program sponsored by ERDA--DBER. The experiments were conducted in approximately Lagrangian frames of reference utilizing two instrumented aircraft and surface support units. It was found that: 1) build up of ozone downwind of the areas occurred; 2) sulfate concentrations were higher in the urban plume than those upwind, and progressively increased with distance from the source; 3) significant concentrations of sulfate, probably associated with long range transport of sulfur, were often detectable above the mixing layer; and 4) vertical profiles of pollutants over the land and the lake showed a definite effect of changing atmospheric stability when the pollutants were advected over the lake and vise versa.

  1. 33 CFR 157.21 - Subdivision and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.21 Subdivision and stability. A new vessel that is a U.S...; (2) Flush scuttle; (3) Small watertight cargo tank hatch cover that maintains the high integrity of...

  2. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare

  3. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  4. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Pollution of living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Eržen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on cancer causation has come from investigation of the patterns of cancer in human populations and the induction of tumours in experimental animals following treatment with cancer-causing agents. It has been proven that genetic susceptibility may significantly alter the risk from environmental exposures. The most important human carcinogens include tobacco, asbestos, aflatoxins and ultraviolet light. Almost 20 % of cancers are associated with chronic infections, the most significant ones being hepatitis viruses (HBV, HCV, papillomaviruses (HPV and Helicobacter pylori. Pollution of air, water and soil is estimated to account for 4–7 % of all cancers in developed world. A small proportion of lung cancer (< 5 % is attributable to outdoor air pollution by industrial effluent, engine exhaust products and other toxins. Chlorofluorocarbons cause destruction of the ozone layer and enhance the risk of skin cancer through increased ultraviolet radiation. Contamination of drinking water is not a general carcinogenic hazard, but high levels of arsenic and chlorination by-products in some communities carry a risk. Food may be contaminated by natural or man-made toxins, including substances shown to be carcinogenic in experimental animals and, in some cases, in humans. Naturallyoccurring carcinogens include mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, which contribute to causation of liver cancer. Food can be contaminated by residual pesticides.Conclusions: Means to reduce and, in some cases, eliminate risk of cancer include elimination of carcinogenic factor (asbestos enforced by regulation and reduction of exposure or use of preventive and prophylactic measures (Hepatitis B, HPV vaccination, avoiding of sun.

  6. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R

    2012-01-01

    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  7. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  8. Pollution Analyzing and Monitoring Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972

    Compiled in this book is basic, technical information useful in a systems approach to pollution control. Descriptions and specifications are given of what is available in ready made, on-the-line commercial equipment for sampling, monitoring, measuring and continuously analyzing the multitudinous types of pollutants found in the air, water, soil,…

  9. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  10. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  11. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  12. pollution sources and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The second conference on analytical nuclear and conventional technics and their applications which took place in Meknes (Morocco) under the theme ''pollution sources and environmental impacts'' from 27 to 29 Novenber 2008 discussed the various aspects of the use of analytical techniques applied to issues of environmental pollution [fr

  13. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  14. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at https://www.opm.gov/ . Section navigation The environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more ... The environment and your health Air Health effects of air ...

  15. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  16. Differences in Meteorological Conditions between Days with Persistent and Non-Persistent Pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting; Wu, Renguang; Huang, Gang

    2018-02-01

    We compared the regional synoptic patterns and local meteorological conditions during persistent and non-persistent pollution events in Beijing using US NCEP-Department of Energy reanalysis outputs and observations from meteorological stations. The analysis focused on the impacts of high-frequency (period pollution events (those lasting for at least 3 days). Persistent pollution events tended to occur in association with slow-moving weather systems producing stagnant weather conditions, whereas rapidly moving weather systems caused a dramatic change in the local weather conditions so that the pollution event was short-lived. Although Beijing was under the influence of anomalous southerly winds in all four seasons during pollution events, notable differences were identified in the regional patterns of sea-level pressure and local anomalies in relative humidity among persistent pollution events in different seasons. A region of lower pressure was present to the north of Beijing in spring, fall, and winter, whereas regions of lower and higher pressures were observed northwest and southeast of Beijing, respectively, in summer. The relative humidity near Beijing was higher in fall and winter, but lower in spring and summer. These differences may explain the seasonal dependence of the relationship between air pollution and the local meteorological variables. Our analysis showed that the temperature inversion in the lower troposphere played an important part in the occurrence of air pollution under stagnant weather conditions. Some results from this study are based on a limited number of events and thus require validation using more data.

  17. Pollutant Transformations and Interactions Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R. L.; Alkezweeny, A. J.; Laulainen, N. S.

    1976-03-01

    This section is comprised of 6 papers. It is especially important to understand the changing physical and chemical character of pollutants in the atmosphere. The biological and ecological significance can be strongly dependent on the form they assume as they are delivered to receptors. The efficiency of pollutant removal can also be strongly influenced by the pollutants physical and chemical state and the transformations that occur during transport. Investigations of atmospheric pollutant transformations have centered primarily around aircraft observations of pollutant concentrations and conversion rates, which are being interpreted with the use of numerical models of the transformation processes. The primary field experiment during the past year was conducted using the DC-3 aircraft in the St. Louis region during the final term of the METROMEX series. In this experiment, extensive trace gas and aerosol data, and solar radiation measurements were recorded in a Lagrangian reference frame downwind of the metropolitan complex. (auth)

  18. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  20. Leaf cuticle variations in amaranthus spinousus as indicators of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoide, J.E.; Kayode, J.

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of the leaf epidermal characteristics of Amaranthus spinosus from polluted and non-polluted populations revealed that the stomatal pores of the leaves of the plants of the polluted areas were closed whereas those of the non-polluted areas were open. Mean length x mean width of stomatal pores on the upper leaf surface were 0.86 micro x 0.43 micro and 1.23 micro x 0.45 micro on the lower leaf surface of the non polluted microhabitats. Also, the leaves of the polluted population were smaller than those of the non-polluted population. The average leaf area of the plants of the Polluted population was 7.64 cm/sub -2/ against 12.13 cm/sub 2/ of the plants of the non-polluted areas. The results were attributed to the combined effects of air pollutant that predominated roadsides from where the samples were taken. Thus it is inferred that this plant could serve as bio-indicator of air pollution. (author)

  1. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Hari Mohan; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Jaiswal, Neeraj K.; Srivastava, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  2. Evaluation of Pollutant Loads: Organic and Inorganic in River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the organic and inorganic pollutant loads in River Ukoghor of the Lower Benue Basin. Grab water samples were collected from the outlet of the River into River Benue, twice a month in three replications for a period of eight months (April November, 2002) using sterilized one-litre ...

  3. Bioremediation of a Crude Oil Polluted Tropical Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Option B also recorded a significantly higher level of hydrocarbon loss (P>0.01) than C1, C2 and E while that of C1 was significantly lower than C2 and E. The addition of limiting nutrients (biostimulation) with tilling (option D) is a preferred remedial option for a crude oil polluted soil in a tropical mangrove environment.

  4. The Mathematical modelling of environmental pollution using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper environmental pollution has been modeled mathematically using the Freundlich non-linear contaminant transport formulation. An analytical solution of lower order perturbation of the concentration C(x,f) is obtained. Flow profiles for various values of molecular diffusion D and the velocity U are studied and the ...

  5. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  6. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  8. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas

  9. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportisse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  10. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  11. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  12. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from the Clean Air ... and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Carbon Pollution ...

  13. Responses of plants to air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudd, J. Brian; Kozlowski, T. T

    1975-01-01

    .... KOZLOWSKI Pollution, 1975 ELROY L. RICE. Allelopathy, (Eds.). Fire and Ecosystems, 1974 (Eds.). Responses of Plants to Air Responses of Plants to Air PollutionRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO AIR POLLUTION E...

  14. Environmental pollution, a threat to photosynthesis in healthy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, G.F.; Baloch, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, in atmosphere depend upon the source, strength, meteorological conditions and topography and effect the flora and fauna. Photosynthesis, which is the main necessity for plants to maintain their metabolic process, grow in size and for their reproduction, is directly or indirectly affected by manmade 'pollution. This synthetic pollution includes industrial discharge and vehicular exhaust, throws many toxic elements in air, water and soil in industrialized zone. To investigate this effect leave were collected from sunny, semi-shady and shady side of different trees at varying distance from industrial area and busy road and analyzed for various Photosynthetic pigments. The results show that average value of total chlorophyll varied in the range of 23-39 mg/g, chlorophyll a, S-19.6 mg/g and b in the range of 5.6-20.3 mg/g and carotene contents in the range of 17.6-41.3 mg/g of the sample taken depending upon the type of the plant and the distance from industries and busy road. These values were in decreasing order of sunny> semi shady> shady leaves. The concentration of all pigments increased as the distance from the industrial area and busy road increased. These values were comparatively lower as compared to the value in non-polluted areas, The soil and water samples from different sites around the trees in environmentally polluted and non polluted areas were also analyzed. (author)

  15. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  17. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2006-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  18. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  19. Economic Savings from Using Economic Incentives for Environmental Pollution Control (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic incentives, such as emission taxes, effluent trading, deposit refund systems, information reporting requirements, liability for harm caused by pollution, and voluntary programs have the potential to achieve environmental objectives at lower cost.

  20. Modeling the effect of pollution on biological species: A socio-ecological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dubey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear spatial model is proposed and analyzed to study the effect of pollution on biological population. It is assumed that the pollutants enter into the environment not directly by the population but by a precursor produced by the population itself. It is further assumed that larger the population, faster the precursor is produced, and larger the precursor, faster the pollutant is produced. Criteria for nonlinear stability and instability for both spatial and non-spatial models are obtained. The various parameter ranges for stable homogeneous solutions are identified. By the simulation experiments, it is observed that by applying an appropriate effort F, the population density P can be maintained at a higher equilibrium level. It is also shown that the equilibrium level of the concentration of precursor pollutant, concentration of pollutant in the environment and in the population decrease due to the effort F.

  1. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  2. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase: a new biomarker of fish exposure to water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallottini, Valentina; Scalici, Massimiliano; Gibertini, Giancarlo; Marino, Maria; Trentalance, Anna

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a new putative biomarker in Salmo trutta exposed to water pollution. Variations in the levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, were compared to heat shock protein 70 and hypoxia inducible factor α, biomarkers of pollution exposure and lowered O₂, respectively. The results confirm that HMG-CoAR levels increase in polluted water irrespective of water temperature or O₂ content, indicating that HMG-CoAR could be used as a specific biomarker for water pollution.

  4. Estimation of seasonal atmospheric stability and mixing height by using different schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.; Embaby, M.; Mubarak, F.; Kamel, I.

    2007-01-01

    Different atmospheric stability schemes were used to characterize the plume growth (dispersion coefficients σ) in the lateral and vertical directions to determine the concentration distribution of pollutants through the PBL. The PBL is the region in which surface friction has a large effect on the mixing of pollutants. It is also suffer large fluctuation in temperature and wind and its depth (mixing depth) changes over a diurnal cycle. In this study, four months of surface meteorological parameters were used (to represent different seasons) to determine seasonal stability, classification. Five different stability schemes were estimated based on temperature gradient, standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction fluctuation, gradient and Bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov length. Friction velocity, (u * ) for each stability scheme was estimated for characterizing the hourly, mixing height for each stability class. Also, plume rise was estimated for each stability class depending on the availability of meteorological parameters

  5. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  6. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengolahan air di Cikokol (Tangerang dan Serpong, masing-masing sebanyak lima dan tiga lokasi. Sebanyak 21 parameter dianalisis, kemudian dihitung Individual Index (II dan Pollution Index (PI - nya. Hasil yang diperoleh, yang menggambarkan kualitas pencemaran air sungai Cisadane pada saat itu, adalah sebagai berikut : Tangerang PI=1891. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan II- 110 dan lemak & minyak, dengan II = 2670.Serpong, PI=574. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan 11 = 810 Parameter lain yang mempunyai II > 1 adalah oksigen terlarut, fosfat, zat besi, fecal coli, nitrat, COD dan zat padat tersuspensi. Hasil tersebut menggambarkan baliwa sungai Cisadane telah tercemar oleh limbah industri dan rumah tangga, serta mungkin pula telah tercemar oleh limbah pertanian, peternakan dan perbengkelan.

  7. assessment of pollution assessment of pollution-induced dissolved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION-INDUCED DISSOLVED OXYGEN VARIATION. INDUCED DISSOLVED OXYGEN VARIATION. IN RIVER CHALLAWA. IN RIVER CHALLAWA. T. A. Adedokun. A. Adedokun1, * and J. C. Agunwamba. Agunwamba2. 1, * DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, BAYERO UNIVERSITY KANO, ...

  8. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  9. Aspects of Organic Marine Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duursma, E.K.; Marchand, M.

    1976-01-01

    A literature review is intended to summarize available information on the various aspects of pollution of the marine environment by organic substances. Chemicals such as pesticides, particularly the organo chlorine insecticides and herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oil and hydrocarbons, sewage, detergents, wastes from wood processing industries, cyanides and other organic pollutants are discussed. For each of these pollutants, information has been presented on their determination, their distribution in the marine environment, biogeochemical phenomena such as persistence, degradation and bioaccumulation, and finally on their effects on marine organisms. (author)

  10. The Role of Different Agricultural Plant Species in Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, P.; Miller, D.; Shivers, S.; Pusede, S.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this research project is to use remote sensing data to study the relationship between different plant species and the pollutants in the air. It is known that chemical reactions within plants serve as both sources and sinks for different types of Volatile Organic Compounds. However, the species-specific relationships have not been well studied. Through the better characterization of this relationship, certain aspects of air pollution may be more effectively managed. For this project, I used Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and trace gas measurements from instruments on board the NASA DC-8 to assess the relationship between different plant species and the pollutants in the air. I used measurements primarily from the agricultural land surrounding Bakersfield, CA. I created a map of the crop species in this area using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) on the AVIRIS imagery, and matched this to trace gas measurements taken on the DC-8. I used a Hysplit matrix trajectory to account for the air transport over the vegetation and up to contact with the plane. Finally, I identified correlations between the plant types and the concentration of the pollutants. The results showed that there were significant relationships between specific species and pollutants, with lemons and grapes contributing to enhanced pollution, and tree nuts reducing pollution. Specifically, almonds produced significantly lower levels of O3 , NO, and NO2. Lemons and grapes had high O3 levels, and lemons had high levels of isoprene. In total, these data show that it may be possible to mitigate airborne pollution via selective planting; however, the overall environmental effects are much more complicated and must be analyzed further.

  11. Impact of air pollution on vitamin D deficiency and bone health in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizabad, Elham; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ramezani, Majid; Hashemian, Roxana; Moattari, Syamak

    2017-12-01

    The association between air pollution and bone health was evaluated in adolescents in the city of Tehran. This study is essentially ecological. Vitamin D deficiency among adolescents has been reported at higher rates in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. Additionally, residence in polluted areas is associated with lower levels of bone alkaline phosphatase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and bone turnover in adolescents and to compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between polluted and non-polluted areas of Tehran. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 325 middle- and high-school students (both girls and boys) in Tehran in the winter. During the study period, detailed daily data on air pollution were obtained from archived data collected by Tehran Air Quality Control Company (AQCC). Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25(OH) vitamin D, osteocalcin, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), total protein, albumin, and creatinine were obtained from the study group. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. After adjustment for age and sex, residence in the polluted area showed a statistically significant positive association with vitamin D deficiency and a statistically significant negative association with bone turnover. Interestingly, high calcium intake (>5000 mg/week) protects against the effects of air pollution on bone turnover. Air pollution is a chief factor determining the amount of solar UVB that reaches the earth's surface. Thus, atmospheric pollution may play a significant independent role in the development of vitamin D deficiency.

  12. Air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil: Effects of multiple pollutants and analysis of susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Son, Jiyoung; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Gouveia, Nelson; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Health impacts of air pollution may differ depending on sex, education, socioeconomic status (SES), location at time of death, and other factors. In São Paulo, Brazil, questions remain regarding roles of individual and community characteristics. We estimate susceptibility to air pollution based on individual characteristics, residential SES, and location at time of death (May 1996-December 2010). Exposures for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were estimated using ambient monitors. Time-stratified case-crossover analysis was used with individual-level health data. Increased risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were associated with all pollutants (P 11 years education were lower than estimates for those with 0 years education for NO2, SO2, and CO (1.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.23%, 3.08%); 1.51% (0.51%, 2.51%); and 2.82% (0.23%, 5.35%), respectively). PM10 cardiovascular mortality effects were (3.74% (0.044%, 7.30%)) lower for the high education group (> 11 years) compared with the no education group. Positive, significant associations between pollutants and mortality were observed for in-hospital deaths, but evidence of differences in air pollution-related mortality risk by location at time of death was not strong.

  13. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersfield, A E

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British

  14. A model for interprovincial air pollution control based on futures prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Gao, Huaizhu Oliver; Li, Changmin; Huang, Rongbing

    2014-05-01

    Based on the current status of research on tradable emission rights futures, this paper introduces basic market-related assumptions for China's interprovincial air pollution control problem. The authors construct an interprovincial air pollution control model based on futures prices: the model calculated the spot price of emission rights using a classic futures pricing formula, and determined the identities of buyers and sellers for various provinces according to a partitioning criterion, thereby revealing five trading markets. To ensure interprovincial cooperation, a rational allocation result for the benefits from this model was achieved using the Shapley value method to construct an optimal reduction program and to determine the optimal annual decisions for each province. Finally, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was used as a case study, as this region has recently experienced serious pollution. It was found that the model reduced the overall cost of reducing SO2 pollution. Moreover, each province can lower its cost for air pollution reduction, resulting in a win-win solution. Adopting the model would therefore enhance regional cooperation and promote the control of China's air pollution. The authors construct an interprovincial air pollution control model based on futures prices. The Shapley value method is used to rationally allocate the cooperation benefit. Interprovincial pollution control reduces the overall reduction cost of SO2. Each province can lower its cost for air pollution reduction by cooperation.

  15. Land cover and air pollution are associated with asthma hospitalisations: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Ian; White, Mathew; Cherrie, Mark; Wheeler, Benedict; Taylor, Jonathon; McInnes, Rachel; Otte Im Kampe, Eveline; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Sarran, Christophe; Soyiri, Ireneous; Fleming, Lora

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing policy interest in the potential for vegetation in urban areas to mitigate harmful effects of air pollution on respiratory health. We aimed to quantify relationships between tree and green space density and asthma-related hospitalisations, and explore how these varied with exposure to background air pollution concentrations. Population standardised asthma hospitalisation rates (1997-2012) for 26,455 urban residential areas of England were merged with area-level data on vegetation and background air pollutant concentrations. We fitted negative binomial regression models using maximum likelihood estimation to obtain estimates of asthma-vegetation relationships at different levels of pollutant exposure. Green space and gardens were associated with reductions in asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were lower but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were higher. In contrast, tree density was associated with reduced asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were higher but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were lower. We found differential effects of natural environments at high and low background pollutant concentrations. These findings can provide evidence for urban planning decisions which aim to leverage health co-benefits from environmental improvements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Human thrombin: drug stability and stabilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V; Sokolovskiĭ, V A; Volkov, G L

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization of enzymes is a key factor when using biocatalysis in practice. Each enzyme stability depends both on the structure of its molecule and on the effect of various environmental factors, thus, one of the methods of the enzyme stability preservation is the formation of optimal macromedium. Thus, water structure and enzyme hydration change in the presence of solvable additives that affects its stability and catalytic properties. The paper deals with a new method of stabilization of human thrombin developed by the authors. It is proposed to use some known organic-ligands which have ion group and different nonpolar hydrophobic groups instead of traditional additives (salts, aminoacids, polyols, polyethylene glycols etc.). Thrombin stabilization proceeds in the conditions something changed compared with traditional ones. Processes of thrombin stabilization by the above compound have been investigated, enzyme stability at different temperatures and long-term storage of diluted solutions of the preparation in different conditions have been studied. It has been established that rosselin and orange II are the most efficient ligands. Optimal finite concentrations of stabilizing agents make approximately 0.0012-0.0014 M which are rather low in the system thrombin-ligand. It has been found that diluted solutions of thrombin are more stable, than concentrated ones. In the latter case the process of autolysis is included that affects negatively the catalytic effect of the enzyme, as far as there occurs the change of thrombin molecule structure, especially of thrombin beta-chain sections, evoking conformational changes of some sites of its active centre. The experiments directed to increasing thrombin intensity in the presence of organic ligands rosselin and orange II are discussed in details. Special attention is given to autolytic method of thrombin inactivation. It is admitted on the basis of already obtained data that thrombin binding with organic ligands proceeds

  17. Biomarker responses and accumulation of hazardous substances in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) transplanted along a pollution gradient close to an oil terminal in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, Raisa; Soirinsuo, Anna; Budzinski, Hélène; Devier, Marie Hélène; Lehtonen, Kari K

    2013-01-01

    Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were used as sentinel organisms to detect the biological effects of chemical contamination in the low salinity environment. Mussels naturally adapted to a salinity of ca. 6.0 PSU were caged for 30 days at four sites along an assumed pollution gradient (salinity ca. 4.5 PSU) in the vicinity of Finland's largest oil refinery and harbor Kilpilahti in the Gulf of Finland. Tissue concentrations and accumulation rates of especially organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs and organotins) were clearly elevated at the innermost coastal stations near the harbor area. Biological effects of contaminant exposure on caged mussels were evaluated by measuring a suite of biomarkers including catalase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal membrane stability. Mussels transplanted near the harbor area were able to elevate their antioxidant defense in response to environmental contamination. Reduced morphometric condition index and soft tissue growth rate together with increased lipid peroxidation and low lysosomal membrane stability were also observed at the most contaminated site. The results suggest that caging of M. trossulus for four weeks at lower salinity is a feasible method for the detection of environmental pollution also in low salinity areas of the Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  19. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  20. A note on cooperative versus non-cooperative strategies in international pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, Santiago J.; Casino, Begona [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Valencia, Avda. de los Naranjos s/n, Edificio Departamental Oriental, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    In this note, we evaluate the scope of Dockner and Long's [Journal of Environment Economics and Management 24 (1993) 13] conclusion on the efficiency of the non-cooperative outcome in a differential game of international pollution control. We also complete the study of the different equilibria the differential game can present. Our results show that their conclusion requires that the initial value of the stock of pollution be higher than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock so that the equilibrium path of emissions involves a decreasing stock of pollution. Our results also show that the application of the procedure proposed by Tsutsui and Mino [Journal of Economic Theory 52 (1990) 136] to construct a Markov-perfect equilibrium using non-linear strategies is problematic when the initial pollution stock is lower than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock.

  1. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI series, which uses ... to evenly coat the large intestine with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast lower GI series, the radiologist will inject air ...

  2. [SENTIERI Project on Italian polluted sites: health in Brindisi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluri, Maurizio; Latini, Giuseppe; Gennaro, Valerio; Gentilini, Patrizia; Di Ciaula, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data should support policy makers in their decisions. Misjudgments in data interpretation can justify the preservation of the existing situation and the lack of decision about health and environment safeguard. In the SENTIERI study on Italian polluted sites, women mortality results significantly lower than the regional mean in 11 sites in 44. The authors of this paper think that these data depend on the different impact of pollution on the population of a site, as witnessed by the cases of Brindisi and Manfredonia (Southern Italy). It is now necessary to conduct studies at suburban level integrating mortality data with other available health data.

  3. Environmental Pollution, Causes and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pham van Huong; , Huynh Thanh Dat; Nguyen Quoc Hung

    2017-01-01

    Pollution induces harmful effects on environment and health security. Main deep causes will be analyzed including natural disasters like volcanoes eruption, climate change as well as and men-caused disasters which are nuclear explosions and dioxin sprays.

  4. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  6. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  7. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  8. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  9. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  10. Mercury pollution: a transdisciplinary treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuber, Sharon L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    .... Also included are smaller case studies, such as the Minamata tragedy, fish consumption, and international treaties"-- "Mercury is the gravest chemical pollutant problem of our time, and this is...

  11. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation Districts (RTDs) light rail operations were examined for pollutant production and runoff. To : accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a rainfall-runoff facility was conducted. Input to this labo...

  12. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  13. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  14. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  15. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  16. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    OpenAIRE

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during hi...

  17. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtfouse, E.

    1997-01-01

    Soil has been regarded for a long time as an inert and closed medium where it was possible to dump any kind of hazardous wastes without implications on living organisms. But all pollutants entering the soil system can be stocked, transformed (often into more hazardous compounds) and transferred towards the atmosphere, groundwater and rivers. Obviously, the building up of toxic wastes into the soil system is a risk for all living beings. Pollution sources are numerous and diverse. They are given here into details. To follow the path of pollutants into the soil puzzle, with emphasis on the determination of bound residues, analytical experiments using labelled elements are by far the most efficient. But as a matter of fact, real toxicity can only be measured with biological tests, where living organisms such as light-emitting bacteria or plants are grown in contact with the toxic media. In order to minimize the diffusion of pollutants toward other natural media, a wide panel of remediation techniques are under development. Incineration and thermal desorption, for instance, are fast. Alternatively, the spreading of detergents onto the soil surface solubilizes pollutants that are later water-washed toward other media. Nonetheless, it is rarely complete and favors the migration of the pollutants toward groundwater, rivers and other ecosystems. On the other hand, mild, low-cost and efficient biological methods are now developing rapidly. Their principle lies on the natural ability of living organisms to extract and degrade toxic molecules. Lastly, plants may be used to remedy polluted soils, a process called ''phyto-remediation''. Its principles lies on two main phenomena. Firstly, some plant species are able to selectively extract large amounts of heavy metals from the ground then store them. Secondly, plants activate strongly the microbial biomass by injection of exudate enriched in organic nutriments in the root zone called ''rhizosphere''. Thus, the microbes, well

  18. The status of water ecosystems under conditions of their chronic radioactive chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtushenko, N.Yu.; Shcherbak, V.I.; Klenus, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    There are two stages of consequences of the accident on the Chernobyl NPP for the water ecosystem status of Dnieper basin. The first is characterized by some disturbance of bio status stability, especially the structure-functional status of phytoplankton. At the second stage, due to the stabilization of radioactive pollution and in-reservoir biological processes, the recovery of functioning the phytoplankton association is observed

  19. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  20. Stability of Hyperthermophilic Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiefler-Jensen, Daniel

    to life at high temperatures so are their enzymes, as a result the high stability is accompanied by low activity at moderate temperatures. Thus, much effort had been put into decoding the mechanisms behind the high stability of the thermophilic enzymes. The hope is to enable scientist to design enzymes...... in the high stability of hyperthermophilic enzymes. The thesis starts with an introduction to the field of protein and enzyme stability with special focus on the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes and proteins. After the introduction three original research manuscripts present the experimental data...

  1. Attitudes regarding lower extremity allotransplantation among lower extremity amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine; Talbot, Simon G; Tullius, Stefan G; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2014-12-01

    Lower limb allotransplantation is garnering increasing attention in the vascularized composite allotransplantation community as a potential treatment modality for those suffering from lower limb amputations. Little is known, however, about the level of interest among lower limb amputees regarding this procedure. An online survey regarding lower limb allotransplantation was designed in conjunction with and distributed by the Amputee Coalition to lower limb amputees in the United States. Responses from the survey were blinded, tabulated, and analyzed for significance using chi-square or Fisher's exact test. A total of 770 respondents completed the online survey. Forty-three percent of respondents stated they would be interested in being evaluated for lower limb transplantation, 36 percent declined, and 21 percent were uncertain. Those respondents who expressed an interest in allotransplantation tended to be significantly younger, better educated, more recently amputated, and less satisfied with prosthetic outcomes than those who were not interested. The most important criterion for transplantation to be considered a success by respondents was restoration of meaningful knee/ankle joint function, followed by restoration of limb sensibility. If immunosuppression were not required, 32 percent of those who initially declined and 88 percent of those who were uncertain would choose to undergo evaluation for lower limb allotransplantation. A significant proportion of lower limb amputees would be interested in undergoing evaluation for lower limb allotransplantation.

  2. The relationship between functional movement analysis and lower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An athlete with a functional limitation or weakness will have a lower total FMS score and is at increased risk of injury when participating in sport. The FMS was designed by Cook et al.[12] to assess the balance of mobility and stability required to perform essential movements. The movements require specific neuromuscular.

  3. Performance evaluation of cement stabilized fly ash-GBFS mixes as a highway construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Tripathy, D P; Ranjith, P G

    2008-01-01

    Fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) are major by-products of thermal and steel plants, respectively. These materials often cause disposal problems and environmental pollution. Detailed laboratory investigations were carried out on cement stabilized fly ash-(GBFS) mixes in order to find out its suitability for road embankments, and for base and sub-base courses of highway pavements. Proctor compaction test, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test were conducted on cement stabilized fly ash-GBFS mixes as per the Indian Standard Code of Practice. Cement content in the mix was varied from 0% to 8% at 2% intervals, whereas the slag content was varied as 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Test results show that an increase of either cement or GBFS content in the mixture, results in increase of maximum dry density (MDD) and decrease of optimum moisture content (OMC) of the compacted mixture. The MDD of the cement stabilized fly ash-GBFS mixture is comparably lower than that of similarly graded natural inorganic soil of sand to silt size. This is advantageous in constructing lightweight embankments over soft, compressible soils. An increase in percentage of cement in the fly ash-GBFS mix increases enormously the CBR value. Also an increase of the amount of GBFS in the fly ash sample with fixed cement content improves the CBR value of the stabilized mix. In the present study, the maximum CBR value of compacted fly ash-GBFS-cement (52:40:8) mixture obtained was 105%, indicating its suitability for use in base and sub-base courses in highway pavements with proper combinations of raw materials.

  4. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  5. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  6. Identifying sources of soil inorganic pollutants on a regional scale using a multivariate statistical approach: Role of pollutant migration and soil physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changbo; Wu Longhua; Luo Yongming; Zhang Haibo; Christie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of four components related to pollutant sources on the total variation in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Hg, Fe and Mn in surface soil samples from a valley in east China with numerous copper and zinc smelters. Results indicate that when carrying out source identification of inorganic pollutants their tendency to migrate in soils may result in differences between the pollutant composition of the source and the receptor soil, potentially leading to errors in the characterization of pollutants using multivariate statistics. The stability and potential migration or movement of pollutants in soils must therefore be taken into account. Soil physicochemical properties may offer additional useful information. Two different mechanisms have been hypothesized for correlations between soil heavy metal concentrations and soil organic matter content and these may be helpful in interpreting the statistical analysis. - Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation can help identify sources of soil inorganic pollutants but pollutant migration and soil properties can exert important effects

  7. Environmental pressure group strength and air pollution. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, Seth; Neumayer, Eric

    2005-01-01

    There is an established theoretical and empirical case-study literature arguing that environmental pressure groups have a real impact on pollution levels. Our original contribution to this literature is to provide the first systematic quantitative test of the strength of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) on air pollution levels. We find that ENGO strength exerts a statistically significant impact on sulfur dioxide, smoke and heavy particulates concentration levels in a cross-country time-series regression analysis. This result holds true both for ordinary least squares and random-effects estimation. It is robust to controlling for the potential endogeneity of ENGO strength with the help of instrumental variables. The effect is also substantively important. Strengthening ENGOs represents an important strategy by which aid donors, foundations, international organizations and other stakeholders can try to achieve lower pollution levels around the world

  8. Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunyer, J. [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A review of epidemiological research conducted during the late 1970s until the mid 1990s on the role of air pollution in the exacerbation of a pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The review also focuses on the causation of COPD with lower levels of particles and gases, but with different air pollution mixtures due to a reduction in the use of coal, the increase of traffic, and the control of industrial emissions. The short-term and long-term effects of urban air pollution on the development of COPD are discussed - these includes mortality, effects on symptoms and lung function level, effects on growth in children and adolescents, and decline of lung function in adults.

  9. Recent development of plasma pollution control technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Shih Chang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous pollution control, solid and liquid waste treatments have been commercialized based on incineration, catalysis, adsorption, disposal with landfill, etc. More recently technology based on plasmas has become significant due to the advantages such as lower costs, higher treatment and energy efficiencies, smaller space volume, etc. In order to commercialize this new technology, the treatment rate, energy efficiency of treatment, pressure drop of reactor, reusable by-products production rate, must be improved, based on the identifications of major fundamental mechanism of processes, optimizations of reactor, and power supply for an integrated system. In this work, recent development of plasma pollution control technology was critically reviewed and the principle of processes and reactor technologies were outlined. Special attention will be focused on material processing generated pollutants.

  10. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to it s sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  11. Importance of urban air pollution in chronic respiratory problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtyniak, B.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Jedrychowski, W.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of nonspecific respiratory diseases was confirmed by two physical examinations taken five years apart. Data were analysed in relation to the area of residence within the city. Particular emphasis was placed on higher or lower levels of atmospheric air pollution. Using multivariate methods of analysis it was shown that air pollution increased the risk of: persistent cough or phlegm, chronic bronchitis and reduced ventilatory capacity in the group of men exposed to occupational hazards. Additionally, it was noted that among men reporting persistent cough or phlegm, the prevalence of exacerbation of these symptoms was much greater in residents of more highly polluted parts of the city. In women, the prevalence of exacerbation of symptoms was associated with particular indoor environments.

  12. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  13. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  14. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D

  15. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, A. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: ales.lapanje@bf.uni-lj.si; Drobne, D. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nolde, N. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valant, J. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muscet, B. [Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Leser, V. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, M. [Institute of Public Health, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomskov trg 15, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 {mu}g Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant.

  16. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapanje, A.; Drobne, D.; Nolde, N.; Valant, J.; Muscet, B.; Leser, V.; Rupnik, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 μg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant

  17. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  18. Stability of outer planetary orbits around binary stars - A comparison of Hill's and Laplace's stability criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, A.; Black, D.; Szebehely, V.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison is made between the stability criteria of Hill and that of Laplace to determine the stability of outer planetary orbits encircling binary stars. The restricted, analytically determined results of Hill's method by Szebehely and coworkers and the general, numerically integrated results of Laplace's method by Graziani and Black (1981) are compared for varying values of the mass parameter mu. For mu = 0 to 0.15, the closest orbit (lower limit of radius) an outer planet in a binary system can have and still remain stable is determined by Hill's stability criterion. For mu greater than 0.15, the critical radius is determined by Laplace's stability criterion. It appears that the Graziani-Black stability criterion describes the critical orbit within a few percent for all values of mu.

  19. Oil pollution identification and dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muet, B.; L'Ecluse, J.; Jaegher de, P.

    2005-01-01

    GALLIA SANA is an environmental engineering office, specialized (among other things) in soil pollution. Currently confronted with specific questions about responsibilities of current and former owners, we seek and develop decisional tools regarding pollution origins. This article is about an expertise on a soil polluted by hydrocarbons. It explains strategy, tools and methods Gallia Sana used to identify the nature, the source and the age of the pollution. The source is identified by the nature of the pollution. With chromatographic analysis, it is possible to see differences between heating fuel, motor oil and other compounds distilled from petroleum and so to see where hydrocarbons come from. The relative age determination (one pollution is older than the other) allows experts to determine the way hydrocarbons have migrated through the soil: due to one isolated accident or to a continuous flow. This difference may be important in the case of fuel tanks for insurance reasons. The pollutants studied here are motor oil and heating fuel (the method is also applicable on other hydrocarbons). This article is not exhaustive, only some of the results are shown. The polluted soil is in a garden between two houses, near a garage and an underground fuel tank, so Gallia Sana considered three hypotheses according to the configuration of the zone: heating fuel, motor oil, heating fuel and motor oil mixed. Motor oil and heating fuel are both produced from petroleum distillation. Their chromatographic profiles are comparable as far as their form (like a Gaussian) is concerned, but their elution time is different: the heating fuel analysis is quicker than the motor oil one. Every distillation is different so every oil or every fuel from a different distillation is different. Some compounds can be used as tracers to compare hydrocarbons of the same nature, their composition in non-linear alkanes and PAH being slightly different. The Nordtest Method CHEM 001 can be used to compare

  20. Extrapolated stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vaquero, J.; Kleefeld, B.

    2016-12-01

    Extrapolated Stabilized Explicit Runge-Kutta methods (ESERK) are proposed to solve multi-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In such methods it is necessary to evaluate the function nt times per step, but the stability region is O (nt2). Hence, the computational cost is O (nt) times lower than for a traditional explicit algorithm. In that way stiff problems can be integrated by the use of simple explicit evaluations in which case implicit methods usually had to be used. Therefore, they are especially well-suited for the method of lines (MOL) discretizations of parabolic nonlinear multi-dimensional PDEs. In this work, first s-stages first-order methods with extended stability along the negative real axis are obtained. They have slightly shorter stability regions than other traditional first-order stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms (also called Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes). Later, they are used to derive nt-stages second- and fourth-order schemes using Richardson extrapolation. The stability regions of these fourth-order codes include the interval [ - 0.01nt2, 0 ] (nt being the number of total functions evaluations), which are shorter than stability regions of ROCK4 methods, for example. However, the new algorithms neither suffer from propagation of errors (as other Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes as ROCK4 or DUMKA) nor internal instabilities. Additionally, many other types of higher-order (and also lower-order) methods can be obtained easily in a similar way. These methods also allow adaptation of the length step with no extra cost. Hence, the stability domain is adapted precisely to the spectrum of the problem at the current time of integration in an optimal way, i.e., with minimal number of additional stages. We compare the new techniques with other well-known algorithms with good results in very stiff diffusion or reaction-diffusion multi-dimensional nonlinear equations.

  1. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  2. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...

  3. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.

    1995-05-01

    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  4. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  5. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Trandum, Christa; Larsen, Nanna Brink

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (Tm) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal alpha-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  6. Organic carbon in the sediments of the lower reaches of Periar River

    OpenAIRE

    Saraladevi, K.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Sediments are indicators of the quality of water overlying them and hence, useful in the assessment of environmental pollution. Temporal and spatial variations in sediment characteristics and organic carbon content from 9 stations in the lower reaches of Periyar River an area in Cochin Backwater, India which is polluted from different sources were studied for one year during 1981. Variations in colour and texture of sediments were brought about by changes in the grain size and state of oxidat...

  7. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  8. Human Activity and Pollution in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.-F.; Shirsat, S. V.; Podzun, R.

    2009-04-01

    A regional climate chemistry model is used to determine the level of pollution of the Antarctic continent due to anthropogenic and natural emission of sulphur species. Based on an emission inventory for the year 2004/2005 including emissions from energy use and ground traffic at and between Antarctic research stations, flight activity, tourist and scientific ship operations, and emissions from the Mt. Erebus volcano, atmospheric concentration and deposition rates of sulphur species and black carbon were simulated at 0.5 degree resolution for the whole Antarctic continent. The biggest anthropogenic source of pollution is ship operations. These concentrate near the Antarctic Peninsula and close to the big scientific stations at Queen Maud Land and in the Ross sea area. The prevailing winds guarantee that most of the anthropogenic emissions from sources near the coast will be blown to lower latitudes and do not affect the continent. While atmospheric concentrations over vast areas remain extremely low, in some places locally concentrations and deposition rates are reached that may be detectable by in-situ measurements and give rise to concern. Especially at the Peninsula atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of sulphur and soot are dominated by ship emissions. The largest part of shipping activity in this region is from tourist ships, a strongly increasing business. The by far biggest source of sulphur species in Antarctica is the Mt. Erebus volcano. It is also the only source that remains equally strong in polar winter. However, due to its high altitude and the long life time of SO2, especially in winter resulting in long range transport and dilution, Erebus emissions contribute relatively little to deposition of sulphur in the most anthropogenic polluted areas while they dominate the sulphur deposition in central Antarctica.

  9. The statistical stability phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Igor I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

  10. Carotenoids in a food chain along a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Saila; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lehikoinen, Esa; Toivonen, Eija; Eeva, Tapio

    2008-11-15

    Carotenoids are synthesized by plants, therefore insects and birds must obtain them from their diet. They function in pigmentation and as antioxidants. We studied the carotenoid profiles in a model food chain (plant-insect-bird) in an air pollution gradient to find out whether heavy metal pollution affects the transfer of carotenoids across the trophic levels. Birch leaves showed higher beta-carotene and, one of the birch species (Betula pendula), higher total carotenoids levels in the polluted area. There was no difference in the lutein concentration of caterpillars' food source, birch leaves, between the study areas. Autumnal moth larvae accumulated lutein more efficiently than beta-carotene while sawfly larvae accumulated beta-carotene over lutein. Because of different antioxidant profiles in different leaf chewing insects their sensitivity to pollution stress may differ. The lutein concentration of plasma and feathers of Great tit nestlings did not differ along the pollution gradient. The lack of difference in lutein concentration of autumnal moth larvae along pollution gradient may partly explain the lutein concentrations of Great tit nestlings, since the abundance of autumnal moth larvae peak during the nestling phase of Great tit. The lutein concentration of autumnal moth larvae was positively associated to circulating plasma lutein level of Great tit indicating the importance of carotenoid rich diet during the nestling phase. In addition, the higher the plasma lutein concentration the more lutein was deposited to feathers, irrespective of the other possible functions of lutein in nestlings. We found that carotenoid levels differed between the polluted and the unpolluted area especially at lower levels of food chain: in birches and in caterpillars.

  11. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  13. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  14. Forest avifauna as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rute Alexandra Pais

    Air pollution has become a widespread problem in the last century, becoming necessary the monitorization of several habitats. Air pollution was found to have direct and indirect effects on forest passerines (Eeva et al. 1997), but there is very little information on the effects of emissions from the paper and pulp industry. The present work includes a series of studies which main goals were to use non-invasive procedures in the evaluation of forest passerines as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution and to assess the possible influence of pollution in birds’ breeding biology and health status in industrial and rural sites in maritime pine forests on the west coast of Portugal. We found higher arsenic levels in the rural area and higher mercury levels in the industrial area but we also found several differences with significantly lower levels of contamination in 2010 and 2011. We found that Great tits bred earlier, laid more eggs and produced more fledglings in the industrial area, where we also found higher caterpillar biomass, which are an important food source for tits. Health indices presented similar results in both areas and comparing to other studies in Europe the values are consistent with good health conditions. Our results suggest that there are no direct toxic effects of emissions from the paper industry on the study species. However, invertebrate food availability seems to be related to pollution levels, which indirectly affect the breeding performance of the Great tit.

  15. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  16. [Urban noise pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouard, C H

    2001-07-01

    Noise is responsible for cochlear and general damages. Hearing loss and tinnitus greatly depend on sound intensity and duration. Short-duration sound of sufficient intensity (gunshot or explosion) will not be described because they are not currently encountered in our normal urban environment. Sound levels of less than 75 d (A) are unlikely to cause permanent hearing loss, while sound levels of about 85 d (A) with exposures of 8 h per day will produce permanent hearing loss after many years. Popular and largely amplified music is today one of the most dangerous causes of noise induced hearing loss. The intensity of noises (airport, highway) responsible for stress and general consequences (cardiovascular) is generally lower. Individual noise sensibility depends on several factors. Strategies to prevent damage from sound exposure should include the use of individual hearing protection devices, education programs beginning with school-age children, consumer guidance, increased product noise labelling, and hearing conservation programs for occupational settings.

  17. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants, and it is ther......Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...... operating in the soil and groundwater are described. The paper also discusses how the environmental risk of urban stormwater infiltration can be assessed, and outlines the possibilities for designing environmentally safe infiltration systems....

  18. Evolutionary genomics of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chemical toxins have been a persistent source of evolutionary challenges throughout the history of life, and deep within the genomic storehouse of evolutionary history lay ancient adaptations to diverse chemical poisons. However, the rate of change of contemporary environments mediated by human-introduced pollutants is rapidly screening this storehouse and severely testing the adaptive potential of many species. In this chapter, we briefly review the deep history of evolutionary adaptation to environmental toxins, and then proceed to describe the attributes of stressors and populations that may facilitate contemporary adaptation to pollutants introduced by humans. We highlight that phenotypes derived to enable persistence in polluted habitats may be multi-dimensional, requiring global genome-scale tools and approaches to uncover their mechanistic basis, and include examples of recent progress in the field. The modern tools of genomics offer promise for discovering how pollutants interact with genomes on physiological timescales, and also for discovering what genomic attributes of populations may enable resistance to pollutants over evolutionary timescales. Through integration of these sophisticated genomics tools and approaches with an understanding of the deep historical forces that shaped current populations, a more mature understanding of the mechanistic basis of contemporary ecological-evolutionary dynamics should emerge.

  19. Toxic Effects of Pollutants on the Mineralization of Acetate in Methanogenic River Sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlaardingen PLA; van Beelen P

    1993-01-01

    The functioning of anaerobic bacteria in river sediments is vital for the stability of freshwater ecosystems. The sensitivity of these organisms for pollutants is therefore important for the establishment of valid sediment quality criteria. Acetate is a key intermediate in the carbon cycle and was

  20. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of